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Association of Printing Technology and Publishing Students


CAREER GUIDE (C) 2013 Association of Printing Technology and Publishing Students, Yaba College of Technology Association of Printing Technology and Publishing Students

Published by:

Book Developer & Editor:

Page Planning & Cover Design:

Department of Printing Technology Yaba College of Technology Abdul-Rasheed Afolabi Department of Printing Technology Yaba College of Technology Nurudeen Bello

Printed by:

Department of Printing Technology Yaba College of Technology

Print Production Team:

Folami Tope (HND II) Esther Amisu (HND I) Bakare Hammed (HND I)




Graphic Communications: A World of Creativity, Innovations and Opportunities Abdul-Rasheed Afolabi

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The New Printing Industry: Options for Career Growth Abdul-Rasheed Afolabi

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Making a Career in Graphic Design Henry Ogoke

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Careers in Photography Stanley Onyeukwu

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Career Opportunities in Nigeria's Printing Industry Olubunmi Adetayo

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Career Opportunities in Sales and Marketing in the Print Media Industry Abdul-Rasheed Afolabi & Oluchi Mbadugha

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Printing Engineering: A World of Opportunities Friedrick Momoh

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Beyond ink on paper: Career Options for Print Media Specialists in Marketing Communications Abdul-Rasheed Afolabi

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Careers in Book Publishing Uthman Akinbola

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Transitions in Publishing: Limitless Opportunities for Career Growth Fatai O. Jimoh

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v PREFACE Graphic Communications today has become an indispensable aspect of human life in our contemporary world because of its fusion with several fields of human endeavour. This book A Bright Future: Careers in Graphic Communications explores in realistic terms the numerous opportunities in the field of Graphic communications. It can be said to be expository as it informs prospective students in higher institutions and secondary school leavers how they can achieve career success as graphic communications practitioners. This book is borne out of a yearning to expose the Nigerian youths to the numerous opportunities they can avail themselves of in the graphic communications industry, especially at a time when unemployment has become an endemic problem. It discuses issues such as creativity in design (thinking outside the box), professional photography that goes beyond “say cheese� and taking photographs, and so on. It also sheds light on certain areas of media technology and engineering that concerns the graphic communication industry. So much effort has also been taken to show that indeed there is a bright future for those in this lucrative industry. Different profiles of people who have achieved landmarks in their industry have also been included to drive home the point that the bottom line is not farfetched with taking a career in this field of business. The profiled personalities are people who are excelling in the industry, men of timber and calibre, some of them alumni of the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. Another reason for putting up this book is to resuscitate the present departmental library by stocking it with relevant and contemporary printing books with proceeds emanating from the sale of this book. With the detailed information packaged in this book, we are confident that readers will be inspired to taking steps that will assure them a bright future.

vi It was a long and difficult task for us students to embark on a project of this magnitude, partly due to the fact that we did most of the finishing during the just concluded ASUP strike. This implies that we needed to leave the comfort of our homes to attend to the needs of the project. Finally, I wish to say thank you to my colleagues who left all personal things to focus on making this project a success. Not to forget, also, our lecturers who guided us through the time we worked on this project. I acknowledge all of your efforts, because without your contributions, we won't have achieved this success. Akinbunmi Adeniyi President, Association of Printing Technology and Publishing Students September, 2013

vii CONTRIBUTORS’ PROFILE Abdul-Rasheed Afolabi is a lecturer at the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. He has written several articles on printing and the printing industry in Nigeria and the author of the book Graphic Communication in Nigeria. Henry Ogoke is an HND 11 student of the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. He is the General secretary of APTAPS 2012/2013 session. Stanley Emeka Onyeukwu is an HND 1 student of the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. He is a professional photographer, cinematographer and magazine publisher with many years of experience. Olubunmi Adetayo is a lecturer of the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. Before joining the Department, she worked extensively on magazine production projects, print exhibition planning, training sales and marketing of print solutions. OluchiPeace Mbadugha is an ND 11 student of the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. Friedrick Abah Momoh is an HND 11 student of the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. Uthman Akinbola is an Assistant Manager, Editorial at University Press Plc. Fatai O. Jimoh is a lecturer at the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. He is the staff adviser to the Association of Printing Technology and Publishing students (APTAPS).


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Life is about Communication


he field of graphic communications - a world of creativity and innovations– holds a lot of promises, especially for young people seeking life-fulfilling careers. As we cannot but communicate, graphic communications provide endless avenues for self-expression, financial empowerment and personal development. A quick survey of what the field of graphic communications entails will perhaps show why this field holds so much promises. For starters, graphic communications is multi-disciplinary - covering a wide range of professions. It is an art and a science; a blend of art, science, technology and management. Graphic communications refers to all areas of media and mass communication involving the creation, production, and distribution of images for advertising, marketing, books, magazines, newspapers, catalogs, packages and other media in printed and digital form.1 According to the International Graphic arts Education Association (IGAEA), graphic communications can be described as,“the processes and industries that create, develop, produce, and disseminate products utilizing or incorporating words of pictorial images to convey information, ideas and feelings”. Graphic communications, the IGAEA affirms, include family of market segments embracing the


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technologies of printing, publishing, packaging, electronic imaging, and their allied industries; they are often referred to as the graphic arts, print, or imaging industries.2 Graphic Communications gives a Lease of Life As long as the human race exists, the graphic communication industry will be in business. The need for information makes communication inevitable. The graphic communication industry, particularly the print media sector, is a major source for meeting human needs with information material. From books to newspapers, posters, magazines, recharge cards, tickets, websites, e.t.c. the human needs for information and educational materials remain inexhaustible. The various organizations that provide these needs are business enterprises. As such, profit remains a major goal. To make profitmaking realizable, management experts have propounded different forms and types of principles. What is common to all of them is that for any business organization to make profits and remain in business the following, popularly dubbed the 4Ms, are factors to reckon with: *Material * Money * Machines and * Manpower No matter the amount of materials, money and machines available, the process of production can never be accomplished without the human factor: manpower. The graphic communication industry in spite of the advent of high sophisticated machines and equipment, depends so much on manpower (skilled and unskilled). It therefore means that at every point in time a pool of capable hands must be available for the industry to tap from. The graphic communication industry in Nigeria has a plethora of job opportunities that can go a long way in solving the unemployment problem in Nigeria. The industry offers the following benefits that can solve unemployment problems in Nigeria to a reasonable extent:

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(i) Small scale entrepreneurial investment: most of the services provided by the industry can be offered on a small-scale basis by interested entrepreneurs. Take screen printing for instance. Thousands of Nigerians make their daily earnings from screen printing customized items for clients ranging from corporate organizations to individuals who have social or religious ceremonies and other events. Other examples include: setting up of creative hot shops (for graphic designers); the production of shopping bags (packaging), photography studio, bookbinding services, e.t.c (ii) The opportunity to blend talents with new technology: the graphic communication industry is essentially a creative industry. It is an industry that helps people discover and nurture their talents to become fulfilled individuals. As an industry that responds to both the needs and advances of society, it uses the latest technology and the most sophisticated tools of communication available. The industry has moved from a blue-collar job to a white-collar profession that thrives on sound scientific, technological and management practices. For example, the average printer in Nigeria many years back was given the appellate “road-side printer�. Now we are in the era of “hi-tech printers'- printers with sound knowledge of information and communication technologies. (iii) The ability to absorb professionals across diverse fields: technology has taken away the craft from graphic arts. Now, the computer is the king. This has made it possible for people in fields other than the graphic arts to have their place in the industry. Today, graduates of chemistry, engineering, management e.t.c. are gainfully employed and achieving career fulfillment in the graphic arts industry. Graphic Communications gives the Free Rein to Creativity There are many skills and aptitude expected from entrants into the graphic communications industry. However, one that is core and thus


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tops the list is creativity. Graphic communicators, whatever their areas of specialization must posses high level imagination. They must be able to see the world in unique ways and form interpretations from things around them. In the popular parlance of the creative industry, they must “think outside the box�. Graphic Communications gives Hope for the Future A large number of graphic communication jobs are high-tech, highly skilled, high paying, creative and innovative. Positions under this category include; professional and managerial jobs, administrative and, sales jobs, jobs in planning, production and machine operation. Whatever the kind of job, one thing is common; the various occupations in the graphic communications industry are stable and present ample opportunities for career growth. This is because trainings and practice in graphic communications generally imbue practitioners with skills that not only enable them to perform today's tasks but also take them into the future. Characteristically, digital publishing, animation and multimedia disciplines make use of technologies that are the stepping stones for whatever technology that emerges in the future. Training in Graphic Communications in Nigeria For a number of the jobs in the graphic communications industry, formal training may not always be required but those with certificates or degrees may have the edge over those who do not. Besides formal training, there are various channels through which employees are trained for the graphic communication industry. These include: (i) Apprenticeship: A registered apprentice is an employee who, under an expressed or implied agreement, is taught an occupation for a given period of time. Apprenticeship, in the printing industry in Nigeria for instance, lasts between three and seven years, depending on the area of skills to be learnt. The apprentice, having satisfied his/her master is declared qualified to practice. (ii) On the job training: In some cases, firms in the graphic communications industry employ graduates in fields outside graphic


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communication, and they are trained through the on-the-job training. A good example is the graduate training scheme put in place by a Lagosbased printing firm Academy press. Candidates for the graphic communications industry are trained through any of the following educational systems: Vocational Enterprise Institutions (VEIs) and Innovation Enterprise Institutions (IEIs) According to the National Board for Technical Education, the VEIs and IEIs are private institutions that offer vocational, technical, technology or professional education and training at post-basic and tertiary levels to equip secondary school leavers and working adults with vocational skills and knowledge to meet the increasing demand for technical manpower by the various sectors of the nation's economy. At present, there are quite a number of such institutions offering courses in multimedia technology. At the end of the training, candidates who complete the course of study are awarded the National Innovation Diploma (NID) or the National Vocational Certificate, depending on the span of study. Course Multimedia Technology

Innovation Enterprise Institutions AFLON Digital Institute, Abuja; Dalewares Institute of Technology, Lagos; Highland College of Technology and Further Education, Ibadan; NIIT IDM, Ikeja, Lagos; The School of Information and Media Technology, Ebonyi; Ifo College of Management and Technology, Ogun; Linet Paul Innovative Institute, Yenegoa; Onit Institute of Technology, Anambra

Source: JAMB UTME Brochure 2012/2013 session

Technical Colleges Technical colleges across the country train students in printing craft and graphic arts. The qualifying examinations for candidates of technical colleges are administered by the National Business and


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Technical Examination Board (NABTEB). Successful candidates are awarded the National Technical certificate (NTC) and Advanced National Technical Certificates (ANTC). Holders of the NTC have the option of working in the labour market as lower cadre employees or proceeding for further studies. The Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) accepts the NTC as adequate for admission into institutions of higher learning in Nigeria. Polytechnics/Colleges of Education Polytechnics and Colleges of education in Nigeria produce a large chunk of hands for the graphic communication industry. Courses offered in Nigeria polytechnics with substantial contents of graphic communication include: Courses Printing Technology

Fine/Applied Arts

Polytechnic/College of Education Yaba College of Technology; Hussaini Adamu, Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure; Federal Polytechnic Oko; Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu; Kaduna Polytechnic; Kano State Polytechnic, Benue State Polytechnic Polytechnics: Yaba College of Technology; Federal Polytechnic, Oko; Benue State Polytechnic; Ibadan Polytechnic; Institute of management and Technology, Enugu; Kogi State Polytechnic; KanoState Polytechnic; AbdulG u s a u Po l y te c h n i c , Z a m fa ra , Fe d e ra l Polytechnic, Auchi Colleges of Education: Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo; College of Education, Akwanga; Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri; College of Education, Ankpa; Abia State College of Education, Arochukwu; College of Education, Azare; College of Education, Offa; Cornerstone College of Education, Ikeja; Delar College of Education, Ibadan; College of Education, Ekiadolor; Enugu State College of Education (Tech); Federal College of Education, Abeokuta; Federal College of Education, EhaAmufu; Federal College of Education, Kano; Federal College of Education, Kastina; Federal College of Education, Kontagora; Federal College of Education, Obudu; Federal College of Education, Okene; Federal College of Education,Panskin; Federal College of Education,


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Yola; Federal College of Education (Tech), Akoka; Federal College of Education, Asaba, F e d e r a l College of Education,Omoku; Federal College of Education, Potiskum; Federal College of Education, Umunze; College of Education, Gashua; Collegeof Education, Gindiri; Jigawa State College of Education, Gumel; College of Education, Port Harcourt; College of Education, Hong; College of Education, Ijebu Ode; College of Education; Ikere; College of Education; Ikwo; C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , I l a O ra n g u n ; College of Education, Ilesha; College of Education, Ilorin; College of Education, Jalingo; College of Education, kafanchan; College of Education, Kano; College of Education, Kastina Ala; College of Education, Kebbi; College of Education, Maiduguri; Collegeof Education, Minna; Nwanfor Oriazu College of Education, Nsugbe; College of Education, Oju; College of Education, Oro; Our Saviour Instititue of Science and Technology,

Source: Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination Brochure 2012/2013 Session published by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB).

Universities Several universities across Nigeria train students in different areas of graphic communication. Though they may go by different names, and have different curricula, they essentially empower students with technical, communication and administrative skills required in the industry. Some of the courses and universities offering them are: Courses Industrial Design

Fine/Applied Arts

Universities Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University of Technology, Bauchi; Federal University of Technology, Akure; Federal University of Technology, Yola, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Abia State University, Uturu; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso; Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye; Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka; Ahmadu Bello University,Zaria, Delta State University; University of Benin; University of Nigeria, Nsukka; Abia State University, Wukari Jubilee University; Niger Delta University, Bayelsa, Renaissance University, Enugu


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Creative Arts Visual Arts and technology Industrial Arts

University of Port Harcourt; University of Lagos; University of Maiduguri Cross River State University of Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo

Communication and Multi-media Design

American University of Nigeria, Yola

Source: Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination Brochure 2012/2013 Session published by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB).

Brace Up for a Rewarding Career Graphic communications, being a creative and intensely competitive industry, require highly skilled and talented workforce. A recent report on training needs assessment says: “Firms will increasingly require adaptable, multi-skilled workers who can operate computers, analyze problems, make decisions, work cooperatively, interact with customers and who have a solid understanding of the entire printing production process” The graphic communications industry is open to all and sundry; the most vital qualification is the possession of a creative mind plus the passion to succeed through continuous learning and self-development. As Benjamin Franklin aptly puts it, “If a man empties his purse into his head, no man can take it away form him. An investment in knowledge always pays the best dividend”.


Multi-skilled Leke Adetomiwa plies his trade at the renowned advertising agency, Insight Communications as the senior controller in print

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production. This energetic individual is a bundle of potentials and versatility. Adetomiwa discovered his love for advertising and publishing when he wrote a thesis on information technology in the printing industry to fulfill requirements for the award of Higher National Diploma in Printing Technology at Yaba College of Technology. His spectacular academic performance earned him not just the Diploma but also an award as the best overall graduating student in the school of Art, Design and Printing of the institution. The quest for more learning took him to the University of Calabar where he obtained a Post Graduate Diploma (PGD) in Management. He capped this effort with a Masters in Business Administration from the Lagos State University. Learning for Adetomiwa should not be limited to the four walls of the classroom. He undertook practical training in printing for five years at Academy Press (Lithotec Ltd) where he was exposed to the various technical aspects of print production. The garnered experience placed him on good stead to break into the advertising industry when he got an offer from USP Communications Ltd from where he pitched his tent with Insight Communications. Adetomiwa's firm belief is that the only way to remain relevant in his industry is to continually update his skills and knowledge. Thus, he does not toy with seminars, workshops, exhibition, in-house training – in fact, any source of learning new things. This, he said, makes it possible for him to “apply skill and knowledge to difficult and complex work assignments.” Some workshop/seminars on the job by Adetomiwa include: - Mac commik center in Chicago, USA.. 2005,2007 - NEC Center in Birmingham, London. 2010 - Exhibition/Expo Center in Beijing China. 2009 - Exhibition/Expo Center in Jo'burg South Africa. 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012. - Branding and Visual Merchandising, Cape town, South Africa, 2013.



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His activities and professional societies: Member, Institute of Printing, Nigeria. Associate Member, Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria [APCON], Member Print buyers online. Resource/Facilitator, Design Concept and System (Publishers of Printers Digest). Resource/Facilitator, Print week magazine. Sources: Printers Digest, May/June 2009, p.28-29. LinkedIn.

Notes 1. Excerpts from the website of Graphic Communications program, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Retrieved October 22, 2009 from 2. of Graphic Comm.pdf


The Less Travelled Path


n the midst of unemployment that ravages the nation, do you desire a job that “pays”? Then, consider a career in the print media industry. Look around you; survey the items that have one form of print or the other on them. You would discover that from the books used in schools, to the documents used in business transaction, as well as the outdoor adverts displayed in public places, print is everywhere. The fact that print is everywhere indicates a high demand. Since one of the factors to consider in choosing careers is economic demand and viability, a career in the print media guarantees a “good pay”. Beside this, other parameters like a good income, ideal conditions of work, career development, job satisfaction and lots more are also assured. . Picking a career in the print media is like going down the less travelled path. As one observer puts it, “We have a practice in Nigeria whereby people rush to one thing whereas there are thousand and one other things.”1 Unfortunately, the pattern of career choices in the country breeds unemployment; certain areas are overfilled while some other areas are left unexplored. The printing industry is a good example of the unexplored areas. While Universities, polytechnics and other institution of higher learning churn out myriads of graduates in various fields to face the uncertainties of the labour market, the graduates of printing technology from the nation's polytechnics are far less than the


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demand from the Nigerian printing industry. Consequently, these print professionals are, to a reasonable extent, assured of gainful employments on graduating from school. Transformations in the Printing Industry The printing has transformed from a craft to the level of a profession at the global level and the Nigerian printing industry has not been lagging behind in this regards. According to Naik Dharavath, “technological developments in the areas of electronics, computers, lasers and computer integrated manufacturing techniques; science and engineering are radically changing the structure of the traditional printing industry. Due to the technological developments, significant changes are continuing in the printing industry, and thus demand a 2 skilled workforce with up-to-date technical competencies.” The digitalization/computerization of print has not only facilitated printing, it has also raised the status of printing from a blue-collar job to the level of almost a white-collar job. Gone are the days when the printer comes across as an old, almost bent over man with hands stained with inks and all that. The introduction of CPC (Computer Print Control) has taken away the sweats and the 'dirt' of printing work. Certainly, computer technology has helped in shoring up the image of the new age printer beyond that of a craftsman. The printing profession of today is a mix of technology, craft and communication skills. According to the career guide of the Print and Graphics Scholarship Foundation: …the print and graphic arts industry now has to contend with customers with ever rising expectation, just as the complexity of jobs increases. It is therefore not unexpected that the industry now requires individuals with a high level of skill sets, including verbal and written communication skills, computer literacy, critical thinking and problem solving.”3 The printing industry, like other sectors of the Nigerian economy, relies on skilled manpower to run profitably. So, the opportunities in the

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printing industry are endless if the thinking is stretched beyond commercial printing (the most popular segment of the industry in Nigeria). Traditionally, printing has been considered a manufacturing process. However, with the influx of communication and information technologies into the industry, printing has metamorphosed into a communication process. Now, printers should be information managers as printing is all about creating packaged information for consumers. The end-products take the form of books, magazines, newspapers, brochures, billboards, etc. Based on the above line of thinking, numerous job prospects are available for graduates of printing programs in the Nigerian labour market. Some of these include: i. Entrepreneurship: Those who decide to be their own boss can work as print solution providers catering to the print needs of private companies, government establishment, non-governmental organizations, individuals, religious bodies e.t.c. The start up capital to practice as a print professional is minimal as the entrepreneur need not own a printing press to function effectively. There are many commercial presses that provide services for all range of print brokers (the term used to refer to print contractor). ii. Commercial Printing Companies: graduates who choose to pick up paid jobs can work in the numerous commercial presses in Nigeria as machine operators, lithographers, graphic designers, estimators, production supervisors/managers etc. iii. Media Industry: Graduates are needed as print production specialists in advertising agencies, public relations firm and direct marketing companies. They work as the link between the marketing communication firms and commercial printers. iv. Publishing Houses: Printers play strategic roles in newspapers, magazines and book publishing as machine operators, print production officers, production editors, book designers, etc. v. Packaging Industry: The packaging industry is a major employer of printing graduates. The proliferation of Ready-to Eat (RTE)


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food in modern society increases the need for package products. Beyond food items, there are several other manufactured products requiring packaging. For as long as the package industry thrives, there will be job offers for skilled printers. vi. Government Establishments: There are numerous government presses at the state and national level that employ graduates of printing. Also, research institutions in the country have publications division with printing presses attached. Included in this category are the university presses in Nigerian universities (many polytechnics and colleges of education have presses too). vii. Security Printing Industry: Closely related with the commercial printing industry, security printing firms are nonetheless in a world of their own. These firms provide print solutions to satisfy an array of security needs like currency, cheques, certificates, bond documents etc. It is a highly specialized industry that requires workers with knowledge and skills in printing, science and engineering. viii. Training and Vocational Education Sector: Graduates of printing technology can also find jobs as instructors in vocational institutions, technical colleges and polytechnics. ix. Specialty/Promotional Product Industry: promotional products are imprinted with logos, messages or names that help build corporate identity or pass the message of an organization. The promotional product industry provides support services, not only to advertising and public relations firms, but also to a wide range of fields of human endeavour like politics (for producing political campaign materials), education, oil and gas, etc x. Engineering/ Maintenance services: graduates of engineering and people with technical backgrounds can work as engineering support service providers to printing companies. Services may be o ff e r e d i n t h e a r e a s o f m e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g , electrical/electronics engineering, industrial maintenance, information technology, etc. xi. Allied Industry: Outside mainstream printing, trained printers can find gainful employment in digital photography, sales of print equipment, textile/fabric printing, printing ink manufacturing,


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printing paper manufacturing/sales, consultancy, etc. With print media a successful career beckons. Welcome on board.


Adewale Amusa is a print and digital production management professional with over ten years experience who has worked in all aspects of advertising and corporate print production management and procurement. He is adept at all levels of print and digital production management, procurement and project management, and possesses working knowledge of print production processes from concept through the finished product. He has gone this far because he constantly seeks more effective techniques to motivate and assist his clients by improving productivity, controlling cost and increasing profitability, while adhering to stringent deadlines. Little wonder then that he is fully versed in all aspects of print buying, estimating, print production, marketing, and printing technology (digital and conventional). Adewale’s diversified skills and strong knowledge of print production have been gained from leading Executive Education institutions (Print Media Academy Heidelberg Germany and National Business Media, Inc. Broomfield, CO USA) and years of hands- on experience working with leading brands such as MTN, Etisalat, British American Tobacco, Western Union, DStv and Cadbury. After graduating with a Higher National Diploma in Printing Technology from Yaba College of Technology, Adewale made an entry into the print media industry with a zeal for lifelong learning and a determination to carve a niche for himself. He made an incursion into the marketing communications industry when he became the print


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production manager at SO&U SAATCHI & SAATCHI, a frontline advertising agency. Some seven years later, the irrepressible Adewale crossed over to another frontline advertising agency, 141 Worldwide, becoming the Head of the print service department at the outfit. His extensive knowledge in pre-press, printing, estimating, negotiating, and purchasing earned him this new role and he is bringing all of his knowledge, skills and expertise in print production to adding value to clients’ brands. As he describes himself, “I am passionate, principled, personable, professional and looking to leverage my extensive Print Production experience working on brands with an African footprint for blue chip FMCGs and ICT institutions.” Source: LinkedIn Career Tips: Some Training Institutions in Printing Technology Institution

Name of Program

Rocana Institute of Technology , Enugu

Printing Technology National Vocational Certificate

Dalewares Institute of Technology, Lagos

Print and Branding National Vocational Technology Certificate National Innovation Diploma Printing and Media Bachelor of Technology Philosophy (Printing); Higher Diploma in Printing Technology; Diploma in Printing Technology; Diploma in Printing and Packaging Printing National Management Diploma

The Kenya Polytechnic University College, Nairobi

Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa University Technology, Mara, Malaysia

Printing Technology

Qualification Awarded

, Diploma Bachelors Degree


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Notes 1. “Journey with the Youth: Youth and Career Choices”. Retrieved f r o m

2 Naik Dharavath (2003). “The Importance of Technical Competencies in the Graphic Communications Technology Curriculum as perceived by the Graphic Communications Industry and Educators”. Journal of Industrial Technology. Vol. 19, No 2. 3. Print and Graphics Scholarship Foundation (2008). Careers in Graphic Communications. R e t r i e v e d f r o m reerGuide.pdf


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A World of Possibilities

Possibilities abound for those with the impulse to make a living from their creative talents. That is because the impact of art and design can be huge, given its numerous applications even if it's difficult to measure. The work of professionals will be missed if it all just suddenly disappeared. They may be taken for granted sometimes but the truth is artists and designers matter. It is a fact that a large percentage of all good communication depend on visuals. Here is the point where graphic design becomes paramount and also steps in. Graphic design supersedes or goes beyond making things look good. There's far more to a modern graphic design than one may imagine. What is Graphic Design? People often mistake graphic design for drawing and painting petty pictures or sketch up all day on a computer. But thankfully or unfortunately, depending on one's perspective, this is not the case of the vast majority of designers working in this field. Graphic designers are no mere decorators that make things look good. So the question “what then is graphic design?� arises. Graphic design can broadly be described as work in which a skilled designer combines texts with appropriate images to produce functional value and to achieve desired results as part of a planned communication


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strategy. Graphic design incorporates the work of illustrators, photographers and copy writers into one package that is more powerful than the sum of its individual parts. However, graphic designers are increasingly being asked to become more than just visual artists. Many now perform the work of information architects, web developers, writers and multimedia specialists as part of their creative studies. The term graphic design can also refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines which focus on visual communication and presentation. Various methods are used to create and combine symbols, images, or words to create a visual presentation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final result of an intended idea. Graphic design often refers to both the process by which the communication is created and the products (design) which are generated. Common uses of graphic include the following; magazines, advertisements, product packaging and web design. For example, a product package might include a logo or other art work; plus organized text and pure design elements such as shapes and colors which unify the page. Composition is one of the most important features of graphic design especially when 2 using pre-existing materials or diverse elements. When you understand that graphic design help people process information quickly, you will understand the power behind this profit generation tool. The purpose of graphic design is to communicate a message quickly and effectively from start to finish. Effective graphic communication will work for your bottom line every time and with this understanding you should view graphic communication as an investment not an expense. When done right, graphic communication will make your communication more effective. It has a synergistic impact on your marketing message. The total impact is greater than the 3 sum of its parts. Graphics and its Relationship with Other Fields of Business It is an established fact that graphic communication in our present world is indispensable. It is also important to note that graphics today,

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as earlier mentioned, supersedes the superficial design of items and pages. Graphic communication can be described today as the bedrock or a non-negligible part of marketing communication, packaging, outdoor media (moving & stationary) and entertainment (sports & music). At this point it may be necessary to take a look at the significance of graphic communication in the aforementioned parts and careers that are attached with them. Graphics and Marketing Communications Marketing communication involves everything in passing information about a certain product or service to a potential or prospective user or client. Marketing communication can be defined as messages and related medium used to communicate with a market. Marketing communication is the promotion part of the 'marketing mix 'or the four 'Ps' of marketing which includes price, place, promotion and the product.Those who practice advertising, branding, promotion, publicity sponsorship, public relations, sales, sales promotion and online marketing, are involved in marketing communications. Traditionally, marketing communication practitioners focused on the creation and execution of printed marketing collateral; however, academic and professional research developed the practice to use strategic elements of branding and marketing in order to ensure consistency of message delivery throughout an organization. Graphics communication has become outstandingly relevant because social commercials are steadily permeating our everyday lives with graphic communications related materials such as billboards, apps TV and even print media. Marketing communication as a vehicle of an organization’s brand management is concerned with the promotion of an organization's brand products and/or services to stakeholders and prospective customers. Graphic Design and Packaging Every good product we see today derives over 50% of its visual appeal from its packaging. Most times even when we are oblivious of the contents of such products, we are carried away by the appealing design


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on its packaging. Packaging often times go with branding and in branding, every opportunity to impress the customers (or the brand contact point) counts. Examples include advertisements, events sponsorships, webinars, personal selling and even product packaging. Thus, every experiential opportunity that an organization creates for its stakeholders or customers is a brand touch point. A quality graphic design can leave a great first impression on your customers about what your brand stands for. Expertise in graphic design includes catchy or appealing graphic design on brands, packaging and other media for the 4 public and private sectors. The popular saying, “The way you dress is the way you are addressed� very much applies to product packaging. It is quite simple. Let's look at a simple illustration: if there are two products A and B having a common content but product A has a better package design and is attractive while B is just wrapped or packaged with some funny kind of material, the truth is that you most likely will go for the product with a better package design. The way your product is dressed is the way it will be addressed. This illustration goes a long way to show the relevance of graphic design in packaging. Just as mentioned earlier, quality graphic design on brands or packaging leaves very great first impression on customers and clients. Graphic design can be a challenging yet rewarding career. The two key functions of a graphic designer are to sell a product or services and to promote events relatively. This can be done through various marketing products e.g. cards posters etc.5 Graphic Design and Education Everyone familiar with graphic design or computer graphics no doubt is aware of the great degree of precision that is available in desktop publishing and graphic imaging. Offices all over the world make use of the versatility of the computer in producing clear crisp and valuable graphics. Computers that were once relegated to accounting data system and report writing are now beginning to find their relevance in the production of various forms of educational and publicity materials. Graphic design today is proving itself as a tool for extensive production

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of education materials. Prior to this time, a common difficulty encountered was in the preparation of the artwork, especially when the materials are intended for an ethnic or language group or groups other than the one creating the material. Over the years, attempts have been made to supply visual models which make the job of drawing visuals easier for project workers with limited training. It was also a challenge getting graphic design softwares in time past. But today with the increasing numbers of computer now used in the field, there has grown a demand for simpler and more direct system for traditional graphics and desktop publishing programs. A major breakthrough in graphic design and graphics for education is the invention of the 'Mac' computer basically for training. This system is user friendly and allows people with a minimum of computer skills to operate the computer with a maximum of professional's results. With the Macintosh and modest graphic design software, visuals can be developed into an image bank, available for many different materials. Today we can celebrate the achievements brought by graphic design and computer graphics in education in forms of educational and 6 instructional media. The Big Question: How do I become a Graphic Designer? Although it is not necessary in all cases, but becoming a graphic designer usually begins with an appropriate post secondary education, and this certainly requires a whole lot of patience and self discipline. It is also possible to learn some computer skills you need to know on your own - especially through online resources. But, it is paramount to note that good design schools can help you develop your full range of talents while giving you practice on diverse projects and teaching about the creative process as well as design itself (after all computers are merely tools). Beside, most full time graphic design jobs now require applicants to posses some level of formal training in graphic design or related fields. The point simply is; even if you think you are loaded with artistic talent, your first course of action should be probably picking a 7 good school to earn that graphic design degree.


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Learning in a graphic school provides or exposes one to a whole lot of aspects you would not think about, such as life training, color theory, design principles (form and composition), typography, photography, image manipulation, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe illustrator, Adobe Indesign, web design fundamentals, flash-dream weaver, offset printing, preparing artwork for production, etc. In addition to the above, some design schools incorporate courses that provide for a better rounded education. Helpful courses that are sometimes part of design education can include; writing, art writing, psychology, marketing, business fundamentals, sociology and cultural studies.8 What You can do with a Degree in Graphic Design? The field of graphic design provides a surprising number of career options for those with determination and their creative talent and skill to back it up. In fact, there's no standard employment situation or work environment for graphic designers. The possibilities are as broad as your imagination. So if you choose a career in graphic design, some of the sectors open to you include; publishing companies, studio and production companies for television and film, music labels, advertising agencies, small design studios, public relations and marketing firms, environmental design companies, video games producers, software companies, in-house corporate marketing departments, (almost in every industry), nonprofit organizations, government communicating departments. In addition to options of employment in the above sectors, graphic designers also have the ability to produce work on a contract-by- contract basis as selfemployed free lancers. This makes graphic design an incredibly flexible career choice. How much does a Graphic Designer earn? Graphic designers’ salaries or remunerations vary significantly depending on employer, location, industry, and level of experience. But keep in mind that graphic designers get extra income generated as parttime freelancer or self-employed graphic designer. So, if you are


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thinking of getting started right now, then you are on a threshhold of a wide range of classic opportunities.9

PERSONALTY PROFILE LANRE AKINTILO: A CONSUMATE BRANDBUILDER Lanre Akintilo graduated from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife with a degree in Graphic Arts some 13 years ago. Since then the ebullient fellow has had his hands full. He started out in advertising with Eminent Communications where he picked up the rudiments of the trade working on brands like Cowbell, Onga seasoning, Ginsomin, Citizen Bank, Teezers STACO insurance, LASTMA (Lagos Transport Management Authority) and Veleta.He later developed interests in political communication and advertising when he successfully managed the 2003 campaign of former Governors Bola Tinubu of Lagos State and Segun Agagu of OndoState, among others. He added more power to his creative wings through working as consultants to the World Bank funded LAMATA (Lagos MetropolitanAreaTransport Authority) and other public and private business development projects. Lanre presently runs Portion Consult – a brand support service company that offers professional and cost effective services in advertising, public relations and printing. He belongs to the school of thought that places a high premium on printing as strategic to branding. According to him, “brand analysts in Nigeria have not really given printers due regard when it comes to recognizing those whose


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efforts are strategic in the art of branding. ” The printer, as he puts it, is vital in the branding process. He says, “One fact that drives the relevance of the printer is the desired visual magnet that the work of the printer has on the almighty consumer. Brands, whether it is a publication or a consumer product, must use colour and design combination to make their products stand out from its competitors and create a dialogue with its target audience.” To this length, Portion Consult operates a state-of-the-art printing press that churns out high-quality prints to meet the needs of teeming clients. And the operational excellence and passion for quality of the firm has not gone unnoticed as it has earned it recognition from far and wide. One of such is the Tony Elumelu Foundation and Allwell Network award, by which Portion Consult was adjudged 6th out of 50 businesses that were evaluated in Nigeria in the last 2 years as having run successfully. Sources: Wheretoprint magazine, May, 2013, p. 29. BrandiQ Magazine, April, 2013.

Notes 1. This portion is an adaptation of “Graphic Design Career Information” from 2. Karz design 3. Omnific design 4. 5. karz design 6. Benedict and Tisa Communication Consultant 7. Adapted from “Graphic Design career Information” from 8. Ibid 9. Ibid



This article is an adaptation of “Photography Careers, Jobs, and Employment Information” from the career and job search resources website Career Overview.

The Graphic World of Photography


hotographers capture images that visualize a story or event. Both creative and technical skills help them create quality photographs. This includes manipulating lighting procedures, lenses, or subject environments to achieve the desired aspect. Many photographers are using automatic lens and shutter speed settings although manual operation is still largely popular among those desiring more creative control. They use much different equipment to achieve the commercial quality affect so desired, from film, filters, flash attachments to special lighting equipment and tripods. Photographers use a traditional, halide film-print camera or a digital recording camera. Depending on the type of print, color or black and white for example, photographers may submit film to special laboratories, or they may do the processing themselves—typical for most black and white printing. In the latter case, they should have enough knowledge of darkroom equipment and/or computer programs to process film correctly. Electronic and technological photographic advancement have begun to


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allow photographers to easily scan and produce standard film onto digital formats. The photographer can then manipulate and edit digital images and send them easily through email from any location. Photographers can use computer software to manipulate the affects on a digital image. They can then be stored on compact disks or other special memory cards, including flash disks for digital cameras. Digital film and software is broadening the field of photographic art and advertising with more precise color schemes. Digital portfolios are becoming common, and photographers are now becoming increasingly knowledgeable of related computer software. Jobs in Photography Photographers can freelance, be self-employed or work as salaried wage earners. Many photographers work in certain commercial fields such as in a fine arts gallery or commercial news. Portrait photographers shoot pictures of people alone or in groups in a studio. Others take pictures for religious or school ceremonies and weddings. These photographers are usually required to run all technical and business aspects of their job, including advertising, equipment maintenance, and film processing. They also work with customers in scheduling and billing. Commercial and industrial photographers capture images used for books, advertisements, catalogs, and other media. They take pictures of a wide variety of objects and subjects, including models, landscapes, buildings, and merchandise. An industrial photographer might take pictures of machinery, workers, and other products that can be useful to workers in analyzing, public relations, and business strategies. Industrial photography takes place at the site of its use. Scientific photographers take pictures that are used for scientific procedure and medical records. In addition to photography skills, they usually have certain knowledge in related fields of medicine or science. News photographers take pictures of people and community events for special media publications. This includes pictures of sports, politics,

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and notable people. Fine arts photographers commercialize their artwork. They should exercise creativity and have a strong technical knowledge.Freelance photographers contract their work with organizations or license out their photographs through stock agencies. These agencies allow magazines to use the photographs and pay the photographer for the sale. Submission of an application and portfolio is generally required for contracting with agencies. The photographer is then asked to submit a certain number of photographers per year. Work Conditions Government and advertising photographers have a typical 40-hour, 5day workweek, while news photographers may be required to work long and difficult hours. Part-time work is also usually available. Portrait photographers work in a studio or may travel to a school, private home, or any other client location. News photographers may have to travel on short notice and stay for a lengthened period of time at a distant location. Photographers may be required to work in a dangerous environment when they have to cover events such as natural disasters, accidents, or military or civil conflicts. Photographers should have physical stamina in carrying equipment large distances at times. News photographers can have short, heavy deadlines to meet. Self-employed photographers have a lot of freedom in their work, but income can sometimes be unpredictable and/or uncertain. They often have assistants to help find new business. Photography Training and Job Qualifications Employers want people with strong imaginations and technical skills in photography. The most qualified individuals have degrees in photography or journalism. Portrait and freelance photographers must have technical aptitude as achieved through some kind of training.Several colleges and training institutions have photography programs that teach all creative and technical aspects of the art. Composition, design, techniques, processes, and equipment are each


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individually covered, whiles some bachelor's programs have business courses. Those interested in a future in photography should gain as much experience as possible through camera clubs, summer employment in studios, and by subscribing to newsletters. Photographers usually begin as assistants that do all preparatory work, including mixing chemicals and developing and printing photographs. A common practice among freelancers is to develop a unique style that separates them from others. Photographers should have a portfolio to present their work. Some even provide advertisers with their photos for free in order to step into the field. Important characteristics for photographers to have are good coordination, eyesight, and creative ability. Additionally, they should be quite accurate and patient and have good interpersonal skills in working with clients, advertisers, publishing agencies, and designers. They should be knowledgeable of relevant computer programs that help them develop images. Portrait photographers should be able to work with people in front of the camera. Fine arts and commercial photographers should have vivid imaginations. News photographers do well to match the story content with what they are shooting. They should be able to efficiently capture an image at any time. Freelance photographers who own their own business should have skills in business in addition to artistic skills. This includes all of the steps to write contracts, submit bids, secure copyrights for their work, hire models, keep financial records, and license photographs, including other requirements. Understanding intellectual property requirements in obtaining copyrights is important to having their work protected. Photographers for news and magazine publications sometimes advance to editing positions. They also might become teachers at universities or film institutes.


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Photography work is highly appealing and thus jobs will continue to be highly competitive. This is especially so in news and commercial photography, as demand is often greater than job supply. The most successful and self-employing freelance photographers will be skilled in technical and artistic abilities and be business adept. Specialized knowledge in a certain area, such as computers, is also very useful for prospective employees to know. Photographer employment rates are projected to grow along the occupational average over the next eight years. Demand should rise with the population. As photography becomes electronic, greater numbers of photographers will have to provide the media publications with digital images. This expansion of the use of digital photography also places obstacles in front of job growth. It is becoming much more convenient for any photographer to produce and store digital images. Consumers and industries are also able to access these pictures easier, providing more photographers with contracts.

Career Tips: Where you can get trained as a photographer Institution

Qualification Awarded


Program Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos



Epson Academy , Lagos



(+2341) 8980523 7940417

PEFTI Film Institute



Elophoto Academy,




Name/Type of



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Bachelors of Fine Arts (BFA)

Southampton Solent University


BA (Hons)

London College of Communication


BA (Hons) ›

Indian Institute of Photography

Online Photography training


StellenBosch Academy of Design and Photography, South Africa

Commercial Photography

Higher Certificate

Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South


National Diploma, Bachelor’s Degree in Technology, Master’s

Parsons School of

Design, New York

PERSONALTY PROFILE KELECHI AMADI-OBI: A PASSION FOR PHOTOGRAPHY Kelechi Amai-Obi is a law yer-turned photographer. In his early years he had a huge passion for drawing. But family influence made him choose law as his course of study. “When I got to university I realized there was an active art scene there. I naturally gravitated towards artists,” he says. “After my one year of service I started working at an art studio, where I exhibited my art and became a successful exhibiting artist.

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Photography came gradually. I used to make photos as a reference material for my paintings. I started making paintings of human forms and took photos of models in my studio with light coming from my window,” says the painter-cum-photographer. “I learnt to use a camera and learnt to capture light in a very intricate and delicate way to achieve my purpose. The photographs themselves became artworks. I started associating with other photographers too. Once I finished taking images I would go to the darkroom to print my photos. I looked at the darkroom process and it looked very similar to my painting process, only it had quicker results,” he says. His photographic career took off in 2001 when he exhibited at the Rencontres De Bamako or “African Photography Biennale”. Soon after he was invited to Milan to showcase the collection he exhibited at the Biennale. After his exhibition in Milan he established a career in Nigeria in collaboration with other upcoming photographers. The passion for photography has made Amadi-Obi a household name in Lagos. “To be a successful photographer does not require extraordinary equipment”, he says. When he started his career he used a Mamiya RB67 film camera. Today, most of his images are taken with several professional lenses but he's hooked on the Canon EOS 5D Mark II body. “I am not particular with equipment. There was a time when I used to be crazy about cameras but I got tired because they keep changing… To get a good image you just need to have a good eye,” says AmadiObi.



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This article is an adaptation of the piece “Career opportunities in Printing Technology” by V.K Bharti in the Employment News weekly, India

Printing and Human Communication


rint communication is one of the strongest and powerful media of mass communication which is growing very rapidly. Textbooks, newspapers and magazines come to mind most often when people think about printed products. Everyone is acquainted with such products. PRINT IS POWER. The famous saying that the “book lives longer than author himself” establishes the importance of print. The printed material (book, magazine or newspaper) has a strong impact on society and plays a key role in nation building. We find the existence of print in every sphere of our life and it plays crucial role in educating the people and provides them clear picture of what is going on in and around the world. The invention of movable type and printing press by Johannes Gutenberg has actually revolutionized print media. Gutenberg printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. This invention transformed the way the world received printed material. Printing is a part of the mass communication process. It involves several skills. Printing is often called the 'mother art of civilization'. Printing industry, right from its inception, has been an industry in which technical skills are of paramount importance. Each person here has a


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ßçà•4tŒ*˜6/' ´èÙT‚ÀîZ—ÀÀ¡þy Ô•¢'·Íffðð_ ‰§ã}?O^/¯••Ÿqš<%E-5–ßÈÐ1 ߎ,Æ¿Öít ¼*Ég`Œ}»;n_P „²G£ 'àGÝ*ŸŸÏm.L X)8G×™k<• ~†çM6=E.5=µ ßFå•–-¥ž%?7OíGPœÚËùêÛê à=ÖQe[®g›Ãà ••ƒÅ Ýü‹š‹ eºzcjS<CK 1“š¢ ßF]VNe^V 7/Îh%Ä ô'V“ÂBpo¬• [£3ìâ7ªWú÷ ™L‰Ïm .Òð Üú¿?¿ÏOn0?O bjqZû\ ŒLS ße]üú:RJé`XQh`±à ß>6•.Í • ÔëT Ä1ÐÏ *†Ä•Ä´Ä¥Äâ ߶ö _¦Ÿ¶U ÷Q©š‹É\MÍËùêO …· IIµÛzð,sØö6ÏUí¾ÎN />¾î¿Ï‘;œ¤«³œ\µ.š¢ ßF?7/( ÓÌjcBÁïÿ øéiKyj¶1…âI üä× ‰d«N•ä ³8XÝ]âb°‚‘‚‘ñùâ•[¼Ã¬ 5–ü ß>6vo†•w\sk&=k™Í ×H…³¤$ þ[=¸ ÈÈ·Gv>{ ¥ÃâáðÿÑ¢t6 M-ÜB+ëÔÜ= |ƒåFN ßFå%±ñ•)AÈ r:2“ pž•€³ 6' œË¼ò aCCŸ•¤Ö˜=] Þ ŸÙ RÇ i‡s|‹š vGW( ixøÞíX Œ›£cj|ƒ‹ ßFåü²ªIèoÓA9¯/m Ü>7uÊ»«œ´ W9•w¨k]=zàx ífðú ÃÃgì" r•S$3B™¨(Ü=£òúcL²«”› ß>UNì,Dâj ‰"Z ÈH9¹ dUÕô"Qƒe •òmГ®j>¢JìeË ÒWWÜ à2AÖ§jyK…W3 lÍÕÜ=ýæÏ5&ßÑž" ‰¹=ØEÿÜÍwù³ È‚i² E= M[æ Þ-‘CVÁX·êW m ÁÕªðle -0wù B -" òo‹• • ßtD╘‘Ño_’¡ Ç·õ2#aR€âÄ •ìÎ_#ðS¦8³: q-ꓱ((fuF‰VÐ’¡°ÍÈÏ08·‘™Yº}fn ßF†•–4Lê熕¥–ÔT‘Àý+ƒ•èO sîª “M†ã•}Ã< _ä••]l=ÒᲕp EÜãE¦•O7™úãÌÓ¼ ßF?7/o‡•w•¦½\ë:w÷4 _œ•Ëù'e«ƒ‘îÐê•QG uaÃÌÇ õ·· ß ß†ÆÝÖíùê ¦xø5iœÚ•à£ °öؾYÔÉV ™£ßÉ&ÉNò; ×æõÆFVæíÖ ß ßåÝT‘O}»é øéi.mÊ« 9øø"åù¯ Þü½Ü}Ââ‚Ï‘cT \E.•—ž¦fÇÏÖ gß ßNìå»;x E5&ÉšØX*¥‡ {]]s7ðS´ö ß ß†•wŽ¥~o•Žî• ßÐÁôcÊ ¾üøðªmÆr³ ÚÛïHB ß ß†Æe¥•»ø+_ ?/^O}«9îîÐÐ $Æâù «Õ§Å_ ß ß¬F]«œË¼¬ v³¤•7(-•ìIÄ ÊWW¨56×d ß ß†%ļø&UF ÕÆFte“²G ß ß†•¿ÖŒÊJ‡ a”…³¤ÓòÆ ™™{{ ÐccÀ3 ^‡®Pe—Ýo• ß ß‹¢Aà÷n_P~¼ …vgX†´Ð²ðÒ ß ßåÝôíËK ê6te¢“Ñ;¶—ô¡Ô•¢ÔÕ ß ß†%ļµ¦Õƶ ß ß†ÆÝÖí ¿íÞ@0_PA u²G(mèÊW!'Êë ß ßÆeø&U‰Öõueà={º} waü¡½‘™£ ß ßÆe¥•x¦Õƶå1o`;—1WÔ êÀŽ4á-ô:w@ ß ß儼µ5sd>{l]ÿð-=¸öØâØ7T ß ßÆ¿ÖtŒ F}n«Ú6' ô1"ƒƒeÂ

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The printing industry is still one of growing industry in Nigeria. There are thousands of quality printing houses in major states in Nigeria. Some professional association engaged in printing and publishing activities are Association of Nigerian Printers (APN), Association of Professional Printers of Nigeria (ASSPPON) and Institute of Printing Nigeria (IOPN). These bodies were duly inaugurated by printers who felt the need to properly reposition the Print and Graphics Industry in Nigeria, likewise contributing to the development of their members' welfare and business concerns. In year 2007, these three bodies came together to form an umbrella body called CIPPON (Chartered Institute of Professional Printers Nigeria) and it was approved by the federal government of Nigeria to regulate printing businesses in Nigeria. This sector has immense employment opportunities. A printing technologist can get job in newspapers, magazines and advertising agencies, government departments, banks and private publication houses. He/she can be in the marketing and sales department of companies, which supply raw materials for printing and photographic films. Another option is teaching in schools, college and polytechnics offering vocational courses. A print technologist in the production department of a newspaper or a magazine starts his career as production supervisor and can go up to the level of general manager. Printing technology courses are offered in Nigeria at different levels leading to the award of NABTEB certificate, National Diploma, Higher National Diploma in printing. Research has shown that there is B. Tech/ B. E up to Ph.D. in Printing Technology in countries like the United States of America, United Kingdom and India. Apart from the above, the Yaba College of Technology offers certificate courses in the areas of plate making, offset machine operation, screen printing, camera operation, desk top publishing and book binding. These courses are designed in a way that students acquire adequate knowledge of theoretical and practical aspects of printing. During their studies, students learn the detailed aspects of printing processes, printing material, pre-press technologies, binding and


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finishing techniques, business management, entrepreneurship development, cost estimation etc. The National Diploma and Higher National Diploma programmes are of multi-disciplinary nature, covering subjects like; Prepress Technology, Computer Technology, Quality Control in addition to Physics and Chemistry. Printing studies involve not only processes and technologies and management but also gives thorough knowledge about ink, paper and other consumables. Printing jobs extend over a number of sectors. Apart from offset printing, there are large number of printing houses engaged in screen printing, flexography and gravure printing. Qualified printing professionals are also given placements in printer manufacturing houses and consumable producing companies. Inks, toners, and print cartridges are some of the consumables extensively used in different printing processes. Categories of personnel with Diploma/Degree in Printing Technology are employed in various positions as given below. After getting initial orientation/training to suit the specific needs of the employer, they will be able to fulfil the employer's requirements in respect of; -

Supervisory personnel at the middle-management level for shop floor supervision of large presses.


Works Managers, Production Manager and production executives for the modernized commercial presses, newspaper presses, Government presses, publishers and specialist printers.


Engineers for printing machinery manufacturer and printing materials manufacturer, both in the design office and factory shop-floor.


Maintenance engineers for implant maintenance in large printing establishments.


Sales/maintenance engineers for printing machinery manufacturers, and sales/marketing executives for modernized printing presses.


Faculty positions in diploma and Degree level printing institute's courses in Printing Technology.


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Production executives/managers, Co-coordinator in advertising agencies.

Remuneration The job offers good remuneration in the production department of newspapers, publishing house, packaging, pre-press work, digital designing etc. Below is a table showing the different sections and salary range of a National diploma/ HND holder in Printing Technology per month within the context of the printing industry in Nigeria at present. New Trend in Printing Technology Today, with the increasing trend towards digitization and computerization of the media, the explosion of the Internet has created doubts about the existence of print, but the fact is that print will remain forever. It is evergreen. Hence, the future prospects for the printing technologists are very bright as there are massive opportunities awaiting graduates of this discipline. Qualified printing professionals will be in high demand in the coming years.

Range of salaries in Nigeria’s contemporary printing industry National Diploma Prepress Manager Cost Estimator Production Assistant/Manager Production Executive Supervisors Sales/ Marketing Executives Graphic Artist Machine operators Post Press Managers

N30,000 – N70,000

N30,000 – N70,000 N30,000 – N70,000 N30,000 – N70,000

Higher National Diploma N80,000 – N120,000 N100,000 – N150,000 N120,000 – N150,000 N80,000 – N120,000 N80,000– N120,000 N80,000– N120,000 N100,000 – N150,000 N80,000– N120,000 N80,000– N120,000


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BUNMI OSINOWO: A PASSION FOR PRINT Bunmi attended Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos to pursue a degree in Printing Technology in 1990, which was his greatest passion and a remarkable mutation from the conventional belief that â&#x20AC;&#x153;Printingâ&#x20AC;? is for the people with no clear educational inclination. But this was proved otherwise by using his good grades to obtain a Masters degree in Business Administration (management) from Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, Akoko, Ondo State in 2002. Due to his quest for academic and professional laurels, he qualified as a chartered Public Relations practitioner in December 2007 and June 2008. Bunmi is a dynamic and seasoned techno-commercial person with good track record and has in-depth knowledge of printing processes and print media. He utilizes his wealth of experiences in creating a cutting-edge technology in maximizing the attainment of professional excellence and to drive organizational improvements and implementation of best industry practices. He is industrious with good communication, technical and human skills, focused, determined and passionate about whatever he lays his hands on. He had worked at the managerial level in some highly technology-driven printing companies in Nigeria, pioneering the first indigenous Direct Imaging press in West Africa in 2001. Bunmi has attended several courses, seminars and workshops on Excellent Customer Services, Strategic Sourcing and Cost Management, Middle Management Skills Development, Negotiations Skills, Quality Assurance/ Quality Control etc. which have impacted positively on his qualitative service delivery. He is a certified internal auditor for ISO 90012008. Currently, he is the Head of Production planning & commercial Production in a leading security printing outfit located at Ogba, Ikeja, Lagos State.



The Importance of Marketing in the Print media Industry


rinting as an aspect of the media systems, no doubt, has impacted and is still impacting all areas of life. It presents job opportunities in sales, accounting, engineering etc. This chapter gives an insight into the opportunities in sales and marketing in the print media industry. To survive profitably, print media companies must strive for more customers, more orders and more profits. To achieve this, consistent and effective marketing is the key. For printers to remain in business profitably, they must also be in the business of finding and keeping customers. Suffice to say then that marketing is one of the cornerstones of printing businesses. It doesn't matter what one is selling or the service being rendered; without a good marketing skill, the business is liable to fail. Marketing, according to Collins dictionary, is the organization of the sale of a product - for example deciding on its price, the areas it should be supplied to, and how it should be advertised. A well run marketing program can turn a printing business into accumulating assets it was supposed to have, helping it to meet optimistic financial goals. Marketing, according to A.O. Udeze, turns the management focus


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towards what the customer needs and wants. A printer who wants to take a marketing approach must determine what it is the customers really need and then systematically organize and co-ordinate operations to satisfy the customers – all the while achieving sales and profit goals.1 Marketing Print in a New Media Age Marketing in the printing industry is now driven by certain revolutionary concepts. The current trend in marketing is the displacement of the hitherto established selling concept by a new one the marketing concept. As Lyman Henderson explains, the selling concept thrives on the practice of selling print. He argues that, As printers, we print and we sell what we print. And although we sell print, our customers don't buy print. They buy something to help them sell cars, something to aid their communication, something to create image, something to fit 2 their data-processing system. The inadequacies or shortfalls of the selling concept are well taken care of by the adoption of the marketing concept, which, Henderson says, involves, “creating what the customer needs and wants…” To illustrate, Henderson relates the story of Pete Smithers and Sacha Drukstein, two print marketing executives of entirely different worlds.3 Pete, says Henderson, is a sales person for a well established state-of-the-art printing company. While on a sales visit to the print buyer of Fox Appliances, Joe Brown, the following conversation took place: Joe:

Glad you could drop in, Pete. I've got something interesting for you. (Picks up a mockup of a brochure.) Pete I dropped everything as soon as I got your call, Joe. Joe: I've got this four-colour brochure. I need a quote on one million. Pete: Let's see. 12 pages, self cover. What stock do you want?

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Joe: 70-lb. #1 coated offset. Pete: This is the perfect thing for our new eight-unit web! We've got a brand-new press, only been operating for a month – just long enough to get the bugs out. Beautiful work coming off it, too. We're launching with an introductory price, which is still good – until the end of the month. Joe: No, Pete, a price break isn't likely to make me mad. Pete: Now, what are you going to give us? PDF files? Joe: Yes, we'll give you complete digital files. Pete: What about delivery? Joe: Launch date for the promotion is exactly two month from today. Pete: One shipment to one place? Joe: Yep. Pete: And when do you want the quote? Joe: How about Friday? Pete: OK. No problem. Can I take this sample with me? Joe: No, but I have a copy for you. Pete: I'll be back to you by Friday. Thanks again for the opportunity. I know we can give you exactly what you want. The next day, another sales person from a different printing company, Sacha Druckstein, visited Joe to bid for the same job. She deployed an entirely different approach that got her the job. The conversation: Joe:

Glad you could drop in, Sacha. Look at this. A four-color, twelve-page booklet on 70-lb. #1 coated. Need one million. We'll give you PDF files. I want you to estimate this for me. Sacha: Nice-looking job. Eye-catching. A million, you say. What's this piece advertising, Joe? Joe: It's this year's model-release of our new kitchen appliance sets. We plan to sell them in sets for the first time; stoves, warming ovens, fridges, freezers, microwave, and dish water – special price for a matching set. Sacha: And your target market? Let me guess, House builders, new home owners?

44 Joe: Sacha: Joe:

Sacha: Joe: Sacha:

Joe: Sacha: Joe: Sacha: Joe: Sacha:

Joe: Sacha:

Joe: Sacha

Joe: Sacha:

A Bright Future You got it. Wholesale to home, apartment, condo builders, and retail stores, and we're set up for direct-customers as well. This looks like a new model for Fox Appliances. Is this an important launch? You better believe it. Fox has a lot of riding on this. It would be a severe setback if it bombed. Some heads would roll. Maybe mine too. So how are you going to promote it? What do you mean, “How am I going to promote it?” What do you think you've got in your hands? Looks like a promotional piece to me. But it's not going to sell many sets sitting in our factory or your office. So what happens to this? Oh, I see what you mean. Well, we are going to distribute 100,000 as handouts at the Home Show, then the rest by mail. 100,000 at the Home Show! As I remember, last year's attendance was only about 40,000 people. How do you know this? Fox was at the Home Show, so was I too. It's my job. 40,000, you say? So, may be we should review quantities. Now, you say you will give us digital files. Then you already have it in computer form. Are you going to use those files in other media as well? What do mean by “other media”? What about a Web site? Has Fox thought of this? We have clients who are just delighted with the sales results from their websites. Or what about TV? Have you planned any of that? Or radio, newspapers, magazines? I haven't a clue. But I thought you were a printer. What's all this got to do with printing? Joe, let me make this point. If I turn out an excellent print job and it still doesn't sell any appliance set, you are going to remember that about us, aren't you? Um ,probably. But if we help you move those sets, by whatever means, you are

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going to remember that about us? Joe: Right. Sacha: So we're trying to do the same thing – sell sets of Fox appliances. Now, let's look at this mailing you are planning to do. 900,000 is real bundle of addresses. How much does this cost to mail? Joe: Haven't a clue. Sacha: Ok, then we'll weigh it and possibly make some suggestions on paperweight. Maybe you can move up to 80 lb. stock – make the piece a little more prestigious – without increasing postage costs. I think I've got the picture pretty well. I'll phone you to get the information on the rest of the promotion. Can you make an appointment for me with your advertising department so we can talk about other media? By the way, who else is quoting on this little dream job? Joe: (Hesitantly) Well, uh, let's just say I've got others in there to keep you honest. Sacha: With this much riding on the income (you said that even your own head was on the platter), I'm sure that you've picked competitors who know what they're doing. This isn't just anybody's cup of tea, you know. Joe: (Thoughtfully), Yes, I think I've chosen very carefully. Sacha: Frankly Joe, I'm wondering whether you're just a little premature asking for a quote on this brochure. What really counts is what is the most cost-effective way to sell these sets. Joe: I see what you mean. But go ahead and price the brochure anyway. I'll consult about all other things you have suggested. You've been a great help. The difference between Joe and Sacha is crystal clear: Joe sells print based on the selling concept while Sacha's sales work is driven by the marketing concept. As Henderson puts it, “Sacha exhibited knowledge of a fundamental marketing concept. She recognize that her company was not an isolated printer but a few steps in the Fox's value chain (sometimes called a supply chain)”3


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ßÎ6ÕyŸqiHb3bâN• e“eEK,ÐÐKªbæ¸pu»L«N«« —p•Ap2²„²Á ßtl Pg_vŽ†• Ź©š‹¿ím^ ¾®. ±À¡ƒþà ÀyG ¾îë ñ••T› {Üaæ™Ü\ ÙŒOÏÞ r4´À F/€ tmÎÖ7$, ßÿ•–Ž¥DÙɺH•¿¯í ®ÝÎ7uf”…â?›} ¯Ü1sï… ¹™Õ µ:Yò•Ú•PÐœÚ à¢Ù? P±¸À îõµ½¬lÍ• ß ˜¯¨¿ÖÏÇaè%þï, Ù;õeÂ{ö° •GûDN•Ú ¯ÍÍ,Ïw9žap•ÿÌŽö‚BjSZb ïhœ¤ ßÿ•7Níâš“ªê‰^›Œ»î ßþSÓ_ S¯‘;¶ ÖÌôo߉-$ ë(2yÁ[yþþÌÛê »ËK #×™”õÞ?ÿ ÁªÐ1 ¬lUî ßÿ÷ïŽÎh•&«œ³ñâD4}}ä 7úàÌ™#™ 8&>½Üúp•Ž•¼ŽQ`o †•Mɲ¹¢‹“š ßÿ?7Öt¨Gà6ÕÎŒ .lò/c–ŵ¦•o .•m/òk }Ó-$±cŸU Ëê•0eV ßöïß~v • ð -‰½ Û̽ë qbS•›5ð 5¼ðð··"^¥gÍSqM×晨kzLmÛÃË iËÒÚšûaÈ ßÿ?ݼü›“2Ñj Ó%– ªè%¥Ô@0 çgââÄ}7ðgÝæ#‹Ï>$B •Veå±t@1×l G¸}ß@H0 ‘òúc# ßFåÝÖt%=5´ôÚZÉSÓÄ/¼•• öq¦›#TæÂ镱.—µµ Ø]Õù»ËÚ¦&5øâCK ½Å…nu^GOV ß ß¥•Ä¼[SLÏi€l©šJxi¦ÕJ‡xi.‹•cÀMÞ!P( Hßêô•y—µ Q•ëú :Þ ³3BæzŠsz‚ ß

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ßtl á!ÀYRJCÜçØ4c‘Àý0 K<¼ £â] ĺ°_Í·vHa• ™<ÁF2Öå§t tEUq ý^8?(07™ ߥDâÛ*# D[T ÚãÔ <,¬ÛÌú ŒÊ»ðkM!]Ò‹ž‡ùõ… To drive the growth of the organization through sales and marketing activities. To support marketing managers and other colleagues. Creating awareness for the company and its products and services.

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Providing information on the market needs that will help the organization. Generation of sales and prospects. Investigating customers needs.

Training to be a Print Marketer As pointed out in the earlier part of this chapter, there are generally no limits to who can become a marketer since everyone is a marketer in one form or the other. When you persuade another person to buy into your ideas, see your point of view or grant you certain privileges, you are certainly functioning as a marketer. However, for commercial purposes, some level of professional training is required to become a successful marketer. Against this backdrop, employers expect some level of marketing knowledge and skills which can be acquired through a variety of ways including; academic training (through schools and institutions of learning), workplace training, and self-development via selfâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;help marketing books and other educational resources. (See the Box below for suggested options on how to acquire professional training in marketing). While marketing principles are general and apply to virtually all aspects of human life, marketers interested in working in the print media industry must complement their marketing know-how with an appreciable knowledge of printing production processes and other media especially digital media. Acquiring training in marketing, without any strand of doubt, is a move that pays. At the risk of over emphasizing, everyone is a marketer. Skills and knowledge gained in the course of training and working as a print marketer are not limited only to the printing industry but applies to all aspects of life. With marketing you can ice to the Eskimos!


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Professional Tips: Some Training Organizations in the field of Marketing Body The Institute of Marketing

National Institute of Marketing The London Chamber of Commerce and Industry International Qualification

Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria

Course Details Offers training in different stages of marketing ranging from introductory certificate in marketing to Chartered Postgraduate Diploma in marketing Offers professional certification in marketing The LCCI International Qualifications and Diploma are available in a range of Subject areas covering the entire key functions of Business. Offers professional training in advertising

Contact Information

PERSONALTY PROFILE JOHN ONUEGBULEM: The Printing Consultant with Growth Mindset John Onuegbulem aspires to be best in anything he sets his hands on. The growth mindset is a propelling force for him. And this has been the driving source of his sales and marketing career that has spanned several years. John's key objective is to grow through efforts and learning. This

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explains why he was not satisfied with the Higher National Diploma (HND) in Printing Technology that he obtained from Yaba College of Technology. He went ahead to cap it with a Post Graduate Diploma in Marketing from the Nigerian Institute of Journalism, Lagos in 1996. After this he earned a Masters in Business Administartion (MBA) from the Federal University of Technology, Akure in 2001. John started his sales and marketing career at the renowned print company Academy Press as Sales/Customer Service Executive. In this capacity, he explored the various aspects of printing advisory services, customer Service duties and sales of printing services. Thereafter, he became the Sales Manager (Graphic Equipment), Briscoegrapics. R . T . Briscoe Nig. PLC,Lagos, Nigeria. As sales manager, he was saddled with sales of web, sheetfed and postpress equipment in Nigeria and 5 other West African Countries, printing consultancy, sales management and mentoring of sales team. At present, John is the business unit manager at Heidelberg Nigeria Limited. His responsibilities include: business development, product/brand Management, sales management advisory/ consultancy service to clients, equipment configuration and order preparations etc The print consultant believes that we can make the world a better place through networking and sharing information. Source: LinkedIn



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Notes 1. Udeze, A.O. (1987) Profitability in the Nigerian Printing Industries. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of Higher National Diploma in Printing Technology at the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. 2. Handerson, Lyman. (2004). Hands-On Marketing for the Printer. New Jersey: National Association for Printing Leadership. (p. 8). 3. Ibid, p. 11-14 4.



The Relevance of Printing Engineering


he role of printing engineers in the printing industry has become very important both in the country and abroad. Although there is no single institution among the few offering printing technology in Nigeria that offers printing engineering as a course of study, many foreign-trained or industry-trained printing engineers are working in the country. The industry trained or home-made engineers are those trained by equipment suppliers like Heidelberg, Komori, amongst others. Who are Printing Engineers? Printing Engineers are trained professionals who take care of printing equipment. Printing engineers are very skillful at handling different printing equipment and machinery. They also offer assistance as regards installation, maintenance and repair of printing equipment. There are also firms that specialize in press calibration, color workflow and color management. Aspects of Printing Engineering Mechanical engineering; Mechanical engineers are those who deal with the design, construction and maintenance of the printing machines


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and spare parts. Electrical engineering; Electrical engineers are concerned with the application of electricity, and electronics on the printing machines. The job of mechanical engineer is not complete without the electrical engineer running wires through the machine. The equipment need electricity to power it on. Prepress Engineering: Prepress engineers work together with prepress technicians to create the foundation for successful printing production. They ensure proper installation of prepress equipments, and software packages to enhance appearance and layout of text and images for print run. Prepress technicians take print or electronic file and scan or import them into specialized software, making colour text and digital image corrections as needed. Prepress engineers maintain, repair and troubleshoot cameras and processes needed. They set up printing presses to produce film, plate or electronic proofs. Post Press Engineering: Post press engineers are trained professionals whose work is concerned with the installation, inspection, maintenance and repair of print finishing machines and equipment such as die cutting machine, tape applicator, laminator/gluer, guillotine, board cutter, etc. Training in Printing Engineering Printing press engineering is an area which has witnessed rapid advancement. It is a fact that many individuals are interested in building their career in the area of printing engineering. The job opportunities in this field are very high and require a lot of commitment and hardwork on the part of interested individuals. Individuals who are qualified in this area of printing engineering have job prospects in the following areas: ยง Government presses ยง Newspaper/magazine houses ยง Publishing houses ยง Printing houses

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§ Electronic publishing § Packaging § Quality control § Digital printing § Security printing To acquire the formal training to become printing engineers, interested individuals would need to obtain diploma, degree or other relevant certificate in printing technology, electrical/electronic engineering or mechanical engineering from approved institutions. With this qualification, they can start their careers as assistant or trainee engineers in printing industry. The journey would not stop there as print companies’ expectations are high. Trainees are taken through specialized areas of printing engineering like press engineering, software engineering, prepress/digital engineering, post press engineering etc, to meet their needs. The reality is that on-the-job training is a core aspect of printing engineering. Some printing companies recruit graduates of electrical and mechanical engineering and then train them in Nigeria by inviting foreign experts to conduct in-plant training while others send their recruited engineers abroad to acquire further training in printing engineering. Individuals who want to be trained as printing engineers can also sign up with print equipment companies like Heidelberg, FC Export, among others. Another popular route to training as printing engineers in Nigeria is apprenticeship. Prospective trainees undertake apprenticeship for a number of years (minimum of five years) under a practicing engineer before they can be adjudged competent to practice on their own. This option is open to secondary school leavers, graduates of technical schools - even university and polytechnic graduates are not left out.For individuals who wish to take up formal training in printing engineering, there are different institutions across the world that offer printing courses with strong bias for engineering. The information box below contains a list of some of these schools.


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Name of Program

Xiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;An University of Technology, China Jadavpur University, India University of Pune, Maharashtra, India Anna University, Chennai, India Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Zhejiang, China Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, Beijing, China Bergische Universitat Wuppertal, Germany Chemnitz University of Technology Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Finland (Espoo campus)


Printing Engineering

Qualification Awarded Bachelors degree

Printing Engineering

Bachelors degree

Printing Engineering and Graphic Communication Printing Technology

Bachelors degree

Printing Engineering

Bachelors, Masters, PhD Bachelors degree

Printing Engineering

Bachelors degree

Printing and Media Engineering

Bachelors, Masters degrees

Print and Media Technology Media Engineering

Bachelors (German), Masters (English) Bachelors degree

www.uni-wuppertal, www.hsw.uni http://www.tu

PERSONALTY PROFILE OLAKUNLE OGUNJOBI: THE SPECIALIST DIGITAL PRESS ENGINEER Olakunle Ogunjobi obtained his Diploma in Electrical/ Electronics Engineering from Yaba College of Technology. He started his career in the printing industry in 2001 with Invent Media as trainee Electrical/Mechanical Maintenance Engineer. He had training with

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NIIT on ORACLE in 2002. He is also an Oracle Certified Professional in Oracle 8i. Olakunle joined Heidelberg Nigeria Limited in April 2003, where he got further training as a Prepress/Digital Engineer. He was trained in Kiel Germany on Software Engineering and Field Engineering (in November & December, 2003). He later extended his capabilities with training on repairs and maintenance of digital black and white printers (Digimaster 9110), Atlantic Zeiser Cardline and Cardpack machines, Imagesetters, online and offline Processors, Computer- To-Film (CtF) and Computer-To-Plate (CtP) machines. Having had the opportunity of six local trainings in Nigeria by foreign experts, Ogunjobi later worked at Technology Global from February, 2007 to May 2007. At Technology Global, he worked on various Agfa prepress equipments. He was trained in D端sseldorf in Germany on folder gluing machine in Oct. 2007. With this wealth of experience Ogunjobi later worked with Karington Group of company as the production engineer. The passion for learning propelled Ogunjobi to obtain a BSc. in Electrical/ Electronics in August 2007 from Concept University in UK through a distant learning program. He is currently the Technical Director of Randomsoft Limited - a technical support company that specializes on Kodak equipments. Source:



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The Internet: a Blessing in Disguise


he emergence of the Internet, to some people, signaled the doom of print. This is very far from the whole truth. In reality, there has been a decline in the demand for print; as users find the Internet an alternative medium for communication, it is only natural that it replaces print in certain ways. But it does not mean the entire dumping of print as it is still very relevant in the communications industry, especially when used in a mix with other media in what is referred to as cross-media communication. So, rather than being a threat, the Internet has actually offered the age-long printers the opportunity to transform to print solutions providers. If printers expect to outshine competitors, make profit and survive in the present printing industry, then things cannot simply be done the way they have always been done. Hype aside, the printing industry is in dire need of a renewal and this presents immense career opportunities for those who are quick in seeing the big picture. Indeed, there is a shift in paradigm in the business world that must be understood â&#x20AC;&#x201C; most clients now have communication, not printing problems.


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Renewing the Printing Industry Joe Webb, a print media expert of note, examined the need for a renewal of the printing industry extensively in his book, “Renewing the Printing Industry: Strategies and Action Items for Success”. The scholar made a clear case for a strategy change – a move that requires effecting a process change. What exactly does Webb mean by “effecting a process change?” He explained: To become truly valuable to customers, a print business need to understand what business it is really in. Then it needs to optimize its business structure, business practices and 1 infrastructures to optimize its position in that market. Several attempts have been made to reposition printing companies as communications service providers. The appellation “Graphic Communication” has been adopted to name this new printing industry. Becoming communications solutions providers is a strategy for survival in the modern printing industry. This, essentially, involves getting involved with customers' business. This strategy is captured by Webb as: “Understanding how and why they (the customer) need to communicate and to whom they need to communicate are now vital to becoming part of the communication process.” This cannot be done without a fundamental change in the thinking pattern of printers thinking in terms of the widely held perception of printing as a manufacturing process. Lyman Handerson in his book “Hands-On Marketing for the Printer' lamented that the main problem of the printing industry the world over is that of perception; the current faulty perception of the industry as a commodity industry. In other words, 2 printers, Handerson argued, perceive themselves as manufacturers. The emerging thinking positions printers as communication service providers. Mercifully, the emergence of technology has eased out the old business model used in the printing industry which was built around manufacturing.

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According to a report of the Innovation and Business Skills Australia (IBSA), the printing and graphic arts industry is passing through a phase of transformation driven by digital technologies. Consequently, there has been an emergence of new business models as well as opportunities created through an expansion of the traditional printing industry into a wide range of related fields like design, signage, 3 marketing, packaging, public relations and multimedia. Career Opportunities in Marketing Communication Marketing communications is a field consisting of several disciplines. As a multi-disciplinary field, practitioners and specialists from all walks of life have one role or the other to play. Specifically, marketing communication, according to Chris Hill, “is concerned with the methods, processes, meanings, perception and actions associated with the ways in which organizations (and their brands) engage with their target audience.4 Certain words are regularly used in marketing communications; one is brand, another is branding. A brand, Kotler and Armstrong explained, refers to a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of these that identifies the products or services of one seller or group of sellers 5 and differentiates them from those of competitors. Branding, on the other hand, is “endowing products and services with the power of a 6 brand.” Branding is pivotal to the services of any organization – profit or nonprofit. Thus, it is an activity that receives premium attention from organizations. To make branding a success, there must be serious longterm planning and execution of blueprints which requires significant input from marketing communications. Brands are built in different ways using a myriad of strategies. The implementation of these strategies offers career opportunities to print specialists in one way or the other. Some of the key areas include:


A Bright Future ยง Specialty/promotional printing ยง Packaging ยง Signage/Outdoor Advertising ยง Direct marketing variable data printing

Opportunities in Specialty/Promotional Industry Building brands entails making the brand elements (name, colour, logos, etc) achieve enhanced recognition and optimal memorability. To achieve this, the brand must be seen almost everywhere by the target audience. Specialty/promotional products like T-shirts, Faze caps, pens, bags etc have become veritable vehicles through which brands are built. Promotional products are any item that can be imprinted with a logo, a message or name that instills corporate identity.7 The printing industry and the promotional product industry are linked by the process of imprinting on promotional products. The screen printing process has been largely used for imprinting on items though imprinting techniques like heat transfer and monogramming have also become popular. The promotional product industry, no doubt, is a burgeoning one, not only in Nigeria but world over. For instance, the promotional industry in the United States is a multi-billion dollar industry with sales exceeding $17billion. According to a report, While other industries have suffered as a result of the recession and other economic issues, the promotional products industry has remained robust. Companies recognize that marketing is important in good times as well as bad, and have focused their investment on the strategy that brings the most favorable result. Studies show that people who receive promo items could recall the name of advertisers as long as six months after they received them.8 The ad specialty industry is a path to entrepreneurship as it is a good arena for entrepreneurs to thrive. Those who have been in this line of


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PERSONALITY PROFILE ADEWALE ALAYO: A PASSIONATE BRANDS CONSULTANT Adewale Alayo's passion for marketing communication is exemplary. Presently a lead CAREER TIP communications Alayo strategist at Escentia Consulting, a marketing has held various positions including Account Manager at a privately owned Marketing and Advertising company. As lead strategist, Alayo's responsibilities include; Providing new ideas and fresh perspective to issues facing clients, brands and organisations as well as approaches to revenues and business building. Providing divergent alternatives to develop business models, technologies, and strategies to capitalize on emerging opportunities. Providing business coaching and consulting services to SME (Small and Medium Enterprises) for successful market entry, reputation management, customer retention and loyalty Reviewing business plans to strengthen clients' business, product or service propositions for successful market growth and development. Planning, executing and supervising the execution of corporate or brand advertisement, promotions and experiential marketing campaigns. Training business managers and entrepreneurs on building engaged and accountable workforce as part of effort to increase operational effectiveness and employees' satisfaction


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Adewale is a good example of a printing technologist turned marketing communication practitioner. After obtaining a Higher National Diploma in Printing Technology from Yaba College of Technology, he undertook training in marketing communications by obtaining a professional Diploma in Advertising from the Advertising Practitioners' Council of Nigeria. Thereafter, he acquired a Masters degree in Communication Arts from the University of Ibadan. Adewale belongs to several professional bodies and association like National Institute of marketing of Nigeria, Africa Brand Conference, and Lagos Business Club. Source: LinkedIn

business cite the numerous advantages of this aspect of advertising to include: possibility and flexibility of working from home, the flexible hours of work, a lower overhead and considerably low initial investment for starting up. Careers in Packaging The packaging industry provides enormous career opportunities, not just for printers, but for a wide array of workers. The reason; the industry is a thriving one going by the needs and demands from manufacturers of products that require packages. And without any doubt, the package has a crucial role to play in marketing products. It is 9 described as â&#x20AC;&#x153;the articulate salesmanâ&#x20AC;? for the product. Packaging is an art, science and technology of preparing goods for transport and sales. It is considered a link between production, distribution and marketing. The various form of packaging includes; cardboard, corrugated box, metal, plastic or paper wrapper. Packaging is a broad area and is indeed an industry quite distinct and different from the printing industry. Nonetheless, there are certain areas of overlap that present career opportunities for print media specialists. Interestingly, the spate of digital technology (especially the Internet) that has brought


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a cut in demand for printed products has had little effect on the packaging industry. In the words of Robert, Neubauer, In countless ways technology has cut us from experiencing life through our sense. But the package is a reassuring exception. It is physical and encourages contact. Because of its image, color and recognition value, it plays an essential role in all advertising media while being, in itself, the most immediate media. With the demise of mass magazines and the consequent decrease in print advertising there is now an even greater dependence than ever on the package to tell the product's story.10


Bidemi Beecroft is passionate about digital package printing technology. Through Technology Global Services Ltd where he is the Executive Director, Bidemi is leaving no stone unturned in making digital package printing reach every nook and cranny of Nigeria. This technology, which Technology Global Services is pioneering on the platform of Xeikon is a digital full color package printing with a wealth of significant benefits. Unlike before when package production was an expensive investment in terms of time and money, digital package printing offers economical production to meet the needs of shorter run lengths, customized production and just-in-time productions.


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Bidemi’s passion for digital packaging takes its root in his love for computers and information technology. A graduate of Computer Science from AbuBakar Tafawa Balewa University of Technology (ATBU) Bauchi, he holds the firm conviction that the packaging industry is filled with untapped opportunities. His words of counsel to would-be entrants into the industry; “You are not without options. With your energy and your youthfulness you can immediately set out to freelance as a print contractor. An example statistics is the fast food industry which generates more than N200 billion annually out of which N30 billion is spent on branding, e.g label, bags, souvenirs, etc . An opprotunity is therefore open to the smart ones amongts you. Frelance label printers are all year round money makers as they are not season hound like the rest of the Nigeria print industry that looks at the ember months” Bidemi urges the younger generation to be focused and determined. As he puts it; “Picture where you are going and stay there, for what you see is what you get”

Careers in Outdoor Advertising /Signage Industry Outdoor advertising has had a long history in the advertising landscape. It is regarded as a unique and specialized form of advertising which has vital role in the concept of integrated marketing communications currently holding sway in the contemporary marketing communications industry. According to a report on the growth of outdoor advertising in Nigeria, “its aggregate contribution to the marketing mix in ensuring brand visibility is immense. With its potentials for reaching a wide range of audience and the lasting impression it creates for the advertised goods and services, outdoor practice in Nigeria has come to stay”.11


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The signage industry on the other hand is also a visual communications field that holds a lot promises now and in the future. In a lot of ways, it is related to the print media industry (both belong to the visual communications family), yet it is also different in terms of its scope and opportunities. According to John Bosio, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Signage is more of a marketing tool than anything elseâ&#x20AC;?. He underscored the relevance of signage in the following words: When visitors can find their way easily, they're more likely to come back and tell other people about their experiences. Good 12 facility signage adds positive experiences for the visitor. Another pundit, Jeffrey Cook agrees with Bosio on the benefits of signage. He adds, Ideally, we try to express the organization's core values and brand through the signage system. It creates an environment that's more exciting, more pleasurable to work in and brings the company closer to together.13

PERSONALITY PROFILE AKIN IRE OLOPADE: THE GURU IN OUTDOOR ADVERTISING The history of outdoor advertising in Nigeria is incomplete without a mention of Afromedia Plc: the company has a record of firsts. It is on record that Afromedia Plc is the pioneer outdoor advertising company in Nigeria as well as the first to be listed on the floor of the Nigeria Stock Exchange.


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At the helms of affairs of this vibrant outfit is Akin Ire Olopade. From a near collapse status in 1999, Akin piloted the affairs of the company to the present enviable position. His accomplishments are quite understandable given his professional training and wealth of experience. He holds a Higher National Diploma in Accounting and another Higher National Diploma in Printing and Packaging Technology. He also holds a Diploma in Photolithography from the London College of Printing in addition to several other certifications at the London Business School, UK. Olopade worked briefly in the UK before joining Afromedia. He is a member of several professional associations including; the Institute of Directors, American Society of Plastic Engineers, Screen Printing and Graphic Imaging Association, and the Digital Printing and Imaging Association. Akinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s love and quest for an improved and enhanced out-of-home media practice in Nigeria is remarkable. His commitment to excellence is the driving force that has established him as a role model and an achiever. Source: An adaptation from Printers Digest, August, 2009, p. 19

Careers in Direct Marketing Variable Data Printing Direct marketing aims at creating a personal and intermediary-free dialogue with customers. This marketing communications tool is different from others (like advertising and public relations) in that it does not use mass media techniques (sending the same message to a large number of people). Rather, it talks personally to individual customer. In achieving this, high premium is placed on customized communications. In other words, messages sent to customers bear their personal information; the more the level of personalized information,

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the higher the possible impact of the communication piece. Amongst other tools of direct marketing, direct mails play a dominant feature. Printed direct mails are customized with clients' data and thus are not printed using the traditional printing process. The method used in the print production of such customized mails (like catalogues, brochures, newsletters etc) is variable data printing using digital printing presses. Unlike the conventional (traditional) offset printing process that makes use of a printing surface (the printing plate) with a static or permanent image, the digital printing process uses dynamic printing surfaces whereby the printer regenerates the image for every page to be printed. This way every page can be different thus giving rise to the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;variable data printingâ&#x20AC;?. Technically, variable data printing means that each printed piece can be different and that customized and personalized printing can be produced for target marketing purposes. Customized means that documents can be assembled particular to selected audiences.14 In essence, a thousand copies of a brochure with the same design and message but with different recipient data can be produced and sent out.

The greatest difference between digital printing and traditional methods such as lithography, flexography, gravure, or letterpress is that there is no need to replace printing plates in digital printing, whereas in analog printing the plates are repeatedly replaced. This results in quicker turnaround time and lower cost when using digital printing. The most popular methods include inkjet or laser printers that deposit pigment or toner onto a wide variety of substrates including paper, photo paper, canvas, glass, metal, marble, and other substances. Source:


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PERSONALITY PROFILE SEUN KUPOLUYI: PIONEERING DIGITAL PRINTING IN NIGERIA Seun Kupoluyi is one of the foremost pioneers of digital printing technology in Nigeria. As the Chief Executive Officer of Duduprintz Media Company, Seun sits atop a high-tech driven company that positions itself as a print and cross-media marketing solution provider. Duduprintz, Seun informed, has come into the market with a wealth of experience, with a commitment to revolutionalise the printing business by providing individuals and corporate organisations with tailor-made service that leaves them with a new experience in their printing portfolio. “By cross media marketing we mean the integration of online (internet service) and printing processes, that is, a synergy that allows for the use of online data servicing to facilitate printing process.” Seun said. Amongst other specialties, variable data printing is one of the core areas of Duduprintz. The media company meets the expectation of numerous clients through her array of state-of–the-art 7-colour HP Indigo press 5500 with an HP Smartstream Director and Photo Enhancement Server. Seun’s training and experiences plays a crucial role in making him the visionary entrepreneur that he is today. After bagging a degree in Actuarial Science from the University of Lagos, he also got a Masters' in business and management from the University of Strathclyde. He worked at various time as e-banking specialist, project supervisor, business development manager before toeing the path of entrepreneurship as chief executive officer at Duduprintz Media Company. Source:

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Notes 1. Webb Joe. W. (2008). Renewing the Printing Industry: Strategies and Action Items for Success (2ed). United States: Strategies for Management, Inc and WhatTheyThink. 2. Handerson, L. (2004). Hands-On Marketing for the Printer. New Jersey: National Association for Printing Leadership. 3. IBSA Environmental Scan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2010: Printing and Graphic Arts Industry 4. Chris Fill,(2009). Marketing Communication: Interactivity, Communities and Content. (5ed) Essex: Prentice Hall, p.4 5. Kotler P. and Amstrong G.(2010). Principles of Marketing (13th ed). New Jersey: Pearson. P.255. 6. Kotler P. and Keller, K. (2006). Marketing Management (12ed). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 7. Opportunities in the Promotional Product Industry, Logo Studio, p. 1 8. Logos Studio Whitepaper, p.1 9. Neubaucer, Robert (1973). Packaging: the Cotemporary media. New York; Van Nostrand Reinhold Company 10. Ibid, p. 17 11. Steady Growth of Outdoor advertising, Printers Digest, August, 2009, p.6 12. Signage Leads the Way, Printers Digest Magazine, April 2010, p.18 13. Ibid 14. National Association for Printing Leadership, Digital Printing, p. 17


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here is enormous information today, at our fingertips. Hence the body of human knowledge is growing every day; and the basis is reading and writing. This has brought great changes to our lives â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the social landscape has changed, scientific researches are advanced, technological innovations are made, food production is enhanced, outstanding medical feats are achieved and, interestingly, fortunes are made. This has been facilitated by publishing; for what do we read in order to improve or advance our knowledge if there are no published books or works? In simple words â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it is through publishing that real information and knowledge is spread from generation to generation. The world of publishing is a dynamic, exciting and interesting industry. In general terms, the industry comprises the book (and journals) on one hand; and the media on the other. The book now (with recent developments) includes published works in hard and soft copy formats. Thus, you have the e-book (electronic book) aside the normal (paper) book. The media include the newspaper (and news agency); magazine; and online or website publishing. Traditionally however, publishing is categorised into periodicals and non-periodicals. Periodicals are newspapers, magazines and journals.


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Basically, the book forms the non-periodical group â&#x20AC;&#x201C; there is the educational text, the scholarly book, the literary work, the trade book and the religious or general publication. Taking both categorisation into consideration, there is a wide range of jobs for the would-be 'publisher'. Publishing (itself) is going through a lot of change and development. The dynamic nature of modern man's life demands that content be published not just in paper text but in electronic, audio and video formats; for the fact that the internet and devices such as PDAs (portable digital assistants), smart phones and tablets are commonplace in stimulating new publishing products and services. It means that new roles are emerging all the time, in addition to the traditional ones. This invariably calls for more and more publishing career professionals. All that young and upwardly mobile men or ladies need do is to skilfully position themselves for these roles. Take for instance, the books Rich Dad, Poor Dad and Things fall Apart â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Robert Kiyosaki has become famous and has made quite a fortune from Rich Dad, Poor Dad; Chinua Achebe also became famous through Things fall Apart because the book sold several millions in copies (for it has been translated into over 50 languages, thereabouts). Can you think of the different professionals that would be involved in the preparation, publication and sale of these books? Simply put, many people make their livelihood, and some make good fortune, from publishing. Thus, there is an increasing need for skills in editorial and production; in online and digital content management; and in sales and marketing. The ability to multi-skill is essential for budding professionals who wish to make their mark in the Nigerian publishing environment. I have made this brief general description to give an insight into the various exciting areas of publishing one might want to take a look into

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for a career. The Book Publishing Industry Book publishers are usually categorised into: large publishing houses and small independent presses commonly referred to as indie publishers in the US. Aside the book categorisation earlier discussed, another classification puts book publishing into five segments: -

Fiction – Literature, Science Fiction, Romance, Crime, Mystery Non-Fiction – Biography, Self-Help, Cookbooks Educational – Textbooks (Pre-Primary, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) Professional and Scholarly – Scientific, Technical, Medical, Legal, Business Children's and Young Adult

Some publishers focus on one segment, while others have multiple divisions or imprints that specialise on certain areas. In smaller publishing outfits that can not boast of too many titles or backlist, several job descriptions may be rolled into one, since there are not many books to bring in the revenue (and business processes) that would necessarily demand or require a well-established structure. Hence, the various career paths may not be clearly drawn out in such cases. Nonetheless, firms like that may be a good starting point for a professional who wishes to have a rounded grasp of book publishing very early in his or her career, because such situations offer opportunity to multi-task along many career paths. Interestingly, some supposedly big Nigerian publishing companies offer such opportunity too, because they want to lower their overhead by employing fewer hands. The book publishing industry includes a diverse array of departments (and careers). Departments may be Editorial (and Contracts); Production and Design; Marketing and Sales; and Distribution – for


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stock control officers. Others include Research and Development; Information Technology Support; Finance and Accounts; Human Resources; and Rights and Legal departments. The Departments Editorial (and Contracts) – This department oversees commissioning (or soliciting) of work or buying of manuscripts. Roles in this department also include: organising writing workshops, editing (content and copy editing) and then working with authors, design and production to see the work through to publication; liaising with marketing department to promote titles (books); and negotiating and drawing up contracts. You hardly can find a Nigerian publishing firm that has a contracts unit (within this department) that is manned by a contracts officer as it should be, since it is believed that such a role can be handled conveniently by an editor. Production and Design – This department is responsible for planning the overall look and feel of a publication. It is involved in the management of the practical aspects of typesetting, illustrating, printing and binding. Marketing and Sales – Marketing and sales department is responsible for planning advertising campaigns, events and promotions. It is also involved in developing marketing and publicity materials; and then sales and accounts (i.e. customer) management. Distribution – This oversees warehousing, logistics and stock control management. Rights and Legal – Work here include: selling rights to publications to film or TV companies, or other publishers; and legal work including advising on intellectual property rights and dealing with disputes.

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The Careers The above gives an overview of the various areas of administration and operation in book publishing. It shows the diverse career paths. However, careers in book publishing in the real sense of the term, deals with professions or job descriptions that are somewhat peculiar to book publishing. Such careers are basically found in Editorial, Production, Publicity and Sales. The book industry internationally has career professionals such as book editors or simply editors, commissioning or acquisitions editors, copy editors, production editors and proofreaders. The roles of these mentioned professionals are played by a single editor in our part of the world. Other professionals include graphic designers, illustrators, typesetters, picture researchers, web content managers, translators, publicists, marketers and sales representatives. Another option offered in developed countries is employment at a literary agency. Literary agents connect talented writers with editors. They find promising authors, sell their books to book editors, ensuring that promising works do not get buried in a pile of unsolicited manuscripts. Agents also guide authors through the business side of publishing. A sense of what kind of books will sell, how to sell and package a writer is key in this area. Related to this is a literary scout who finds books for foreign publishers or film studios to be published abroad or to be adapted to the screen. Editor A book editor, or simply editor, edits a writer's work, helping to cast or mould it into the final product that the reader gets. In short, the editor is a midwife, who helps the delivery of the author's ideas in the form that is appreciated by the public.


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A book editor's main responsibility is for the style and content of the book. They have to ensure that a consistent look and feel to the pages is conveyed across the book. The editor's job requires a good command of the language of communication â&#x20AC;&#x201C; English in our case â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and an eye for detail. The ability to manage projects is essential too. Expert knowledge of a subject area is highly valued, especially for scientific and medical publishing, where complex terminology is used. Editors must be very versatile, especially here, in these parts, where they would have to combine the roles of the proofreader, commissioning, copy and production editors. Commissioning involves acquiring or soliciting works (manuscripts) for the company, while copy editing involves making sure that the text is readable, accurate and ready for publication. The production editor liaises with the graphic artists and the proofreader performs a 'quality check' on prepared publications, usually immediately before they are issued to go to press. Graphic Artist Graphic artists could work as designers or illustrators in the book publishing industry. Illustrators combine art, creative and imaginative skills to develop ideas and produce original visual images for a book. The visual images or illustrations are produced in line with the briefs (descriptions) provided by the author or editor. Graphic designers produce designs that get a book's messages across with high visual impact. This means that graphic artists help with the design and layout of a book in order to appeal to the public. This design must take into consideration the content and the target audience. In other words, the combination of the elements must not only appeal to

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the audience, but must match the spirit or essence of the publication. Production Officer The production officer oversees cost estimation. They must therefore have a good knowledge of processes such as typesetting, printing and binding. Typesetting may be done in-house by employed typesetters, but it is increasingly handled more outside the publishing firm and of course, printing is generally not part of the job of publishing companies. It is therefore important that the production officer possesses the skills to relate with typesetting and printing outfits so as to negotiate well and reduce the cost of production. It is also their duty to deal with paper merchants. They must monitor these customers and dealers to deliver on schedule. Sales Representatives Sales representatives sell books to customers or retailers. They also sell to the actual readers. This job is now very highly rated in publishing, for it is often opined that 'a good book is one that sells out fast', and the role of the salesman is important in achieving this. Sound negotiating skills and an outgoing personality will stand you out for this job. Also an unyielding passion for books (i.e. the love to read and read wide, especially those important books amongst your company's titles in relation to rival or competing titles) is a desirable quality or ability necessary for success as a book sales representative. This is because it is easier to convince customers when you are knowledgeable and passionate about your products. Web Content Officer This officer is responsible for the information that appears on a book publishing company's website. They work with colleagues to ensure the content is relevant to audience or customer needs.


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Publicists and Marketers Publicists get press attention for the book and the author. They plan promotion and marketing events or programmes, ensuring that they run as smoothly as possible. Marketing in book publishing includes direct marketing, research and brand management. The love for books is essential here too. Publishing: Fulfilling, Rewarding Book publishing is interesting, especially now that many publishing companies are expanding into online, electronic, audio and new media formats, thereby increasing oportunity for job seekers, especially the tech-savvy ones. Career Tips: Publishing Training Around the World Institution Name of Program Qualification Awarded Yaba College of Book Publishing Higher National Technology, Yaba, Diploma Lagos Publishing Studies Bachelors University of Science and Technology. Kumasi, Ghana Publishing and University of Masters Copyright Studies Ibadan Publishing and Moi University, Diploma, Masters, media studies Eldorat, Kenya MPhil New York University School of Continuing and Professional Studies The University of Sydney London College of Communication Southampton Solent University,


Publishing: Digital and Print Media

Masters of Science






BA (Hon)


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Name of Program

Qualification Awarded


University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Publishing Training Center,

Publishing Studies

BA Honours

On-line Professional training

Professional certification

On-line publishing training

Professional certification

Wandsworth London

Ryerson University, Canada

PERSONALTY PROFILE TONY AKINSOYINU: A VISIONARY MEDIA ENTREPRENEUR Tony is the publisher and editor-in-chief of Printing News, a trade magazine for the printing industry in Nigeria. Prior to attending Yaba College of Technology where he earned a Higher National Diploma (HND) in Book Publishing, Tony studied at the Times Journalism Institute and the Nigerian Institute of Journalism, Lagos. A trade magazine, Printing News debuted around 1994 and has contributed immensely to the development of the printing industry in Nigeria through its incisive, in-depth articles, informative news, inspiring interviews and value-adding reports about issues, trends and events in the printing, publishing and packaging industries in Nigeria and across the world. According to Oat Media Communications, the media company through which Akinsoyi publishes Printing News, the magazine strives â&#x20AC;&#x153;to bridge the yawning gap existing between printers


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and all facets of printing trade”. Akinsoyi enthuses that the idea behind Printing News took shape when he was a reporter with a national newspaper and he realized that the print media industry was under reported. So far, the journey, the media entrepreneur says, has been challenging but rewarding. At inception, gathering information about the Nigerian printing industry was no easy task. As Akinsoyi puts it, “there is no gaining the fact that information gathering or collection in Nigeria or Africa could be a Herculean task, it may be cumbersome or even frustrating in most cases.” Another challenge that confronted the publisher at the budding stage of his magazine is the difficulty of getting stakeholders to accept the magazine. However, consistence and persistence paved the way for its acceptability and today Printing News has become a force to reckon with in Nigeria's print media industry. The magazine’s acceptance is evident from the comments of readers and stakeholders in respect of the magazines editorial contents and packaging. Pascal Wetter, a marketing executive with Luscher CTP Technology, Switzerland, commented about the magazine, “It is a pride to the industry. The magazine meets international standards…” Another marketing executive, Raschel Wisby of Worldwide London, remarked thus, “This is a beautiful magazine in terms of articles, printing, page planning and graphics design. Printing News is a leading brand in the world of printing magazines.” Tony Bello, the marketing manager at Zemano press Limited, Lagos, scores Printing News high with these words: “I must say with emphasis here that I cherish your magazine because it is informative and educative.”



Publishing in a Transitory Media World


ublishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the activity of making information available to the general public, while transition can be explained as the process or a period of changing from one state or condition to another. Publishing started as a verbal means of transferring information from one generation to the other thus limiting the number of people that get the available information. But with time, this means of communication was improved upon by adopting engraving on the wall or rock for future reference and resulting in more people getting the information. This method was transcended when the Chinese nation discovered paper and ink for information to be well documented and stored for future purpose. This also got into few hands that were regarded as noble and royal, still limiting the number of the public that could have access to information. The rate of producing and disseminating information took a new dimension when Johannes Gutenberg discovered movable type characters. With this discovery more copies of information were reproduced and communicated to hundreds of the public. Although after the invention of movable types, innumerable pieces of


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information were printed for public consumption but the first published work was Johann Gutenberg's 42 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;page Bible on September 30, 1452, becoming the first book to be published in volume. Stages in the Publishing Process The published book involved three stages of work. These stages also underwent transitional period to make writing, compilation and production of published work easy and fast. 1. Creation: This include writing the words, drawing the illustrations, painting, etc. The stage of creation is regarded as the authorship, which is putting together all what an author knows about the information for publication. 2. Compilation: This involves taking the created material and arranging the material together as it will appear when published. This is carried out using a process called typesetting. Typesetting is the process of composing edited manuscript before it is processed into film and then into printing plate. This process was initially carried out using hand composition within the period of 15th to 18th century and by the mid of 18th century mechanical composition was developed as a response to the development of high speed printing machines. By the time the cold composition was invented the compilation of information wore a new look because the system or method does not require mechanical composition anymore, thus making the job less cumbersome and faster in nature. The transition from mechanical to cold composition gave birth to photocomposition which has undergone different generations before desktop publishing was introduced in the publishing profession in 1989. The discovery of desktop publishing in information compilation for publishing made the job much easier because both text and illustration could be done in one operation as against the old method of mechanical composition where the text was prepared differently from the illustration. The use of computer is now wide spread in information compilation for publishing which has made

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the former method obsolete and forgotten. The use of computer has also gone through stages of technological improvement giving the compositor or typesetter the opportunity to print out the compiled information through paper, film, plate or directly onto the press. The latest means of publishing information now is e-publishing that enables the publisher who has access to the internet to publish information straight onto the web. The process enables an update to be carried out at any time as against the print media which is permanent once printed on the substrate. 3. Reproduction: This involves taking the copy and putting it into a form that people can access. Traditionally, copy which had undergone layout on the computer and reproduced as camera ready work are used to create an image to print from. The methods of printing the created images started with the relief printing process called letterpress after which offset lithographic printing was developed, making printing of images easier and faster. It increased the copies produced from thousand to million. Another modern option to produce published work is to load them onto the internet. Transitions as Opportunities The transitions that have been discussed so far in the publishing profession have also given different opportunities for career growth in the profession. There are many ways to gain the necessary skills and experience to prepare you for the publishing profession. Professional development refers to skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career advancement. Professional development encompasses all types of facilitated learning opportunities, ranging from college degrees (which can be obtained at Yaba College of Technology and other training institutions) to conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. There are also Masters Degrees (University of Ibadan) and other vocational post-graduate courses (offered by professional bodies) specifically targeted for publishing in Nigeria. Yet, for those who, after completing a first


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degree do not want to embark on another graduate programme, an intensive course might be the answer from well-established publishing houses within and outside the country. These publishing houses enable you to gain hands-on experience in more than one area of the business. Publishing is a broad spectrum of different roles each of which demand different skills. These different roles are taken up by different professionals, which include; publisher, author, editor, illustrator, graphic designer, printer, salesman/marketer, etc, (a number of which has been explained in the previous chapter). However, transitory technologies have redefined some of these roles and, particularly, blazed a trail of new demands with regards to the skill sets working hands in the publishing industry must have. Presently, there is a convergence between traditional publishing and digital media. The rise of the kindle and other devices is a glowing testimony to this trend. As a recent report puts it, Forward-thinking publishers no longer simply equate content with books. They also need to consider how to market or deliver their product across a range of digital channels, including downloads, mobile web, blogs, apps and social networks. Often, this will require publishers to think differently not only about their potential market, but also about how their content may need to be adapted and optimised. For the publishing industry, this is a huge paradigm shift with which many continue to struggle. ( › Professional › Guardian Careers) The report affirmed that “rather than simply understand how to create or sell books to retailers, publishing personnel must be able to understand multiple routes to market, communicate with different groups of customers and ensure that their content works across a range of channels.” This paradigm shift has given publishing an entirely new face: beyond traditional publishing there now exists a massive infusion of digital technologies into the publishing process. Welcome to the world of digital publishing!

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Digital Publishing: Career Prospects in a Multi-media World Digital publishing is a creative industry that combines media, art and technology. It is an emerging publishing field that is increasingly becoming widespread. The products of the digital publishing industry include: e-books, on-line magazines and newspapers, blogs and other publishing tools. Digital publishing involves the distribution of written materials through the digital media. It has the following benefits; i.

Reduction in production cost; as the cost of paper and other production materials are eliminated. ii. Immediacy of distribution; at the press of the keyboard there is instantaneous distribution of electronic files to recipients iii. Opportunity for self-publication iv. Wide spread distribution and coverage (the Internet has a global reach) The “Print on Demand” Revolution Digital printing technology has made it possible for a complete book to be printed and bound in a matter of minutes. It is an easy and cost effective way of producing books in small, manageable quantities (as little as one or two copies at a time) instead of running larger print runs of several hundred or several thousand that would attract prohibitive production and storage costs. Copies are produced based on orders – hence the name “Print-on-Demand”. The print-on-demand scheme is multi-media based as demands are easily generated through maintaining an on-line presence as well as promotion through a wide range of media. The Prospects of Digital Publishing The future is bright for digital publishing. Not all might be quick to agree but it is definite that the future of print is electronic. Though print


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will not absolutely go into extinction, there is no gainsaying the fact that the digital revolution present immense opportunities for the future – and those who are quick in positioning themselves will reap bountifully. As an analyst puts it, “All the ingredients for a lively digital publishing 3 sector exist in Nigeria.”

Career Tips: Digital Publishing Training Around the World Institution

Qualification Contact Awarded New York Certificate in University School Digital Publishing of Continuing and Professional Studies London Masters in Digital Metropolitan Media urses/postgraduate University University College, MA/Diploma in London Electronic Communication and Publishing Simon Fraiser Print and Digital University, Canada Publishing Minor Program Annamalai Online degree in University, Digital Publishing Chennai, India Oxford Brookes MA, PGD in University, Digital publishing Adobe Systems Adobe Digital Incorporated Publishing Suite training courses Corel Corporation Corel Software product training


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PERSONALTY PROFILE BUSAYO KUPOLUYI: POWERING PUBLISHING THROUGH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DuduPrintz media Company is one outfit that is positioned to provide the rising need for printon-demand services, mass customization and self-publishing. Busayo Kupoluyi, as the Group Head, Operations and IT of this media company, drives the outfit's operations to add value to their clients. As Busayo puts it, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Our value offering to retail clients covers Print-OnDemand (POD), Print-What-You-Need (PWUN), which gives significant cost savings for the bargain shopper. And for our corporate clients, we also offer Print-On-Demand (POD), Print-What-You-Need (PWUN) that gives significant reduction in print storage, cost and lead time; and personalised campaigns, generating better client response through Variable Data Printing (VDP) and cross-media Marketing services. With this service, our clients cut through the clutter of print solutions; precise focus on the target audience; greater return on investments and better response rate (RR) measuring methods.â&#x20AC;? Versatile Busayo prior to holding this portfolio was a system integration and technology manager with Accenture. He has worked on various initiatives for companies, corporation and government entities with focus on infrastructure transformation, IT strategy development and project management. His competence covers large scale IT transformation, IT strategy formulation, IT infrastructure design and implantation, SAP technical architecture, design, etc. He is a graduate of computer engineering from Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Nigeria and a certified Prince2 practitioner.


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Notes 1. Http:// 2. 3. Robert Cornford,(2011) Digital Publishing in West Africa: What Works, What Doesn't, and Why. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from

A bright future in graphic communications  

A presentation of career options in the graphic communications industry in Nigeria