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RaptorsConservation ПЕРНАТЫЕХИЩНИКИИИХОХРАНА 2007№10

ISSN 1814–0076

Ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè The Newsletter of the raptors of the East Europe and North Asia Áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» ó÷ðåæä¸í ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê) è íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé» (Í.Íîâãîðîä).

The Raptors Conservation Newsletter was founded by the non-governmental organizations the Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk) and the Center for Field Studies (Nizhniy Novgorod).

Ðåäàêòîðû íîìåðà: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáýêîöåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê) è Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä).

Editors: Elvira Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia) and Igor Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia).

Ýòîò âûïóñê ãîòîâèëè: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî, Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí, Íèêîëàé è Åâãåíèé Ïîòàïîâû, Àííà Øåñòàêîâà.

This issue has been made by: Elvira Nikolenko, Igor Karyakin, Nikolay and Eugene Potapov, Anna Shestakova.

Ôîòîãðàôèÿ íà ëèöåâîé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè: ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) â ãíåçäîâîé íèøå, Òóâà, Ðîññèÿ, èþíü 2006 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà.

Photo on the front cover: Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) in the nesting niche, Tuva Republic, Russia, June 2006. Photo by I. Karyakin.

 èëëþñòðàöèè çàäíåé ñòîðîíû îáëîæêè èñïîëüçîâàíû ôîòîãðàôèè È. Êàðÿêèíà è Ý. Íèêîëåíêî.

Photos on the back cover by I. Karyakin and E. Nikolenko.

Äèçàéí: Ä. Ñåíîòðóñîâ, À. Êëåù¸â Âåðñòêà: À. Êëåù¸â Êîððåêòóðà: Å. Êëåù¸âà

Design by D. Senotrusov, A. Kleschev Page-proofs by A. Kleschev Proof-reader: E. Klescheva

Ðåäàêöèîííàÿ êîëëåãèÿ: Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, âíñ, ê.á.í., ÃÏÁÇ «Êåðæåíñêèé», Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; sopr@dront.ru Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí, ê.á.í., ÐÃÏÓ, Ðîñòîâ-íà-Äîíó, Ðîññèÿ; timbar@bk.ru Ñ.À. Áóêðååâ, ñíñ, ê.á.í., ÈÒèÝÁ ÐÀÍ, Ïóùèíî, Ðîññèÿ; sbukreev@rol.ru Í.Þ. Êèñåëåâà, ê.ïåä.í., ÑÎÏÐ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; sopr@dront.ru Ð.Ä. Ëàïøèí, äîö., ê.á.í., ÍÃÏÓ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; lapchine@mail.ru À.Ñ. Ëåâèí, äîö., ê.á.í., Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ÌÎèÍ, Àëìàòû, Êàçàõñòàí; levin_saker@nursat.kz Î.Â. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé, ïðîô., ä.á.í., Íàöèîíàëüíûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Òàøêåíò, Óçáåêèñòàí; olmit@list.ru À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ, ê.á.í., ÖÑÂÓÝÑ, Ñàìàðà, Ðîññèÿ; f_lynx@hotbox.ru Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ, ê.á.í., Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò», Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; vipera@dront.ru Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâ, Ph.D, Èññëåäîâàíèå Ïðèðîäû, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ; EugenePotapov@gmail.com Þ.Ñ. Ðàâêèí, ïðîô., ä.á.í., ÈÑèÝË ÑÎ ÐÀÍ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ; zm@eco.nsc.ru È.Ý. Ñìåëÿíñêèé, Ñèáýêîöåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ; ilya@ecoclub.nsu.ru À.À. Øåñòàêîâà, ê.á.í., ÍÍÃÓ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; f_s_c@mail.ru T. Katzner, Ph.D., Conservation and Field Research National Aviary, USA; todd.katzner@aviary.org M.J. McGrady, Ph.D., Natural Research, UK; MikeJMcGrady@aol.com

Àäðåñ ðåäàêöèè: 630090 Ðîññèÿ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547 Editorial adress: P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090 Tel./Fax: (383) 339 78 85 E-mail:

rc_news@mail.ru ikar_research@mail.ru nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru

http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors Ýëåêòðîííàÿ âåðñèÿ/RC online http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC Ïðàâèëà äëÿ àâòîðîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå: Guidelines for Contributors available on website: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC/guidelines/


Events

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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Events СОБЫТИЯ

Ìîëîäàÿ ñàìêà áàëîáàíà «Lili», ïîìå÷åííàÿ ñïóòíèêîâûì ïåðåäàò÷èêîì 75387 (Microwave) 9 èþëÿ 2007. Ôîòî ß. Áàãèóðà Young female of the Saker Falcon «Lili» marked by PTT 75387 (Microwave) 9 July 2007. Photo by J. Bagyura

(1) Contact: Matyas Prommer mprommer@yahoo.com

 èþëå 2007 ã. â ðàìêàõ Âåíãåðñêî-Ñëîâàöêîé ïðîãðàììû ïî îõðàíå áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) «Îõðàíà áàëîáàíà â Ïðèêàðïàòüå»1, ñòàðòîâàâøåé â îêòÿáðå 2006 ã., íà 10 ìîëîäûõ ñîêîëîâ áûëè íàäåòû ñïóòíèêîâûå ïåðåäàò÷èêè ôèðì NorthStar Science and Technology è Microwave Telemetry. Ñåé÷àñ ñòàáèëüíî óëàâëèâàþòñÿ ñèãíàëû 9-òè ïåðåäàò÷èêîâ, è îáðàáîòàííûå ðåçóëüòàòû òåëåìåòðèè âûñòàâëåíû íà ñàéòå ïðîåêòà2. Äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ ìèãðàöèè ïðèêàðïàòñêèõ áàëîáàíîâ äî 2009 ã. ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïîìåòèòü ñïóòíèêîâûìè ïåðåäàò÷èêàìè 46 ñîêîëîâ â Âåíãðèè è Ñëîâàêèè. Êîíòàêò (1).

Under the Hungarian-Slovak project «Conservation of Saker in the Carpathian Basin»1 that started in October 2006 10 young sakers (Falco cherrug) were equipped with satellite transmitters made by NorthStar Science and Technology and Microwave Telemetry companies in July 2007. Now 9 transmitters are functioning and the first results available in website of project2. Until 2009 will be satellite tag 46 Sakers in Hungary and Slovakia to follow their movements. Contact (1).

Ìå÷åíèå áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) ñïóòíèêîâûì ïåðåäàò÷èêîì. Ôîòî Ì. Ïðîììåð PTT marking of a Saker (Falco cherrug). Photo by M. Prommer

Ïðîåêò «Îõðàíà áàëîáàíà â Ïðèêàðïàòüå» (LIFE06 NAT/HU/000096) íàïðàâëåí íà óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà â Âåíãðèè è Ñëîâàêèè.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíîâ îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 450 ïàð, 40% êîòîðûõ íàñåëÿþò Âåíãðèþ è Ñëîâàêèþ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, îõðàíà áàëîáàíà â Ïðèêàðïàòüå ÷ðåçâû÷àéíî âàæíà äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ âñåé åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè âèäà. Õîòÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíà â ýòèõ ñòðàíàõ ñ 1990 ã. ïî 2000 ã. óâåëè÷èëàñü, â öåëîì åâðîïåéñêàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ ñîêðàòèëàñü íà 20%. Ïðè÷èíû ñòîëü ïðîòèâîðå÷èâîé äèíàìèêè ÷èñëåííîñòè åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà â ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ íåèçâåñòíû. Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, ìåðû ïî îõðàíå áàëîáàíà ìîãóò áûòü óñïåøíûìè, òîëüêî åñëè áóäóò îïðåäåëåíû íåãàòèâíûå ôàêòîðû, âëèÿþùèå íà ñîêîëîâ âî âðåìÿ ìèãðàöèè, è óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîêîëîâ â Ïðèêàðïàòüå áóäåò êîìïåíñèðîâàòü ïîòåðè åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè.

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The project «Conservation of Saker in the Carpathian Basin» (LIFE06 NAT/HU/000096) aims to strengthen the Hungarian-Slovak population of Saker Falcon. The estimated total European population of the species is 450 pairs. Hungary and Slovakia hold the 40% of the European population therefore conservation of the population in the Carpathian Basin is extremely important from the aspect of the European population’s future. Although the populations in those countries increased between 1990 and 2000, the overall population decreased by 20% in the last ten years. There is not any reliable information about the reasons of that apparently contradictory situation. Having regard the facts above, conservation measures can be successful only if on one hand the impacts on Sakers during migration and threatening factors can be identified, and on the other hand if losses can be compensated by strengthening the population in the Carpathian Basin.

http://kerlife.dyndns.org/en/content/news#kekvercse62 http://kerlife.dyndns.org/en/content/show?dattype=sat_birds


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Ïðè÷èíû ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ: - èñ÷åçíîâåíèå ìåñò, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ; - ñîêðàùåíèå è/èëè èñ÷åçíîâåíèå êîðìîâîãî ðåñóðñà è îõîòíè÷üèõ òåððèòîðèé; - óâåëè÷åíèå ñìåðòíîñòè çà ñ÷¸ò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì íà ËÝÏ è îòñòðåëà; - ñíèæåíèå óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ èç-çà ñòàðåíèÿ è ðàçðóøåíèÿ èñïîëüçóåìûõ ãí¸çä; - óâåëè÷åíèå ñìåðòíîñòè ïî âèíå ÷åëîâåêà íà ïðîë¸òå è çèìîâêå. Öåëè ïðîåêòà 1) Îöåíêà âëèÿíèÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ôàêòîðîâ íà áàëîáàíîâ â õîäå ìèãðàöèè. 2) Îöåíêà âëèÿíèÿ íåãàòèâíûõ ôàêòîðîâ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè. 3) Îñóùåñòâëåíèå ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî ñòàáèëèçàöèè ïîïóëÿöèè íà êîðîòêèé ïåðèîä âðåìåíè. 4) Îñóùåñòâëåíèå ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî óâåëè÷åíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà íà äëèòåëüíûé ïåðèîä. Ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ è ìåòîäû Ïðîãðàììà LIFE-Nature ïî îõðàíå áàëîáàíà ñîñòîèò èç íåñêîëüêèõ ýòàïîâ, êàæäûé èç êîòîðûõ èìååò áîëüøîå çíà÷åíèå â îõðàíå âèäà. 1) Ðàñøèðåíèå ãíåçäîâîãî ôîíäà – ïðîåêò íàïðàâëåí íà ñîõðàíåíèå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, ñîçäàíèå íîâûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ è óñòàíîâêó èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé íà ðåàëüíûõ è ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ñîêîëîâ. 2) Èçó÷åíèå ìåòîäîâ âåäåíèÿ ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà è èõ èçìåíåíèå â öåëÿõ îõðàíû áàëîáàíà – ðàçðàáîòêà ñèñòåìû ñóáâåíöèé, êîòîðûå ïîääåðæàò ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííóþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü, íàèáîëåå áëàãîïðèÿòíóþ äëÿ âèäà. 3) Ñîõðàíåíèå ñóñëèêîâ, êàê íàèáîëåå âàæíûõ îáúåêòîâ ïèòàíèÿ: ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, ðàçðàáîòêà ïðîãðàììû óïðàâëåíèÿ ñðåäîé îáèòàíèÿ ñóñëèêîâ â ìåñòàõ îáèòàíèÿ áàëîáàíà, ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, ðåîðãàíèçàöèÿ ñõåìû ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ çåìåëü íà áîëåå áëàãîïðèÿòíóþ äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ñóñëèêîâ. Ñóñëèêè, êàê íàèáîëåå âàæíûå îáúåêòû ïèòàíèÿ áàëîáàíîâ, áóäóò ðàññåëÿòüñÿ íà íåêîòîðûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ ñåòè ðåçåðâàòîâ Natura 2000, ÿâëÿþùèõñÿ ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíûìè äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ áàëîáàíà. 4) Ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ íà ËÝÏ – âåðîÿòíî, ýòî íàèáîëåå âàæíàÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòü, êîòîðàÿ ñóùåñòâåííî óìåíüøèò ñìåðòíîñòü ñîêîëîâ çà ñ÷¸ò óñòàíîâêè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùèõ ÷åðåç ãíåçäîâûå è îõîòíè÷üè ó÷àñòêè áàëîáàíîâ. 5) Îõðàíà ãí¸çä – ïðåäîòâðàùåíèå íåãàòèâíîãî âëèÿíèÿ ÷åëîâåêà, âêëþ÷àÿ îòñòðåë è ðàçîðåíèå ãí¸çä. 6) Èçó÷åíèå ôàêòîðîâ, âëèÿþùèõ íà áàëîáàíîâ â õîäå ìèãðàöèé – äëÿ óëó÷øåíèÿ ïîíèìàíèÿ ïðè÷èí

Ñîáûòèÿ

The recently assumed reasons of population decrease: - Disappearing natural nest sites; - Decreasing or/and disappearing food resources and feeding areas; - Increased mortality because of electrocution and shooting; - Decreasing breeding success because of old, used nests; - Increasing mortality and human disturbance on migration routes and wintering areas. Aims of the project 1) Exploring impacts on Sakers during migration. 2) Evaluating threatening factors on the population. 3) Facilitating stabilisation of the population on short term. 4) Facilitating increase of European Saker population on long term, as a result of project activities. Actions and methods The Saker conservation LIFE-Nature programme consists of several elements each having significant importance in species’ conservation. 1) Ensuring nest sites – The project strengthens the population by conserving nest sites, creating new nest sites and placing artificial nests for Sakers on potential or existing nesting areas. 2) Studying agricultural subvention schemes and effects of related habitat management – In order to propose a subvention system that supports agricultural activities most favourable for the species. 3) Conserving suslik as the most important prey – A proposal will be created during the project for suslik-friendly habitat management on SPAs. In addition, another proposal will be submitted to amend agrienvironmental schemes in favour of suslik conservation. Suslik as the most important prey of Saker will be re-introduced on certain Natura 2000 areas that are potential breeding sites of Saker. 4) Insulating pylons of electric power lines – Maybe the most important activity that will decrease mortality is insulation of dangerous pylons of power lines in the nesting and feeding sites. 5) Nest guarding – In order to prevent human disturbance including nest shooting guarding of endangered nests will take place. 6) Exploring impacts of migrating Sakers – In order to understand better the reasons of mortality during migration wintering sites and migration routes will be explored by using satellite tags on Sakers and setting up international mailing list. 7) Increasing environmental awareness – During the project various stakeholders (farmers, game managers, politicians on local and national levels) will be contacted and information posts will be erected to gain support for the conservation programme. 8) Monitoring – Uniform monitoring system will be established that will provide precise information about


Events

ñìåðòíîñòè âî âðåìÿ ìèãðàöèè è íà çèìîâêàõ áóäåò èçó÷åíî ïåðåìåùåíèå ñîêîëîâ ñ ïîìîùüþ ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè. Áóäåò ñîñòàâëåí ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ñïèñîê ðåñïîíäåíòîâ, êîòîðûå èìåþò âîçìîæíîñòü íàáëþäàòü áàëîáàíà íà çèìîâêàõ. 7) Ýêîïðîñâåùåíèå – â õîäå ïðîåêòà äëÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ãðóïï íàñåëåíèÿ (ôåðìåðû, îõîòîâåäû, ÷èíîâíèêè ðàçëè÷íûõ ðàíãîâ) áóäóò îðãàíèçîâàíû èíôîðìàöèîííûå öåíòðû äëÿ ïîääåðæêè ïðîãðàìì ïî îõðàíå ñîêîëîâ. 8) Ìîíèòîðèíã – áóäåò ïðîâåäåíî óíèôèöèðîâàíèå ñèñòåìû ìîíèòîðèíãà, ÷òî îáåñïå÷èò ïîñòóïëåíèå áîëåå òî÷íîé èíôîðìàöèè î äèíàìèêå ÷èñëåííîñòè íàñåëåíèÿ ñóñëèêîâ è áàëîáàíîâ. Áóäåò ñîáðàíà è îöåíåíà èíôîðìàöèÿ îá óñïåøíîñòè çèìîâêè ñóñëèêîâ, à îò èíîñòðàííûõ ðåñïîíäåíòîâ ïîëó÷åíà èíôîðìàöèÿ î çèìîâêàõ áàëîáàíà. Ýòè äàííûå íåîáõîäèìû äëÿ ïîñëåäóþùåãî ïðîãíîçà ñîñòîÿíèÿ ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíà è îöåíêè ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ìåð îõðàíû. 9) Ïðèâëå÷åíèå ÷åëîâå÷åñêîãî ðåñóðñà è òåõíè÷åñêèõ âîçìîæíîñòåé – ïðèâëå÷åíèå âîëîíò¸ðîâ äëÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, âîâëå÷åíèå â ïðîåêò ïîñëåäíèõ òåõíè÷åñêèõ äîñòèæåíèé. 10) Ìå÷åíèå – êîëüöåâàíèå, êàê òðàäèöèîííûé ýëåìåíò îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷àñòüþ ïðîåêòà. Ïòåíöû áàëîáàíà áóäóò îêîëüöîâàíû, à òàêæå ïîìå÷åíû ìèêðî÷èïàìè. Ïîñëåäíåå íåîáõîäèìî ýêñïåðòàì äëÿ èäåíòèôèêàöèè ïòèö áåç èõ îòëîâà ïóò¸ì óñòàíîâêè ñêàíåðà â ãíåçäå. Îæèäàåìûå ðåçóëüòàòû Êàê ðåçóëüòàò ïðîåêòà îæèäàåòñÿ, ÷òî óñëîâèÿ äëÿ ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà â Ïðèêàðïàòüå çíà÷èòåëüíî óëó÷øàòñÿ. ×èñëî ðàçìíîæàþùèõñÿ ïàð ê êîíöó äåéñòâèÿ ïðîåêòà â 2010 ã. óâåëè÷èòñÿ äî 180 ïàð â Âåíãðèè è 35 ïàð â Ñëîâàêèè.  äàëüíåéøåì äî 2020 ã. îæèäàåòñÿ óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð äî 210 è 40 ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.

Ê à ð òà ï å ð å ì å ù å í è ÿ áàëîáàíà «Lili» ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 3 îêòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. Track of Saker Falcon «Lili» till 3 October 2007

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

changes of both Saker and suslik populations. Using capture-recapture method wintering success of susliks will be evaluated and information will be collected from the wintering areas of Sakers by using international mailing list. Both are necessary to follow the changes and to evaluate the success of the conservation measures. 9) Developing human resources and technical possibilities – To implement conservation actions, development of both human resources and technical equipments are necessary and they are parts of the project. 10) Ringing – Ringing is also part of the project as a traditional element of population dynamics and migration studies. Saker chicks will be ringed with ornithological and so-called PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) rings. This latter enables experts to identify the bird without recapturing it simply by placing an antenna and a logger to the nest. Expected results As the result of the project, life conditions for Sakers will improve significantly in the Carpathian Basin. It is expected that the number of breeding pairs will reach 180 in Hungary and 35 in Slovakia by 2010 to the end of the project. Further increase is expected by 2020 with 210 and 40 breeding pairs respectively.

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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

(2) Contact: Juan Manuel Blanco Aquila Foundation tel.: +34 600 75 51 56 +34 925 86 71 98 uhofleh@wanadoo.es Frank Carlos Camacho Africam Safari tel.: +52 222 281 70 00 ext 239 fcamacho@ africamsafari.com.mx

(3) Contact: Janusz Sielicki j.peregrinus@gmail.com

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Ñîáûòèÿ

4–7 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. â Ñàôàðè «Africam», ã. Ïóýáëà (Ìåêñèêà) ïðîøëî «Âòîðîå åæåãîäíîå ñîáðàíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû îðëîâ». Îñíîâíàÿ öåëü: îáúåäèíèòü ëþäåé è îðãàíèçàöèè, èíòåðåñóþùèõñÿ îðëàìè, äëÿ îáñóæäåíèÿ ïðîáëåì âçàèìíîãî áåñïîêîéñòâà, âêëþ÷àÿ: – ïðîáëåìû ðàçìíîæåíèÿ è óïðàâëåíèÿ èñêóññòâåííûìè ïîïóëÿöèÿìè; – ðàçâèòèå è ïîääåðæêà èññëåäîâàíèé, íàïðàâëåííûõ íà ïîìîùü îðëàì êàê â íåâîëå, òàê è â åñòåñòâåííîé ñðåäå; – ðàçâèòèå îáùåñòâåííîãî îñîçíàíèÿ è óñòîé÷èâîãî ñîîáùåñòâà, îñíîâàííîãî íà ïðîãðàììàõ îõðàíû; – ðàçâèòèå àêòèâíîñòåé, êîòîðûå íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ñïîñîáñòâóþò îõðàíå îðëîâ ïî âñåìó ìèðó. Êîíòàêò (2).

Eagle Conservation Alliance (ECA) held the «Second Annual Meeting of the Eagle Conservation Alliance» on 4–7 of September 2007 at Africam Safari, Puebla, Mexico. The General Aim is to bring together individuals and institutions with remarkable interests in eagles to discuss issues of mutual concern, including: – the challenges of breeding and managing ex situ populations; – developing and supporting research that generates knowledge benefiting eagles ex situ and in situ; – increasing public awareness and sustainable community based conservation programs; – developing actions that directly assist in conserving and managing eagles worldwide. Contact (2).

19–20 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. â ã. Ïèîòðîâî (Ïîçíàíü) â Ïîëüøå ïðîøëà ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ ïî ñàïñàíó (Falco peregrinus), â êîòîðîé ïðèíÿëè ó÷àñòèå îêîëî 100 ñïåöèàëèñòîâ èç áîëåå ÷åì 20 ñòðàí ìèðà. Ðîññèþ íà êîíôåðåíöèè ïðåäñòàâëÿë ïðåäñåäàòåëü ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè – Âëàäèìèð Ìèõàéëîâè÷ Ãàëóøèí, ïîñòåðû ïðåäñòàâèëè Ìèõàèë Ãîëîâàòèí, Íàäåæäà Åãîðîâà, Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí, ßêîâ Êîêîðåâ, Ñâåòëàíà Êîðêèíà, Îëüãà Íàòàëüñêàÿ, Äàíèèë Îñèïîâ, Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ, Ñåðãåé Ïàñõàëüíûé, Ñåðãåé Õàðèòîíîâ. Âûäåðæêè èç ðåçîëþöèè êîíôåðåíöèè îïóáëèêîâàíû íà ñòð. 10. Êîíòàêò (3).

The 2nd International Peregrine Conference held at Piotrovo (Poznan) in Poland on 19–20 September where about 100 scientists from more than 20 states participated. Russia was represented at the conference by chairman of RGSS Vladimir Galushin. Posters were presented by Michail Golovatin, Nadezhda Egorova, Igor Karyakin, Yakov Kokorev, Svetlana Korkina, Olga Natalskaya, Daniel Osipov, Alexey Pazhenkov, Segey Paschalny, Sergey Haritonov. Some aspects of the conference resolution are published on p. 10. Contact (3).

Ãîñóäàðñòâåííàÿ îáñåðâàòîðèÿ îõðàíû ïòèö Íèæíåé Ñàêñîíèè (NLWKN) ïðîâåëà â ã. Øíåôåðäèíãåíå (Ãåðìàíèÿ) 10– 11 îêòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. Ñèìïîçèóì ïî îõðàíå êðàñíîãî êîðøóíà (Milvus milvus) 3. Öåëüþ ñèìïîçèóìà ÿâèëîñü ñîçäàíèå íîâîãî èìïóëüñà â äåëå îõðàíû êðàñíîãî êîðøóíà. Ïðèìåðíî 60% ìèðîâîé ïîïóëÿöèè êðàñíîãî êîðøóíà ãíåçäèòñÿ â Ãåðìàíèè: â ïðîâèíöèÿõ Ñàêñîíèÿ-Àíãàëüò, Òþðèíãèÿ, à òàêæå â âîñòî÷íîé è þæíîé Íèæíåé Ñàêñîíèè. Þãî-çàïàäíûé Ãàðöôîðëàíä îòíîñèòñÿ ê ìèðîâîìó öåíòðó ïëîòíîñòè âèäà. Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, Ãåðìàíèÿ â ìåæäóíàðîäíîì êîíòåêñòå íåñ¸ò ìàêñèìàëüíóþ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü â äåëå îõðàíû è ðàçâèòèÿ ïîïóëÿöèè êðàñíîãî êîðøóíà.  2006 ã. â Íèæíåé Ñàêñîíèè, êàê è ïî âñåé Ãåðìàíèè, áûëè ïðîâåäåíû ðàáîòû ïî

The State observatory of bird protection of Low Saxony (NLWKN) held the Symposium on the Red Kite (Milvus milvus) conservation at Schneferdingen (Germany) on 10–11 October 20073. The main aim of the symposium was creating the new impulse to protect the Red Kite. Near 60% of the Red Kite population in the world breed in Germany: in provinces Saxony-Angalt, Thuringia and eastern and southern Low Saxony. Southwestern Hartsflorand is the part of the global center of the species density. Thus Germany bears the main international responsibility on protecting and developing the Red Kite population. The research on breeding success of the Red Kite was carried out in Low Saxony as well as in the all territory of Germany in

http://www.nna.niedersachsen.de/master/C39903747_N5917408_L20_D0_I5661


Events

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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(4) Contact: Barbara Schultz Alfred Toepfer Akademie fur Naturschutz Veranstaltungsorganisation Camp Reinsehlen 29640 Schneverdingen Deutschland tel.: (05198) 98 90 76 fax: (05198) 98 90 95

èçó÷åíèþ óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ êðàñíîãî êîðøóíà. Ñîáðàíû ñîâðåìåííûå íàó÷íûå äàííûå î áèîëîãèè âèäà è ñóùåñòâóþùèõ èñòî÷íèêàõ îïàñíîñòè, êîòîðûå ìîãóò ïîìî÷ü â ïëàíèðîâàíèè ïðîôèëàêòè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî óëó÷øåíèþ ñîñòîÿíèÿ âèäà â öåëîì. Íà ñèìïîçèóìå áûëè ïðåäñòàâëåíû äîêëàäû î ñîñòîÿíèè âèäà â Ãåðìàíèè, Ôðàíöèè, Èñïàíèè, Áåëüãèè è Øâåéöàðèè; îá îïûòå èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ìåòîäà ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè â èçó÷åíèè ìèãðàöèé è çèìîâîê êðàñíîãî êîðøóíà, à òàêæå îá îñíîâíûõ óãðîçàõ, âåäóùèõ ê ñîêðàùåíèþ âèäà – åâðîïåéñêîé ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííîé ïîëèòèêè, âåòðÿíûõ ýëåêòðîñòàíöèÿõ è íåëåãàëüíîì îòëîâå. Êîíòàêò (4).

2006. The modern data about biology of the species and existing endangering factors have been collected to help with planning preventive activity on improving conditions for the species existing. Reports about the species existing in Germany, France, Spain, Belgium and Switzerland, experience of satellite telemetry using for studying the Red Kite migrations and wintering and also main treats for the species habitats – European agricultural policy, wind power stations and illegal catching were represented at the symposium. Contact (4).

(5) Êîíòàêò: Âëàäèìèð Ìåëüíèêîâ Êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè ÈâÃÓ Ðîññèÿ 153002 Èâàíîâî ïð-ò Ëåíèíà, 136 ivanovobirds@mail.ru

V Ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè, ïðîâåäåíèå êîòîðîé ðàíåå ïëàíèðîâàëîñü â ã. Âèòåáñê (Áåëîðóññèÿ), áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü â ã. Èâàíîâî (Ðîññèÿ) 4–7 ôåâðàëÿ 2008 ã.  ïðîãðàììå Êîíôåðåíöèè ïðåäóñìîòðåíû ïëåíàðíûå è ñåêöèîííûå äîêëàäû, ñèìïîçèóìû, êðóãëûå ñòîëû è ñòåíäîâûå äîêëàäû. Ïëàíèðóåòñÿ èçäàíèå òåçèñîâ ñîîáùåíèé è ñáîðíèêà «Èçó÷åíèå è îõðàíà áîëüøîãî è ìàëîãî ïîäîðëèêîâ â Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè». Ðàáî÷èé ÿçûê êîíôåðåíöèè – ðóññêèé. Òåçèñû îáú¸ìîì äî 400 ñëîâ ïðèíèìàþòñÿ äî 15 íîÿáðÿ 2007 ã. Êîíòàêò (5).

5th North Eurasian Conference about raptors planned earlier in Vitebsk (Republic of Byelorussia) will be hold in Ivanovo (Russia) on 4–7 February 2008. There will be different forms of presentations on the Conference: oral contributions during the main conference and sectional programs, posters, also workshops and symposiums are planned to function. The Conference proceedings and “Research and Conservation of Spotted Eagles in the Northern Eurasia” are planned to publish. The conference will be conducted in Russian. The size of Abstracts should be not more than 400 words. The deadline for submission of Abstracts is 15 November 2007. Contact (5).

(5) Contact: Vladimir Melnikov Department of Zoology Ivanovo State Univercity Lenina str., 136 153002 Ivanovo Russia ivanovobirds@mail.ru

ContrabandofFalcons КОНТРАБАНДА СОКОЛОВ (6) Êîíòàêò: Åêàòåðèíà Ëóêîíèíà Ïðåññ ñåêðåòàðü Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî îòäåëåíèÿ WWF òåë.: +7 (3912) 27 81 99 ôàêñ:+7(3912) 27 81 94 Ekaterina Lukonina Press-attache WWF Altai-Sayan branch tel.: +7 (3912) 27 81 99 fax: +7 (3912) 27 81 94

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Âå÷åðîì 8 àâãóñòà â ñåìè êèëîìåòðàõ îò îçåðà Òîðå-Õîëü (Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà) äèðåêòîð Öåíòðà ñïàñåíèÿ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ (Ìîñêâà, Ðîññèÿ) Ñåðãåé Ãàíóñåâè÷ ïðè ïîääåðæêå WWF âûïóñòèë â äèêóþ ïðèðîäó ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug), çàäåðæàííîãî ñàìàðñêîé òàìîæíåé4. Ãîäîâàëàÿ ñàìêà ñîêîëà áûëà èçúÿòà ñîòðóäíèêàìè Ñàìàðñêîé òàìîæíè ó èíîñòðàííîãî ãðàæäàíèíà, êîòîðûé ïûòàëñÿ âûâåçòè ïàðòèþ ïòèö â îäíó èç ñðåäíåàçèàòñêèõ ñòðàí. Ñîêîëà äîñòàâèëè â Öåíòð ñïàñåíèÿ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ (Ìîñêâà) äëÿ ðåàáèëèòàöèè.  õîäå ñëåäñòâèÿ óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî ïòèöà áûëà ïîéìàíà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå, â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì áûëî ïðèíÿòî ðåøåíèå îòïóñòèòü ñîêîëà â Òóâå.

http://www.wwf.ru/news/article/3187

Director of the Wild Life Rescue Center Sergey Ganusevich (Moscow, Russia) with WWF support released the Saker (Falco cherrug), confiscated by Samara customs into the wild in 7 km from the Tore-Hol Lake (Tuva Republic, Russia) in evening on 8th August4. One-year old female of the Saker was confiscated by officers of the Samara customs from foreign person who tried a party of birds to bring out to a country of Central Asia. Falcons were transported to the Wild Life Rescue Center (Moscow) for rehabilitation. During investigation it was established that the bird has been caught in the AltaiSayan Region, therefore the falcon was decided to release in Tuva. The bird was freed near the Tore-Hol Lake, where international seminal on transboundary Protected Areas was held. Contact (6).


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10 Ïòèöà áûëà âûïóùåíà íà îç. Òîðå-Õîëü, ãäå ïðîõîäèë ìåæäóíàðîäíûé íàó÷íîïðàêòè÷åñêèé ñåìèíàð ïî òðàíñãðàíè÷íûì îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûì ïðèðîäíûì òåððèòîðèÿì (ÎÎÏÒ). Êîíòàêò (6).

Áåëûé êðå÷åò (Falco rusticolus), çàäåðæàííûé â ã. Ïåâåê (×óêîòêà, Ðîññèÿ). Ôîòî Ë. Áîâå White Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) confiscated in Pevek (Chukotka, Russia). Photo by L. Bove

(7) Êîíòàêò: Êàìèëëà Îìàðîâà Êàçàõñêîå èíôîðìàöèîííîå àãåíòñòâî (Êàçèíôîðì) Kamilla Omarova Kazakh Information Agency (Kazinform)

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8 ñåíòÿáðÿ â ã. Ïåâåêå (×óêîòêà, Ðîññèÿ) áûë çàäåðæàí ãðàæäàíèí Ðîññèè (æèòåëü ã. Áàðíàóë) ñèðèéñêîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ, ïûòàâøèéñÿ âûâåçòè 11 ìîëîäûõ êðå÷åòîâ (Falco rusticolus). Áîëüøèíñòâî ïòèö áûëè áåëûìè êðå÷åòàìè. Âñå ñîêîëà áûëè âûïóùåíû â ïðèðîäó ìèëèöèåé â ïðèñóòñòâèè ñïåöèàëèñòîâ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Ïåâåêà. 28 ñåíòÿáðÿ â Àëàêîëüñêîì ðàéîíå Àëìàòèíñêîé îáëàñòè (Êàçàõñòàí) æèòåëü ã. Ñåìåé (Ñåìèïàëàòèíñê) ïûòàëñÿ ïðîâåçòè â ñâîåé àâòîìàøèíå ÷åðåç ïîëèöåéñêèé êîðäîí áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug) 5. Ñëåäóÿ â þæíîì íàïðàâëåíèè, âîäèòåëü àâòîìàøèíû «Íèâà» ïðîèãíîðèðîâàë òðåáîâàíèå èíñïåêòîðîâ äîðîæíîé ïîëèöèè ñòàöèîíàðíîãî ïîñòà «Ðóáåæ-Óøàðàë» îñòàíîâèòüñÿ. Ïîñòóïîê âîäèòåëÿ çàñòàâèë ïîëèöåéñêèõ ïðåñëåäîâàòü åãî ïî àâòîìàãèñòðàëè, à ïîòîì è ïî áåçäîðîæüþ. Âûçâàííàÿ îïåðàòèâíî-ñëåäñòâåííàÿ ãðóïïà ïðè îñìîòðå ïóòè ñëåäîâàíèÿ îáíàðóæèëà ñâ¸ðòêè, â êîòîðûõ íàõîäèëèñü òóãî ñâÿçàííûå ïòèöû. Çàäåðæàííûé îò íèõ îòêàçàëñÿ.  ÷èñëå äîêóìåíòîâ, ïðåäñòàâëåííûõ çàäåðæàííûì âîäèòåëåì, îêàçàëîñü óäîñòîâåðåíèå ñîòðóäíèêà ïðàâîîõðàíèòåëüíûõ îðãàíîâ â ðàíãå ïîäïîëêîâíèêà, à òàêæå ïîëèöåéñêèé æåçë è ìàÿêè. Áàëîáàíû, êàê âåùåñòâåííûå äîêàçàòåëüñòâà, áûëè ïîìåùåíû â êàìåðó ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîãî çàêëþ÷åíèÿ Àëàêîëüñêîãî ÐÎÂÄ. Ïî ôàêòó êîíòðàáàíäû âîçáóæäåíî óãîëîâíîå äåëî. Êîíòàêò (7).

http://inform.kz/showarticle.php?lang=rus&id=188137

Ñîáûòèÿ The person of Russia (living in Barnaul) with Syrian origin trying to bring out 11 young gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) was arrested in Pevek (Chukotka, Russia) on 8 September. The main part of birds had white plumage. The all of falcons were released into the wild by officers of militia at presence of scientific experts at vicinities of Pevek. A citizen of Semey (Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan) tried to transport sakers (Falco cherrug) in his vehicle through a policy post in Alacol region of the Almaty district (Kazakhstan) on 28 September5. Following in a southern direction the driver of a «Niva» vehicle ignored the requirement of inspectors of the traffic police of stationary post «Rubezh-Usharal» to stop. The action of the driver was induced policemen to pursue him on a highway and then on the territory with absence of roads. Sended operative-investigatory group found packages with hard bound birds at survey the vehicle route. The arrested driver refused them. A certificate of a police officer in a rank of the colonel and police equipment were found among documents presented by the detained driver. Sakers as material evidences were imprisoned in the Alakol regional department of police. The criminal action was brought on the fact of smuggling. Contact (7).

Ïàðòèÿ áåëûõ êðå÷åòîâ, çàäåðæàííûõ â ã. Ïåâåê (×óêîòêà, Ðîññèÿ). Ôîòî Ë. Áîâå Party of white Gyrfalcons confiscated in Pevek (Chukotka, Russia). Photo by L. Bove

Two attempts of illegal export of falcons included in the Red Data Book and Appendices of CITES through customs of Russia were registered6. The officers of Federal Customs Service, Federal Service of Supervision in Nature Management and Ministry of Inners of Russia during checking actions were arrested a


Events (8) Êîíòàêò: Ïðåññ-ñëóæáà ÔÒÑ ÐÔ òåë.: +7 (495) 449 72 52 ôàêñ: +7 (495) 4497319 Ïðåññ-ñëóæáà ÌÏÐ ÐÔ òåë.: +7 (495) 254 16 00

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10  ñåíòÿáðå-îêòÿáðå áûëè çàôèêñèðîâàíû äâå ïîïûòêè íåçàêîííîãî âûâîçà ÷åðåç òàìîæåííóþ ãðàíèöó Ðîññèè ñîêîëîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ Êíèãó ÐÔ è ÿâëÿþùèõñÿ îáúåêòàìè ÑÈÒÅÑ6. 25 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. â Ìîñêîâñêîé îáëàñòè â õîäå ïðîâåðî÷íûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ñîòðóäíèêàìè Ôåäåðàëüíîé òàìîæåííîé ñëóæáû, Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà è ÌÂÄ Ðîññèè áûë çàäåðæàí ãðàæäàíèí, êîòîðûé ïûòàëñÿ ïðîâåñòè íà àâòîìîáèëå 14 áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug). Ïòèöû áûëè èñòîùåíû, îäíà èç íèõ ïîãèáëà. Êðîìå òîãî, ó çàäåðæàííîãî áûëè îáíàðóæåíû êîëüöà â êîëè÷åñòâå 16 øòóê, ïðèìåíÿåìûå äëÿ êîëüöåâàíèÿ ïîéìàííûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ñ ìàðêèðîâêîé îäíîãî èç ïèòîìíèêîâ. Ïî çàêëþ÷åíèþ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, ñîêîëû áûëè îòëîâëåíû íà òåððèòîðèè Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ïî äàííîìó ôàêòó èíñïåêòîðàìè Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà áûë ñîñòàâëåí ïðîòîêîë îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîì ïðàâîíàðóøåíèè ïî ñò.8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ «Óíè÷òîæåíèå ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé», à 16 îêòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. Ôåäåðàëüíîå óïðàâëåíèå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà íàïðàâèëî â ÃÓÂÄ Ìîñêîâñêîé îáëàñòè õîäàòàéñòâî î âîçáóæäåíèè óãîëîâíîãî äåëà. Âòîðàÿ ïàðòèÿ ñîêîëîâ (5 áàëîáàíîâ è 1 ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus)) áûëà èçúÿòà Áðÿíñêîé òàìîæíåé 9 îêòÿáðÿ ó òîãî æå ãðàæäàíèíà, ñëåäîâàâøåãî íà ïîåçäå èç Ìîñêâû â Êèåâ. Äâå ñóìêè ñ ïòèöàìè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû â êóïå îòäûõà ïðîâîäíèêîâ â òåõíè÷åñêèõ ïîëîñòÿõ. Ïî äàííîìó ôàêòó âîçáóæäåíî óãîëîâíîå äåëî ïî ÷.1 ñò.188 ÓÊ ÐÔ («Êîíòðàáàíäà»).  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ âñå êîíôèñêîâàííûå ïòèöû íàïðàâëåíû íà îòâåòñòâåííîå õðàíåíèå â «Öåíòð ñïàñåíèÿ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ». Ïîñëå ïðîõîæäåíèÿ ðåàáèëèòàöèè îíè áóäóò âûïóùåíû íà ñâîáîäó. Êîíòàêò (8).  îêòÿáðå 2007 ã. â äâóõ çàêàçíèêàõ íà òåððèòîðèè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ (Ðîññèÿ) áûëè âûïóùåíû íà âîëþ áàëîáàíû (Falco cherrug)7. 38 ñîêîëîâ áàëîáàíîâ, âûðàùåííûõ â ïèòîìíèêå «Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí» â 2006 è â 2007 ãã., âûïóùåíû íà òåððèòîðèè Êèñëóõèíñêîãî è ×èíåòèíñêîãî çàêàçíèêîâ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. Ýòî íå ïåðâûé âûïóñê ñîêîëîâ íà òåððèòîðèè çàêàçíèêîâ. Òàê, â 2006 ã. 20 ñîêîëîâ áàëîáàíîâ áûëè âûïó-

6 6 7

http://www.mnr.gov.ru/part/?act=more&id=4251&pid=11 http://www.customs.ru/ru/press/of_news/index.php?id286=16260 http://www.altaiinter.info/news/?id=17666

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Çàäåðæàííûå ñîêîëà. Ôîòî Ïðåññ-ñëóæáû ÔÒÑ ÐÔ Confiscated falcons. Photo by Press-service of Russian Federal Custom

person tried to transport 14 sakers (Falco cherrug) by car in the Moscow district on 25 September 2007. Birds were week and one of them was died. Also the detained person had 16 ring used for caught raptors with marks of RUAF. Following the conclusion of experts falcons were poached in the territory of the Altai-Sayan region. Inspectors of Federal Service of Supervision in Nature Management drawn up a report about administrative offence and Federal Direction of Federal Service of Supervision in Nature Management applied for bringing the criminal action. The second party of falcons (5 sakers and 1 peregrine (Falco peregrinus) was confiscated by Bryansk customs on 9 October from the same person going by train from Moscow to Kiev. Two bags with birds were found in a compartment of rest of conductors in technical cavities. The criminal action was brought on the fact of smuggling. Now the confiscated birds were bring in the Wild Life Rescue Center. After rehabilitation they would be freed. Contact (8). Sakers (Falco cherrug) were released into the wild on the territory of two Nature Protected Areas (zakaznik), Altai Kray (Russia) on October 20077. 38 Sakers bred in captivity in the «Altai-Falcon» Center in 2006–2007 were released on the territories of Kisluhinskiy and Chinetinskiy Nature Protected Areas in the Altai Kray. It was not the first event of releasing of sakers on the territories of protected areas. 20 sakers were freed on the territories of Mamontovskiy, Kisluhinskiy, Charyshskiy and Chinetinskiy protected areas in 2006. Every year the center releases captive bred falcons into the wild, now more than 200 falcons were freed.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

(9) Êîíòàêò: Âèêòîð Ïëîòíèêîâ Ïèòîìíèê ðåäêèõ ïòèö «Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí» Çàì. äèðåêòîðà falcon_pvn@rambler.ru Victor Plotnikov The Center of the Rare «Altai-Falcon» Deputy Director falcon_pvn@rambler.ru

Ñîáûòèÿ

ùåíû íà òåððèòîðèè Ìàìîíòîâñêîãî, Êèñëóõèíñêîãî, ×àðûøñêîãî è ×èíåòèíñêîãî çàêàçíèêîâ. Âûïóñê ñîêîëîâ, âûðàùåííûõ â ïèòîìíèêå, ïðîèñõîäèò åæåãîäíî, è îáùåå ÷èñëî âûïóùåííûõ ïòèö äàâíî ïåðåâàëèëî çà äâå ñîòíè. Ñîòðóäíèêè ïèòîìíèêà ðåãóëÿðíî âñòðå÷àþò âûïóùåííûõ ðàíåå ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè êðàÿ. Òàê, èç 15 áàëîáàíîâ, âûïóùåííûõ â 2005 ã., ïðèìåðíî ïîëîâèíó âñòðå÷àëè íà òåððèòîðèè 200-êèëîìåòðîâîé çîíû âîêðóã Áàðíàóëà. Âèäèìî, òî, ÷òî ïòèöû íå îòêî÷åâàëè íà þã, ñâÿçàíî ñ äîñòàòî÷íî ïîçäíèì ñðîêîì èõ âûïóñêà. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ïòèöû ÷óâñòâîâàëè ñåáÿ ïðåêðàñíî. Êîíòàêò (9).

Employees of the center regularly note birds freed on the territory of the Kray earlier. So, about a half of 15 sakers that released in 2005 were registered in the territory of 200-km zone around of Barnaul. Probably birds did not migrate to the south that would be connected with late time of their release. Nevertheless health of birds were perfect. Contact (9).

2ndINTERNATIONALPEREGRINEFALCONCONFERENCEHeld atPiotrowo/PoznaninPoland19–22ndSeptember2007 RESOLUTIONS РЕЗОЛЮЦИЯ 2-Й МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ ПО СОКОЛУ-САПСАНУ, ПРОХОДИВШЕЙ В ПИОТРОВО (ПОЗНАНЬ) В ПОЛЬШЕ 19–22-ОГО СЕНТЯБРЯ 2007 Г. ÐÅØÅÍÈÅ 2: ÑÎÕÐÀÍÅÍÈÅ ÌÈÃÐÈÐÓÞÙÈÕ ÑÎÊÎËÎÂ-ÑÀÏÑÀÍÎÂ È ÄÐÓÃÈÕ ÕÈÙÍÛÕ ÏÒÈÖ

RESOLUTION 2: CONSERVATION OF MIGRATORY PEREGRINE FALCONS AND OTHER BIRDS OF PREY

ÏÐÈÇÍÀÂÀß, ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus) äåéñòâèòåëüíî ÿâëÿåòñÿ õèùíîé ïòèöåé – êîñìîïîëèòîì, êîòîðàÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôëàãîâûì âèäîì äèêîé ïðèðîäû è îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû â ìèðå; ÎÒÌÅ×Àß, ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí ìèãðèðóåò ïî âñåìó îáøèðíîìó àðåàëó ñâîåãî îáèòàíèÿ, è ÷òî âèä íàõîäèòñÿ íà âåðøèíå ïèùåâîé ïèðàìèäû, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò èñïîëüçîâàòü åãî êàê âèä-ìàðêåð äëÿ îïðåäåë¸ííûõ òîêñè÷íûõ çàãðÿçíèòåëåé â îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäå; ÍÀÏÎÌÈÍÀß, ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí ïåðåæèë ñèëüíîå ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè (íî, ê ñ÷àñòüþ, îáðàòèìîå) â 1950-õ – 1970-õ ãã. â áîëüøåé ÷àñòè ñâîåãî àðåàëà â Åâðîïå è Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêå, âûçâàííîå çàãðÿçíåíèåì îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû; ÍÀÏÎÌÈÍÀß, ÷òî Ñîãëàøåíèå ïî îõðàíå ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäîâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ 1979 ã. (CMS) ïîîùðÿåò ìåæäóíàðîäíîå ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâî ïî îõðàíå ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäîâ; ÏÐÈÍÈÌÀß âî âíèìàíèå, ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí, òàêæå êàê äðóãèå ìèãðèðóþùèå õèùíèêè, ÿâëÿåòñÿ âàæíîé ÷àñòüþ ãëîáàëüíîãî áèîëîãè÷åñêîãî ðàçíîîáðàçèÿ, êîòîðîå, â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ äóõîì Ñîãëàøåíèÿ ïî áèîëîãè÷åñêîìó ðàçíîîáðàçèþ 1992 ã. è Ïîâåñòêè äíÿ XXI, äîëæíî áûòü ñîõðàíåíî â ïîëüçó íàñòîÿùèõ è áóäóùèõ ïîêîëåíèé; ÏÐÈÇÍÀÂÀß ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå, ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå, ãåíåòè÷åñêèå, íàó÷íûå, ýñòåòè÷åñêèå, ðåãèîíàëüíûå,

RECOGNISING that the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is a truly cosmopolitan bird of prey, which acts as a flagship species for wildlife and environmental conservation globally; NOTING that the Peregrine Falcon is migratory throughout most of its range and that the species’ critical position near the top of its food chain enables it to be used as a sentinel for certain toxic contaminants within the environment; REMEMBERING that the Peregrine Falcon suffered dramatic (but fortunately reversible) declines during the 1950s – 1970s across much of its range in Europe and North America caused by environmental pollutants; RECALLING that the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals 1979 (CMS) encourages international cooperative action to conserve migratory species; CONSIDERING that Peregrine Falcons, like other migratory raptors, constitute an important part of the global biological diversity which, in keeping with the spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 and Agenda 21, should be conserved for the benefit of present and future generations; AWARE of the environmental, ecological, genetic, scientific, aesthetic, recreational, cultural, educational, social and economic values of Peregrine Falcons and other raptors;


Events

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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êóëüòóðíûå, îáðàçîâàòåëüíûå, ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå öåííîñòè ñîêîëà-ñàïñàíà è äðóãèõ õèùíèêîâ; ÎÑÎÇÍÀÂÀß, ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí, êàê ìíîãèå äðóãèå ìèãðèðóþùèå õèùíèêè, îñîáåííî óÿçâèì íà ïóòÿõ ïåðåë¸òà íà î÷åíü äëèííûå ðàññòîÿíèÿ è çàâèñèò îò ñåòè ôðàãìåíòîâ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, êîòîðûå ñîêðàùàþòñÿ è äåãðàäèðóþò èç-çà ðàçðóøèòåëüíîãî àíòðîïîãåííîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ; ÓÁÅÆĨÍÍÛÅ â òîì, ÷òî íåêîòîðàÿ ôîðìà ìíîãîñòîðîííåãî ñîãëàøåíèÿ è åãî âûïîëíåíèå ÷åðåç ñêîîðäèíèðîâàííîå è ñîâìåñòíîå äåéñòâèå âíåñëà áû çíà÷èòåëüíûé âêëàä â îõðàíó ñàïñàíà è äðóãèõ ìèãðèðóþùèõ õèùíèêîâ, âêëþ÷àÿ èõ ìåñòà îáèòàíèÿ, è òàêæå èìåëà áû äîïîëíèòåëüíûå âûãîäû äëÿ ìíîãèõ äðóãèõ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ è ðàñòåíèé; ÏÎÇÄÐÀÂÈÒÜ Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè è Îáúåäèí¸ííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ çà ïîääåðæêó ïðåäñòîÿùåé Ìåæïðàâèòåëüñòâåííîé Âñòðå÷è (I-GM), êîòîðàÿ ñîñòîèòñÿ â Øîòëàíäèè â îêòÿáðå 2007, äëÿ îáñóæäåíèÿ ñîçäàíèÿ èíñòðóìåíòà CMS, îõâàòûâàþùåãî ìèãðèðóþùèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Àôðèêàíñêî-Åâðàçèéñêîì ðåãèîíå; ÓÁÅÄÈÒÜ äåëåãàòîâ âñòðå÷è I-GM íåóòîìèìî ðàáîòàòü äëÿ çàêëþ÷åíèÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ñîãëàøåíèÿ è ïðèíÿòèÿ ñðî÷íûõ ìåð ïî ðàçâèòèþ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî ìíîãîñòîðîííåãî íàïðàâëåíèÿ â ïðåäåëàõ ñòðîãîãî ðàñïèñàíèÿ.

CONSCIOUS that Peregrine Falcons, like many other migratory raptors, may be particularly vulnerable due to their habit of flying over very long distances and by being reliant on networks of fragile habitats that are declining in extent and becoming degraded through unsustainable human activities; CONVINCED that some form of multilateral agreement and its implementation through coordinated and concerted action would contribute significantly to the conservation of Peregrine Falcons and other migratory raptors, including their habitats, and would also deliver ancillary benefits for many other species of animal and plant; CONGRATULATES the Governments of the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates for sponsoring the forthcoming Inter-Governmental Meeting (I-GM) to be held in Scotland in October 2007 to consider the establishment of a CMS instrument covering migratory raptors in the African-Eurasian region; URGES the delegates of the I-GM to work tirelessly to secure international consensus and to take urgent major steps to develop an appropriate multilateral way forward within a strict timetable.

ÐÅØÅÍÈÅ 3: ÑÎÊÎË-ÑÀÏÑÀÍ ÊÀÊ ÈÍÄÈÊÀÒÎÐ ÑÎÑÒÎßÍÈß ÏÐÈÐÎÄÍÎÉ ÑÐÅÄÛ

RECOGNISING that the Peregrine Falcon holds a critically important position near the top of the food chain that enables it to be used as a sentinel for certain toxic contaminants within the environment; REMEMBERING that the Peregrine Falcon suffered dramatic (but fortunately reversible) declines during the 1950s – 1970s across much of its range in Europe and North America caused by heavy metals and organochlorine residues originating from agricultural and forestry pesticides; ACKNOWLEDGING that many Peregrine Falcon populations throughout Europe have been routinely monitored, often intensively over many decades; RECOGNISING that contamination still exists and new pollutants continue to enter into the environment accumulating within free-living Peregrine Falcons with unknown consequences; CONSIDERS that the Peregrine Falcon continues to be a uniquely suitable species for long-term biological and environmental monitoring for the benefit of both wildlife and human populations; and, URGES the European Commission and national Governments to: a) promote the regular and extensive chemical analyses of biological samples obtained from free-living Peregrine Falcons; b) facilitate the development of standardised collection and storage of biological samples obtained from Peregrine Falcons;

ÏÐÈÇÍÀÂÀß, ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí ñîõðàíÿåò êðèòè÷åñêè âàæíóþ ïîçèöèþ íà âåðøèíå ïèùåâîé öåïè, êîòîðàÿ ïîçâîëÿåò èñïîëüçîâàòü åãî êàê ìàðêåð äëÿ îïðåäåë¸ííûõ òîêñè÷íûõ çàãðÿçíèòåëåé â îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäå; ÍÀÏÎÌÈÍÀß ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí ïåðåæèë ñèëüíîå ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè (íî, ê ñ÷àñòüþ, îáðàòèìîå) â 1950-õ – 1970-õ ãã. â áîëüøåé ÷àñòè ñâîåãî àðåàëà â Åâðîïå è Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêå, âûçâàííîå òÿæ¸ëûìè ìåòàëëàìè è õëîðîðãàíè÷åñêèìè ñîåäèíåíèÿìè, ïðèìåíÿâøèìèñÿ â êà÷åñòâå ïåñòèöèäîâ â ñåëüñêîì õîçÿéñòâå è ëåñîâîäñòâå; ÏÎÄÒÂÅÐÆÄÀß, ÷òî ìíîãèå ïîïóëÿöèè ñîêîëà-ñàïñàíà ïîâñþäó â Åâðîïå ðåãóëÿðíî ïðîâåðÿëèñü, ÷àñòî èíòåíñèâíî â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ äåñÿòèëåòèé; ÏÐÈÇÍÀÂÀß, ÷òî çàãðÿçíåíèå âñ¸ åù¸ ñóùåñòâóåò, è íîâûå çàãðÿçíèòåëè, ïðîäîëæàþùèå ïîñòóïàòü â îêðóæàþùóþ ñðåäó, íàêàïëèâàþòñÿ â æèâóùèõ â ïðèðîäå ñàïñàíàõ ñ íåèçâåñòíûìè ïîñëåäñòâèÿìè; ÏÐÈÍßÒÜ âî âíèìàíèå, ÷òî ñîêîë-ñàïñàí îñòà¸òñÿ âèäîì, óíèêàëüíî ïîäõîäÿùèì äëÿ äîëãîñðî÷íîãî áèîëîãè÷åñêîãî è ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî êîíòðîëÿ, äëÿ ïîëüçû äèêîé ïðèðîäû è äëÿ ïîëüçû ÷åëîâå÷åñêîãî ñîîáùåñòâà; è, ÓÁÅÄÈÒÜ Åâðîïåéñêóþ Êîìèññèþ è íàöèîíàëüíûå Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà: a) ïîääåðæàòü ðåãóëÿðíûå è âñåñòîðîííèå õèìè÷åñ-

RESOLUTION 3: THE PEREGRINE FALCON AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATOR


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

êèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ îáðàçöîâ, ïîëó÷åííûõ îò æèâóùèõ â ïðèðîäå ñîêîëîâ-ñàïñàíîâ; b) ñîäåéñòâîâàòü ñîçäàíèþ ñòàíäàðòèçèðîâàííîãî ñáîðà è õðàíåíèÿ áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ îáðàçöîâ, ïîëó÷åííûõ îò ñîêîëîâ-ñàïñàíîâ; c) ôèíàíñèðîâàòü ñîçäàíèå äîëãîñðî÷íîé îáùååâðîïåéñêîé áèáëèîòåêè ýòèõ áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ îáðàçöîâ äëÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ õèìè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé â íàñòîÿùåì è â áóäóùåì. ÐÅØÅÍÈÅ 4: ÂÎÑÑÒÀÍÎÂËÅÍÈÅ ÏÎÏÓËßÖÈÈ ÄÐÅÂÅÑÍÎÃÍÅÇÄßÙÈÕÑß ÑÎÊÎËÎÂ-ÑÀÏÑÀÍΠ ÏÐÅÄÅËÀÕ ÈÕ ÏÐÅÆÍÅÃÎ ÀÐÅÀËÀ  ÅÂÐÎÏÅ ÏÐÈÇÍÀÂÀß, ÷òî, áëàãîäàðÿ ñîâìåñòíûì è ïðîäîëæèòåëüíûì ìíîãîíàöèîíàëüíûì ïðèðîäîîõðàííûì äåéñòâèÿì, ïîïóëÿöèè ñîêîëà-ñàïñàíà âî ìíîãèõ îáëàñòÿõ Åâðîïû òåïåðü âîññòàíîâèëèñü ïîñëå çíà÷èòåëüíîãî ñíèæåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè, âûçâàííîãî áèîöèäîì ñåðåäèíû äâàäöàòîãî ñòîëåòèÿ, õîòÿ è ñ íåîïðåäåë¸ííûì ñòàòóñîì â íåêîòîðûõ îáëàñòÿõ åãî àðåàëà; ÏÎÄÒÂÅÐÆÄÀß, ÷òî â ðåçóëüòàòå ýòèõ ïîëîæèòåëüíûõ èçìåíåíèé ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ ýòîãî âèäà â áîëüøîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà åãî îáèòàíèÿ â Åâðîïå áîëüøå íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ «óãðîæàåìûì», ñîãëàñíî êðèòåðèÿì IUCN; ÍÀÏÎÌÈÍÀß, ÷òî ïîïóëÿöèÿ ñàïñàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ, ïðåæäå íàñ÷èòûâàëà ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî 4000 ðàçìíîæàþùèõñÿ ïàð, çàòåì áûëà èñòðåáëåíà, è òåïåðü, áëàãîäàðÿ âîññòàíîâëåíèþ, èñ÷èñëÿåòñÿ òîëüêî 20 ïàðàìè; ÂÛÐÀÇÈ îçàáî÷åííîñòü òåì, ÷òî, íåñìîòðÿ íà ñóùåñòâåííûå ïðåâåíòèâíûå óñèëèÿ ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ, îñîáåííî â Ãåðìàíèè è Ïîëüøå, ñàïñàíû, ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ, îòñóòñòâóþò íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè ïðåæäå îáøèðíîãî àðåàëà, îñîáåííî íà òåððèòîðèè Ãåðìàíèè, Ïîëüøè, Ðîññèè, Áåëîðóññèè è Áàëòèéñêèõ ãîñóäàðñòâ; ÏÎÎÙÐÈÒÜ íåïðåðûâíûå è âîçðàñòàþùèå óñèëèÿ ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé ñàïñàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ, ïîâñþäó ïî âñåìó èõ ïðåæíåìó àðåàëó ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ; ÏÐÎÑÈÒÜ íàöèîíàëüíûå Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà, íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûå îðãàíèçàöèè è åâðîïåéñêóþ Êîìèññèþ ïîääåðæàòü âîññòàíîâëåíèå ñàïñàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ; ÓÁÅÄÈÒÜ BirdLife International ïðèçíàòü öåííîñòü îõðàíû åâðîïåéñêèõ ñàïñàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ, ñ öåëüþ âûäâèæåíèÿ íà ïåðâûé ïëàí èõ óíèêàëüíîãî è óãðîæàåìîãî ñòàòóñà. ÐÅØÅÍÈÅ 1: Ó×ÐÅÆÄÅÍÈÅ ÅÂÐÎÏÅÉÑÊÎÉ ÐÀÁÎ×ÅÉ ÃÐÓÏÏÛ ÏÎ ÑÎÊÎËÓ-ÑÀÏÑÀÍÓ ÏÐÈÇÍÀÂÀß ñóùåñòâîâàíèå ìíîãèõ ðàçëè÷íûõ íàöèîíàëüíûõ, ðåãèîíàëüíûõ è ìåñòíûõ ãðóïï îðíèòîëîãîâ è îòäåëüíûõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, èçó÷àþùèõ ðàçëè÷íûå àñïåêòû áèîëîãèè è îõðàíû ñîêîëà-ñàïñàíà; ÏÎÄÒÂÅÐÆÄÀß, ÷òî ìíîãèå èç íèõ èìåþò îáøèðíûé ïîëåâîé îïûò è çíà÷èòåëüíûå çíàíèÿ î âèäå, íàêîïëåííûå ÷àñòî â òå÷åíèå ìíîãèõ äåñÿòèëåòèé;

Ñîáûòèÿ c) sponsor the establishment of a long-term European-wide library of these biological samples for appropriate chemical analyses now and in the future. RESOLUTION 4: RESTORATION OF TREE-NESTING PEREGRINE FALCONS IN THEIR FORMER EUROPEAN RANGE RECOGNISING that, due to concerted and sustained multi-national conservation actions. Peregrine Falcon populations in many areas of Europe have now recovered from the major biocide-induced declines of the mid-twentieth Century albeit with uncertain status in some areas of its global range; ACKNOWLEDGING that as a result of these positive changes to the overall conservation status of this species across much of its range in Europe it is no longer considered as “threatened” under IUCN criteria; RECALLING that the tree-nesting Peregrine Falcons formerly composed of an estimated 4,000 breeding pairs, then extirpated and is now only 20 pairs achieved through restoration; CONCERNED that despite significant proactive restoration efforts, particularly in Germany and Poland, the tree-nesting Peregrine Falcons remains extirpated from most of a formerly extensive area, especially parts of Germany, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic States; ENCOURAGES continued and increasing effort to be focused on reestablishing tree-nesting Peregrine Falcons throughout the whole of its former breeding range; REQUESTS the national Governments, non-Governmental organisations and the European Commission to support the re-establishment of tree-nesting Peregrine Falcons; URGES BirdLife International to recognise the conservation value of European tree-nesting Peregrine Falcons with the aim of highlighting their unique and threatened status. DECISION 1: ESTABLISHING AN EUROPEAN PEREGRINE FALCON WORKING GROUP RECOGNISING that there are many different national, regional and local specialist raptor groups and individuals involved in studying various aspects of the biology and conservation of the Peregrine Falcon; ACKNOWLEDGING that many of these groups and individuals have gathered extensive field experience of the species and have compiled significant knowledge and understanding, often over many decades; CONSCIOUS of the potentially significant conservation, scientific and resource benefits to be gained by improved communication, cooperation and co-ordination between these groups and individuals, especially internationally; IDENTIFIED the urgent need to develop an overarching multilateral organization for the study and conservation of the Peregrine Falcon to be known as the European Peregrine Falcon Working Group (EPFWG);


Events

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

ÎÑÎÇÍÀÂÀß ïîòåíöèàëüíî âàæíóþ ïðèðîäîîõðàííóþ, íàó÷íóþ è ðåñóðñíóþ ïîëüçó, êîòîðàÿ ìîæåò áûòü ïîëó÷åíà ïðè íàëàæèâàíèè êîììóíèêàöèè, ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà è êîîðäèíàöèè ìåæäó ýòèìè ãðóïïàìè è ñïåöèàëèñòàìè, îñîáåííî ðàçíûõ ñòðàí; ÎÏÐÅÄÅËßß ñðî÷íóþ ïîòðåáíîñòü ðàçâèâàòü ìíîãîñòîðîííþþ îðãàíèçàöèþ ïî èññëåäîâàíèþ è îõðàíå ñîêîëà-ñàïñàíà, êîòîðàÿ áóäåò èçâåñòíà êàê åâðîïåéñêàÿ Ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà ïî ñîêîëó-ñàïñàíó (EPFWG);  ÑÂßÇÈ Ñ ÝÒÈÌ äåëåãàòû åäèíîäóøíî îïðåäåëèëè ñëåäóþùèå íàèáîëåå âàæíûå ïåðâîíà÷àëüíûå äåéñòâèÿ ïî äîñòèæåíèþ ýòîé öåëè: à) ñîçäàíèå Ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ Êîìèòåòà ×ëåíîâ (FMC), ÷òîáû óïðàâëÿòü äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ EPFWG, ñîñòîÿùåãî èç: Janusz Sielicki – Ïîëüøà (Ïðåäñåäàòåëü) Matyas Prommer – Âåíãðèÿ Slavka Siryova – Ñëîâàêèÿ Nick P. Williams – Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ á) óïðàâëåíèå çàäà÷àìè FMC ñ ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîé öåëüþ ïîäãîòîâèòü îôèöèàëüíóþ êîíñòèòóöèþ è ïðàâèëà îðãàíèçàöèîííîãî è ïåðñîíàëüíîãî ÷ëåíñòâà; ÍÀÊÎÍÅÖ, äåëåãàòû ðåêîìåíäóþò âñåì ãðóïïàì ñïåöèàëèñòîâ è èíòåðåñóþùèìñÿ ëþäÿì ïîääåðæàòü ýòó âàæíóþ ìåæäóíàðîäíóþ èíèöèàòèâó ïî èññëåäîâàíèþ è îõðàíå ñîêîëà-ñàïñàíà, ñâÿçàâøèñü ñ FMC ÷åðåç ñàéò www.falcoperegrinus.net äëÿ ðåãèñòðàöèè èõ æåëàíèÿ ïðèñîåäèíèòüñÿ ê EPFWG è âíåñòè ñâîé âêëàä â åãî áóäóùóþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü. ÐÅØÅÍÈÅ 2: ÂÎÇÌÎÆÍÛÅ ÁÓÄÓÙÈÅ ÏÐÎÅÊÒÛ ÄËß EPFWG ÊÐÎÌÅ ÒÎÃÎ, äåëåãàòû ïðåäëîæèëè òðè âîçìîæíûõ áóäóùèõ ïðîåêòà äëÿ EPFWG: (i) Ñîáðàòü îáùååâðîïåéñêèé ðåãèñòð ñóùåñòâóþùèõ îêðàñîê è ñõåì êîäîâ êîëåö, ïðèìåíÿåìûõ äëÿ ñàïñàíîâ, è ðàçâèâàòü ìåõàíèçì êîîðäèíàöèè ýòèõ è ïîäîáíûõ ñõåì â áóäóùåì äëÿ èäåíòèôèêàöèè ñîêîëîâ â ïîëåâûõ óñëîâèÿõ áëàãîäàðÿ óíèêàëüíîé îêðàñêå êîëüöà; (ii) Ïðîäâèãàòü ðàçâèòèå ñòàíäàðòèçèðîâàííûõ ïðîòîêîëîâ äëÿ ñîáðàíèÿ è õðàíåíèÿ áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ îáðàçöîâ, ïîëó÷åííûõ îò æèâóùèõ â ïðèðîäå ñîêîëîâñàïñàíîâ; ïîîùðÿòü ðåãóëÿðíûå è âñåñòîðîííèå õèìè÷åñêèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ýòèõ îáðàçöîâ; ïîääåðæàòü ó÷ðåæäåíèå äîëãîñðî÷íîé îáùååâðîïåéñêîé áèáëèîòåêè ýòèõ áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ îáðàçöîâ äëÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ õèìè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé òåïåðü è â áóäóùåì; (iii) Èññëåäîâàòü âûïîëíèìîñòü ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ ìíîãîíàöèîíàëüíîãî ïðîåêòà ïî ìå÷åíèþ ñïóòíèêîâûìè ïåðåäàò÷èêàìè äèêèõ ñàïñàíîâ, ïðîèñõîäÿùèõ èç êëþ÷åâûõ îáëàñòåé â ïðåäåëàõ Ñåâåðíîé, Çàïàäíîé, Öåíòðàëüíîé è Þæíîé Åâðîïû.

Ñàìêà ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) íà ãíåçäå ñ ïòåíöàìè. Ôîòî Å. Ïîòàïîâà Female of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the nest with chicks. Photo by E. Potapov

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ACCORDINGLY delegates unanimously agreed the following significant initial steps towards achieving this goal by: a) establishing a Founding Members Committee (FMC) to drive forward the EPFWG initiative consisting of: Janusz Sielicki-Poland (Chairman) Matyas Prommer – Hungary Slavka Siryova – Slovakia Nick P. Williams – United Kingdom b) tasking the FMC with a preliminary objective to draft a formal constitution and rules for membership by organizations and individuals; FINALLY, delegates urged all specialist groups and interested individuals to support this important international Peregrine Falcon study and conservation initiative by contacting the FMC via www.falcoperegrinus.net to register their wish to join the EPFWG and to contribute to its future activities. DECISION 2: POTENTIAL FUTURE PROJECTS FOR THE EPFWG FURTHERMORE delegates proposed three potential future projects for the EPFWG to take forward, as follows: (i) To compile a pan-European register of existing color and code ringing schemes involving Peregrine Falcons, and to develop a mechanism to co-ordinate these and similar future schemes to ensure that all falcons are uniquely colour-ringed and therefore potentially identifiable in the field; (ii) To promote the development of standardised protocols for the collection and storage of biological samples obtained from Peregrine Falcons; to encourage the regular and extensive chemical analyses of these biological samples; and, to support the establishment of a long-term pan-European library of these biological samples for appropriate chemical analyses now and in the future; (iii) To explore the feasibility of establishing a multinational project to fit satellite transmitters to wild Peregrine Falcons originating from key areas within North, West, Central and Southern Europe.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

RaptorsConservation ОХРАНАПЕРНАТЫХХИЩНИКОВ ActionsonInstallingofArtificialNestsforRaptors intheSamaraDistrict,Russia МЕРОПРИЯТИЯ ПО ПРИВЛЕЧЕНИЮ ПЕРНАТЫХ ХИЩНИКОВ В ИСКУССТВЕННЫЕ ГНЕЗДОВЬЯ В САМАРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ, РОССИЯ PazhenkovA.S.(TheVolga-UralECONETAssistanceCenter,Samara,Russia) KaryakinI.V.(CenterforFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) ПаженовА.С.(ЦентрсодействияВоло-Уральсойэолоичесойсети, Самара,Россия) КаряинИ.В.(Центрполевыхисследований,Н.Новород,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ «Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè» Ðîññèÿ 443045 Ñàìàðà, à/ÿ 8001 f_lynx@hotbox.ru http://econet.universite.ru Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 (831) 4333 847 ikar_research@mail.ru

 2005 ãîäó Öåíòðîì ñîäåéñòâèÿ «ÂîëãîÓðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè» (ÖÑ «ÂÓÝÑ») è Ýêîöåíòðîì «Äðîíò» áûëà ðàçðàáîòàíà Ïðîãðàììà «Âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè íà 2005 – 2010 ãã.», â êîòîðîé ïðåäóñìîòðåíû îáøèðíûå áèîòåõíè÷åñêèå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, âûÿâëåíèå è ñîõðàíåíèå êëþ÷åâûõ ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ò.ï. Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, áþäæåò äàííîé ïðîãðàììû äî ñèõ ïîð íå óòâåðæä¸í Àäìèíèñòðàöèåé Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè, è ñòàáèëüíîå ôèíàíñèðîâàíèå îòñóòñòâóåò.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì, îñóùåñòâëåíèå äàííîé ïðîãðàììû ìîæåò çàòÿíóòüñÿ, îäíàêî îòäåëüíûå ðàáîòû âûïîëíÿþòñÿ â òåêóùåì ãîäó. Ê êîíöó ïîëåâîãî ñåçîíà 2007 ã. îáñëåäîâàíà áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü òåððèòîðèè Ñàìàð-

The all territory of the Samara district was surveyed by the end of field season of 2007 and the modern data of raptor numbers were recorded. We found new breeding territories of several species included in the Red Data Book such as White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca)(fig. 1). Monitoring the territory we revealed to increase numbers of the Imperial Eagle, the White-Tailed Eagle and little owls and falcons with installing nesting platforms and nest-boxes. We installed 59 nesting platforms (46 – for the Imperial Eagle and 13 – for the White-Tailed Eagle) and the same number of nest-boxes in four administrative regions of the Samara district by the end of August (fig. 2). For increasing the number of Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) and little falcons we made and installed 60 nestboxes of three types (fig. 4, 5). We are going to check installed artificial nests in spring 2008.

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàíàáåëîõâîñòà (Haliaeetus albicilla) è îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca) â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè Fig. 1. Distribution of breeding teritories of the WhiteTailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in the Samara District


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ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ïðè÷åì ÷èñëåííîñòü ïóñòåëüãè ñîêðàùàåòñÿ. Îáñëåäîâàíèå òåððèòîðèè ïîêàçàëî, ÷òî óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè âñåõ âûøåïåðå÷èñëåííûõ âèäîâ âîçìîæíî ñ ïîìîùüþ áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. Ê ñåíòÿáðþ â ÷åòûð¸õ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ðàéîíàõ Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè íà âûÿâëåííûõ ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ îáèòàíèÿ ðåäêèõ ïòèö áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 59 ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì è ðàçâåøåíî 60 ãíåçäîâûõ ÿùèêîâ (ðèñ. 2). Äëÿ ìîãèëüíèêà áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 46 ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì â ñåâåðíîé ëåñîñòåïíîé ÷àñòè îáëàñòè. Ïîñêîëüêó îñíîâíîé ôàêòîð, ëèìèòèðóþùèé ÷èñëåííîñòü ýòîãî îðëà, – îñêóäåíèå êîðìîâîé áàçû â ñâÿçè ñ ñîêðàùåíèåì ÷èñëåííîñòè áîëüøîãî Ðèñ. 2. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä, ïîñòðîåííûõ äëÿ îðëîâ, ñîâ è ñîêîëîâ â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè â 2007 ã. Fig. 2. Distribution of artificial nests erected for the eagles, owls and falcons in the Samara District in 2007

Contact: Aleksey Pazhenkov The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Centre P.O. Box 8001 Samara Russia 443045 f_lynx@hotbox.ru http://econet.universite.ru Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (831) 4333 847 ikar_research@mail.ru

ñêîé îáëàñòè è ïîëó÷åíû ñîâðåìåííûå îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, âûÿâëåíû íîâûå ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ òàêèõ âèäîâ, âíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèè, êàê îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla) è ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) (ðèñ. 1).  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè âûÿâëåíî 88 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ìîãèëüíèêà è 72 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà, à ÷èñëåííîñòü êàæäîãî èç ýòèõ âèäîâ îöåíåíà â 90–100 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, ïðè÷¸ì åù¸ èìååòñÿ çàïàñ ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, íåçàñåë¸ííûõ ýòèìè õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè ïî ðÿäó ïðè÷èí. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì âûãëÿäèò ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ñîâàìè-äóïëîãí¸çäíèêàìè è ìåëêèìè ñîêîëàìè. Âèêàðèðóþùèå äðóã ñ äðóãîì âèäû íåÿñûòåé – ñåðàÿ (Strix aluco) è äëèííîõâîñòàÿ (Strix uralensis) äîñòèãàþò îïòèìàëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè â þæíîé è ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòÿõ îáëàñòè ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, à èõ ÷èñëåííîñòü îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 700–1100 è 2000–2600 ïàð, ïðè÷¸ì åñëè ÷èñëåííîñòü ïåðâîé ñîêðàùàåòñÿ, òî ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîñëåäíåé ðàñò¸ò. Ïóñòåëüãà îáûêíîâåííàÿ (Falco tinnunculus) è êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus) äîñòèãàþò ìàêñèìàëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè â ñòåïíîé çîíå, áåäíîé ëåñîì, ãäå èñïûòûâàþò ÿâíûé ëèìèò ìåñò äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä, à èõ îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü â îáëàñòè îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 4000–6000 è 1500–2000 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð

Ðèñ. 3. Ãíåçäîâûå ïëàòôîðìû äëÿ îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà (1–2) íà òîïîëå è îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (3–4) íà äóáå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 3. Nesting platform for the White-Tailed Eagle (1–2) on a poplar tree and for the Imperial Eagle (3–4) on an oak tree. Photos by I. Karyakin


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Ðèñ. 4. Ãíåçäîâûå ÿùèêè äëÿ ìåëêèõ ñîêîëîâ (1), ñåðîé (Strix aluco) (2) è äëèííîõâîñòîé (Strix uralensis) (3) íåÿñûòåé. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Fig. 4. Nest-boxes for little falcons (1), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) (2) and Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) (3). Photos by A. Pazhenkov

Ðèñ. 5. Ãíåçäîâûå ÿùèêè äëÿ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè (Strix uralensis) (ñëåâà) è ìåëêèõ ñîêîëîâ (ñïðàâà). Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Fig. 5. Nest-boxes for Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) (left) and little falcons (right). Photos by A. Pazhenkov

ñóñëèêà (Spermophilus major) è ñóðêà (Marmotta bobac), ìû íàäååìñÿ íà óñïåøíîå çàñåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì, óñòàíîâëåííûõ â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò îñòàâøèõñÿ ó÷àñòêîâ êîíöåíòðèðîâàííîãî âûïàñà, ãäå ñîõðàíÿþòñÿ êîëîíèè ãðûçóíîâ-íîðíèêîâ. Ãëàâíûì êðèòåðèåì âûáîðà ãíåçäîâîãî äåðåâà áûëî åãî ïîëîæåíèå, îáåñïå÷èâàþùåå óäîáíûé ïîäë¸ò è îáçîð êîðìîâîãî ó÷àñòêà, îòñóòñòâèå ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â ðàäèóñå 3 êì è, ïî âîçìîæíîñòè, ñêðûòîñòü îò ãëàç ÷åëîâåêà. Áîëüøèíñòâî ïëàòôîðì áûëè óñòàíîâëåíû íà áåð¸çàõ, òàêæå â êà÷åñòâå ãíåçäîâîãî äåðåâà âûñòóïèëè äóá, êë¸í è ëèïà. Äåðåâÿííûå ïîñòðîéêè, ðàçìåðîì îêîëî 1 ì, óñòàíàâëèâàëèñü â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè êðîíû äåðåâà (ðèñ. 3/3–4). Äëÿ îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 13 ïëàòôîðì íà ïîáåðåæüå Ñóñêàíñêîãî çàëèâà, ãäå îêîëî 40 ëåò ôóíêöèîíèðóåò îäíîèìåííûé ðûáõîç. Ðûáîâîäíûå ïðóäû ñ òðîñòíèêîâûìè çàðîñëÿìè, îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ áîëåå 20 òûñ. ãà ñîçäàþò áëàãîïðèÿòíûå óñëîâèÿ äëÿ ïèòàíèÿ îðëàíà. Çäåñü âûÿâëåíî 10 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ. Ïî

íàøåìó ìíåíèþ, îñíîâíûì ôàêòîðîì, ñäåðæèâàþùèì óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè îðëàíà, ÿâëÿåòñÿ íåäîñòàòîê ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äåðåâüåâ. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ïîáåðåæüÿ çàëèâà íå îáëåñåíà. Äðåâåñíàÿ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòü, òàì, ãäå îíà åñòü, ïðåäñòàâëåíà ñðåäíåâîçðàñòíûìè (30–60 ëåò) íàñàæäåíèÿìè òîïîëÿ, äóáà è (åäèíè÷íî) ñîñíû. Ïðè ýòîì, äðåâîñòîé, êàê ïðàâèëî, îäíîâîçðàñòíûé, ìàÿ÷íûå äåðåâüÿ îòñóòñòâóþò. Ïëàòôîðìû óñòàíàâëèâàëèñü íà òîïîëÿõ, íà âûñîòå 15– 20 ì, â âåðõíåé òðåòè êðîíû (ðèñ. 3/1–2). Êàê ïðàâèëî, âûáèðàëè äåðåâî íà êðàþ ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà ñ âèäîì íà âîäî¸ì. Äëÿ óâåëè÷åíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ìåëêèõ ñîêîëîâ è ñîâ-äóïëîãíåçäíèêîâ, òàêèõ êàê ñåðàÿ (Strix aluco) è äëèííîõâîñòàÿ (Strix uralensis) íåÿñûòè, èçãîòîâëåíî è ðàçâåøåíî 60 ãíåçäîâûõ ÿùèêîâ òð¸õ òèïîâ (ïî 20 ÿùèêîâ êàæäîãî òèïà): «äëÿ ìåëêèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö» (ðèñ. 4/1, 5) (çäåñü è äàëåå âûñîòà õ øèðèíà õ ãëóáèíà): 35 õ 30 õ 25 ñì; «äëÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè» (ðèñ. 4/2) – 40 õ 25 õ 25 ñì; «äëÿ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè» 70 õ 30 õ 30 ñì (ðèñ. 4/3, 5). Äëÿ ìåëêèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö ãíåçäîâûå ÿùèêè óñòàíàâëèâàëèñü â ëåñîïîëîñàõ íà þãå îáëàñòè. Öåëåâûìè âèäàìè çäåñü ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) è êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus). Õîòÿ íå èñêëþ÷åíî ãíåçäîâàíèå óøàñòîé ñîâû (Asio otus). Äëÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè ãíåçäîâûå ÿùèêè óñòàíàâëèâàëèñü â ëåíòî÷íûõ ëåñîïîëîñàõ è îñòðîâíûõ áàéðà÷íûõ ëåñàõ â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè îáëàñòè. À äëÿ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè – íà îïóøêå ñìåøàííûõ ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ â öåíòðàëüíîé è ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè îáëàñòè. Âñå ÿùèêè ðàçìåùàëèñü íà âûñîòå 5–7 ì, ñ þæíîé èëè ñ âîñòî÷íîé ñòîðîíû îò ñòâîëà. Âåñíîé ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðîâåðêà çàñåë¸ííîñòè ïîñòðîåê. Ìû âñ¸ æå íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî ïðàêòè÷åñêèå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàììû íà ñðåäñòâà îáëàñòíîãî áþäæåòà áóäóò ïðîäîëæåíû, ò.ê. ïîêà íå ðåàëèçîâàíî è äåñÿòîé ÷àñòè çàïëàíèðîâàííîãî.


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RaptorsResearch ИЗУЧЕНИЕПЕРНАТЫХХИЩНИКОВ DistributionandNumberoftheEagleOwlintheAltai-Sayan Region,Russia РАСПРОСТРАНЕНИЕ И ЧИСЛЕННОСТЬ ФИЛИНА В АЛТАЕСАЯНСКОМ РЕГИОНЕ, РОССИЯ KaryakinI.V.(CenterofFieldStudies,Russia,N.Novgorod) КаряинИ.В.(Центрполевыхисследований,Россия,Н.Новород) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 (831) 4333 847 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (831) 4333 847 ikar_research@mail.ru

Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) âíåñ¸í â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, à òàêæå â Êðàñíûå êíèãè âñåõ îáëàñòåé è ðåñïóáëèê Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà.  òî æå âðåìÿ, åãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü â ðåãèîíå îñòàâàëèñü íåèçâåñòíûìè âïëîòü äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè, ÷òî ìåøàëî ïëàíèðîâàíèþ ïîëíîöåííûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî îõðàíå âèäà. Öåëüþ äàííîé ðàáîòû ÿâèëàñü ïîïûòêà âûÿñíèòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â ðåãèîíå ÃÈÑ-ìåòîäàìè, îñíîâàííàÿ íà ðåçóëüòàòàõ èññëåäîâàíèé àâòîðà.

Ðàéîí ðàáîò è ìåòîäèêà Ââåäåíèå Ðàññìàòðèâàåìûé â ñòàòüå ðåãèîí çàíèìàåò òåððèòîðèþ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîé ãîðíîé îáëàñòè è ïðèëåãàþùèõ ðàâíèí. Äëÿ àíàëèçà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ôèëèíà ãðàíèöû ðå-

The region being under consideration in the paper occupies the territory of the Altai-Sayan Mountains and adjacent plains. The total area of the surveyed region is 595195.8 km2. The region was surveyed in May – July 1999–2006. The total length of field trip routes was 44864 km without transit routes on highways. We found breeding territories of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) mainly durÐèñ. 1. Ïðèðîäíûå ðàéîíû Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Óñëîâíûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ: À – ãðàíèöà Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà B – ãðàíèöû îáëàñòåé è ðåñïóáëèê Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà Ðàçëè÷íûìè öâåòàìè âûäåëåíû ïðèðîäíûå ðàéîíû, íóìåðàöèÿ êîòîðûõ ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íóìåðàöèè â òàáëèöàõ 1–2. Fig. 1. Nature zones of the Altai-Sayan region. A – the border of the Altai-Sayan region B – borders of districts and republics of the Altai-Sayan region Different nature zones have different colors, numbers of zones are similar ones in the Tables 1–2.


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Òàáë. 1à. Îñíîâíûå äàííûå ó÷¸òà ôèëèíîâ (Bubo bubo) â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ íà ïëîùàäêàõ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå Table 1a. General data of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) counts in nesting biotopes in the Altai-Sayan region

Ïðèðîäíûé ðàéîí* Nature zones*

Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ Biotopes áèîòîïîâ (êì2) Area of nesting biotopes (km2)

Áèîòîïû

ñêàëû / 1 rocks 3, 8, 9, 25 4, 5, 7, 20 îïóøêè / 13 forest edges 14 16 11 ñêàëû / rocks 19 îïóøêè / forest edges ñêàëû / rocks 19 21 22 12 26 24

Êîëè÷åñòâî ïëîùàäîê Number of plots

Ïëîùàäü ïëîùàäîê (êì2) Area of plots (km2)

Äîëÿ Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ îòíîñèòåëüíî áèîòîïîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà 2 (êì ) (%) Part of nesting Area of nesting biotopes on plots biotopes on plots (km2) from the region (%)

Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíà Breeding territories of the Eagle Owl

37.55 1011.01 731.41 227.13 193.80 835.15 651.68 75.31

1 2 2 1 1 11 6 1

11.4 457.15 573.60 18.2 17.4 449.46 188.88 42.2

1.90 38.60 79.40 6.20 8.62 102.57 43.40 15.00

5.04 3.80 0.87 2.72 4.60 12.23 6.65 19.92

1 19 24 2 1 54 24 3

195.14 838.99 127.92 65.60 1175.30 1071.43

1 3 1 1 4 1

78.4 93.90 31.23 22.6 60.70 66.1

10.20 36.44 23.25 10.65 31.28 28.57

5.23 8.35 18.32 15.99 2.70 2.67

6 13 3 6 11 2

Òàáë. 1b. Îñíîâíûå äàííûå ó÷¸òà ôèëèíîâ â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ íà ìàðøðóòàõ â ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà Table 1b. General data of the Eagle Owl route counts in nesting biotopes in the mountain-forest zone of the Altai-Sayan region

Ïðèðîäíûé Áèîòîïû ðàéîí* Biotopes Nature zones*

6 23

Ó÷åòíàÿ Ïëîùàäü Êîëè÷åñòâî Äîëÿ ãíåçäîïðèÏëîùàäü Ãíåçäîâûå ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ãíåçäîïðè- ìàðøðóòîâ ãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ íà ó÷àñòêè ãîäíûõ (êì2) áèîòîïîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ Number of ó÷åòíîé ïëîùàäè îòíîñèòåëüíî ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà (%) (êì2) routes Study area (êì2) Breeding 2 (km ) Part of nesting territories of Area of nesting Area of nesting biotopes on plots the Eagle Owl biotopes (km2) biotopes on study from the region (%) area (km2) 338.80 8.33

ñêàëû / rocks

32.63 8.8

23.81 2.2

7.03 26.40

5 2

Òàáë. 1c. Îñíîâíûå äàííûå ó÷¸òà ôèëèíîâ â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ íà ïëîùàäêàõ â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå Table 1c. General data of the Eagle Owl plot counts in inhabitant places in the Altai Kray

Ïðèðîäíûé ðàéîí* Nature zones*

15

Áèîòîïû

Ïëîùàäü Êîëè÷åñòâî ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ìàðøðóòîâ (êì2) Biotopes Number of routes Area of inhabitants places (km2)

ñêàëû / rocks

Ãíåçäîâûå Ó÷¸òíàÿ Ïëîùàäü Äîëÿ ãíåçäîïðèó÷àñòêè ïëîùàäü ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ 2 ôèëèíà (êì ) íà ïëîùàäêàõ íà ïëîùàäêàõ (êì2) îòíîñèòåëüíî ïðèBreeding Area of ðîäíîãî ðàéîíà (%) Area (km2) Part of nesting territories of inhabitants biotopes on plots the Eagle Owl places on plots(km2) from the region (%)

2161.54

1310.66

100.75

4.66

13

* – íîìåðà ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíîâ ñîîòâåòñòâóþò íóìåðàöèè íà ðèñ. 1 * – numbers of districts are similar ones in the fig. 1

ãèîíà ïðîâåäåíû óñëîâíî, èñõîäÿ èç èìåþùåãîñÿ ìàòåðèàëà äëÿ ïðîäóêòèâíîãî ÃÈÑ-àíàëèçà (ðàñòðîâûå è âåêòîðíûå êàðòû, êîñìîñíèìêè, òî÷êè äëÿ äåøèôðîâêè è ò.ï.). Ïëîùàäü âûäåëåííîãî ðåãèîíà ñîñòàâèëà 595195,8 êì2. Äëÿ óäîáñòâà àíàëèçà ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì Landsat–7 áûëà ñîñòàâëåíà âåêòîðíàÿ ëàíä-

ing short-term pedestrian routes through character habitats for the species and rarely during point counts. The additional method was point counts of vocalizing birds. For stimulation of vocalization of Eagle Owls we imitated demonstrative and alarm signals by a voice or with using soundtracks. For processing the data of counts we used GIS


Raptors Research

Ïëîòíîñòü â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ (ïàð/êì2 ± SD) Density on nesting biotopes (pairs/km2 ± SD) 0.53 0.49±0.01 0.30±0.12 0.32 0.12 0.53±0.17 0.55±0.38 0.20 0.59 0.36±0.80 0.13 0.56 0.35±0.04 0.07

Ïëîòíîñòü â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ (ïàð/êì2 ± SD) Density on nesting biotopes (pairs/km2 ± SD) 0.21 0.9

Ïëîòíîñòü â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ (ïàð/êì2 ± SD) Density on nesting biotopes (pairs/km2 ± SD) 0.13

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 øàôòíàÿ êàðòà, íà êîòîðîé ïî òàêèì êðèòåðèÿì, êàê ëåñîïîêðûòîñòü, ðåëüÎöåíêà åô, ñîâîêóïíîñòü òèïè÷÷èñëåííîñòè íûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèî(ñðåäíåå ± òîïîâ ôèëèíà áûëè äîâåðèòåëüíûé èíòåðâàë) âûäåëåíû áëèçêèå ïî ñâîèì õàðàêòåðèñòèêàì ïðèEstimation ðîäíûå ðàéîíû ïëîùàäüþ of number (M ± áîëåå 100 êì2 (ðèñ. 1). interval) Ðåãèîí îáñëåäîâàëñÿ â 19.9 ìàå-èþëå 1999–2006 ãã. 497.3±16.06 Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ýê228.6±125.27 ñïåäèöèîííûõ ìàðøðóòîâ 73.3 ñîñòàâèëà 44864 êì áåç 22.5 453.0±85.35 ó÷¸òà òðàíçèòíûõ ìàðøðó470.3±197.26 òîâ ïî òðàññàì. Ò.å. â õîäå 15.1 ýòèõ ìàðøðóòîâ îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ ïîèñê ãíåçäîï114.8 ðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà 299.3±169.92 òåððèòîðèé. 16.5 Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôè37.0 ëèíà âûÿâëÿëèñü áîëüøåé 404.6±57.76 ÷àñòüþ íà êðàòêîâðåìåí75.0 íûõ ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòàõ ïî ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿì, õàðàêòåðíûì äëÿ âèäà, è, â ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè, â õîäå Îöåíêà òî÷å÷íûõ íàáëþäåíèé. ÷èñëåííîñòè Âñïîìîãàòåëüíûì ìåòî(ñðåäíåå ± äîì ÿâëÿëàñü ïåëåíãàöèÿ äîâåðèòåëüíûé âîêàëèçèðóþùèõ ïòèö ñ èíòåðâàë) òî÷êè. Äëÿ àêòèâèçàöèè Estimation of number âîêàëèçàöèè ôèëèíîâ (M ± interval) ïîëüçîâàëèñü èìèòàöèåé 70.0±7.0 ñèãíàëîâ äåìîíñòðàöèè è 7.5±0.7 áåñïîêîéñòâà ïòèö ãîëîñîì ëèáî ôîíîãðàììîé. Ê ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêàì ïðèðàâíèâàëèñü íàõîäêè æèëûõ ãí¸çä (ñ êëàäêàìè è Îöåíêà ïòåíöàìè), à òàêæå ãí¸çä, ÷èñëåííîñòè áûâøèõ æèëûìè (â êîòî(ñðåäíåå ± äîâåðèòåëüíûé ðûõ íà ìîìåíò ïîñåùåíèÿ èíòåðâàë) êëàäêè èëè ïòåíöû ïîãèáEstimation of ëè è èõ îñòàíêè ìîæíî number ÷¸òêî èäåíòèôèöèðîâàòü) (M ± interval) è ïîêèíóòûõ ñë¸òêàìè (ñ 281.0±28.1 ìåçîïòèëåì), âñòðå÷è ñë¸òêîâ, âîêàëèçèðóþùèõ ïàð èëè îäèíî÷íûõ âçðîñëûõ ïòèö, ïðîÿâëÿâøèõ áåñïîêîéñòâî. Âñå îñòàëüíûå ðåãèñòðàöèè (âêëþ÷àÿ ðåãèñòðàöèè âçðîñëûõ ïòèö, íå ïðîÿâëÿâøèõ áåñïîêîéñòâà) ê ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêàì íå ïðèðàâíèâàëèñü, îäíàêî â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ ïðèâëåêàëèñü äëÿ îáùåãî ðàñ÷¸òà ÷èñëåííîñòè, åñëè ïðîèñõîäèëè â òèïè÷íûõ äëÿ âèäà ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ (Êàðÿêèí, 2000; 2004).

19

Âçðîñëûé ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) â ãíåçäå. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Adult Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) in the nest. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin

software (Arc View 3.2a, Spatial Analyst 1.1, Animal Movement Analysis 2.0, ESRI, CA, USA) (ArcView GIS, 1996; Hooge, Eichenlaub, 1997; Hooge, 1998). The author with colleges recorded 415 events of registering the adults or signs of their presence and 322 breeding territories in the region. A total of 309 active nests were found where we registered 141 events of breeding success. On study plots we found 169 nests occupied by Eagle Owls (1–14 nests per a plot, the average number 4.69 ± 2.91), 117 nests were living at the moment of visiting (fig. 2, fig. 3). Also 7 breeding territories were found during count routes and 13 – in the segmented plot in forest-steppe foothills of Altai (tables 1a, b, c). The number of the Eagle Owl’s nests found in study plots correlates positively with the area of potential nesting biotopes (cliff-faces, edges of pine forests) (fig. 3) (r = 0.644, F = 24.05, R2 = 0.414, P < 0.0005). A total of 2617 – 4034 pairs (at average 3323 pairs) are estimated to breed in the Altai-Sayan Region (table 2, fig. 6). The main potential nesting biotopes for the species undoubtedly are cliff-faces irrespective of their types and locations (excepting rocks on slopes of mountains in the forest zone outside of river valleys) – 85.67%. In a flat part of the region the main part of Eagle Owls nest in pine forests occupying edges of forests in foot of large pine trees – 11.57%. We found 363 nests of Eagle Owls


20

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10 Âûÿâëÿåìûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíà êàðòèðîâàëèñü, äàííûå âíîñèëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA), ãäå è ïðîèçâîäèëñÿ ðàñ÷¸ò îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà (Êàðÿêèí, 1996; 2000; 2004). Ìåòîäû ïîèñêà ãí¸çä Ôèëèí – äîñòàòî÷íî ñêðûòíûé è ìàëîçàìåòíûé õèùíèê. Ïîýòîìó äëÿ åãî îáíàðóæåíèÿ â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ, íàñåë¸ííûõ ïîïóëÿöèÿìè, èìåþùèìè ðàçíûå ñòåðåîòèïû ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, ïðèìåíÿëèñü ñïåöèôè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû âûÿâëåíèÿ, îñíîâàííûå íà ïðåæíåì îïûòå ðàáîòû àâòîðà ñ äàííûì âèäîì (Êàðÿêèí, 1996; 1998; 2004). Îñíîâíàÿ äîëÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ â ñòåïíûõ è ãîðíî-ñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ áûëà ëîêàëèçîâàíà â õîäå ìàðøðóòíî-òî÷å÷íûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, êîòîðûå çàêëþ÷àëèñü â ñëåäóþùåì: - ãðóïïà íà àâòîìîáèëå ïåðåìåùàëàñü ìåæäó áèîòîïàìè (ñêàëû-îñòàíöû, áàëêè, ýðîçèîííûå îáðûâû âðåìåííûõ âîäîòîêîâ), ïîäõîäÿùèìè äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, - íà êîðîòêèõ îñòàíîâêàõ ìåñòà, ïðèãîäíûå äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä, îñìàòðèâàëèñü â îïòèêó (áèíîêëè 12õ50, òðóáû 12–60õ60) íà ïðåäìåò îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñëåäîâ ïîì¸òà è ïóõà (êàê ïóõà æåðòâ, ñêàïëèâàþùåãîñÿ â ãíåçäàõ, òàê è íàñåäíîãî ïóõà ñàìêè èëè ìåçîïòèëÿ ïòåíöîâ íà áîëåå ïîçäíèõ ýòàïàõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ), âèñÿùåãî íà êóñòàõ è òðàâå, - ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè ñëåäîâ ïðåáûâàíèÿ ôèëèíà èëè ïîäîçðåíèè íà íèõ ìåñòà âåðîÿòíîãî ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçäà îáñëåäîâàëèñü â òå÷åíèå 10–40 ìèíóò, â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ñëîæíîñòè ðåëüåôà, - åñëè ãíåçäî áûëî îáíàðóæåíî, òî îáñëåäîâàíèå àíàëîãè÷íûõ áèîòîïîâ ïðîäîëæàëîñü äî ìîìåíòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñëåäóþùåãî ãíåçäà, - ïî 2–3 íàéäåííûì íà òåððèòîðèè ãí¸çäàì ðàññ÷èòûâàëîñü ñðåäíåå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ïàðàìè, - â õîäå äàëüíåéøåãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ òåððèòîðèè ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè ãíåçäà ôèëèíà íà îñíîâàíèè ñðåäíåãî ðàññòîÿíèÿ ìåæäó ïàðàìè íà êàðòå ìåñòîïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçäà î÷åð÷èâàëñÿ êðóã (áóôåð), âíóòðè êîòîðîãî ðàñïîëîæåíèå äðóãîãî ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíà îêàçûâàëîñü ìàëîâåðîÿòíûì, - çà ïðåäåëàìè áóôåðà îïðåäåëÿëîñü ìåñòîïîëîæåíèå áèîòîïîâ, àíàëîãè÷íûõ òåì, â êîòîðûõ áûëè íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà ôèëèíà, - ãðóïïà íà àâòîìàøèíå ïåðåìåùàëàñü â ýòè áèîòîïû, ðàñïîëîæåííûå çà ïðåäåëàìè áóôåðà óæå ëîêàëèçîâàííîãî ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíà, ñ öåëüþ ïîèñêà ãíåçäà äðóãîé ïàðû. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì ïðîâîäèëîñü îáñëåäîâàíèå áîðîâ è êîëêîâûõ ëåñîâ â ðàâ-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (including old nests in territories with active nests) and only 2 nests (less than 1% from their total number) located outside of typical nesting biotopes (table 3). The results of research demonstrates the Eagle Owl spreads widely and is a typical raptor in the Altai-Sayan Region. Decreasing the number of the Eagle owl in 1960–70s was perhaps noted only in cultivated regions of Novosibirsk, Kemerovo districts and Altai Kray. As the result there are degraded breeding groups in the BiyaChumysh Uppland and in the Kuznetsk Depression. Fortunately the number of the Eagle Owl highly probably was not decreased on the most part of the region.

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Àëòàéñêèé êðàé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Altai Kray. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 íèííîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà ñ òîé ëèøü ðàçíèöåé, ÷òî áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ îïóøåê èëè ïîáåðåæèé âîäî¸ìîâ, ãäå íàèáîëåå âûñîêà âåðîÿòíîñòü îáíàðóæåíèÿ ãí¸çä ôèëèíà, ïðèõîäèëîñü ïðîõîäèòü ïåøêîì, à ìàøèíà èñïîëüçîâàëàñü äëÿ ïåðåáðîñêè ìåæäó ó÷àñòêàìè. Äðóãèì ìåòîäîì ïðèõîäèëîñü ïîëüçîâàòüñÿ â ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå, ãäå ãíåçäîâàíèå ôèëèíà ïðèóðî÷åíî ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî ê ðå÷íûì äîëèíàì. Çäåñü îñíîâíûì ñïîñîáîì ïåðåäâèæåíèÿ áûë ñïëàâ íà áàéäàðêàõ è ðåçèíîâûõ ëîäêàõ.  õîäå ñïëàâà â îïòèêó îñìàòðèâàëàñü ôðîíòàëüíàÿ ÷àñòü ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé íà ïðåäìåò îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñëåäîâ ïðåáûâàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Åñëè òàêèå ñëåäû áûëè îáíàðóæåíû, èëè âîçíèêàëî ïîäîçðåíèå íà ïðèñóòñòâèå âèäà, ñêàëà ïðî÷¸ñûâàëàñü ãðóïïîé èç 2-õ ÷åëîâåê (îäèí ïåðåìåùàëñÿ ïî âåðõó ñêàëû, îñìàòðèâàÿ ìåñòà âåðîÿòíûõ ïðèñàä, âòîðîé – ïî å¸ ïîäíîæèþ, îáðàùàÿ âíèìàíèå íà îñòàòêè ïèùè), äåéñòâèÿ êîòîðîé êîîðäèíèðîâàëèñü èññëåäîâàòåëåì ñ ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîãî áåðåãà, èìåþùèì õîðîøèé îáçîð ñêàëû. Âñå ýòè ìåòîäû ðàññ÷èòàíû íà ïîèñê òèïè÷íûõ ãí¸çä, äîëÿ êîòîðûõ â ðàçíûõ ïîïóëÿöèÿõ ôèëèíà ñîñòàâëÿåò íå ìåíåå 90% (Êàðÿêèí, 1996; 1998; 2004). Ìåòîäû ó÷¸òà è ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè Âíå çàâèñèìîñòè îò òîãî, êàêèì ìåòîäîì â¸ëñÿ ïîèñê ãí¸çä, äàííûå áûëè ðàçäåëåíû íà äâå ãðóïïû: ëèíåéíûå è ïëîùàäíûå. Ò.å. ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíîâ, ëîêàëèçîâàííûå íà ìàðøðóòàõ âäîëü ëèíåéíûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, ðàññ÷èòûâàëèñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà îáùóþ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü àíàëîãè÷íûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå (îïóøêè áîðîâ, ïîáåðåæüÿ îç¸ð, êóýñòîâûå ãðÿäû è ò.ï.), à íå íà èõ ïëîùàäü. Åñëè ó÷¸òíûå äàííûå ïîëó÷åíû íà îïóøêå áîðîâ, òî îíè ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü òîëüêî íà îïóøêè áîðîâ. Åñëè ó÷¸ò â¸ëñÿ íà ïëîùàäêàõ, ãäå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå áèîòîïû ôèëèíà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü õàîòè÷íî ëèáî èìåëè ÷¸òêèå ïëîùàäíûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè, ïåðåñ÷¸ò ïëîòíîñòè â¸ëñÿ íà àíàëîãè÷íûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ èëè êîíêðåòíûå áèîòîïû â ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå (ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ ñêëîíîâ õðåáòîâ, êàìåíèñòûå ñòåïè ñ âûõîäàìè ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä ïî ñêëîíàì ïîëîãèõ óâàëîâ, êîëêîâûå ëåñà è ò.ä.). Òàêîé ïîäõîä ïîçâîëèë èçáàâèòüñÿ îò áîëüøîé ïîãðåøíîñòè ïðè ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ïëîòíîñòè íà îáùóþ ïëîùàäü ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíîâ, êîòîðàÿ íåèçáåæíî âîçíèêàåò ïðè ðàñ÷¸-

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òå ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà, ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ â ñïåöèôè÷åñêèõ áèîòîïàõ. Åñëè êàêîé-òî òèï áèîòîïà â ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå îêàçàëñÿ íåîáñëåäîâàííûì, åãî íå âêëþ÷àëè â ðàñ÷¸ò îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà, ñ÷èòàÿ, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â í¸ì ðàâíà íóëþ. Ìîäåëüíûå ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè áûëè âûáðàíû ñëó÷àéíûì îáðàçîì, è òå, êîòîðûå ïîïàëè íà òåððèòîðèè, ãäå ôèëèí îòñóòñòâóåò íà ãíåçäîâàíèè, â ðàñ÷¸òå íå ðàññìàòðèâàëèñü. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â çîíå, ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíîé äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà, çàëîæåíî 36 ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 2111,22 êì2 (5,0 – 346,7, â ñðåäíåì 58,65 ± 79,81 êì2) (çäåñü è äàëåå M ± SD). Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ ñîñòàâèëà 436,09 êì2 (1,9 – 44,4, â ñðåäíåì 12,11 ± 9,64 êì2), ÷òî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò 20,66% îò ïëîùàäè ïëîùàäîê è 5,09% îò îáùåé ïëîùàäè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ â ðåãèîíå. Ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü, ÷òî íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ è ìàðøðóòàõ îáñëåäîâàííàÿ ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ áóäåò áîëåå èëè ìåíåå ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíà èõ îáùåé ïëîùàäè â ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå (â ïðåäåëàõ 2 – 8%) (Êàðÿêèí, 2000).  äåéñòâèòåëüíîñòè æå â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ óäàëîñü îõâàòèòü îáñëåäîâàíèåì îò 0,87 äî 26,4% ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, â ñðåäíåì 7,79±6,28%. Íå óäàëîñü íàáðàòü ó÷¸òíóþ ïëîùàäü, ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíóþ îáùåé, â ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå èç-çà áîëüøîé ïëîùàäè òåððèòîðèè è òðóäíîñòè ïåðåäâèæåíèÿ ïî íåé. Äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêèì îêàçàëñÿ ïðîöåíò îáñëåäîâàííûõ áèîòîïîâ îò èõ îáùåé ïëîùàäè â íåáîëüøèõ ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ è íà ðàâíèíå (òàáë. 1 à, b, c). Ïðè îáðàáîòêå ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ èñïîëüçîâàí ïàêåò ïðîãðàìì ESRI (Arc View 3.2a, Spatial Analyst1.1, Animal Movement Analysis 2.0) (ArcView GIS, 1996; Hooge, Eichenlaub, 1997; Hooge, 1998). Ìåòîäèêà ïîäãîòîâêè îñíîâû äëÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ Îñíîâîé äëÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ ÿâèëàñü ïîäãîòîâëåííàÿ âåêòîðíàÿ îñíîâà: ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè, ìàðøðóòû, ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíà, ïðèðîäíûå ðàéîíû, áèîòîïû, áóôåðíûå òåððèòîðèè. Âåêòîðíûå ñëîè ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê, ìàðøðóòîâ è ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà ãîòîâèëèñü ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ñèñòåìû GPS. Âñå òî÷êè ïðèâÿçûâàëèñü ñ ïîìîùüþ ñïóòíèêîâûõ íàâèãàòîðîâ Garmin 12, à çàòåì ýêñïîðòèðîâàëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ ñ ïîìîùüþ ïðîãðàììû DNRGarmin.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Àëòàéñêèé êðàé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Altai Kray. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì Landsat–7 ETM+ ïîäãîòîâëåíû âåêòîðíûå êàðòû ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ è ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíîâ. Êðèòåðèÿìè âûäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ ÿâèëèñü îñíîâíûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè îáíàðóæåííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà. Ïðè îïðåäåëåíèè ïëîùàäè ëèíåéíûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ (îïóøêè áîðîâ, êðóòîñêëîíû ðå÷íûõ äîëèí) èñïîëüçîâàëèñü ñðåäíèå ïîêàçàòåëè óäàë¸ííîñòè ãí¸çä ôèëèíà îò ÷¸òêî âèäèìûõ íà ñíèìêàõ ãðàíèö ýòèõ áèîòîïîâ (îò êðàÿ áîðà, îò ðóñëà ðåêè) äëÿ êàæäîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà. Èíîãäà ïðè âûäåëåíèè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ âîçíèêàëà âûñîêàÿ ïîãðåøíîñòü ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè ãðàíèö (áîëåå 30%) â ðåçóëüòàòå íåîäíîçíà÷íîé èíòåðïðåòàöèè ïîãðàíè÷íûõ ïèêñåëåé íà êîñìîñíèìêàõ.  òàêîì ñëó÷àå âûäåëÿëèñü óñëîâíî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå òåððèòîðèè, âêëþ÷àþùèå â ñåáÿ âñþ ñîâîêóïíîñòü áèîòîïîâ â ïðåäåëàõ àíàëèçèðóåìîãî ïîëèãîíà, â êîòîðûõ âåðîÿòíî ãíåçäîâàíèå ôèëèíà, âìåñòå ñ òåìè ïëîùàäÿìè, êîòîðûå íåâîçìîæíî îäíîçíà÷íî îáúåäèíèòü â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå áèîòîïû èëè èñêëþ÷èòü èç íèõ. Òàêèì ìåòîäîì ïðèøëîñü âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ äëÿ ñòåïíûõ ïðåäãîðèé Àëòàÿ, ãäå âûñîêàÿ äîëÿ êàìåíèñòûõ ñòåïåé ñ âûõîäàìè ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä, êàê ïî ñêëîíàì áàëîê, òàê è ïî ñêëîíàì óâàëîâ, ïðè÷¸ì ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ âåçäå, ãäå åñòü âûñîêèå ñêàëüíûå âûõîäû, íî ïî ñíèìêàì èõ íåâîçìîæíî îòäåëèòü îò íèçêèõ. Ïðè òàêîì ïîäõîäå íà ïëîùàäü âûäåëåííûõ ïîëèãîíîâ ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëàñü íå ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ, à åãî ó÷¸òíàÿ ïëîòíîñòü. Ïðèðîäíûå ðàéîíû âûäåëåíû íà îñíîâå ýêîñèñòåìíîãî ïîäõîäà. Äëÿ ñëèÿíèÿ ìåëêèõ ïîëèãîíîâ â áîëåå êðóïíûå èñïîëüçîâàíû êðèòåðèè ñõîäñòâà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíîâ íà äàííûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ.

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Ïëîùàäü òåððèòîðèè, ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíîé äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà â ðåãèîíå, ñîñòàâëÿåò 31723,93 êì2 (5,33% îò îáùåé ïëîùàäè ðåãèîíà) áåç ó÷¸òà òåõ áèîòîïîâ, â êîòîðûõ âèä íå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàí. Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ (áåç ó÷¸òà óñëîâíî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ) ñîñòàâëÿåò 8567,12 êì2 (1,44% îò îáùåé ïëîùàäè ðåãèîíà).  àíàëèçå êîñìîñíèìêîâ è ïîäãîòîâêå âåêòîðíîãî ñëîÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíîâ èñïîëüçîâàíû ïðîãðàììû ERDAS, Arc View 3.2a ESRI, Image Analysis, Spatial Tools (ERDAS IMAGINE, 1991; ArcView GIS, 1996; Hooge P.N., 1998). Èçó÷åííîñòü  Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè ôèëèí íàáëþäàëñÿ ðàçíûìè èññëåäîâàòåëÿìè ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â Êóëóíäå è Áàðàáå, ãäå áûë êðàéíå ðåäîê (Èîãàíçåí , 1908; Äàíèëîâ, 1976; Êîçëîâ, 1976), à â ïðàâîáåðåæüå Îáè èçâåñòíû ëèøü íåñêîëüêî âñòðå÷ â Ïðèîáñêèõ áîðàõ è åäèíñòâåííûé ñëó÷àé îáíàðóæåíèÿ ãíåçäà â Òîãó÷èíñêîì ðàéîíå áëèç ñ. Æåëòîíîãèíî (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà…, 2000). Ëèøü â ïîñëåäíèå íåñêîëüêî ëåò ñòàëè èçâåñòíû ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ âèäà, ïîäòâåðæä¸ííûå íàõîäêàìè ãí¸çä, â Îáñêîì ïðàâîáåðåæüå â Ñóçóíñêîì áîðó è äîëèíå ð. Áåðäü (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2000; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005)  Àëòàéñêîì êðàå â íà÷àëå ïðîøëîãî ñòîëåòèÿ ôèëèí îòìå÷àëñÿ êàê ðåäêàÿ ãíåçäÿùàÿñÿ ïòèöà â Îáñêîì ëåâîáåðåæüå (Âåëèæàíèíû, 1929; Çàëåññêèå, 1931), Í.Í. Åãîðîâ (1961) ñ÷èòàë ôèëèíà ðåäêèì îñ¸äëûì õèùíèêîì ëåíòî÷íûõ áîðîâ.  êîíöå ïðîøëîãî ñòîëåòèÿ ôèëèí áûë íàéäåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ó îç. Áàòîâîå Çàâüÿëîâñêîãî ðàéîíà, â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Ñðîñòû Åãîðüåâñêîãî ðàéîíà è â Îáñêîì çàêàçíèêå (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà, 1998). Ëåòîì ôèëèíîâ íàáëþäàëè â Çàâüÿëîâñêîì çàêàçíèêå, ó îç. Êóçíåöîâî â Óãëîâñêîì ðàéîíå, ñ¸ë Ñòîëáîâî Êàìåíñêîãî ðàéîíà, Ðå÷êóíîâî, Óñòü×óìûø è ð.ï. Ëàðè÷èõà Òàëúìåíñêîãî ðàéîíà, îç. Êóëóíäèíñêîå (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà, 1998). Îäèíî÷íûå ïòèöû â ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå ëåòà 1988 ã. îòìå÷àëèñü â ëåñíûõ êîëêàõ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ îç. Êóëóíäèíñêîå (Ïåòðîâ, Òîðîïîâ, 2000). À.Ï. Êó÷èí (1994) ïðèâîäèò åäèíñòâåííóþ âñòðå÷ó ôèëèíîâ â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä â Îáñêîì ëåâîáåðåæüå è åäèíñòâåííóþ â Âåðõíåîáñêîì áîðó. Í.Ô. Êàùåíêî (1900) íàáëþäàë ôèëèíîâ ó ñ. Ñàââóøêà â Ãîðíîé Êîëûâàíè, Â.À. Ñåëåâèí (1929) íàø¸ë ýòîò âèä íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íà Êîëûâàíñêîì õðåáòå. Ëåòíèå âñòðå÷è èçâåñòíû â ïðåäãîðüÿõ ó ñåëà Êî-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 ìàð (Ñóøêèí, 1938) â ×èíåòèíñêîì çàêàçíèêå â âåðõîâüå ð. Èíÿ, ó ñ. Ñåíòåëåê íà âåðõíåì ×àðûøå, ó ñ. Ñîëîíîâêà íà ð. Àíóé (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà, 1998). Èçðåäêà ôèëèí íàáëþäàëñÿ â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè ð. Áåëîé (Áåðåçîâèêîâ, 2002). Íà êî÷¸âêàõ ðåãóëÿðíî íàáëþäàëñÿ â ïîéìàõ êðóïíûõ ðåê, òàêèõ êàê Îáü, Áèÿ, Êàòóíü (Êó÷èí, 1976).  ñîâðåìåííûé ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé íà òåððèòîðèè Êóëóíäèíñêîé è Ïðåäàëòàéñêîé ðàâíèí, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â áîðîâûõ ìàññèâàõ, è â ãîðíûõ ðàéîíàõ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ îáíàðóæåíî îêîëî ñîòíè ãí¸çä ôèëèíà (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005; Ñìåëÿíñêèé è äð., 2004; Ñìåëÿíñêèé, Òîìèëåíêî, 2005).

Ñë¸òêè ôèëèíà â íèøå ñêàëû. Ðåñïóáëèêà Õàêàñèÿ. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Fledglings of the Eagle Owl in a niche on cliff. Khakasia Republic. Photo by E. Nikolenko

 Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé Ï.Ï. Ñóøêèí (1938) îòìå÷àë ôèëèíà â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä ïî âñåìó ãîðíîìó Àëòàþ è â Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîì Àëòàå â áåçëåñíûõ ãîðàõ, îêðóæàþùèõ ñóõóþ ×óéñêóþ ñòåïü. Ôèëèí áûë èçâåñòåí êàê ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ â ïðèòåëåöêîé òàéãå è íà íèæíåì ×óëûøìàíå â 30–40-å ãîäà (Ôîëèòàðåê, Äåìåíòüåâ, 1938; Äóëüêåéò, 1960), à â 60-õ ãã Þ.Ñ. Ðàâêèí (1973) â Ñâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîì Àëòàå îòìåòèë òîëüêî 2 âñòðå÷è çà 4 ãîäà íàáëþäåíèé. Íèçêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îòìå÷àåòñÿ è íà Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîì Àëòàå (Äåðåâùèêîâ, 1974).  70-å ãã. ôèëèí òàêæå îòìå÷àåòñÿ êðàéíå ðåäêî – âñåãî 32 ðåãèñòðàöèè âñåìè íàáëþäàòåëÿìè (Ñòàõååâ, 2000), íî ïîâñåìåñòíî: â ïðèòåëåöêîé òàéãå, ìåæäóðå÷üå Êóêóðå è ×àêðûìà, Øàâëû è ×óëûøìàíà, â äîëèíå ×óëûøìàíà íàïðîòèâ êîðäîíà ×îäðî, ó óñòüÿ Êàðàêåìà, ïî ð. Êîêøè. Íà Ñåâåðíîì Àëòàå â áðà÷íûé ïåðèîä ñëûøíû ñ îäíîãî ìåñòà îäíîâðåìåííî íå áîëåå 2–3 ôèëèíîâ (Ìàëêîâ, Ìàëêîâ, 1995). À.Ï. Êó÷èí (1991) îòìå÷àåò ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè â öåëîì íà Àëòàå çà ïîñëåäíèå 50 ëåò.  ëèòåðàòóðå îïèñàíî âñåãî íåñêîëüêî ñëó÷àåâ îáíàðóæåíèÿ ãí¸çä ñ êëàäêàìè è ïòåí-

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öàìè è âûâîäêîâ ôèëèíà íà òåððèòîðèè Ãîðíîãî Àëòàÿ.  Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîì Àëòàå ãíåçäî ñ 3 ÿéöàìè áûëî íàéäåíî â 1985 ã. 20 àïðåëÿ, à ñ 3 ïòåíöàìè – â 1984 ã. 7 èþíÿ (Ìàëêîâ, Ìàëêîâ, 1995), ñ 3 ïîëóîïåðèâøèìèñÿ ïòåíöàìè íà Êàòóíè ó ñ. Êóþñ – â ñåðåäèíå èþíÿ 1967 ã., ïîëíîñòüþ îïåðèâøåãîñÿ ïòåíöà ïîéìàëè íà ð. Óðñóë ó ñ. Åëî – 17 èþíÿ 1971 ã. (Êó÷èí, 1994). Íà òåððèòîðèè Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè ïî äàííûì À.Ô. Áåëÿíêèíà (1994) ôèëèí ðåäîê: â ïåðèîä 1975–1991 ãã. îòìå÷åíî âñåãî 7 âñòðå÷ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â äîëèíå ñðåäíåãî òå÷åíèÿ ð. Òîìü. ×èñëåííîñòü â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä – îò 0,05 îñîáåé/êì2 â ÷åðíåâîé òàéãå è ñîñíîâûõ áîðàõ äî 0,03 â áåðåçíÿêàõ ëåñîñòåïíîé ÷àñòè Êóçíåöêîé êîòëîâèíû. Åäèíñòâåííûé ðàç áûë îòëîâëåí ñë¸òîê 16.07.1979 ã. â ÷åðíåâîé òàéãå â äîëèíå ñðåäíåãî òå÷åíèÿ ð. Òîìü (Êðàïèâèíñêèé ð-í Êåìåðîâñêîé îáë.).  Õàêàñèè è íà þãå Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ ôèëèí, íàîáîðîò, áûë ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í øèðîêî. Íàñåëÿë ïðåäãîðüÿ è ñðåäíåãîðüÿ Ñàÿí, áûë îòìå÷åí ó Ìîæàðñêèõ îç¸ð, ðåãóëÿðíî îòìå÷àëñÿ äî 58–590 ñ.ø. (Ñóøêèí, 1914; Òóãàðèíîâ, Áóòóðëèí, 1911).  ëåñîñòåïíîì è ïîäòà¸æíîì ïîÿñàõ â ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå XX âåêà áûë íåðåäêèì ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ âèäîì (Ñóøêèí, 1914; ßíóøåâè÷, Þðëîâ, 1950). Ñ.Ì. Ïðîêîôüåâ (1988; 1994) îòìå÷àåò ôèëèíà êàê øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé âèä Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó è íèçêîãîðèé Çàïàäíîãî Ñàÿíà, â Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå, Äçåðæèíñêîì è Êàíñêîì ð-íàõ, îò ñòåïíîãî äî âûñîêîãîðíûõ ïîÿñîâ, ïî îñòåïí¸ííûì ó÷àñòêàì ïðîíèêàåò âûñîêî â ãîðû äî 1000–1900 ì í.ó.ì. Ïî îöåíêàì Ñ.Ì. Ïðîêîôüåâà (1994) ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü (0,5 îñîáåé/êì2) íàáëþäàåòñÿ â ñòåïÿõ ñ âûõîäàìè ñêàë è â çàðîñëÿõ ñòåïíûõ êóñòàðíèêîâ è ëèñòâåííè÷íûõ ðåäêîëåñüÿõ (0,7 îñîáåé/êì2); â öåëîì â ñòåïíîé çîíå Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû – 0,02–0,03 îñîáåé/êì2; â ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíå â ëåñíûõ ñîîáùåñòâàõ – îò 0,2 äî 0,4 îñîáåé/êì2; â ãîðàõ â ïîäòà¸æíûõ ñâåòëîõâîéíî-ìåëêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ – îò 0,08 äî 0,2 îñîáåé/ êì2; ãîðíîòà¸æíûõ äîëèíàõ ðåê – 0,01; â ãîðíûõ ñòåïÿõ – 0,07 â Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå (Ïðîêîôüåâ, 1986), 0,02 – â ìåæäóðå÷üå ðð. Îíà è Ì. Àáàêàí, 0,3 íà ó÷àñòêàõ ãîðíîé ëåñîñòåïè â ïîäòà¸æíîì ïîÿñå.  Õàêàññêîì çàïîâåäíèêå ãíåçäèòñÿ íå áîëåå 5–7 ïàð (Ïðîêîôüåâ è äð., 2000).  Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå ôèëèí ðåãóëÿðíî îòìå÷àåòñÿ íà çèìîâêàõ (Ïåòðîâ, Ðóäêîâñêèé, 1985; Ñîêîëîâ è äð., 1983).


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10 Ìíîãîëåòíèå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíîâ íàéäåíû Å.Â. Åêèìîâûì (2000) ó ñåâåðíîé îêîíå÷íîñòè îç. Áåëå, íà îñòàíöàõ Îðòà-Õàÿ, Êðåñò-Õàÿ áëèç îç. Ôûðêàë, â óðî÷èùàõ Ñóíäóê, Ñàðàò, â äîëèíå ×óëûìà íà ãîðàõ Áîëüøàÿ è Äîëãàÿ ãðèâà, â îâðàãàõ íà âîñòî÷íîì áåðåãó îç. Ìàëîå, íà îñòàíöàõ áëèç îç. Ó÷óì. Òàêæå îòìå÷àëèñü ïîñòîÿííûå âñòðå÷è ôèëèíà â âåðõîâüÿõ ðåê Á. Êðåìåí÷óã ó ñëèÿíèÿ åãî ñ ðó÷üåì Ïîãàíêà, ñ ð. Òåðåõòþëü, ñ ð. Ì. Êðåìåí÷óã, åäèíè÷íûå âñòðå÷è îòìå÷àëèñü â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Á. Êåòü, Âåðõíåé è Íèæíåé Ïîäú¸ìíûõ. Ñ.Ì. Ïðîêîôüåâûì (1994)

Ðèñ. 2. Ïëîùàäè ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê, ïëîùàäè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ è êîëè÷åñòâî îáíàðóæåííûõ ïàð ôèëèíîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ Fig. 2. Area of study plots, nesting biotopes, and numbers of recorded pairs of the Eagle Owl on plots

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íàéäåíî 7 ãí¸çä: 22.06.1968 ã. â ñðåäíåì òå÷åíèè ð. Àáàêàí íà ñêàëüíîì îáíàæåíèè â íèøå ñ 3 ïóõîâûìè ïòåíöàìè, 19.08.1978 ã. â Øèðèíñêîé ñòåïè íà ñêàëüíîì îáíàæåíèè ïî áîðòó ëîãà ñ 2 ñë¸òêàìè, 22.06.1982 ã. òàêæå â Øèðèíñêîé ñòåïè íà êàìåíèñòîì ñêëîíå âäîëü ïîéìû ð. Áåëûé Èþñ ñ 3 ïòåíöàìè, 06.1983 ã. â ïîäòà¸æíîì ïîÿñå Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó íà ñêàëüíîì îáíàæåíèè íà ñêëîíå â äîëèíå ð. Áåëûé Èþñ ñ ïòåíöàìè, 17.06.1985 ã. â Áîãðàäñêîé ëåñîñòåïè íà ïîëîãîì ñêëîíå â çàðîñëÿõ êóñòàðíèêà ñ 2 ïòåíöàìè, 10.07.1988 ã. â Êîéáàëüñêîé ñòåïè â ïîñàäêàõ ñîñíû â îñíîâàíèè ñòâîëà ñîñíû íà îïóøêå ñ 1 ïòåíöîì, 30.05.1992 ã. â ïîäòà¸æíîì ïîÿñå Çàïàäíîãî Ñàÿíà â ñðåäíåì òå÷åíèè ð. Îíà íà ñêàëüíîì âûõîäå íà îñòåïí¸ííîì êàìåíèñòîì ñêëîíå ñ 4 ïòåíöàìè.  Òóâå ïî äàííûì À.À. Áàðàíîâà è Â.È. Çàáåëèíà (2002) ôèëèí øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í, íî íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáû÷íîé ïòèöåé. Ãíåçäèòñÿ â Óáñó-Íóðñêîé, Õåì÷èêñêîé, Öåíòðàëüíîòóâèíñêîé è Òîäæèíñêîé êîòëîâèíàõ è ïî ìíîãèì õðåáòàì, êóäà ïðîíèêàåò ïî äîëèíàì ðåê äî âûñîò 2300– 2400 í.ó.ì (Áàðàíîâ, 1991; Ìîëîêîâà, Êàðòàøîâ, 1999). Íàéäåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â äîëèíå ð. Òåñ-Õåì, â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Òýýëè è ïî ð. Áèé-Õåì. Íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà â ñêàëàõ ð. Êà÷èê Ýðçèíñêîãî ð-íà, íà ñêàëüíûõ îñòàíöàõ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ï. Ýðçèí, â äîëèíå ð. Ýæèì (Òóâèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà), îêðåñòíîñòÿõ îç. Êàðà-Õîëü, â Ñàãëèíñêîé äîëèíå ïî ð. Øèí è Îðòà-Õàëûûí, ïî ð. Áàðëûê, Êàðãû, Ìîãåí-Áóðåí.  Ñàãëèíñêîé äîëèíå èçâåñòíî 3 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàðû (ïëîòíîñòü 1,6 îñîáåé íà 100 êì2), â Êàðãèíñêîé – 4 ïàðû (2,3 îñîáè íà 100 êì2), â äðóãèõ ðàéîíàõ Òóâû ÷èñëåííîñòü çíà÷èòåëüíî íèæå, â íåêîòîðûõ ìåñòàõ ôèëèí âîîáùå íå ðåãèñòðèðîâàëñÿ (Áàðàíîâ, 1991).  öåëîì ïëîòíîñòü íå ïðåâûøàåò 0,8–1 îñîáè íà 100 êì2, îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 400–500 îñîáåé (Áàðàíîâ, Çàáåëèí, 2002). Îòìå÷àåòñÿ, ÷òî â ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â Òóâå ñíèçèëàñü ïî íåèçâåñòíûì ïðè÷èíàì (Áàðàíîâ, Çàáåëèí, 2002).

Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé Ðèñ. 3. Ïðåäåëû âàðèàöèè äàííûõ (SE, SD) ïëîùàäè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ è êîëè÷åñòâà îáíàðóæåííûõ â ýòèõ áèîòîïàõ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ôèëèíîâ Fig. 3. Limits of variations (SE, SD) for area of the Eagle Owl nesting biotopes on study plots and number of breeding pairs recorded on plots

Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 2006 ã. àâòîðîì ñ êîëëåãàìè â ðåãèîíå ïëîùàäüþ 595195,78 êì2 ôèëèí è ïðèçíàêè åãî ïðåáûâàíèÿ âñòðå÷åíû â 415 òî÷êàõ, è âûÿâëåíî 322 ãíåç-


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 4. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ôèëèíîâ ïî ïëîùàäêàì â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ïëîùàäè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ Fig. 4. Distribution of breeding pairs of the Eagle Owl on study plots in accordance of area of nesting biotopes

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

äîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíîâ.  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè îáíàðóæåíî 309 çàíÿòûõ ãí¸çä, â êîòîðûõ îòìå÷åí 141 ñëó÷àé óñïåøíîãî ðàçìíîæåíèÿ. Íà ïëîùàäêàõ áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 169 ãí¸çä, çàíÿòûõ ôèëèíàìè (îò 1 äî 14 íà îäíîé ïëîùàäêå, â ñðåäíåì 4,69 ± 2,91), 117 èç êîòîðûõ áûëè æèëûìè íà ìîìåíò îáíàðóæåíèÿ (ðèñ. 2, ðèñ. 3). Òàêæå 7 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíîâ ëîêàëèçîâàíî íà ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ è 13 – íà êëàñòåðíîé ó÷¸òíîé ïëîùàäè â ëåñîñòåïíûõ ïðåäãîðüÿõ Àëòàÿ (òàáë. 1). Êîëè÷åñòâî îáíàðóæåííûõ íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ ãí¸çä ôèëèíà ïîëîæèòåëüíî êîððåëèðóåò ñ ïëîùàäüþ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ (ðèñ. 3) (r = 0,644, F = 24,05, R2 = 0,414, P < 0,0005). Ïåðåñ÷¸ò ñðåäíèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé ïëîòíîñòè íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ (0,08 ± 0,17 ïàð/1 êì2; çäåñü è äàëåå â äàííûõ ïî ïëîòíîñòè M ± SE) è ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ (0,39 ± 0,11 ïàð/1 êì2) íà ïëîùàäü ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíóþ äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà è ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ â ðåãèîíå äà¸ò ñëåäóþùèå öèôðû: 1981 – 3255, â ñðåäíåì 2539 ïàð è 2831 – 3893, â ñðåäíåì 3320 ïàð ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.

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Íà ðåçóëüòàòû ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ñóùåñòâåííî âëèÿþò òàêèå ôàêòîðû êàê íåðàâíîìåðíîñòü ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ôèëèíà â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ (îñîáåííî â ãîðíîñòåïíûõ è ãîðíî-òà¸æíûõ), à òàêæå áîëüøàÿ ðàçíèöà ïëîùàäåé, ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ôèëèíà, è ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ. Ïåðåñ÷¸ò ñðåäíèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé ïëîòíîñòè íà óñðåäí¸ííûå äàííûå ïî ïëîùàäè ìåñòîîáèòàíèé è ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ äà¸ò íåêîòîðîå çàíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè, âîïðåêè òàêèì ìåòîäàì äëÿ âèäîâ, èìåþùèõ ðàâíîìåðíîå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå. ×òîáû èçáàâèòüñÿ îò íåìèíóåìî âîçíèêàþùèõ â ýòèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïîãðåøíîñòåé è áîëåå òî÷íî îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà, â êàæäîì âûäåëåííîì ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå áûë îñóùåñòâë¸í áîëåå äðîáíûé ïîäõîä ê ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ. Ïðè ðàñ÷¸òå ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà ïî äàííûì ñ íåêîòîðûõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê ïðèîðèòåò îòäàâàëñÿ ìåòîäàì ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ëèíåéíûõ ïîêàçàòåëåé ïëîòíîñòè íà ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà ëîêàëèçîâàíà â Ðåñïóáëèêàõ Òûâà, Õàêàñèÿ è Àëòàéñêîì êðàå, ãäå âåëàñü îñíîâíàÿ ðàáîòà. Òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé, Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè è Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ ïîñåùàëèñü ýïèçîäè÷åñêè, à Êåìåðîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü ïðîõîäèëàñü â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ òðàíçèòíûìè ìàðøðóòàìè. Òåì íå ìåíåå, óäàëîñü ïîëó÷èòü ïðåäñòàâëåíèå î ðàñïðåäåëåíèè ôèëèíà íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè ðàññìàòðèâàåìîãî ðåãèîíà (ðèñ. 5). Ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà ôèëèíà ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå, ïëîùàäü êîòîðîé ñîñòàâëÿåò 50087,20 êì2. Çäåñü èçâåñòíî 57 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà. Ëåâîáåðåæíàÿ ÷àñòü Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû (32690,71 êì2), ëåæàùàÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ïðåäåëàõ Õàêàñèè, ëó÷øå îáñëåäîâàíà – çäåñü âûÿâëåíî 55 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòÐèñ. 5. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå. Óñëîâíûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ: À – ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíà; B – ãðàíèöû îáëàñòåé è ðåñïóáëèê Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà; C – àêâàòîðèè. Íóìåðàöèÿ îáëàñòåé è ðåñïóáëèê ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íóìåðàöèè â òàáëèöå 2 Fig. 5. Distribution of the Eagle Owl breeding areas in the Altai-Sayan region. A – the Eagle Owl breeding areas; B – borders of districts and republics of the Altai-Sayan region; C – water bodies. Numbers of districts and republics are similar ones in the Table 2


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå â Ðåñïóáëèêå Õàêàññèÿ (ââåðõó) è â Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå (ð. Ýëåãåñò) â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Inhabitant places of the Eagle Owl in the Minusinsk depression in the Republic of Khakasia (upper) and in the Tuva depression (Elegest river) in the Tuva Republic (bottom). Photo by I. Karyakin

êîâ ôèëèíîâ. Îñíîâíàÿ ðàáîòà âåëàñü â ñåâåðî-çàïàäíîé ÷àñòè Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû, ïîýòîìó èìåííî îòñþäà ïîëó÷åí íàèáîëåå ïîëíûé ìàòåðèàë. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, ãíåçäîâûå áèîòîïû ôèëèíà â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå ñõîäíû – ýòî ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ ïî âåðøèíàì êóýñòîâûõ ãðÿä èëè áåðåãàì ðåê è îç¸ð. Íà íåïðåðûâíûõ ëèíèÿõ ñêàëüíûõ âûõîäîâ ïî âåðøèíàì êóýñòîâûõ ãðÿä ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ðàâíîìåðíî â 1,5–3,5 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû, â ñðåäíåì 2,4 êì. Íàèáîëüøåå ïðåäïî÷òåíèå îòäàåòñÿ ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì áëèç âîäî¸ìîâ.  òàêèõ ìåñòàõ ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè âîçðàñòàåò äî 0,8–2,3 êì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 1,7 êì.  öåëîì ïî êîòëîâèíå â ñðåäíåì íà 7,1 êì ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, âèäèìûõ íà ñíèìêàõ, ïðèõîäèòñÿ 1 ïàðà ôèëèíîâ. Ïðè ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé â ñðåäíåì â 4153,5 êì ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå ãíåçäèòñÿ îêîëî 585 ïàð ôèëèíîâ (376–794 ïàð).  ëåâîáåðåæíîé ÷àñòè Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû, áîëåå áîãàòîé ñêàëüíûìè îáíàæåíèÿìè (â ñðåäíåì 3337 êì), ðàñïîëîæåííûìè ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ïî êóýñòîâûì ãðÿäàì, îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ôèëèíà îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 273–668 ïàð, â ñðåä-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íåì 470.  ïðàâîáåðåæíîé ÷àñòè Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû íà ñêàëàõ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ îêîëî 816 êì ãíåçäèòñÿ 103 – 126, â ñðåäíåì 115 ïàð ôèëèíîâ. Âåðîÿòíî, ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ è â áîðàõ ïðàâîáåðåæíîé ÷àñòè Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû. Çäåñü íå áûëè íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà ôèëèíà, îäíàêî ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü âçðîñëûå ïòèöû è ñëåäû èõ ïðåáûâàíèÿ (ïåðüÿ, ïîåäè, ïîãàäêè). ×àñòîòà ðåãèñòðàöèé ñîñòàâèëà 1 îñ./31,4 êì ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíîé äëÿ ôèëèíà ÷àñòè áîðà. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ áèîòîïîâ (îïóøêà áîðà è ãðèâû âäîëü âíóòðèáîðîâûõ áîëîò è îç¸ð) ñîñòàâèëà â ñðåäíåì 470,7 êì. Åñëè ïðèðàâíÿòü ðåãèñòðàöèè ê ïàðàì, òî ïîëó÷àåì 14–17, â ñðåäíåì 15 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ñîñòàâëÿåò â ñðåäíåì 1,44 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè â ëåâîáåðåæüå Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû è 0,75 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè – â ïðàâîáåðåæüå. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 390–811, â ñðåäíåì 600 ïàð, èç êîòîðûõ 78,33% ãíåçäèòñÿ â ëåâîáåðåæíîé ÷àñòè. Òóâèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà â äâà ðàçà ìåíüøå ïî ïëîùàäè ÷åì Ìèíóñèíñêàÿ (25133,22 êì2), íî ìåíåå îñâîåííàÿ ÷åëîâåêîì è áîëåå îïóñòûíåííàÿ. Çäåñü ëîêàëèçîâàíî 30 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíîâ, ïðèóðî÷åííûõ èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî ê ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà. Ðåëüåô Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû íåñêîëüêî îòëè÷àåòñÿ îò Ìèíóñèíñêîé – çäåñü íåò ýðîçèîííûõ è ëåäíèêîâûõ êóýñòîâûõ ãðÿä, çàòî èìååòñÿ ìàññà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé ïî ñêëîíàì íåáîëüøèõ õðåáòîâ è îñòàíöîâûõ âîçâûøåííîñòåé. Ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà íà ñêàëàõ â Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå ïðàêòè÷åñêè òàêàÿ æå, êàê è â Ìèíóñèíñêîé (1,45 ïàð/10 êì ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, 1,19 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè), îäíàêî áîëåå íåðàâíîìåðíà â ñâÿçè ñ áîëüøîé ðàçîáùåííîñòüþ êðóïíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ.  áîðàõ Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû ôèëèí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íå îáíàðóæåí, íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî îáñëåäîâàíî áîëåå 120 êì îïóøêè óöåëåâøèõ îò ïîæàðîâ ó÷àñòêîâ Áàëãàçûíñêîãî è ÊàëáàêÕàäûíñêîãî áîðîâ. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 129–469, â ñðåäíåì 299 ïàð. Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà â ïðåäåëàõ ðàññìàòðèâàåìîãî ðåãèîíà çàíèìàåò ïëîùàäü 12731,57 êì2. Íàèáîëåå áîãàòàÿ ôèëèíîì òåððèòîðèÿ – þæíûé ìàêðîñêëîí Òàííó-


Raptors Research

Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà â îïóñòûíåííûõ ãîðàõ Òàíó-Îëà â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà (ââåðõó) è íà Þæíî÷óéñêîì õðåáòå â Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Inhabitant places of the Eagle Owl in the desert Tanu-Ola Mountains in the Tuva Republic (upper) and in the South Chuya Mountains in the Republic of Altai (bottom). Photo by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 Îëà, ðàâíîìåðíî èçðåçàííûé ãëóáîêèìè óùåëüÿìè. Çäåñü èçâåñòíî 60 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíîâ, ïðèóðî÷åííûõ ê ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì óùåëèé. Ôèëèíû ãíåçäÿòñÿ â êàæäîì óùåëüå ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ áîëåå 2-õ êì, çàíèìàÿ, êàê ïðàâèëî, áîëåå ðàñ÷ëåí¸ííûå ó÷àñòêè ñ øèðîêèìè äîëèíàìè. Çà 6 ëåò èññëåäîâàíèé çäåñü îáñëåäîâàíî îêîëî 15% ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà óùåëèé. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü óùåëèé, ïîäõîäÿùèõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà ïî ðÿäó êðèòåðèåâ, ñîñòàâëÿåò 814 – 968 êì.  ñðåäíåì íà ïàðó ôèëèíîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ 2,2 êì óùåëèé èëè 2,86 êì2 ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,35 ïàð/1 êì2 ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ èëè 4,11 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè. Ïðè ïëîùàäè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ îêîëî 1158 êì2 ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â óùåëüÿõ þæíîãî ìàêðîñêëîíà Òàííó-Îëà ñîñòàâëÿåò 347–462, â ñðåäíåì 405 ïàð – ýòî íàèáîëåå ïëîòíàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà âèäà â ðåãèîíå.  ëåâîáåðåæüå Òåñ-Õåìà ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ â îñòàíöîâûõ ãîðàõ, óùåëüÿõ õð. ÀãàðÄàã-Òàéãà è íà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ ÒåñÕåìà. Çäåñü îáñëåäîâàíî ÷óòü áîëåå ïîëîâèíû âñåõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ. Îñòàíöîâûå ãîðû ÿâëÿþòñÿ, ïî ñóòè, òî÷å÷íûìè îáúåêòàìè, óäàë¸í-

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Ïòåíåö ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chick of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin

íûìè äðóã îò äðóãà íà äåñÿòêè êèëîìåòðîâ. Ñðåäè îñòàíöåâ âûäåëÿåòñÿ ßìàëûã (êëàñòåð çàïîâåäíèêà «Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà»), ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü êîòîðîãî 5,5 êì, à øèðèíà ñêàëüíîãî ãðåáíÿ – îêîëî 500 ì. Íà ßìàëûãå âûÿâëåíî 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, è ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ ãíåçäîâàíèå åù¸ 1 ïàðû ôèëèíîâ.  öåëîì ïî ïðèðîäíîìó ðàéîíó èçâåñòåí 21 ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê ôèëèíîâ, 16–20 èç êîòîðûõ çàíèìàþòñÿ åæåãîäíî. Ïðè îáùåé ïëîùàäè ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé 66,6 êì2 è ïëîòíîñòè ôèëèíà 0,56 ïàð/êì2 ñêàë ìîæíî îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ëåâîáåðåæüå Òåñ-Õåìà â 33–41, â ñðåäíåì 37 ïàð. Âíå ñêàë íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ôèëèí íå ãíåçäèòñÿ, õîòÿ èìåþòñÿ êðóïíûå ìàññèâû áóãðèñòûõ ïåñêîâ, ÿâëÿþùèåñÿ õàðàêòåðíûìè ãíåçäîâûìè áèîòîïàìè âèäà âî ìíîãèõ ðàéîíàõ Öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Óáñóíóðñêîé êîòëîâèíå â ïðåäåëàõ ðàññìàòðèâàåìîãî ðåãèîíà îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 380–503, â ñðåäíåì 442 ïàðû, èç êîòîðûõ 91,63% ãíåçäèòñÿ â óùåëüÿõ Òàííó-Îëà.  Òóðàíñêîé êîòëîâèíå (1813,97 êì 2) ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ òàê æå, êàê è â Òóâèíñêîé, èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî íà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà ãðÿäîâûõ, áîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûõ çäåñü, ïðåäïî÷èòàÿ òå, êîòîðûå íàâèñàþò íàä äîëèíîé Óþêà. Çäåñü èçâåñòíî 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíîâ. Ïðè ñðåäíåé ïëîòíîñòè 0,91 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè (11,6 ïàð/100 êì 2 ìåñòîîáèòàíèé) îáùóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ìîæíî îöåíèòü â 15– 18 ïàð.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà â âûñîêîãîðüÿõ þãîâîñòî÷íîãî Àëòàÿ è þãîçàïàäíîé Òóâû (ââåðõó)è â òà¸æíîì ïîÿñå Ñàÿíà (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Inhabitant places of the Eagle Owl in high mountains in the Southeast Altai and Southwest Tuva (upper) and taiga in the Sayan Mountains (bottom). Photo by I. Karyakin

Óñèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà, ïëîùàäüþ 197,22 êì2, ñî âñåõ ñòîðîí çàæàòà îáëåñåííûìè ãîðàìè, ÷òî äåëàåò å¸ äîñòàòî÷íî ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîé äëÿ ôèëèíà. Çäåñü îáíàðóæåí îäèí ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê, à òàêæå åù¸ â îäíîé òî÷êå (íà ñêàëüíîì îáíàæåíèè ñòåïíîãî ñêëîíà õðåáòà âäîëü þæíîãî îáðàìëåíèÿ êîòëîâèíû) âñòðå÷åí âçðîñëûé ôèëèí. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòèõ äâóõ ðåãèñòðàöèé, ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 3,8 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè (0,9 ïàð/1 êì2 ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ), à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè îöåíåíà â 6–8 ïàð.  Êóçíåöêîé êîòëîâèíå (26074,75 êì2) ôèëèí îáíàðóæåí ëèøü íà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ ðåêè Òîìü íà 2-õ ó÷àñòêàõ.  öåíòðå êîòëîâèíû áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ ïî îñòåïí¸ííûì âîçâûøåííîñòÿì, îäíàêî, íåñìîòðÿ íà èõ ñõîäñòâî ñ îáíàæåíèÿìè â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå, çàñåë¸ííûìè ôèëèíàìè, òóò íå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî äàæå ñëåäîâ åãî ïðåáûâàíèÿ. Ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà â Êóçíåöêîé êîòëîâèíå âûÿâëåíî íå áûëî, íåñìîòðÿ íà ýòî âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî ãíåçäîâàíèå âèäà íà ñêàëàõ ïî áåðåãàì ð. Òîìü è å¸ êðóïíûõ ïðèòîêîâ â êîëè÷åñòâå 5–10 ïàð. Ýòî ýêñïåðòíàÿ îöåíêà è, âîçìîæíî, ÷òî îíà íåñêîëüêî çàíèæåíà.

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin

Þãî-Âîñòî÷íûé Àëòàé ïëîùàäüþ 26692,50 êì2 – ãîðíûé óçåë ñ îäíèìè èç íàèáîëåå âûñîêèõ õðåáòîâ è ãîðíûõ ìàññèâîâ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà – ÌîíãóíÒàéãà, Ñàéëþãåì, õðåáòû ×èõà÷åâà, Êóðàéñêèé, Þæíî-×óéñêèé. Çäåñü ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ êàê â óùåëüÿõ õðåáòîâ, òàê è ïî ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì ðå÷íûõ äîëèí è îñòàíöîâûõ âîçâûøåííîñòåé, ïîäíèìàÿñü äî âûñîòû 3000 ì íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, â Äæóëóêîëüñêîé êîòëîâèíå è íà ïëàòî Óêîê, ãäå ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ ñàìûå âûñîêèå ãí¸çäà ôèëèíà èç èçâåñòíûõ. Íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ëîêàëèçîâàíî 11 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà. Áîëüøèíñòâî ãí¸çä ïðèóðî÷åíî ê ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì ðå÷íûõ äîëèí, ïðîðåçàþùèõ ñêëîíû Þæíî×óéñêîãî è Êóðàéñêîãî õðåáòîâ ïî ïåðèôåðèè ×óéñêîé ñòåïè è ñêëîíû õðåáòîâ Öàãàí-Øèáåòó è Áàðìåí ïî ïåðèôåðèè Óðýãíóðñêîé êîòëîâèíû. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà çäåñü ñóùåñòâåííî ìåíüøå, ÷åì â ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ, è ñîñòàâëÿåò 7,3 ïàð/100 êì2 ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ èëè 0,28 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè. Èñõîäÿ èç ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ, ìîæíî îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â äàííîì ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå â 67–82, â ñðåäíåì 75 ïàð, 55,06% èç êîòîðûõ ãíåçäèòñÿ ïî ïåðèôåðèè ×óéñêîé ñòåïè.  àëüïèéñêîì ïîÿñå Ñåâåðíîãî Àëòàÿ, Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó è Ñàÿíà è ó âåðõíåãî ïðåäåëà ëåñà ôèëèí îòñóòñòâóåò, ïîÿâëÿÿñü íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â îáëåñåííûõ ãîðàõ ëèøü íèæå 2500 ì, ãäå èìåþòñÿ ïðèðå÷íûå ñêàëû íà íåáîëüøèõ ðåêàõ (øèðèíîé áîëåå 100 ì) ñ îòêðûòûìè áèîòîïàìè, ëèáî êðóïíûå ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ â øèðîêèõ ðå÷íûõ äîëèíàõ.  ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå ïðèðå÷íûå ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè åäèíñòâåííûìè ãíåçäîâûìè áèîòîïàìè ôèëèíà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íèçêîãîðüÿ è ñðåäíåãîðüÿ,


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 ïîêðûòûå ëåñîì, çàíèìàþùèå ÷óòü ìåíåå ïîëîâèíû òåððèòîðèè ðåãèîíà (44,57%), íàèìåíåå ïëîòíî íàñåëåíû ôèëèíîì. Çäåñü èçâåñòíî 43 ó÷àñòêà, ãäå ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ ôèëèíîâ, è áûëè âñòðå÷åíû ïòèöû; èç íèõ íà 18 ó÷àñòêàõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà, è âñòðå÷åíû ñë¸òêè. Ïëîòíîñòü çàâèñèò îò ðàçâèòèÿ ãèäðîñåòè â ãîðàõ, ïîëíîòû ðåê è òèïà ëåñà è èçìåíÿåòñÿ îò 0,7 äî 22,3 ïàð/100 êì ðåêè èëè îò 0,16 äî 0,88 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 7,9 ïàð/ 100 êì ðåêè èëè 0,43 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè.  öåëîì ïî ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå ðåãèîíà ïàðà ôèëèíîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà 12,66 êì ðåêè (ñ ó÷¸òîì òåõ ðåê, ãäå ôèëèí íå áûë îáíàðóæåí).

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin

Íàèáîëåå ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûìè äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà ÿâëÿþòñÿ ãîðû Öåíòðàëüíîãî è Çàïàäíîãî Àëòàÿ, Òàííó-Îëà, Ñåíãèëåíà è þæíîãî ìàêðîñêëîíà Ñàÿíà (95592,78 êì2). Çäåñü èìååòñÿ õîðîøî ðàçâèòàÿ ãèäðîñåòü ñ ïîëíîâîäíûìè ðåêàìè, ãëóáîêî âðåçàííûìè â ìàòåðèíñêèå ïîðîäû, ñ ýëåìåíòàìè îñòåïíåíèÿ ïî êðóòîñêëîíàì þæíîé ýêñïîçèöèè, à ëåñà, â îñíîâíîì, ïðåäñòàâëåíû ðàçðåæåííûìè ëèñòâåííè÷íèêàìè, áîëåå áëàãîïðèÿòíûìè äëÿ ôèëèíà ÷åì òåìíîõâîéíûå è ñîìêíóòûå ëèñòâåííûå. Íà 2-õ êðóïíûõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ çäåñü ëîêàëèçîâàíî 17 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, è âñòðå÷åíû ôèëèíû â 2-õ òî÷êàõ. Íà äàííûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ ïàðà ôèëèíîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ â ñðåäíåì íà 9,5 êì ðåêè, à ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò â ñðåäíåì 0,67 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ðå÷íûõ äîëèí, óñëîâíî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè, ñîñòàâëÿåò 6749,75 êì, èç êîòîðûõ 4721,5 êì ìàêñèìàëüíî ïðèãîäíû äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, ò.å. èìåþò îïòèìàëüíóþ ñîâîêóïíîñòü ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé è îòêðûòûõ áèîòîïîâ, âèäèìûõ íà êîñ-

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ìîñíèìêàõ. Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ïîçâîëÿåò îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â äàííûõ áèîòîïàõ â 481 – 513, ñðåäíåì â 497 ïàð. Ñòîëü íèçêàÿ ïîãðåøíîñòü ïðè áîëüøîé ïëîùàäè ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè âûçâàíà òåì, ÷òî êîëè÷åñòâî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ çäåñü îãðàíè÷åíî, è îíè ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå çàíÿòû ôèëèíàìè. Íà ìîäåëüíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ íà ðåêàõ Àíóé, Ýëåãåñò, Íàðûí è Óñà 30% ïàð ôèëèíîâ ãíåçäèëîñü íà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ ðåê è ñêëîíàõ õðåáòîâ íàä ðå÷íûìè äîëèíàìè â áèîòîïàõ, êîòîðûå íå âûäåëÿëèñü ïî ñíèìêàì ëèáî âûäåëÿëèñü ñ íåáîëüøîé âåðîÿòíîñòüþ. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòîò ôàêò ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî 144 – 154, â ñðåäíåì 149 ïàð íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè ãíåçäèòñÿ âíå ïðåäåëîâ êðóïíûõ ðå÷íûõ äîëèí, ìàêñèìàëüíî ïîäõîäÿùèõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Îáùóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè äëÿ ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè ìîæíî îöåíèòü â 625– 667 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 646,1 ïàð. Ìåíåå ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûìè äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïîêðûòûå ëåñîì íèçêîãîðüÿ è ñðåäíåãîðüÿ ñåâåðíîãî ìàêðîñêëîíà Ñàÿíà, Ñåâåðíîãî Àëòàÿ, Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó, à òàêæå õð. Îáðó÷åâà (151161,13 êì2). Ýòà òåððèòîðèÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå èçó÷åíà èç-çà å¸ òðóäíîäîñòóïíîñòè – ëîêàëèçîâàí âñåãî îäèí ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê ôèëèíîâ â òàéãå Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó, è íà 23 ó÷àñòêàõ íàáëþäàëèñü ïòèöû èëè èõ ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ. Èìåþùèåñÿ äàííûå ïîçâîëÿþò êîíñòàòèðîâàòü ôàêò íàèìåíüøåé ïëîòíîñòè ôèëèíà. Ãèäðîñåòü â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå ðàçâèòà ìåíüøå, êàê ìåíüøå è âðåçàííîñòü ðåê â ìàòåðèíñêèå ïîðîäû, ÷òî ñóùåñòâåííî óìåíüøàåò êîëè÷åñòâî ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóåò îñòåïíåíèå êðóòîñêëîíîâ, è äîìèíèðóåò òåìíîõâîéíàÿ Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

òàéãà, ÷òî äåëàåò äîëèíû íàèìåíåå ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûìè äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Òî, ÷òî ôèëèí èçáåãàåò ñïëîøíûå ìàññèâû òåìíîõâîéíîé òàéãè, çàìåòèë åù¸ Ñ.Ì. Ïðîêîôüåâ (1994) íà Êóçíåöêîì Àëàòàó. Ïðè áîëüøåé ïëîùàäè ðàññìàòðèâàåìîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà â 1,6 ðàçà, ÷åì ïðåäûäóùèé, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ðå÷íûõ äîëèí, ìàêñèìàëüíî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà, íàîáîðîò, ìåíüøå â 1,6 ðàç è ñîñòàâëÿåò 2898,73 êì. Äàæå åñëè ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàòü ñðåäíèå ïî ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè (7,9 ïàð/100 Ñë¸òîê ôèëèíà. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî êì ðåêè èëè 0,27 ïàð/100 êì2 È. Êàðÿêèíà îáùåé ïëîùàäè), îöåíêà ÷èñFledgling of the Eagle Owl. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin ëåííîñòè ñîñòàâèò 103 – 354, â ñðåäíåì 229 ïàð èëè 134 – 462, â ñðåäíåì 297,7 ïàð, ñ ó÷¸òîì òåõ 30%, ÷òî ãíåçäÿòñÿ â áèîòîïàõ ïëîõî «âèäèìûõ» íà êîñìîñíèìêàõ. Âîçìîæíî, äàííàÿ îöåíêà íåñêîëüêî çàâûøåíà. Ãîðíî-ëåñíàÿ çîíà Ñàëàèðñêîãî êðÿæà (18506,16 êì2), â îòëè÷èå îò âñåõ ïðåäûäóùèõ òåððèòîðèé, ñèëüíî îñâîåíà ÷åëîâåêîì, îäíàêî, ýòî íå âëèÿåò íåãàòèâíî íà ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ôèëèíà, ñêîðåå íàîáîðîò, ìîçàèêà ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ óãîäèé íà ïðèäîëèííûõ òåððàñàõ ñîçäàåò áîëåå áëàãîïðèÿòíûå óñëîâèÿ äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà íà êðóïíûõ ðåêàõ Ñàëàèðñêîãî êðÿæà âûøå, ÷åì íà àíàëîãè÷íûõ ðåêàõ Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó. Ïòåíåö ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Ðåñïóáëèêà Çäåñü áûëà äîñòàòî÷íî õîðîÒûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chick of the Eagle Owl in the nest. Republic øî îáñëåäîâàíà äîëèíà ð. of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin Áåðäü íà ó÷àñòêå íèæå ñ. Ìàñëÿíèíî, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 32,63 êì, ãäå ëîêàëèçîâàíî 5 ó÷àñòêîâ, çàíèìàåìûõ ôèëèíàìè. Ñðåäíåå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ó÷àñòêàìè ôèëèíîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 4,4 êì (2,4 – 6,0 êì), ò.å. íà 1 ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê â îïòèìàëüíûõ óñëîâèÿõ ïðèõîäèòñÿ 4,4 êì ðåêè èëè 4,84 êì 2 ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîé ïëîùàäè äîëèíû (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Îáùàÿ ïëîòíîñòü äëÿ áàññåéíà Áåðäè ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,38 ïàð/100 êì2. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü Ñàëàèðñêèõ ðåê, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà (308 êì), è îáùóþ ïëîùàäü ãîð-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íî-ëåñíîé çîíû Ñàëàèðà, ìîæíî îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â 63–77, â ñðåäíåì 70 ïàð. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 822–1206, â ñðåäíåì 1014 ïàð, èç êîòîðûõ 39,9% ãíåçäèòñÿ â ãîðàõ Çàïàäíîãî è Öåíòðàëüíîãî Àëòàÿ. Ñîëãîíñêèé êðÿæ (2937,93 êì2), îáðàìëÿþùèé ñ ñåâåðà Ìèíóñèíñêóþ êîòëîâèíó, ëåæèò â çîíàëüíîé ïîäòàéãå. Íàìè ýòà òåððèòîðèÿ íå îáñëåäîâàëàñü, îäíàêî ïî äàííûì Ñ.Ì. Ïðîêîôüåâà ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà çäåñü àíàëîãè÷íà ïëîòíîñòè â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó. Èñõîäÿ èç ñðåäíåé ïî ïðåäãîðüÿì ïëîòíîñòè â 0,61 ïàð/ 100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè, ìîæíî îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â äàííîì ïðèðîäíîì ðàéîíå â 12–24 ïàðû. Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ è ñòåïíàÿ çîíû ïðåäãîðèé Çàïàäíîãî Àëòàÿ çàíèìàþò ïëîùàäü 29281,36 êì2, èç êîòîðîé ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíàÿ äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà òåððèòîðèÿ – 24543,34 êì2, à ïëîùàäü òèïè÷íûõ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, êàêèìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñòåïíûå ó÷àñòêè ñ ïåðåñå÷¸ííûì ðåëüåôîì, ñîñòàâëÿåò 2174,21 êì2. Ïîíÿòíî, ÷òî ïëîùàäü ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, êîòîðûå çàíèìàåò ôèëèí, åù¸ ìåíüøå, îäíàêî áîëåå 50% èç íèõ íå âèäèìû íà êîñìîñíèìêàõ èç-çà íåáîëüøîé ïåðåñå÷¸ííîñòè ëàíäøàôòà. Ýòî ñàìûé çàïàäíûé ôîðïîñò íàñêàëüíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê ôèëèíà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå. Çäåñü èçâåñòíî 28 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíîâ, 14 èç êîòîðûõ ñîñðåäîòî÷åíû íà 3-õ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ 2001–2004 ãã. îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 1310,66 êì2 â âåðõîâüÿõ Àëåÿ (804,18 êì2), Ëîêòåâêè (409,49 êì2) è íà ×àðûøå (96,99 êì 2). Çäåñü ñðåäíåå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ôèëèíîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 3,14 êì (1,4 – 4,8 êì; n=10), ò.å. íà êàæäóþ ïàðó ïðèõîäèòñÿ 7,75 êì2 ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîé ïëîùàäè èëè 100,82 êì2 ïëîùàäè, ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíîé äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Ïðÿìàÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ íà ïëîùàäü, ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíóþ äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà (24543,34 êì2), ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî â ïðåäåëàõ âûäåëåííîãî ïîëèãîíà ìîæåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ 243 ïàðû ôèëèíîâ. Îäíàêî ýòà öèôðà ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ íåñêîëüêî çàíèæåííîé. Ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà â öåëîì ïî ïðèðîäíîìó ðàéîíó ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,89 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè, ÷òî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò îöåíêå ÷èñëåííîñòè â ñðåäíåì â 262 ïàðû. Áîëåå òî÷íàÿ ïðÿìàÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ íà ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå áèîòîïû äà¸ò ÷èñëåí-


Raptors Research íîñòü â 253 – 309, â ñðåäíåì 281 ïàð (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Áèå-×óìûøñêàÿ âîçâûøåííîñòü (23273,39 êì2) – ñèëüíî òðàíñôîðìèðîâàííàÿ âîçâûøåííîñòü â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Ñàëàèðà, ïîêðûòàÿ âòîðè÷íûìè ìåëêîëèñòâåííûìè ëåñàìè. Ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè ôèëèí ñîõðàíèëñÿ çäåñü ëèøü ïî ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì ðåê (â îñíîâíîì, ×óìûø è åãî ïðèòîêè). Íàìè áûëè îáñëåÑë¸òîê ôèëèíà áëèç ãíåçäà. Ðåñïóáëèêà äîâàíû äîëèíû Øóáèíêè è Àëòàé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà ×óìûøà íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 67 Fledgling of the Eagle Owl near the nest. êì, è îáíàðóæåí ëèøü îäèí Republic of Altai. Photo by I. Karyakin ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê ôèëèíîâ, à òàêæå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ ôèëèíà â åù¸ îäíîé òî÷êå (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,09 ïàð/ 100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè èëè 1 ïàðà/33,5 êì ðåêè. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîñòàâëÿåò 18–22 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 20 ïàð è ìîæåò áûòü íåñêîëüêî çàâûøåííîé. Ìåæäóðå÷üå Áèè è Êàòóíè (3077,76 êì2) – ëåñîñòåïíàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ, çàæàòàÿ ìåæäó Ïðåäàëòàéñêîé ðàâíèíîé (ëåñîñòåïü Îáñêîãî ëåâîáåðåæüÿ), Áèå-×óìûøñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòüþ è ïåðåäîâûìè ñêëàäêàìè Àëòàÿ, íåñ¸ò â ñåáå ÷åðòû âñåõ òð¸õ âûøå-

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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óêàçàííûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíîâ. Òåððàñà Áèè, ïîñëå âûõîäà ðåêè èç ãîð, ïîêðûòà áîðàìè, ê êîòîðûì äîñòàòî÷íî áëèçêî ïîäõîäÿò ñòåïíûå óâàëû Àëòàÿ ñ ëèñòâåííûìè ëåñàìè ïî ñåâåðíûì ñêëîíàì. Îäíàêî áîðû ïî ñâîèì õàðàêòåðèñòèêàì äàëåêè êàê îò òåððàñíûõ áîðîâ Îáè, òàê è îò ëåíòî÷íûõ áîðîâ Îáñêîãî ëåâîáåðåæüÿ, à ïåðåäîâûå ñêëàäêè Àëòàÿ ñãëàæåíû è ïðàêòè÷åñêè ëèøåíû ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé. Âñ¸ ýòî äåëàåò òåððèòîðèþ ìåíåå ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîé äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, ÷åì ñîñåäíèå. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, çäåñü íå óäàëîñü íàéòè ãí¸çä ôèëèíà, õîòÿ ïðèçíàêè ïðåáûâàíèÿ âçðîñëûõ ïòèö îáíàðóæåíû â áîðó áëèç ñ. Óñÿòñêîå è íà ñêàëàõ ð. Èøà. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,16 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè, èñõîäÿ èç ÷åãî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü ãíåçäîâàíèå â ìåæäóðå÷üå Áèè è Êàòóíè 3–7 ïàð ôèëèíîâ. Ëåñíîå è ëåñîñòåïíîå Çàîáüå (13123,44 êì2) – ñèëüíî òðàíñôîðìèðîâàííûé õîçÿéñòâåííîé äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ ÷åëîâåêà õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûé ëåñîñòåïíîé ëàíäøàôò â ïðàâîáåðåæüå Îáè. Ñòåïü ñîõðàíèëàñü ëèøü ôðàãìåíòàìè ïî êðóòîñêëîíàì ðå÷íûõ äîëèí, ëåñà ïðåäñòàâëåíû ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî âòîðè÷íûìè ìåëêîëèñòâåííûìè íà ìåñòå ñìåøàííûõ è õâîéíûõ. Òåððèòîðèÿ ñèëüíî íàñåëåíà (çäåñü íàõîäÿòñÿ êðóïíûå ãîðîäà Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè: Íîâîñèáèðñê, Áåðäñê, Èñêèòèì). Ñòåðåîòèïû ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà òóò áëèçêè ê òàêîâûì íà Ïðèîáñêîì ïëàòî – óìåðåíî îáëåñåííûå êðóòîñêëîíû áàëîê áëèç îòêðûòûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâ è âîçâûøåííûå ó÷àñòêè òåððàñ ïðèòîêîâ Îáè, ïîêðûòûå áîðàìè èëè ñìåøàííûìè ëåñàìè. Çäåñü ôèëèí óñòðàèâàåò ãí¸çäà ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà çåìëå â îñíîâàíèÿõ ñòâîëîâ äåðåâüåâ ïî âåðøèííûì ýëåìåíòàì ðåëüåôà. Íà òåððèòîðèè ðàéîíà âûÿâëåí 1 ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê ôèëèíà, è â 2-õ òî÷êàõ îáíàðóæåíû ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ ïòèö. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,17 ïàð/ 100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 20–25 ïàðû. Ëåñíàÿ çîíà ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè Îáñêîãî ïðàâîáåðåæüÿ (16437,17 êì2) ïðåäñòàâëåíà ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî òåððàñíûìè áîðàìè Îáè. Çäåñü ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ íà îáðûâàõ îáñêîé òåððàñû ëèáî âíóòðè áîðîâ ïî Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà â Ïðèîáñêèõ è Àëòàéñêèõ áîðàõ â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå è Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè (ââåðõó) è â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Ñàëàèðà (ð. Áåðäü) â Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Inhabitant places of the Eagle Owl in pine forests in the Altai Kray and Novosibirsk district (upper) and in foothills of the Salair Mountains (Berd river) in the Novosibirsk district (bottom). Photo by I. Karyakin


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Òàáë. 2. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ôèëèíà ïî ïðèðîäíûì ðàéîíàì Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ïðèíÿòûå ñîêðàùåíèÿ: ÃËÇ – ãîðíî-ëåñíàÿ çîíà, ËÇ – ëåñíàÿ çîíà, ËÑÇ – ëåñîñòåïíàÿ çîíà, ÑÇ – ñòåïíàÿ çîíà. ÀÊ – Àëòàéñêèé êðàé, ÊÊ – Êðàñíîÿðñêèé êðàé, ÊÎ – Êåìåðîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü, ÍÎ – Íîâîñèáèðñêàÿ îáëàñòü, ÐÀ – Ðåñïóáëèêà Àëòàé, ÐÒ – Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà, ÐX – Ðåñïóáëèêà Õàêàñèÿ. Îáîçíà÷åíèå îáëàñòåé è ðåñïóáëèê ñîîòâåòñòâóåò îáîçíà÷åíèÿì íà ðèñ. 5. Íóìåðàöèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíîâ â òàáëèöå ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íóìåðàöèè íà ðèñ. 1. Table 2. Distribution of the Eagle Owl in the nature zones of the Altai-Sayan region Used abbreviations: ÃËÇ – mountain-forest zone, ËÇ – forest zone, ËÑÇ – forest-steppe zone, ÑÇ – steppe zone. ÀÊ – Altai Kray, ÊÊ – Krasnoyarsk Kray, ÊÎ –Kemerovo district, ÍÎ – Novosibirsk district, ÐÀ – Republic of Altai, ÐÒ – Republic of Tuva, ÐX – Republic of Khakasia. Labels of districts and republics are similar ones in the fig. 5. Numbers of nature zones in the table are similar ones in the fig. 1.

¹

Ïðèðîäíûé ðàéîí Nature zones

11 19 21 26 12 22 23 10 24 25 9 8 3 20 4 7 5 6 18 15 1 17 14 13 16 2

Îáëàñòü District

Ìèíóñèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà, ÊÊ, ÊÎ, ÐÕ ëåâîáåðåæüå Åíèñåÿ Ìèíóñèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà, ÊÊ ïðàâîáåðåæüå Åíèñåÿ Òóâèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà ÐÒ Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà, þæíûé ÐÒ øëåéô Òàííó-Îëà Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà, ÐÒ ëåâîáåðåæüå Òåñ-Õåìà Òóðàíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà ÐÒ Óñèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà ÊÊ Êóçíåöêàÿ êîòëîâèíà* ÊÎ, ÍÎ Þãî-âîñòî÷íûé Àëòàé ÐÀ, ÐÒ ÃËÇ þæíîãî ìàêðîñêëîíà ÊÊ, ÐÒ Çàïàäíîãî Ñàÿíà ÃËÇ õðåáòà Òàííó-Îëà ÐÒ ÃËÇ õðåáòà Ñåíãèëåí ÐÒ ÃËÇ Çàïàäíîãî è Öåíòðàëüíîãî ÀÊ, ÐÀ Àëòàÿ ÃËÇ ñåâåðíîãî ìàêðîñêëîíà ÊÊ, ÐÒ, ÐÕ Çàïàäíîãî Ñàÿíà ÃËÇ Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó ÊÎ, ÐÕ ÃËÇ Ñåâåðíîãî Àëòàÿ ÐÀ ÃËÇ õðåáòà Îáðó÷åâà ÐÒ ÃËÇ Ñàëàèðñêîãî êðÿæà ÀÊ, ÊÎ, ÍÎ Ïîäòàéãà Ñîëãîíñêîãî êðÿæà* ÊÊ ÑÇ è ËÑÇ Ïðåäãîðèé Çàïàäíîãî ÀÊ Àëòàÿ Áèå-×óìûøñêàÿ âîçâûøåííîñòü ÀÊ, ÍÎ Ìåæäóðå÷üå Áèè è Êàòóíè* ÀÊ Ëåñíîå è ëåñîñòåïíîå Çàîáüå ÍÎ ËÇ ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè Îáñêîãî ÀÊ, ÍÎ ïðàâîáåðåæüÿ ÑÇ è ËÑÇ ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè ÀÊ Îáñêîãî ëåâîáåðåæüÿ Âûñîêîãîðüÿ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíà ÊÊ ,ÐÀ,ÐÒ,ÐÕ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí (âñåãî)

Ïëîùàäü (êì2) Area (km2)

áåðåãàì îç¸ð è áîëîò, óñòðàèâàÿ ãí¸çäà íà çåìëå â ïîäíîæèè ñòâîëîâ äåðåâüåâ. Íà òåððèòîðèè ðàéîíà èçâåñòíî 2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà. Ïî ìàòåðèàëàì èññëåäîâàíèé 1999 ã. (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2000) â äîëèíå Îáè è âíóòðè Ñóçóíñêîãî áîðà (62,3 êì ñêëîíà íàäïîéìåííîé òåððàñû è 63 êì ïîáåðåæèé îç¸ð è áîëîò) äëÿ Íîâîñèáèðñêîé ÷àñòè Ñóçóíñêîãî áîðà ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà áûëà îïðåäåëåíà â 15 âîçìîæíûõ ïàð è â 11 ïàð äëÿ äîëèíû Îáè, ïðèëåãàþùåé ê áîðó. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,43 ïàðû/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè ïðè ñðåäíèõ ïîêàçàòåëÿõ ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ïî áèîòîïàì: 17,66 ïàð/100 êì ðåêè è 0,24 ïàð/1 êì ïîáåðå-

Îöåíêà Êîëè÷åñòâî Ïëîòíîñòü ÷èñëåííîñòè èçâåñòíûõ ãíåç(ïàð/100 êì2 (ïàðû) äîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îáùåé ïëîùàäè) Number of known Density (pairs/100 Estimation of breeding territories êì2 of total area) number (pairs)

32690.71

55

1.44 470 (273-668)

17396.49

2

0.75 130 (117-143)

25133.22 9852.48

30 60

1.19 299 (129-469) 4.11 405 (347-462)

2879.09

21

1.29

1813.97 197.22 26074.75 26692.50 23439.19

3 1 0 11 0

0.91 16 (15-18) 3.80 7 (6-8) 0.03 7 (5-10)* 0.28 74 (67-82) 0.53 114 (103-125)

15008.03 6755.50 50390.06

11 4 3

0.68 92 (90-94) 0.58 35 (32-38) 0.88 405 (400-410)

47882.42

0

68403.53 25984.80 8890.38 18506.16 2937.93 29281.36

1 0 0 6 0 28

23273.39 3077.76 13123.44 16437.17

1 0 1 2

83410.45

80

15663.78 595195.78

0 320

0.16

37 (33-41)

76 (30-122)

0.26 150 (59-241) 0.23 55 (35-75) 0.20 17 (10-24) 0.38 70 (63-77) 0.61 18 (12-24)* 0.89 281 (253-309) 0.09 0.16 0.17 0.43

20 (18-22) 5 (3-7)* 22 (20-25) 73 (66-81)

0.53 445 (431-459) 0 0.56

0 3323 (2617-4034)


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

Ðèñ. 6. Ìåñòà óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ôèëèíà â ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå Fig. 6. Locations of the Eagle Owl nests in the Altai-Sayan region

æüÿ îçåðà èëè áîëîòà âíóòðè áîðà (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Ó÷èòûâàÿ ñõîäíûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè Êàðàêàíñêîãî áîðà è òåððàñíûõ áîðîâ Îáè â ïðåäåëàõ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ, à òàêæå ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîãî äëÿ ôèëèíà ñêëîíà òåððàñû Îáè (158,6 êì) è ïîáåðåæèé îç¸ð è áîëîò âíóòðè áîðîâ (176,4 êì) ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî íà òåððèòîðèè äàííîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà ãíåçäèòñÿ 66– 81, â ñðåäíåì 70 ïàð ôèëèíîâ, èç êîòîðûõ îêîëî 33,33% ãíåçäÿòñÿ âäîëü Îáè. Íàèáîëåå êðóïíàÿ â ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà ôèëèíà ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà â Îáñêîì ëåâîáåðåæüå (83410,45 êì2). Çäåñü èçâåñòíî 83 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíîâ è 45 òî÷åê ðåãèñòðàöèè âèäà. Ìàêñèìàëüíîé ïëîòíîñòè ôèëèí äîñòèãàåò â ëåíòî÷íûõ áîðàõ, ãäå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ýòèõ ïòèö â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ ñîñåäñòâóþò, îäíàêî â êîëêîâûõ ëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ ôèëèí îòñóòñòâóåò íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè òåððèòîðèè, íàñåëÿÿ òîëüêî êðóïíûå ðàçðåæåííûå êîëêè ïî áåðåãàì êðóïíûõ âîäíî-áîëîòíûõ êîìïëåêñîâ. Ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíàÿ äëÿ åãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ëåñîïîêðûòàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ â Îáñêîì ëåâîáåðåæüå ñîñòàâëÿåò 4691 êì2 ïðè îáùåé ïëîùàäè ëåñîâ 10191 êì2. Äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèí ïðåäïî÷èòàåò ñîâîêóïíîñòü âîäíî-áîëîòíûõ óãîäèé è ëåñà, ïðè÷¸ì â ëåñó òÿãîòååò ê ñòàðûì ó÷àñòêàì.  áîðàõ îí èçáåãàåò ìîëîäûõ è çàêóñòàðåííûõ âûäåëîâ, ïðåäïî÷èòàÿ ãíåçäèòüñÿ â ñòàðûõ ðàçðåæåííûõ ëåñàõ. Îñíîâíûì êðèòåðèåì, ïðåäúÿâëÿåìûì ê ãíåçäîâîìó áèîòîïó, ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàëè÷èå âîäî¸ìà èëè êðóïíîãî áîëîÑë¸òîê ôèëèíà áëèç ãíåçäà. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fledgling of the Eagle Owl near the nest. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin

33

òà (íå ìåíåå 1 êì2) â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà èëè âíóòðè íåãî. Ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîé ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîëîñà ëåñà âäîëü âîäíî-áîëîòíîãî êîìïëåêñà. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòèõ õàðàêòåðèñòèê, ìîæíî îïðåäåëèòü ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â 970 êì. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ïëîòíîñòü íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ (0,54±0,17 ïàð/ êì2), ìîæíî îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â 368 – 538 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 453 ïàðû. Îäíàêî ïåðåñ÷¸ò íà ëèíåéíûå åäèíèöû äà¸ò ìåíüøóþ ïîãðåøíîñòü – 371 – 394 ïàðû (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Ïîìèìî ïåðèôåðèè âîäíî-áîëîòíûõ êîìïëåêñîâ ôèëèí îõîòíî ãíåçäèòñÿ â ñòàðûõ áîðàõ âäîëü íåðàñïàõàííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñòåïè, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü êîòîðûõ ñîñòàâëÿåò 437,5 êì. Ó÷¸òû â Óãëîâñêîì è Åãîðüåâñêîì ðàéîíàõ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî 1 ïàðà ôèëèíîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà 7,95 êì îïóøêè ñòàðîãî áîðà âäîëü íåðàñïàõàííîé ñòåïè. Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ïîçâîëÿåò îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü âäîëü îïóøåê ëåíòî÷íûõ áîðîâ âíå âîäíî-áîëîòíûõ êîìïëåêñîâ â 55 ïàð. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â ëåñàõ ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè Îáñêîãî ëåâîáåðåæüÿ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 426– 449 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Íåêîòîðîå êîëè÷åñòâî ôèëèíîâ îïðåäåë¸ííî ãíåçäèòñÿ â îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûõ ñèñòåìàõ âäîëü ïîáåðåæüÿ Îáè. Ýòà òåððèòîðèÿ â ïðåäåëàõ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ íàìè íå îáñëåäîâàëàñü, îäíàêî â àíàëîãè÷íûõ óñëîâèÿõ íà òåððèòîðèè Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè ôèëèí îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â 1999 ã. è 2001 ã. Ñòîëü îòðûâî÷íûå äàííûå íå ïîçâîëÿþò áîëåå òî÷íî ïîäîéòè ê îöåíêå ÷èñëåííîñòè, îäíàêî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü ãíåçäîâàíèå çäåñü êàê ìèíèìóì 5–10 ïàð ôèëèíîâ. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíå ðàâíèíîé ÷àñòè Îáñêîãî ëåâîáåðåæüÿ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ ìîæåò áûòü îöåíåíà â 431 – 459, â ñðåäíåì 445 ïàð.


34

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ãíåçäî ôèëèíà, ïîêèíóòîå ñë¸òêàìè. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî È.Êàðÿêèíà Nest of the Eagle Owl leaved by fledglings. Republic of Tuva. Photo by I. Karyakin

Èñõîäÿ èç èìåþùèõñÿ äàííûõ, îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå ïëîùàäüþ 595195,78 êì2 îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 2617 – 4034 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 3323 ïàð. (òàáë. 2, ðèñ. 6). Ãíåçäîâûå áèîòîïû, ãí¸çäà Îñíîâíûìè ãíåçäîâûìè áèîòîïàìè âèäà â ðåãèîíå, íåñîìíåííî, ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ íåçàâèñèìî îò èõ òèïà è ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ñêàë ïî ñêëîíàì õðåáòîâ â òà¸æíîé çîíå âíå ðå÷íûõ äîëèí) – 85,67%.  ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ôèëèíîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ â áîðàõ, çàíèìàÿ èõ ïðèîïóøå÷íûå ÷àñòè è óñòðàèâàÿ ãí¸çäà â ïîäíîæèÿõ êðóïíûõ ñîñåí – 11,57%. Èç 363 ãí¸çä ôèëèíà (âêëþ÷àÿ ñòàðûå íà ó÷àñòêàõ ñ çàíÿòûìè ãí¸çäàìè), îáíàðóæåííûõ â ðåãèîíå, ëèøü 2 ðàñïîëàãàëèñü âíå ïðåäåëîâ òèïè÷íûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, ÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò ìåíåå 1% îò èõ îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà (òàáë. 3). Åñòåñòâåííî, îãðîìíóþ ðîëü â ýòîì ñûãðàëî öåëåíàïðàâëåííîå îáñëåäîâàíèå òèïè÷íûõ äëÿ âèäà ìåñò ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä, íî ïîëíîñòüþ ñïèñûâàòü âñ¸ íà ýòîò ôàêò íåïðàâèëüíî.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ïðè àíàëîãè÷íûõ ìåòîäàõ ðàáîòû â äðóãèõ ðåãèîíàõ (Ïîâîëæüå, Óðàë, Çàóðàëüå) äîëÿ ãí¸çä â íåòèïè÷íûõ áèîòîïàõ âàðüèðîâàëà îò 3 äî 7% è áûëà ìàêñèìàëüíîé â îñâîåííûõ ÷åëîâåêîì ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ (Ïðåäóðàëüå) ëèáî â ðàéîíàõ ñ îãðàíè÷åííûì êîëè÷å-

ñòâîì ïîäõîäÿùèõ ìåñò äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ïîëíîöåííîé êîðìîäîáû÷è (Ñåâåðíûé Óðàë). Âî âñåõ âûøåóêàçàííûõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà áûëà íèçêîé.  ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå ñëó÷àè íåòèïè÷íîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ âûÿâëåíû, íàîáîðîò, â ìåñòàõ ñ ìàêñèìàëüíîé ïëîòíîñòüþ âèäà, ïðè÷¸ì ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ áûëà â 3 ðàçà ìåíüøå, ÷åì ïëîùàäü îõîòíè÷üèõ áèîòîïîâ ñ îãðîìíûì çàïàñîì ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ æåðòâ (ñîëîíîâàòûå îç¸ðà ñ ìàññîé ëèíÿþùèõ óòîê). Èç ýòîãî ñëåäóåò, ÷òî âñå ñëó÷àè íåõàðàêòåðíîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñëåäóåò îòíîñèòü ê ñëó÷àÿì äèñïåðñèè ïòèö çà ïðåäåëû òèïè÷íûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â ðåçóëüòàòå èõ íàñûùåíèÿ âèäîì.

Îáñóæäåíèå ðåçóëüòàòîâ ×èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ôèëèíîâ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå, ïîëó÷åííàÿ ðàçíûìè ìåòîäàìè ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ, âàðüèðóåò â ïðåäåëàõ îò 1981 äî 4034 ïàð. Ñðåäíèå ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè âèäà, ýêñòðàïîëèðóåìûå íà ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíóþ äëÿ îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà ïëîùàäü

Òàáë. 3. Ìåñòà óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ôèëèíà â îáëàñòÿõ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà Table 3. Locations of the Eagle Owl nests in the zones of the Altai-Sayan region

Îáëàñòè Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà Âñåãî Districts and Republics of Altai-Sayan Region Total

Ìåñòî ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçäà Nest location

Ñêàëüíîå îáíàæåíèå / Rock Ðå÷íîé îáðûâ / River cliff Ïîëîãèé ñêëîí ðå÷íîé äîëèíû Slope of a river valley Îâðàã / Ravine Ïðèîïóøå÷íàÿ ÷àñòü áîðà Pine-forest edge Äðóãîå / Other Âñåãî / Total

Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà Republic of Tuva 188

Ðåñïóáëèêà Ðåñïóáëèêà Õàêàñèÿ Àëòàé Republic of Republic of Khakasia Altai 57 16

Êðàñíîÿð- Àëòàéñêèé Íîâîñèáèðñêèé êðàé êðàé ñêàÿ îáëàñòü Krasnoyarsk Altai Kray Novosibirsk Kray district 11 32 7 4 2 2 1 42

188

57

16

11

1 79

12

311 6 1 2 42 1 363


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 (1-é ìåòîä), ãíåçäîïðèãîäíóþ ïëîùàäü (2é ìåòîä) è ðàçäåëüíûé ïåðåñ÷¸ò ïî ïðèðîäíûì ðàéîíàì íà ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå áèîòîïû (3-é ìåòîä) áåç ó÷¸òà ýêñïåðòíûõ îöåíîê, ïîêàçûâàþò ñëåäóþùóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà: 2539 (1981–3255) ïàð, 3320 (2831–3893) ïàð è 3293 (2597–3993) ïàð. ×èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà, ïîëó÷åííàÿ ïîñëåäíèì ìåòîäîì, ñ ó÷¸òîì ýêñïåðòíûõ îöåíîê (2617–4034, â ñðåäíåì 3323 ïàð), áîëüøå ÷èñëåííîñòè, ïîëó÷åííîé ïåðâûì ìåòîäîì, íà 23,59% è áëèçêà ê ÷èñëåííîñòè, ïîëó÷åííîé âòîðûì ìåòîäîì, ïðè íåçíà÷èòåëüíîì óâåëè÷åíèè äîâåðèòåëüíîãî èíòåðâàëà ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñî âòîðûì ìåòîäîì ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìîæíî ãîâîðèòü î òîì, ÷òî äâà ïîñëåäíèõ ìåòîäà äàþò íàèáîëåå òî÷íûå ðåçóëüòàòû, îäíàêî ðàçäåëüíûé ïåðåñ÷¸ò ìîæåò áûòü ðåêîìåíäîâàí êàê íàèáîëåå îáúåêòèâíûé, òàê êàê ïîçâîëÿåò óâèäåòü íåäîñòàòêè ó÷¸òà è ïîãðåøíîñòè ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè äëÿ êàæäîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà, ÷òî íåîáõîäèìî ïðè ðàáîòå ñ ðåäêèìè âèäàìè.

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Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí ñ âçðîñëûì ôèëèíîì. Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Igor Karyakin and adult Eagle Owl. Tuva Republic. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Âûâîäû Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé ïîêàçûâàþò, ÷òî ôèëèí øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í è ÿâëÿåòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî îáû÷íûì äëÿ ñâîåãî ðàçìåðíîãî êëàññà õèùíèêîì Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ôèëèíà â 60– 70-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ íàáëþäàëîñü, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ëèøü â îñâîåííûõ ÷åëîâåêîì ðàéîíàõ Íîâîñèáèðñêîé, Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòåé è Àëòàéñêîì êðàå.  ðåçóëüòàòå â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ìû èìååì óãàñàþùèå ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè íà Áèå-×óìûøñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè è â Êóçíåöêîé êîòëîâèíå. Íà áîëüøåé æå ÷àñòè òåððèòîðèè ðåãèîíà ôèëèí íå ïîñòðàäàë, è, ñêîðåå âñåãî, åãî ÷èñëåííîñòü îñòàâàëàñü ñòàáèëüíîé.

øåìó äèðåêòîðó Õàêàññêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà Ã.Â. Äåâÿòêèíó, à òàêæå áûâøåìó çàì. äèðåêòîðà ïî ÍÈÐ çàïîâåäíèêà «Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà», íûíå äèðåêòîðó çàïîâåäíèêà «Àçàñ» Ì.Ì. Êûíûðàà, âñåöåëî ïîìîãàâøèì â îðãàíèçàöèè ýêñïåäèöèé, Ì.Þ. Äóáèíèíó è À.Æ. Ïóðåõîâñêîìó, ïîìîãàâøèì â ñîçäàíèè ÃÈÑ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Îòäåëüíàÿ áëàãîäàðíîñòü Â.Ì. Ãàëóøèíó, âñÿ÷åñêè ñïîñîáñòâîâàâøåìó íà÷àëó íàøåé ðàáîòû ïî èçó÷åíèþ ôàóíû õèùíûõ ïòèö Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, À.Â. Äóáûíèíó, ïîääåðæàâøåìó íàøè ñàìûå ïåðâûå íà÷èíàíèÿ ïî îáñëåäîâàíèþ ðåãèîíà, Íèêó Ôîêñó è Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâó, ñ 1999 ïî 2005 ã. îêàçûâàâøèì ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîääåðæêó ðàáîò â Òóâå.

Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîð áëàãîäàðèò âñåõ êîëëåã, ó÷àñòâîâàâøèõ â ñáîðå ìàòåðèàëà, îñîáåííî Ñ.Â. Áàêêó, Ì.À. Ãðàáîâñêîãî, À.À. Ãðèøèíà, Þ.È. Êóñòîâà, Ë.È. Êîíîâàëîâà, Ð.Ä. Ëàïøèíà, À.Â. Ìîøêèíà, Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî, À.À Îðëåíêî, Ñ.Ì. Ïðîêîôüåâà, À.Â. Ðûáåíêî, È.Ý. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî, À.À. Øåñòàêîâó. Àâòîð âûðàæàåò áëàãîäàðíîñòü âîäèòåëþ Ì.Í. Êîæåâíèêîâó, áåç ìàñòåðñòâà êîòîðîãî âðÿä ëè áûëî âîçìîæíî ñòîëü óñïåøíî ïåðåäâèãàòüñÿ ïî ãîðíûì ðàéîíàì ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, äèðåêòîðó Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà À.Ã. Ðàññîëîâó, áûâ-

Ëèòåðàòóðà Áàðàíîâ À.À. Ðåäêèå è èñ÷åçàþùèå æèâîòíûå Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ. Ïòèöû è ìëåêîïèòàþùèå: Ó÷åá. ïîñîáèå. Êðàñíîÿðñê, 1988. – 127 ñ. Áàðàíîâ À.À. Ðåäêèå è ìàëîèçó÷åííûå ïòèöû Òóâû: Ìîíîãðàôèÿ. – Èçä-âî Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî óíòà, 1991. – 320 ñ. Áàðàíîâ À.À., Çàáåëèí Â.È. Ôèëèí. – Êðàñíàÿ Êíèãà Ðåñïóáëèêè Òûâà: Æèâîòíûå. Íîâîñèáèðñê: Èçä-âî ÑÎ ÐÀÍ, 2002. Ñ. 117. Áåëÿíêèí À.Ô. Î ÷èñëåííîñòè ôèëèíà â Êóçíåöêîé êîòëîâèíå. – Ôèëèí â Ðîññèè, Áåëîðóññèè è íà Óêðàèíå. Ì.: Èçä. ÌÃÓ, 1994. Ñ. 118–119. Áåðåçîâèêîâ Í.Í. Ê àâèôàóíå áàññåéíà ×àðûøà (Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäíûé Àëòàé). – Ìàòåðèàëû ê ðàñ-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

ïðîñòðàíåíèþ ïòèö íà Óðàëå, â Ïðèóðàëüå è Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. Åêàòåðèíáóðã: Èçä-âî «Àêàäåìêíèãà», 2002. Ñ. 31–34. Âåëèæàíèí À.Ï., Âåëèæàíèí Ã.À. Ñïèñêè ïòèö Áàðíàóëüñêîãî îêðóãà. – Uragus. 1929. Êí. 9. ¹ 1. Ñ. 5–15. Äàíèëîâ Î.Í. Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ñîâû Áàðàáû è ñåâåðíîé Êóëóíäû. Íîâîñèáèðñê: Íàóêà, 1976. 158 ñ. Äåðåâùèêîâ À.Ã. Ïòèöû Ãîðíî-Àëòàéñêîãî î÷àãà ÷óìû. – Äîêëàäû Èðêóòñêîãî ïðîòèâî÷óìíîãîèí-òà. Âûï. 10. ×èòà. 1974. Ñ. 192–197. Äóëüêåéò À.Ã. Çèìíÿÿ æèçíü ïòèö â òàéãå Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîãî Àëòàÿ. – Òðóäû ïðîáëåìíûõ è òåìàòè÷åñêèõ ñîâåùàíèé (1-àÿ Âñåñ. îðíèòîë. êîíô.) Ì.-Ë.: Èçä-âî ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ. 1960. Ñ. 175–190. Åãîðîâ Í.Í. Èç íàáëþäåíèé íàä ïîçâîíî÷íûìè ëåíòî÷íûõ áîðîâ. – Èçâ. Àëò. îòä. ÃÎ ÑÑÑÐ. Âûï. I. Áàðíàóë, 1961. Ñ. 65–74. Åêèìîâ Å.Â. Ê ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ ñîâîîáðàçíûõ íà þãå Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ. – Ìàòåðèàëû ê ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ ïòèö íà Óðàëå, â Ïðèóðàëüå è Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. Åêàòåðèíáóðã: Èçä-âî «Åêàòåðèíáóðã», 2000. Ñ. 74. Çàëåññêèé È.Ì., Çàëåññêèé Ï.Ì. Ïòèöû þãî-çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. – Áþëë. ÌÎÈÏ. Îòä. áèîë. Âûï. 3–4'. Ì., 1931. Ò. 40. Ñ. 145–206. Èîãàíçåí Ã.Ý. Ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ îðíèòîôàóíû ñòåïåé Òîìñêîãî êðàÿ. – Èçâåñòèÿ Èìïåðàòîðñêîãî Òîìñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà, Ò.30; Òîìñê. 1907. 239 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Òåõíèêà âûÿâëåíèÿ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ (êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè). Ïåðìü: Èçä-âî ÖÏÈ ÑÎÆ Óðàëà, ×.1.1996. 80 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (Falconiformes), Ñîâîîáðàçíûå (Strigiformes). – Ïåðìü: Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé Ñîþçà îõðàíû æèâîòíûõ Óðàëà / Ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé ñîþç. 1998. 483 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ó÷¸òó ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è îáðàáîòêå ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ. – Íîâîñèáèðñê, èçäàòåëüñêèé äîì «Ìàíóñêðèïò». 2000. 32 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ó÷¸òó è èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). – Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Èçä-âî «Ïîâîëæüå». 2004. 351 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Âàñåíüêîâ Ä.À., Äóáûíèí À.Â. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ ïòèö, ïðåäëàãàåìûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè, â Îáñêîì ïðàâîáåðåæüå Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ñîâðåìåííûå ïðîáëåìû îðíèòîëîãèè Ñèáèðè è Öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè: Ìàòåðèàëû I Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè. Óëàí-Óäý: Èçä-âî Áóðÿòñêîãî ãîñóíèâåðñèòåòà, 2000. Ñ. 226–229. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Ãðàáîâñêèé Ì.À., Ðûáåíêî À.Â., Åãîðîâà À.Â. Êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. ¹ 3. 2005. Ñ. 28–51. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ðûáåíêî À.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã. Íîâûå äàííûå ïî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ è ÷èñëåííîñòè íåêîòîðûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ â Îáñêîì ïðàâîáåðåæüå Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. ¹ 3. 2005. Ñ. 54–64. Êàùåíêî Í.Ô. Ðåçóëüòàòû Àëòàéñêîé çîîëîãè÷åñêîé ýêñïåäèöèè 1898 ãîäà. Ïîçâîíî÷íûå. – Èçâ. Òîìñê, óí-òà. Êí. 16. Òîìñê, 1900. Ñ. 49–158. Êîçëîâ Í.À. Çèìóþùèå ïòèöû ã. Íîâîñèáèðñêà. – Ôàóíà è ýêîëîãèÿ æèâîòíûõ Ïðèîáüÿ. (Íàó÷íûå òðóäû). Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1976. Ñ. 58. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. Ðåäêèå è íàõîäÿùèåñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäû æèâîòíûõ. Áàðíàóë: Èçä-âî Àëò. Óíòà, 1998. 238 ñ. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè: ìëåêîïèòàþùèå, ïòèöû, çåìíîâîäíûå, ðûáû, ÷åðâè, íàñåêîìûå /Îòâ. ðåä. Ì.Ã. Ñåðãååâ. Íîâîñèáèðñê: Ãîñêîìýêîëîãèè ÍÑÎ, 2000. 200 ñ. Êó÷èí À.Ï. Ïòèöû Àëòàÿ. – Áàðíàóë: Àëòàéñêîå êí. èçä-âî, 1976. – 232 ñ. Êó÷èí À.Ï. Ðåäêèå æèâîòíûå Àëòàÿ. Íîâîñèáèðñê. 1991. 210 ñ. Êó÷èí À.Ï. Ôèëèí íà Àëòàå è ïðèëåæàùèõ ðàâíèíàõ. – Ôèëèí â Ðîññèè, Áåëîðóññèè è íà Óêðàèíå. Ì.: Èçä. ÌÃÓ, 1994. Ñ. 110–116. Ìàëêîâ Â.Í., Ìàëêîâ Í.Ï. Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö. – Ìàòåðèàëû ê Êðàñíîé Êíèãå ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé (æèâîòíûå). Ãîðíî-Àëòàéñê. 1995. Ñ. 52–55.

Ñîäåðæàíèå Ìîëîêîâà Í.È., Êàðòàøîâ Í.Ä. Çàïîâåäíèê «Àçàñ». – Çàïîâåäíèêè Ñèáèðè. Ì.: ËÎÃÀÒÀ, 1999. Ò.1. Ñ. 160–161. Ïåòðîâ Â.Þ., Òîðîïîâ Ê.Â. Ïòèöû Êóëóíäèíñêîãî îçåðà è åãî îêðåñòíîñòåé. // Ìàòåðèàëû ê ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ ïòèö íà Óðàëå, â Ïðèóðàëüå è Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. Åêàòåðèíáóðã: Èçä-âî «Åêàòåðèíáóðã», 2000. Ñ. 157–163. Ïåòðîâ Ñ.Þ., Ðóäêîâñêèé Â.Ï. Ëåòíÿÿ îðíèòîôàóíà ïðèåíèñåéñêîé ÷àñòè Çàïàäíîãî Ñàÿíà. – Îðíèòîëîãèÿ. Âûï. 20. Ì.: Èçä-âî ÌÃÓ, 1985. Ñ. 76–83. Ïðîêîôüåâ Ñ.Ì. Ôèëèí â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå. – Ðåäêèå, èñ÷åçàþùèå è ìàëîèçó÷åííûå ïòèöû ÑÑÑÐ. Ì.: ÖÍÈË Ãëàâîõîòû ÐÑÔÑÐ. 1986. Ñ. 52–53. Ïðîêîôüåâ Ñ.Ì. Áèîëîãèÿ ôèëèíà íà òåððèòîðèè Õàêàñèè. – Ôèëèí â Ðîññèè, Áåëîðóññèè è íà Óêðàèíå: Ñáîðíèê íàó÷íûõ ñòàòåé. Ì.:Èçä-âî ÌÃÓ, 1994. Ñ.120–126. Ïðîêîôüåâ Ñ.Ì., Êóñòîâ Þ.È., Äåâÿòêèí Ã.Â. Íàçåìíûå ïîçâîíî÷íûå æèâîòíûå ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ïðèðîäíîãî çàïîâåäíèêà «Õàêàññêèé» (àííîòèðîâàííûé ñïèñîê). – Íàçåìíûå ïîçâîíî÷íûå åíèñåéñêèõ çàïîâåäíèêîâ. Øóøåíñêîå. 2000. Ñ.27–76. Ðàâêèí Þ.Ñ. Ïòèöû Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîãî Àëòàÿ. Íîâîñèáèðñê: Íàóêà. 1973. 373 ñ. Ñåëåâèí Â. À. Äîïîëíåíèå ê îðíèòîôàóíå Ïðèàëåéñêîé ñòåïè. – Uragus. 1929. Êí. IX. ¹ 1. Ñ. 15–23. Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Åãîðîâà À.Â., Ãîí÷àðîâà Î., Òîìèëåíêî À.À. Î ñîñòîÿíèè íåêîòîðûõ íóæäàþùèõñÿ â îõðàíå âèäîâ êðóïíûõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â ñòåïíûõ ïðåäãîðüÿõ ðîññèéñêîãî Çàïàäíîãî Àëòàÿ (Àëòàéñêèé êðàé). – Ãîðíûå ýêîñèñòåìû Þæíîé Ñèáèðè: èçó÷åíèå, îõðàíà è ðàöèîíàëüíîå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèå. Ìàòåðèàëû I ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè, ïîñâÿùåííîé 5-ëåòèþ îðãàíèçàöèè Òèãèðåêñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Òð. ÃÏÇ «Òèãèðåêñêèé». Âûï. 1. Áàðíàóë: Èçä-âî «Àëòàéñêèå ñòðàíèöû». 2005. Ñ. 345–347. Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Òîìèëåíêî À.À. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè ñòåïíûõ ïðåäãîðèé Ðóññêîãî Àëòàÿ: íàõîäêè 2005 ãîäà. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, ¹ 3. 2005. Ñ. 52–53. Ñîêîëîâ Ã.À., Ïåòðîâ Ñ.Þ., Áàëàãóðà Í.Í., Ñòàõååâ Â.À., Çàâàöêèé Á.Ï. Õàðàêòåðèñòèêà ôàóíèñòè÷åñêîãî ñîñòàâà è ýêîëîãèÿ íåêîòîðûõ ôîíîâûõ âèäîâ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ è ïòèö. – Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêèé çàï-ê (ìàò-ëû ïî ïðîåêòó ¹ 2 Ñîâ. íàö. ïðîãðàììû ÌÀÁ). Êðàñíîÿðñê. 1983. Ñ. 30–54. Ñóøêèí Ï.Ï. Ïòèöû Ìèíóñèíñêîãî êðàÿ, Çàïàäíîãî Ñàÿíà è Óðÿíõàéñêîé çåìëè. – Ì., 1914. 551 ñ. Ñóøêèí Ï.Ï. Ïòèöû Ñîâåòñêîãî Àëòàÿ è ïðèëåæàùèõ ÷àñòåé Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäíîé Ìîíãîëèè. Ò. 1–2. Ì. – Ë., Èçä. ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ, 1938. 754 ñ. Ñòàõååâ Â.À. Ïòèöû Àëòàéñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Èòîãè èíâåíòàðèçàöèè îðíèòîôàóíû â 1970–1979 ãîäû. Øóøåíñêîå. 2000. 192 ñ. Òóãàðèíîâ À.ß., Áóòóðëèí Ñ.À. Ìàòåðèàëû ïî ïòèöàì Åíèñåéñêîé ãóáåðíèè. – Çàïèñêè Êðàñíîÿð. ïîäîòäåëà Âîñò.-Ñèá. îòä. èìï. Ðóñ. ãåãð. îá-âà ïî ôèç. ãåîãðàôèè. Ò.1. Âûï. 2–4. Êðàñíîÿðñê. 1911. Ñ. 440. Ôîëèòàðåê Ñ.Ñ., Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï. Ïòèöû Àëòàéñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî çàïîâåäíèêà – Òð. Àëòàéñêîãî ãîñ. çàïîâ., 1938. – Âûï. 1. Ñ. 7–91. ßíóøåâè÷ À.È., Þðëîâ Ê.Ò. Âåðòèêàëüíîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ è ïòèö â Çàïàäíîì Ñàÿíå. – Èçâ. Çàï.-Ñèá. ôèë. ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ. Íîâîñèáèðñê. 1950.Ò.3. Âûï. 2. Ñ. 3–33. ArcView GIS the geographic Information System for Everyone Environmental System Research Institute Inc., Redlands, California, 1996. 350 pp. ERDAS IMAGINE Tour Guides, Erdas Inc, Atlanta, Georgia. 1991. 694 pp. Hooge P. N. and Eichenlaub B. Animal movement extension to arcview. ver. 1.1. Alaska Biological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK, USA. 1997. P. 28. Hooge P. N. Spatial Tools arcview extension. Alaska Biological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK, USA. 1998. P. 13.


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EagleOwlintheSamaraDistrict,Russia ФИЛИНВСАМАРСКОЙОБЛАСТИ,РОССИЯ KaryakinI.V.(CenterforFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) PazhenkovA.S.(TheVolga-UralECONETAssistanceCenter,Samara,Russia) КаряинИ.В.(Центрполевыхисследований,Н.Новород,Россия) ПаженовА.С.(ЦентрсодействияВоло-Уральсойэолоичесойсети,Самара, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 (831) 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ «Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè» Ðîññèÿ 443045 Ñàìàðà, à/ÿ 8001 f_lynx@hotbox.ru http:// econet.universite.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (831) 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Aleksey Pazhenkov The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Centre P.O. Box 8001 Samara Russia 443045 f_lynx@hotbox.ru http:// econet.universite.ru

Ââåäåíèå Ïðèêàçîì Ìèíèñòåðñòâà ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ è îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè (Ïðèêàç ¹ 4 îò 31 àâãóñòà 2005 ã.) óòâåðæä¸í «Ïåðå÷åíü âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ…, ðåêîìåíäîâàííûõ äëÿ âêëþ÷åíèÿ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè».  «Ïåðå÷åíü…» íàðÿäó ñ 43 âèäàìè ïòèö ïîïàë è ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) êàê ðåäêèé âèä, âñòðå÷àþùèéñÿ âî âñåõ ðàéîíàõ îáëàñòè è ïëàâíî ñíèæàþùèé ÷èñëåííîñòü (êàòåãîðèÿ 4/Á). Åãî ÷èñëåííîñòü â îáëàñòè îöåíåíà â 50 ïàð (Ëåáåäåâà è äð., 2007). Ìàòåðèàë, ñîáðàííûé àâòîðàìè ïî äàííîìó âèäó, ïîçâîëÿåò èíòåðïðåòèðîâàòü ñèòóàöèþ ñ ôèëèíîì â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ïî èíîìó, ÷åì ýòî ïðåäñòàâëåíî â «Ìàòåðèàëàõ ê Êðàñíîé êíèãå îáëàñòè». Ïðèðîäíûå îñîáåííîñòè Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè Ñàìàðñêàÿ îáëàñòü ëåæèò íà ãðàíèöå 2-õ ïðèðîäíûõ çîí – ñòåïè è ëåñîñòåïè, ãðàíèöà ìåæäó êîòîðûìè óñëîâíî ïðîâîäèòñÿ ïî äîëèíå ð. Ñàìàðû (Ìèëüêîâ, 1977). Ïëîùàäü îáëàñòè 53565 êì2. Ëåñîïîêðûòûå òåððèòîðèè çàíèìàþò 6556 êì 2 (12,24% îò òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè) áåç ó÷¸òà ëåñîïîëîñ. Íà äîëþ óñëîâíî ñòåïíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (ïàñòáèùà íà ñ.-õ. çåìëÿõ è çåìëÿõ ãîñ. çàïàñà, íåóäîáüÿ íà ñ.-õ. è ëåñíûõ óãîäüÿõ) ïðèõîäèòñÿ 10020 êì2 (18,71%). Áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè çàíèìàþò õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûå ðàâíèíû ñ ïëîñêèìè âîäîðàçäåëàìè è ïîäíÿòûìè ñåâåðíûìè ñêëîíàìè ðå÷íûõ äîëèí, à òàêæå äðåâíèå ìåëîâûå âîçâûøåííîñòè ñ ïëàòîîáðàçíûìè âîäîðàçäåëàìè. Òåððèòîðèÿ õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ ðàçâèòîé ãèäðîãðàôè÷åñêîé ñåòüþ è ñëîæíîé îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íîé ñèñòåìîé.  íàèáîëåå ïåðåñå÷¸ííîé ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêè (â òàê íàçûâàåìûõ Æèãóëåâñêèõ ãîðàõ) âûõîäû ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä ïî ñêëîíàì âîäîðàçäåëîâ,

Ìîëîäîé ôèëèí (Bubo bubo). Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Young Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). Photo by A. Pazhenkov

We surveyed 63 adult Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) and found 57 breeding territories (58 breeding territories including the pair recorded in the Buzuluk pine forest in the territory of the Orenburg district) in the Samara district. (fig. 2). We found nests in 48 breeding territories (82.76%). A total of 75 nests including old were surveyed. We registered breeding success in 28 territories (48.28%), including 25 territories with found nests. We recorded only broods in 3 territories but nests were not found. Also empty or unsuccessful nests (with died clutches or broods) were noted in 11 breeding territories (18.97%). Only old nests were registered in 12 breeding territories, and only 4 from which were exactly occupied by Eagle Owls and breeding were successful a year before visiting a nest. We did not find nests only in 11 breeding territories, but we noted vocalizing birds (uttering mating-calls or alarming signals) in 8 territories and 3 territories were revealed as a result of numerous registrations of Eagle Owls signs (pellets, feathers, remains of preys). A total of 52 events of breeding were registered and some nests were monitored in Samara Luka during several years. Following our counts 21 pairs of Eagle Owls were registered in 15 study plots.


38

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Òàáë. 1. Ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè Table 1. Study plots

Ïëîùàäêè / Plots ¹ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Ïðåîáëàäàþùèå áèîòîïû Dominating biotopes

Øèðîêîëèñòâåííûé ëåñ / Broadleaved forest Âîäî¸ì / Water body Ëåñîïîëîñà / Forest line Âîäî¸ì / Water body --"-Çåðíîâûå / Field Áîð / Pine forest --"-Ñìåøàííûé ëåñ / Mixed forest --"---"-Øèðîêîëèñòâåííûé ëåñ / Broadleaved forest Óðåìà / Flood forest Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ Forest-steppe system of ravines 15 Óðåìà / Flood forest 16 Âîäî¸ì / Water body 17 Áîëîòî / Bog 18 --"-19 --"-20 Óðåìà / Flood forest 21 --"-22 --"-23 Ëåñîïîëîñà / Forest line 24 Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ 25 Forest-steppe system of ravines 26 Óðåìà / Flood forest 27 Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ Forest-steppe system of ravines 28 Çàëåæü / Old field 29 Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ 30 Forest-steppe system of ravines 31 Óðåìà / Flood forest 32 Âîäî¸ì / Water body 33 Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ Forest-steppe system of ravines 34 Ñòåïü / Steppe 35 Ëåñîïîëîñà / Forest line 36 Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ 37 Forest-steppe system of ravines 38 Áîð / Pine forest 39 --"-40 --"-41 --"-42 --"-43 Áîëîòî / Bog 44 Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ 45 Forest-steppe system of ravines 46 --"-47 --"-48 --"-49 Áîëîòî / Bog 50 Óðåìà / Flood forest 51 --"-52 Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûé ëåñîñòåïíîé êîìïëåêñ Forest-steppe system of ravines 53 Áîð / Pine forest 54 Ñìåøàííûé ëåñ / Mixed forest 55 --"-56 --"-Ñðåäíåå ± ñòàíäàðòíîå îòêëîíåíèå M±SD Ñóììà / Sum Ïðåäåëû / Lim

Ïðèñóòñòâèå Äëèíà ìàðøðóòîâ ôèëèíà (êì) Length of routes Registrations of (km) the Eagle Owl

Ïåðèìåòð (êì) Perimeter (km)

Ïëîùàäü (êì2) Area (km2)

12.93 16.61 17.04 14.61 14.62 17.40 10.54 10.26 7.04 7.07 4.29 4.30 17.77 14.55

2.84 13.17 2.35 11.66 5.86 13.62 4.70 1.80 1.68 1.73 0.65 0.63 7.17 2.27

7.59 9.00 6.50 6.70 3.30 2.60 2.50 2.00 6.50 4.80

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

15.65 17.44 20.17 13.79 9.38 16.76 10.74 8.55 12.90 22.12 6.65 11.98 19.96

10.38 17.29 21.67 8.20 5.49 12.62 7.28 3.80 3.68 6.34 2.37 4.68 4.61

8.80 16.20 22.50 11.10 3.50 10.00 8.50 5.50 6.00 11.50 5.00 8.00

Ô Ô

16.72 33.02 21.95 10.65 12.48 18.39

8.54 6.91 23.51 5.59 3.26 14.56

11.30 5.00 18.00 13.70 6.50

Ô Ô -

10.37 55.44 26.98 45.25 17.72 5.20 14.17 10.63 2.64 10.35 15.36 13.14 20.56 16.19 17.75 24.43 10.72 8.96 20.44

3.16 4.50 38.13 92.40 13.94 1.75 2.72 3.59 0.45 5.28 15.42 9.53 9.78 6.82 15.37 26.50 6.42 2.28 9.46

9.00 7.00 20.00 17.00 20.00 11.00 4.00 6.60 5.40 2.00 5.90 8.80 7.40 10.40 8.50 20.0 7.50 5.00 7.00

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

5.13 11.86 4.13 8.50 15.08±9.17 844.25 2.64 – 55.44

1.16 3.63 1.17 12.30 9.4±13.41 526.67 0.45 – 92.40

3.60 5.80 2.50 7.70 8.5±5.12 424.79 2.00 – 22.50

-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 îáðàùåííûõ ê äîëèíå Âîëãè, îáðàçóþò ïîëíîöåííûå ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ. Íà þãå ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå âîäîðàçäåëû ðàñïàõàíû, ïðè÷¸ì 30% ïàõîòíûõ óãîäèé â ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå ïåðåâåäåíû â çàëåæè, à áîëüøèíñòâî ïàñòáèù çàáðîøåíû. Íà ñåâåðå âîäîðàçäåëû ïîêðûòû âòîðè÷íûìè ìåëêîëèñòâåííûìè è øèðîêîëèñòâåííûìè ëåñàìè íà ìåñòå õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ. Ïîñëåäíèå ñîõðàíèëèñü â âèäå ôðàãìåíòîâ ïî êðóòîñêëîíàì ðå÷íûõ äîëèí, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ïðàâîáåðåæüå Âîëãè. Íà àëëþâèàëüíûõ òåððàñàõ, êàê â ëåâîáåðåæüå Âîëãè, òàê è â ïðàâîáåðåæüå, èìåþòñÿ îñòàòêè ñèëüíî ôðàãìåíòèðîâàííûõ áîðîâ.

Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäèêà Äàííûå ïî ñîâðåìåííîìó ñîñòîÿíèþ ïîïóëÿöèè ôèëèíà â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ñîáðàíû â 1995–2007 ãã. Îñíîâíûå ýêñïåäèöèîííûå ðàáîòû îñóùåñòâëÿëèñü â 1997–2000 ãã. Èìåííî â ýòîò ïåðèîä áûëî âûÿâëåíî áîëüøèíñòâî ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíîâ, è îïðåäåëåíà èõ ÷èñëåííîñòü íà òîò ïåðèîä.  2005–2007 ãã. ïðîâîäèëñÿ ìîíèòîðèíã íåêîòîðûõ èçâåñòíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, à â ïîñëåäíèé ãîä áûëè âíîâü îáñëåäîâàíû ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè, íà êîòîðûõ ôèëèíû ó÷èòûâàëèñü â 1997–2000 ãã. Âûÿâëåíèå ôèëèíîâ îñóùåñòâëÿëîñü ïî ñòàíäàðòíîé ìåòîäèêå (Êàðÿêèí, 2004). Íà àâòîìîáèëÿõ 4õ4 ìåòîäè÷íî îáúåçæàëèñü ñëàáîîñâîåííûå ñòåïíûå è ëåñîñòåïíûå

39

A total of 88–108 pairs are estimated to breed in the Samara district. Research of nest locations in the district has demonstrated that 50% of the Eagle Owl’s nests were in rocky places (fig. 3), 34% – in river valleys. Hardly less than a half of the Eagle Owl’s nests were noted in niches of rocks and cliffs (45%), third part – on uncovered shelves and ledges (31%), other nests – in foot of trees and only 8% – in covered niches located under roots of trees. Broods mostly (n=19) consisted of 2 (42.1%) and 3 (36.8%) chicks, 10% of recorded broods consisted of 1 and 4 chicks. The average brood size was 2.47±0.84 chicks. Decreasing of number of the Eagle Owl was not recorded for last 10 years, on the contrary we noted the positive trend of numbers in some populations impacted by the agriculture crushing. One of the main modern threats for the Eagle Owl is believed to be the development of the oil-mining industry. The geological investigation of oil recourses that curried out in steppe territories of Obshiy Syrt including protected areas in the south of the Samara district under the order of TNK-BP caused the deaths of 2 broods of the Eagle Owl in 2007.

Ðèñ. 1. Ìàðøðóòû ýêñïåäèöèé è ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè Fig.1. Field routes and study plots


40

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ó÷àñòêè, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûå ëàíäøàôòû.  íàèáîëåå ïåðåñå÷¸ííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ çàêëàäûâàëèñü ïåøèå ìàðøðóòû. Ó÷àñòêè, ïîäõîäÿùèå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà (âîçâûøåííîñòè åñòåñòâåííîãî è èñêóññòâåííîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ ñðåäè ðîâíîé ñòåïè, ñêëîíû áàëîê), îñìàòðèâàëèñü â îïòèêó íà ïðåäìåò îáíàðóæåíèÿ ïðèçíàêîâ ïðåáûâàíèÿ ïòèö (ïóõ, ïåðüÿ, ïîì¸ò). Ïîáåðåæüå âîäîõðàíèëèùà îáñëåäîâàëîñü ñ ìàëîìåðíûõ ñóäîâ ñ ïîäâåñíûìè ìîòîðàìè. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ìàðøðóòîâ ýêñïåäèöèé ê êîíöó 2000 ã. ñîñòàâèëà 6200,24 êì. Èç íèõ àâòîìàðøðóòàìè íà àâòîìîáèëÿõ 4õ4 ïðîéäåíî 5754,54 êì, ïåøèìè ìàðøðóòàìè – 337,05 êì (â ðàñ÷¸ò íå ïîïàëè âûõîäû âî âðåìÿ àâòîìàðøðóòîâ è ñ òî÷åê ñòîÿíîê, íàïðàâëåííûå íà îáñëåäîâàíèå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, íå ïðåâûøàþùèå 1 êì). Ó÷¸òíàÿ ïëîùàäü íà ìàðøðóòàõ ñîñòàâèëà 11160,43 êì2. Äëÿ ó÷¸òà ïòèö â ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ îáëàñòè çàêëàäûâàëèñü ïëîùàäêè (òàáë. 1).  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè áûëî çàëîæåíî 56 ïëîùàäîê îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 514,37 êì2. Ëåñîïîêðûòûå òåððèòîðèè íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ çàíèìàëè îêîëî 114,79 êì2, è îêîëî 271,72 êì2 ïðèõîäèëîñü íà ñòåïíûå èëè óñëîâíî ñòåïíûå ó÷àñòêè îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íîé ñåòè. Îñòàëüíûå ïëîùàäè áûëè çàíÿòû âîäî¸ìàìè èëè îêîëîâîäíûìè àññîöèàöèÿìè è ñåëüõîçóãîäèÿìè ðàçëè÷íîãî íàçíà÷åíèÿ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ê êîíöó 2000 ã. èññëåäîâàíèÿìè áûëà îõâà÷åíà äîâîëüíî îáÒàáë. 2. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäåé ïî áèîòîïàì Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè

øèðíàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ïëîùàäüþ 11674,8 êì2 (21,79% îò îáùåé òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè).  2007 ã. óäàëîñü ïîâòîðèòü îáñëåäîâàíèå 57% ïëîùàäè ïëîùàäîê, çàëîæåííûõ äî 2000 ã. Ìàðøðóòû è ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè îòîáðàæåíû íà ðèñ. 1.  ðåçóëüòàòå äåøèôðîâêè êîñìîñíèìêîâ áûëà îïðåäåëåíà ïëîùàäü ëåñîâ è ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü èõ îïóøåê (âîäîðàçäåëüíûå ëåñà: ïëîùàäü 51170,2 êì2, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îïóøåê – 7449,4 êì; ïîéìåííûå ëåñà: 1385,7 êì2 è 1996,6 êì; ëåñîïîëîñû: 638,8 êì2 è 2390,3 êì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî), ïëîùàäü ñòåïíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ è âîññòàíàâëèâàþùèõñÿ ñòåïåé íà çàëåæàõ (10020 êì2), ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü è ïëîùàäü îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íîé ñåòè (13931,4 êì, 6965,7 êì2) (òàáë. 2).

Ðåçóëüòàòû Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü  Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè âñòðå÷åíî 63 âçðîñëûõ ôèëèíà, îáíàðóæåíî 57 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (58 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, åñëè âêëþ÷àòü ïàðó, âûÿâëåííóþ â Áóçóëóêñêîì áîðó íà òåððèòîðèè Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè) (ðèñ. 2). Íà 48 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ (82,76%) íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà. Îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî îáíàðóæåííûõ ãí¸çä ñîñòàâèëî 75, âêëþ÷àÿ ñòàðûå. Íà 28 ó÷àñòêàõ (48,28%) óñòàíîâëåíî óñïåøíîå ðàçìíîæåíèå, â òîì ÷èñëå íà 25 ó÷àñòêàõ ñ îáíàðóæåííûìè ãí¸çäàìè. Íà 3-õ ó÷àñòêàõ ãí¸çäà îáíàðóæåíû íå áûëè, õîòÿ âñòðå÷åíû íåðàñïàâøèåñÿ âûâîäêè. Íà 11 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ (18,97%) îáíàðóæåíû ïóñòóþùèå ãí¸çäà ëèáî ãí¸çäà ñ ïîãèáøèìè êëàäêàìè è âû-

Table 2. Distribution of study plots in different biotopes in the Samara district

Äîìèíèðóþùèé áèîòîï íà ïëîùàäêàõ Dominating biotopes on plots

Áîëîòà / Bogs Óðåìà / Flood forest Ñòåïü / Steppe Çàëåæü / Old field Îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûå ëåñîñòåïíûå êîìïëåêñû Forest-steppe systems of ravines Ëåñîïîëîñû / Forest lines Øèðîêîëèñòâåííûé ëåñ Broadleaved forest Ëèñòâåííûé ëåñ Deciduous forest Ñìåøàííûé ëåñ Mixed forest Áîð / Pine forest

Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îïóøåê (êì)

Ïëîùàäü ïëîùàäîê (êì2) Area of plots (km2)

Äëèíà ìàðøðóòîâ (êì) Length of routes (km)

Ïëîùàäü áèîòîïîâ (êì2) Area of biotopes (km2)

67.14 57.94 3.16 8.54 240.52

71.90 63.50 9.00 11.30 135.40

506.40 1385.70 763.60 2290.70 6965.70

10.53 3.47

21.50 9.59

638.80 1292.60

2390.30 1862.40

1.6 0.3

9.78

7.40

2585.10

3724.70

0.4

22.32

28.00

775.50

1117.40

2.9

38.41

67.20

517.00

744.90

7.4

Äîëÿ ïëîùàäè áèîòîïîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ îò òàêîâîé â îáëàñòè (%) Length of Percent of biotope areas in forest edges plots on the total biotope (km) areas in district (%) 1996.60

13.3 4.2 0.4 0.4 3.5


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 2. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå èçâåñòíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè Fig. 2. Distribution of the known Eagle Owl’s breeding territories in the Samara district

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 âîäêàìè. Íà 12 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ îáíàðóæåíû òîëüêî ñòàðûå ãí¸çäà, ïðè÷¸ì ëèøü 4 èç íèõ áûëè îäíîçíà÷íî çàíÿòûìè ôèëèíàìè, è óñïåøíîå ðàçìíîæåíèå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî â ãîä, ïðåäøåñòâóþùèé îáíàðóæåíèþ ãíåçäà. Ëèøü íà 11 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ôèëèíîâ ãí¸çäà íå îáíàðóæåíû, ïðè÷¸ì íà 8 èç íèõ âñòðå÷åíû âîêàëèçèðóþùèå (òîêóþùèå èëè áåñïîêîÿùèåñÿ) ïòèöû, è 3 ó÷àñòêà âûÿâëåíî íà îñíîâàíèè ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ ñëåäîâ ôèëèíîâ (ïîåäè, ïîãàäêè, ïåðüÿ).  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè ïðîñëåæåíî 52 ñëó÷àÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, ïðè÷¸ì íà íåêîòîðûõ ãí¸çäàõ íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå â òå÷åíèå ðÿäà ëåò.  õîäå ó÷¸òîâ 21 ïàðà ôèëèíîâ îáíàðóæåíà â ïðåäåëàõ 15 ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê. Íàèáîëüøàÿ êàê ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè, òàê è ïî ïëîòíîñòè ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà ôèëèíà ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà íà ïðàâîáåðåæíîé òåððàñå Âîëãè ñ ÿäðîì íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå. Çäåñü ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ íà êðóïíûõ îñòåïí¸ííûõ ñêëîíàõ ëîãîâ, âûõîäÿùèõ ê Âîëãå, çàíèìàÿ íåáîëüøèå íèøè è óñòóïû â ïîäíîæèè ñêàëüíûõ âûõîäîâ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ â âåðõíèõ ÷àñòÿõ ñêëîíîâ. Íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå â 1997 ã. íà ïëîùàäè 47 êì2 ôèëèí âñòðå÷åí íà 13 ó÷àñòêàõ. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó 7 ãí¸çäàìè â Æèãóëÿõ ñîñòàâëÿëî 1–3 êì. Â

41

Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíà íà Êóéáûøåâñêîì âîäîõðàíèëèùå: Ïîäâàëüñêèå ÿðû (ââåðõó) è Óñèíñêèé çàëèâ (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Breeding territories of the Eagle Owl in the Kuibyshevskoe Reservoir: Podvalskie Yary (upper) and the Usinskiy Gulf (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin

öåëîì ïî Ëóêå â òîò ïåðèîä áûëî âûÿâëåíî 10 ãí¸çä, ïîêèíóòûõ ñë¸òêàìè, è 6 ìåñò âåðîÿòíîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 11 ïàð/100 êì2, à ÷èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ôèëèíîâ îöåíåíà â 20 ïàð (Êàðÿêèí, 1998; Êàðÿêèí, Ïàæåíêîâ, 1999). Ê 2007 ã. íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå îáñëåäîâàíû ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïû, è îáíàðóæåíû ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè 21 ïàðû, ÷òî áëèçêî ê àáñîëþòíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè.  2007 ã. áûëè âûáîðî÷íî ïðîâåðåíû 6 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ – îíè âñå îêàçàëèñü æèëûìè, õîòÿ íà 4-õ ó÷àñòêàõ ôèëèíû ñìåíèëè ñâîè ñòàðûå ãíåçäîâûå íèøè íà íîâûå. ×èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè Âîëæñêîãî ïðàâîáåðåæüÿ, áåç Ðà÷åéñêîãî áîðà, â 2004 ã. áûëà îöåíåíà â 34 – 38, â ñðåäíåì 36 ïàð. Îäíàêî ïîçæå áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûå ñèñòåìû Íîâîäåâè÷üèõ è Ñåíãèëååâñêèõ ãîð, ãäå óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå ôèëèíà ñ âûñî-


42

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ôèëèíà â Íîâîäåâè÷üèõ ãîðàõ: Ëåâàøîâñêàÿ ñòåïü (ââåðõó) è Ïîäâàëüñêèå ÿðû (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Breeding territories of the Eagle Owl in the Novodevichy Mountains: Levashovskaya steppe (upper) and Podvalskie Yary (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå íà Ìîëîäåöêîì êóðãàíå. 17.06.2007. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest on Molodetskiy Kurgan cliff. 17/06/ 2007. Photos by I. Karyakin.

êîé ïëîòíîñòüþ âíå ìåëîâûõ îáíàæåíèé.  ðåçóëüòàòå óâåëè÷åíèÿ ïëîùàäè äëÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà äëÿ Âîëæñêîãî ïðàâîáåðåæüÿ îöåíåíà â 45–55 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 50 ïàð. Âòîðàÿ êðóïíàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà îõâàòûâàåò ñòåïíûå ðàéîíû íà êðàéíåì þãå Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè. Íàèáîëüøåé ÷èñëåííîñòè ôèëèí äîñòèãàåò â ñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ Îáùåãî Ñûðòà íà þãî-âîñòîêå îáëàñòè.  1999–2000 ã. íàìè áûëè íàèáîëåå ïîëíî îáñëåäîâàíû îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûå ñèñòåìû âåðõîâüåâ Èðãèçà è Ðîñòîøè, è îáíàðóæåíî 6 ãí¸çä ôèëèíà. Âñå ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â íèøàõ â îñíîâàíèè èëè íà âåðøèíàõ îïîëçíåâûõ îáðûâîâ â âåðõîâüÿõ ñòåïíûõ áàëîê. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñîñòàâëÿåò 5,4 ïàð/ 100 êì2. Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 2004 ã. ÷èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ôèëèíîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Îáùåãî Ñûðòà îöåíåíà â 14–16 ïàð. Ïîâòîðíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå òåððèòîðèè ïîêàçàëî,

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ÷òî îäèí èçâåñòíûé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê ôèëèíîâ ïðåêðàòèë ñâî¸ ñóùåñòâîâàíèå èç-çà çàðàñòàíèÿ áàëêè êóñòàðíèêàìè ñïèðåè, âèøíè è ìèíäàëÿ, çàòî â ìåñòàõ áûëîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis), ïîêèíóòûõ ïòèöàìè èç-çà îòñóòñòâèÿ âûïàñà è èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ êîëîíèé ìàëîãî ñóñëèêà, ïîÿâèëèñü 3 íîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíîâ.  èòîãå, ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 2007 ã. ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà Îáùåì Ñûðòå îöåíåíà â 15–20 ïàð. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ðàçíûõ ïàð îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ðàñïðåäåëåíèåì â ïðîñòðàíñòâå ìåñò, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä (ñêàë, îáðûâîâ, êðóòîñêëîíîâ áàëîê), è ñîñòàâëÿåò (n=12) 2,1–8,3 êì, â ñðåäíåì 4,49±1,96 êì íà Îáùåì Ñûðòå è (n=27) 1,4–7,8 êì, â ñðåäíåì 3,84±1,92 êì – íà Ïðèâîëæñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè.  öåëîì ïî ýòèì äâóì ãíåçäîâûì ãðóïïèðîâêàì ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè ðàçíûõ ïàð ôèëèíîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 4,04±1,93 êì (Ex – 0,1) è áëèçêî ê íîðìàëüíîìó (K-S d=0.099, p> 0.20). Íà îñòàëüíîé òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè ôèëèí ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í ñïîðàäè÷íî, è êàêèå-ëèáî çàêîíîìåðíîñòè â ðàñïðåäåëåíèè îòñóòñòâóþò. Íà þãî-çàïàäå Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè íàõîäèòñÿ òàê íàçûâàåìûé Êàìåííûé Ñûðò, íåñêîëüêî îòëè÷àþùèéñÿ ïî ñòðóêòóðå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ôèëèíà áèîòîïîâ îò Îáùåãî Ñûðòà. Áàëêè çäåñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ïîêðûòû ëåñîì, îïîëçíåâûå îáíàæåíèÿ ïî ñêëîíàì áàëîê îòñóòñòâóþò, â âåðõîâüÿõ áàëîê ðàçâèòû óçêèå îâðàãè. Çäåñü ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ â øèðîêèõ ÷àñòÿõ áàëîê, óñòðàèâàÿ ãíåçäà íà îáëåñåííûõ ñêëîíàõ â ïîäíîæèè äåðåâüåâ. Íàéäåíî 5 ãí¸çä íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ 2-õ ïàð, è íà 3-õ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ âñòðå÷åíû òîêóþùèå ïòèöû. ×èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 8–10 ïàð. Ñðåäíèé Ñûðò ïî ñâîåé ñòðóêòóðå çàíèìàåò ïðîìåæóòî÷íîå ïîëîæåíèå ìåæäó Êàìåííûì è Îáùèì. Çäåñü èìåþòñÿ êàê îáëåñåííûå áàëêè ñ ïîëîãèìè ñêëîíàìè, òàê è ñòåïíûå áàëêè ñ îïîëçíåâûìè îáðûâàìè. Ýòîò Ñûðò íå îáñëåäîâàí, îäíàêî, ñóäÿ ïî íàëè÷èþ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, çäåñü âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî ãíåçäîâàíèå 6 ïàð ôèëèíîâ. Òåððèòîðèÿ ëåâîãî áåðåãà Âîëãè ñåâåðíåå äîëèíû ð. Ñàìàðû ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòóþ ëåñîñòåïü – ýòî òàê íàçûâàåìîå Âûñîêîå Çàâîëæüå. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü òåððèòîðèè, èñêëþ÷àÿ òåððàñíûå áîðû Âîëãè, Êîíäóð÷è è Ñàìàðû, ïîêðûòà îñòðîâíûìè ëèñòâåííûìè ëåñàìè, áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü èç êîòîðûõ ñîõðàíèëàñü â íàèáîëåå


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå ïîä îïîëçíåâûì îáðûâîì íà ð. Èðãèç. 24.06.2007. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest on the Irgiz river’s cliff. 24/06/ 2007. Photos by I. Karyakin

Ãíåçäî ôèëèíà áëèç Êàøïèðà. 03.07.2007. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Nest of the Eagle Owl near Kashpir. 03/07/2007. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Òàáë. 3. Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷¸òîâ ôèëèíà â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè

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ïåðåñå÷¸ííûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ ñåâåðî-âîñòîêà îáëàñòè. Çäåñü â 90-õ ãã. áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû Øóíãóò-Ñóðãóòñêîå ìåæäóðå÷üå è âåðõîâüÿ Ñîêà â ðàéîíå Áàéòóãàíà. Íà ïîñëåäíåé òåððèòîðèè íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà 2-õ ïàð ôèëèíîâ, êîòîðûå ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà îñòåïíåííûõ êðóòîñêëîíàõ âîçâûøåííîñòåé â ïîäíîæèè äåðåâüåâ. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 4,8 ïàð/100 êì2. Åù¸ îäíî æèëîå ãíåçäî ôèëèíîâ, ïîêèíóòîå ñë¸òêàìè, îáíàðóæåíî â èþëå 2007 ã. íà ïðèðå÷íîì îáðûâå â âåðõîâüÿõ îäíîãî èç ïðèòîêîâ ð. Ñóðãóò. Îáñëåäîâàíèå Êóòóëóêñêèõ è Êèíåëüñêèõ ÿðîâ íà ïðåäìåò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà íå ïðèíåñëî ïîëîæèòåëüíûõ ðåçóëüòàòîâ.  èòîãå ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íà òåððèòîðèè Âûñîêîãî Çàâîëæüÿ (èñêëþ÷àÿ áîðû) îöåíåíà â 13–15 ïàð. Âåðîÿòíî, 2–3 ïàðû ôèëèíîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ â îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûõ ñèñòåìàõ ìåæäóðå÷üÿ ×àïàåâêè è Ñàìàðû, ãäå â àâãóñòå 2007 ã. â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Äîìàøêà îáíàðóæåí ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê, ïðè÷¸ì åäèíñòâåííûé â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè îáëàñòè. Âñå âûøåóêàçàííûå ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè ôèëèíà òÿãîòåþò ê îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íîé ñåòè, êàê îáëåñåííîé, òàê è îñòåïí¸ííîé, ïîýòîìó ïîëó÷åííûå äàííûå ïî ïëîòíîñòè â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ (êðóòîñêëîíû ñ îáíàæåíèÿìè ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä, îïîëçíåâûìè è ýðîçèîííûìè îáðûâàìè) íà ïëîùàäêàõ ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëè íà ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ âñåé îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íîé ñåòè â îáëàñòè (òàáë. 3).

Table 3. Results of Eagle Owl counts in the Samara District

Ïëîùàäêà Plots

1 9 10 11 12 14 24 27 29 30 36 37 46 47 Âñåãî Total

Ïëîùàäü Ïëîùàäü Ïëîòíîñòü Êîëè÷åñòâî Îöåíêà Äîëÿ ïëîùàäîê, ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ (ïàð/êì2) ó÷ò¸ííûõ ïàð íàñåë¸ííûõ (ïàðû) áèîòîïîâ íà Number of pairs Density (pair/ âèäîì, îò ÷èñëà áèîòîïîâ â km2) îáñëåäîâàííûõ (%) Ñàìàðñêîé Estimated ïëîùàäêàõ number îáëàñòè (êì2) (êì2) Percent of plots (pairs) Area of nesting Area of nesting with Eagle Owls biotopes in plots biotopes in the on the total number (km2) of plots (%) Samara district (km2) 2.20 1.60 1.50 1.40 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.30 3.50 3.70 5.70 5.50 2.20 2.00 41.1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 1 1 20

0.45 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.67 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.53 0.73 0.45 0.50 0.5±0.15

50.00

44.5

22 (±3)

71.43

115.7

58 (±9)

160.2

80 (±12)


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Ãí¸çäà ôèëèíà íà Îáùåì Ñûðòå â íèøå ïîä êàìíåì íà ñêëîíå áàëêè (ââåðõó) è â Íîâîäåâè÷üèõ ãîðàõ â ïðèêîðíåâîé íèøå â îáëåñåííîì ëîãó (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Nests of the Eagle Owl in the Obschiy Syrt upland and the Novodevichy Mountains: in niche on a slope of a gully (upper) and niche in the foot of tree on a slope of the forested ravine (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin

Áîðû – íàèáîëåå ïðåäïî÷èòàåìûé ôèëèíîì òèï ëåñà â ïðåäåëàõ âñåãî àðåàëà.  ñòåïíîé çîíå îíè çàñåëÿþòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ïëîòíî, îäíàêî, â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè îíè ñëàáî èçó÷åíû, îñîáåííî íà ïðåäìåò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì òðóäíî îïðåäåëèòü òî÷íûå ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè ýòîãî âèäà.  ïðåäåëàõ îáëàñòè â 1999 ã. íàéäåíî åäèíñòâåííîå ñòàðîå ãíåçäî ôèëèíà â Ðà÷åéñêîì áîðó, êîòîðîå ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â îñíîâàíèè êàìåííîãî âàëóíà â 50 ì îò îïóøêè áîðà íà êðóòîñêëîíå, ïðè÷¸ì ïîäòâåðäèòü çäåñü ãíåçäîâàíèå ôèëèíà â 2007 ã. íå óäàëîñü.  Áóçóëóêñêîì áîðó ãíåçäî ôèëèíà èçâåñòíî ñ òåððèòîðèè Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè – îíî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü áëèç îïóøêè â ïîäíîæèè ñîñíû.  òåððàñíûõ áîðàõ Âîëãè è Êîíäóð÷è èçâåñòíû ëèøü ðåãèñòðàöèè ñëåäîâ ïðåáûâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, à òàêæå âñòðå÷à â íåãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, ôèëèí âñòðå÷åí âî âñåõ òèïàõ áîðîâ îáëàñòè, â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì,

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ãíåçäî ôèëèíà íà îáëåñåííîé ñêàëå. Ìîãóòîâà ãîðà. 16.06.2007. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Eagle Owl on a rock covered by a forest. Mogutova mountain. 16/06/2007. Photo by I. Karyakin

îïèðàÿñü íà ìèíèìàëüíûå ïîêàçàòåëè åãî ïëîòíîñòè â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ â öåëîì ïî àðåàëó (1 ïàðà/36,6 êì îïóøêè èëè 1 ïàðà/ 16,8 êì íåîñâîåííîé ÷àñòè îïóøêè íàïðîòèâ ïàñòáèùà), ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå â îáëàñòè êàê ìèíèìóì 5 ïàð. Âñå âûøåïðèâåä¸ííûå äàííûå äàþò îñíîâàíèå ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè 88–108 ïàð ôèëèíîâ. Ãíåçäîâûå áèîòîïû, ãí¸çäà, îñîáåííîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ Êàê óæå îòìå÷àëîñü âûøå, ôèëèí â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè òÿãîòååò íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ê îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íîé ñåòè âíå çàâèñèìîñòè îò ñòåïåíè å¸ îáëåñåííîñòè. Íà Îáùåì Ñûðòå âèä ãíåçäèòñÿ èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî íà áåçëåñíûõ îïîëçíåâûõ îáðûâàõ ëèáî â îâðàãàõ ïîä íèìè, âûáèðàÿ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íèøè â ïîäíîæèè îáðûâîâ ëèáî ïðîìîèíàõ â âåðõíèõ ÷àñòÿõ áàëîê. Áëèæå ê Âîëãå áåçëåñíûå îâðàãè âñòðå÷àþòñÿ âñ¸ åù¸ â áîëüøîì êîëè÷åñòâå, îäíàêî ôèëèí çäåñü ïðåäïî÷èòàåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ â îáëåñåííûõ îâðàãàõ, óñòðàèâàÿ ãí¸çäà â ïîäíîæèè äåðåâüåâ, ðàñòóùèõ íà ñêëîíàõ, ëèáî â ïðèêîðíåâûõ íèøàõ. Àíàëîãè÷íûé ñòåðåîòèï ãíåçäîâàíèÿ õàðàêòåðåí è äëÿ ôèëèíîâ, íàñåëÿþùèõ Íîâîäåâè÷üè ãîðû. Íåñìîòðÿ íà îáèëèå ìåëîâûõ îáíàæåíèé, ôèëèí çäåñü ïðåäïî÷èòàåò óñòðàèâàòü ãí¸çäà â ïîäíîæèè äåðåâüåâ íà ñêëîíàõ îáëåñåííûõ îâðàãîâ, ïîä ìåëîâûìè âûõîäàìè ëèáî íàïðîòèâ íèõ.  áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ âçðîñëûå ïòèöû íà ìåëîâûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ ðàçäåëûâàþò äîáû÷ó, ïîýòîìó ëîêàëèçîâàòü ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ìîæíî äîâîëüíî ëåãêî, îáñëåäóÿ «ìåëû» íà ïðåäìåò ïîãàäîê, øêóðîê åæåé è îñòàíêîâ èíîé äîáû÷è ôèëèíà. Þæíåå


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 3. Ìåñòà óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ôèëèíîâ Fig. 3. Locations of the Eagle Owl’s nests

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêè ôèëèí ãíåçäèòñÿ ñ âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ íà ó÷àñòêå îò Ñûçðàíè äî Õâàëûíñêà, òÿãîòåÿ ê ìåëîâûì îáðûâàì, ïðè÷¸ì çäåñü îí ïðåäïî÷èòàåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ äîâîëüíî îòêðûòî â ïîäíîæèè èëè ñðåäíåé ÷àñòè «ìåëîâ» â íèøàõ-ïðîìîèíàõ èëè ïîä ïðèêðûòèåì îòäåëüíûõ êàìíåé èëè êóñòîâ, ÿâíî èçáåãàÿ ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé. Åäèíñòâåííîå ãíåçäî þæíåå Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêè, ðàñïîëàãàâøååñÿ íà îáðûâå â ïðèêîðíåâîé íèøå, áûëî îáíàðóæåíî â 2007 ã. áëèç Êàøïèðà. Íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå ôèëèí òÿãîòååò ê ñêàëàì. Ñòåðåîòèïû ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíîâ íà Ëóêå â ïîñëåäíåå ñòîëåòèå ïðåòåðïåëè îïðåäåë¸ííûå èçìåíåíèÿ, è åñëè ðàíåå âèä ãíåçäèëñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî â ãëóáîêèõ è ïðîñòîðíûõ íèøàõ íà îáëåñåííûõ ñêàëàõ, î ÷¸ì ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò ñòàðûå ãí¸çäà ñ îáèëèåì êîñòåé æåðòâ, òî â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïòèöû ÷àñòî ãíåçäÿòñÿ íà îòêðûòûõ îñòåïí¸ííûõ ñêëîíàõ íà íåáîëüøèõ óñòóïàõ. Ïîñëåäíåå ñâÿçàíî, ñêîðåå âñå-

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ãî, ñ ôàêòîðîì áåñïîêîéñòâà, ò.ê. ñêàëû àêòèâíî ïîñåùàþòñÿ òóðèñòàìè, îñîáåííî â ìàéñêèå ïðàçäíèêè. Èç íåòèïè÷íûõ ãí¸çä ôèëèíà ñëåäóåò îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå íà ãíåçäî â Ñóñêàíñêîì ðûáõîçå, êîòîðîå ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ïîäíîæèè òîïîëÿ ñðåäè àáñîëþòíî ðîâíîé ìåñòíîñòè â íåáîëüøîì êîëêå ñðåäè òðîñòíèêîâûõ çàéìèù.  öåëîì ïî îáëàñòè 50% ãí¸çä ôèëèíà îáíàðóæåíî íà ñêàëüíûõ âûõîäàõ (ðèñ. 3), 34% – â ðå÷íûõ äîëèíàõ. Åñëè, îöåíèâàÿ ïðèóðî÷åííîñòü ôèëèíà ê ðåêàì, ó÷èòûâàòü è îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûå ñèñòåìû ïðàâîáåðåæüÿ Âîëãè, òî ïîëó÷àåòñÿ, ÷òî îêîëî 80% ïàð ôèëèíîâ òÿãîòååò ê ðåêàì. Âûñîêàÿ äîëÿ ãí¸çä ôèëèíà íà ñêàëàõ ñâÿçàíà, âî-ïåðâûõ, ñ ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûì èõ îáñëåäîâàíèåì, âî-âòîðûõ, ñ òåì, ÷òî ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå ñêàëû, íåñìîòðÿ íà èõ ðåäêîñòü â îáëàñòè, çàíÿòû ôèëèíàìè. Õîòÿ âñ¸ æå áîëüøèíñòâî ïàð ôèëèíîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ íå íà ñêàëàõ, à íà ðàçëè÷íûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ áîðòîâ áàëîê ëèáî â ïîäíîæèè äåðåâüåâ íà ñêëîíàõ ëîãîâ, òàê êàê èìåííî ýòè áèîòîïû äîìèíèðóþò â îáëàñòè, è èìåííî â íèõ òðóäíåå âñåãî èñêàòü ãíåçäà ôèëèíà. ×óòü ìåíåå ïîëîâèíû ãí¸çä ôèëèíîâ óñòðîåíî íà ñêàëàõ è îáðûâàõ â íèøàõ (45%), è òðåòü – íà ïîëêàõ è óñòóïàõ, íåçàùèùåííûõ ñâåðõó (31%), îñòàëüíûå ãíåçäÿòñÿ â ïîäíîæèè äåðåâüåâ, ïðè÷¸ì ëèøü 8% – â ïðèêîðíåâûõ íèøàõ, çàêðûòûõ ñâåðõó (ðèñ. 4). Íèçêàÿ äîëÿ ïîñëåäíåãî òèïà óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ñâÿçàíà íàïðÿìóþ ñ òðóäíîñòüþ èõ ïîèñêà. Ôèëèíîâ íà êëàäêàõ ñòàðàëèñü íå áåñïîêîèòü. Åäèíñòâåííàÿ îñìîòðåííàÿ êëàäêà ñîäåðæàëà 2 ÿéöà. Êîëè÷åñòâî ïòåíöîâ óäàëîñü ñîñ÷èòàòü ëèøü â 19 âûâîäêàõ. Áîëüøèíñòâî âûâîäêîâ ñîäåðæàëè 2 (42,1%) è 3 (36,8%) ïòåíöà. Ïî 1 è 4 ïòåíöà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî â 10% âûâîäêîâ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ñðåäíåå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòåíöîâ â âûâîäêå – 2,47±0,84. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî è êëàäêè ôèëèíà â îáëàñòè ñîñòîÿò â îñíîâíîì èç 2–3-õ ÿèö.

Çàêëþ÷åíèå Ðèñ. 4. Õàðàêòåð óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ôèëèíîâ Fig. 4. Peculiarities of the Eagle Owl’s nest sites

Ðàáîòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ôèëèíà â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ïîêàçàëà, ÷òî âèä ÿâëÿåòñÿ áîëåå èëè ìåíåå îáû÷íûì ëèøü â óçêîé ïîëîñå Âîëæñêîãî ïðà-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå. Îêðåñòíîñòè Êàøïèðà. 03.07.2007. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Chicks of the Eagle Owl in nest. Vicinities of Kashpir. 03/07/2007. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

âîáåðåæüÿ è â îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûõ ñèñòåìàõ Îáùåãî Ñûðòà íà êðàéíåì þãî-çàïàäå îáëàñòè. Íà îñòàëüíîé òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè âèä ðåäîê ëèáî êðàéíå ðåäîê, îñîáåííî â ïîëîñå þæíîé ëåñîñòåïè ìåæäó ðåêàìè Ñàìàðà è Ñîê, íåñìîòðÿ íà íàëè÷èå ìåñò, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ åãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ôèëèíà çà ïîñëåäíèå 10 ëåò íå âûÿâëåíî, íàîáîðîò, â ðÿäå ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê, â ñâÿçè ñ ðàçðóõîé â ñåëüñêîì õîçÿéñòâå, íàáëþäàåòñÿ íåêîòîðûé ðîñò åãî ÷èñëåííîñòè. Íåñîìíåííî, ðîñò ÷èñëåííîñòè ôèëèíà îáóñëîâëåí ïðåêðàùåíèåì âûïàñà â ñòåïíîé çîíå, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî ñîêðàòèëñÿ ôàêòîð áåñïîêîéñòâà, è ðåçêî óïàëà ÷èñëåííîñòü îñíîâíûõ ïèùåâûõ êîíêóðåíòîâ – ñòåïíîãî îðëà è êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus).  òî æå âðåìÿ çàðàñòàíèå ïàñòáèù âåä¸ò ê îñêóäåíèþ êîðìîâîé áàçû, à çàêóñòàðèâàíèå áàëîê â îòñóòñòâèå âûïàñà ïðèâîäèò ê ñíèæåíèþ èõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîñòè äëÿ ôèëèíà. Âîçìîæíî, â áóäóùåì ýòè ïðîöåññû ïðèâåäóò ê íåêîòîðîìó ñîêðàùåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà, íî â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ êàê ìèíèìóì íà Ïðèâîëæñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè è Îáùåì Ñûðòå ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ôèëèíîì áëàãîïîëó÷íà. Îïòèìèçì âñåëÿåò è òî, ÷òî, íåñìîòðÿ íà ðåçêîå óâåëè÷åíèå ðåêðåàöèîííîé íàãðóçêè íà òåððèòîðèþ Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêè, ôèëèí ïðîäîëæàåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ çäåñü ïðàêòè÷åñêè íà âñåõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, âûÿâëåííûõ 10 ëåò íàçàä. Èç ñîâðåìåííûõ óãðîç îñíîâíàÿ – ðàçâèòèå íåôòåäîáûâàþùåãî êîìïëåêñà. Ðàçâåäêà, à ñëåäîì è äîáû÷à íåôòè îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ íà ñîõðàíèâøèõñÿ ñòåïíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ (íåóäîáüÿõ), ÷òî âåä¸ò ê óíè÷òîæåíèþ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Ðàçâèòèå èíôðàñòðóêòóðû ËÝÏ, íå îñíàù¸ííûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè ñîîðóæåíèÿìè, âåä¸ò ê ãèáåëè ôèëèíîâ íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì.  ñåçîí 2007 ã. íà þãå Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ïðàêòè÷åñêè íà âñåõ ñòåïíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ Îáùåãî Ñûðòà, âêëþ÷àÿ òåððèòîðèè ÎÎÏÒ, ïî çàêàçó ÒÍÊ-BP, îñóùåñòâëÿëàñü ãåîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ðàçâåäêà ðåñóðñîâ íåôòè.  ðåçóëüòàòå ôàêòîðà áåñïîêîéñòâà è óíè÷-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ òîæåíèÿ ñòåïè íà ëáàõ â âåðõîâüÿõ áàëîê ïîãèáëè âûâîäêè ó 2-õ ïàð ôèëèíîâ. Îáùèé óùåðá Èðãèçñêî-Ðîñòàøèíñêîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêå ôèëèíîâ â ðåçóëüòàòå ãåîðàçâåäêè áûë íàíåñ¸í, âèäèìî, êóäà áîëåå ñåðü¸çíûé, îäíàêî îöåíèòü åãî íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ âîçìîæíûì èç-çà òîãî, ÷òî îáñëåäîâàíèå áîëüøåé ÷àñòè òåððèòîðèè ïðîâîäèëîñü â èþíå, êîãäà âûâîäêè ïîêèíóëè ãí¸çäà. Äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ ôèëèíà íàñóùíî íåîáõîäèìî çàïðåùåíèå îñâîåíèÿ ïîñëåäíèõ ñòåïíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ íà Îáùåì Ñûðòå è Ïðèâîëæñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè: ñîçäàíèå çàêàçíèêà «Ñèíèé Ñûðò», êîòîðûé áûë ñïðîåêòèðîâàí åù¸ â 1994 ã., íî òàê è íå ñîçäàí äî ñèõ ïîð, ñîçäàíèå ïàìÿòíèêîâ ïðèðîäû «Êàøïèðñêàÿ ñòåïü», «Êóáðèíñêàÿ ñòåïü», «Ïîäâàëüñêèå ÿðû», «Àêòàøñêèå ÿðû» è «Ëåâàøîâñêàÿ ñòåïü» (Ñìåëÿíñêèé, Ïàæåíêîâ, 2007). Ëèòåðàòóðà Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (Falconiformes), Ñîâîîáðàçíûå (Strigiformes). Ïåðìü: ÖÏÈ ÑÎÆ Óðàëà / ÑîÝÑ, 1998. 483 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Èçäâî «Ïîâîëæüå». 2004. 351 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ. Íåêîòîðûå àñïåêòû ñîâðåìåííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ ôàóíû êðóïíûõ ïåðíàòûõ è ÷åòâåðîíîãèõ õèùíèêîâ Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêè. – Ñàìàðñêàÿ Ëóêà íà ïîðîãå òðåòüåãî òûñÿ÷åëåòèÿ (Ìàòåðèàëû ê äîêëàäó «Ñîñòîÿíèå ïðèðîäíîãî è êóëüòóðíîãî íàñëåäèÿ Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêè»). Òîëüÿòòè: ÈÝÂÁ ÐÀÍ, ÎÑÍÏ «Ïàðêâåé», 1999. Ñ. 214–219. Ëåáåäåâà Ã.Ï., Ïàíòåëååâ È.Â., Ïàâëîâ Ñ.È., Øàïîøíèêîâ Â.Ì., Äóáðîâñêèé Å.Í., ßñþê Â.Ï., Ìàãäååâ Ä.Â., Ñèìàê Ñ.Â., Áûêîâ Å.Â., Äþæàåâà È.Â., Âèíîãðàäîâ À.Â., Òàðàíîâà À.Ì., Ãóðèíåíêî À. Ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé âåñòíèê ×óâàøñêîé ðåñïóáëèêè. Âûï. 57. Ìàòåðèàëû âñåðîññèéñêîé íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè «Èçó÷åíèå ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêîãî êðàÿ». 24–26 ìàðòà 2007 ã., ã. ×åáîêñàðû ×óâàøñêîé ðåñïóáëèêè. ×åáîêñàðû. 2007. Ñ. 48–53. Ìèëüêîâ Ô.Í. Ïðèðîäíûå çîíû ÑÑÑÐ. Ì. 1977. 293 ñ. Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ. Ñòåïè ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè. Àòëàñ-ôîòîàëüáîì. Ñàìàðà: ÄÑÌ, 2007. 28 ñ.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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BirdsofPreyandOwlsofForest-SteppesintheUpperAngara Region,Russia ХИЩНЫЕПТИЦЫИСОВЫЛЕСОСТЕПЕЙВЕРХНЕГО ПРИАНГАРЬЯ,РОССИЯ PopovV.V.(IrkutskBranchoftheRussianBirdsConservationUnion,Russia) MaleevV.G.(StateDumaoftheRussianFederation,Russia) ПоповВ.В.(Ир тс оеотделениеСоюзаохраныптицРоссии,Ир тс ,Россия) МалеевВ.Г.(Гос дарственнаяд маРФ,Мос ва,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Âàëåðèé Ìàëååâ Ãîñóäàðñòâåííàÿ äóìà Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè ksanka2008@yandex.ru Âèêòîð Ïîïîâ Èðêóòñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ Ðîññèÿ 669001 ÓÎÁÀÎ óë. Ëåíèíà, 18 òåë.: +7 (3952) 48 04 03 vpopov@irk.ru Contact: Valeriy Maleev State Duma of the Russian Federation ksanka2008@yandex.ru Viktor Popov The Irkutsk branch of RBCU Lenina str., 18 Ust-Ordynskiy Russia 669001 tel.: +7 (3952) 48 04 03 vpopov@irk.ru

Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ ïðîâîäèëèñü íà òåððèòîðèè Âåðõíåãî Ïðèàíãàðüÿ â òå÷åíèå âñåãî ãîäà.  îñíîâíîì íàìè áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû ñòåïíûå è ëåñîñòåïíûå ðàéîíû íà òåððèòîðèè Óñòü-Îðäûíñêîãî Áóðÿòñêîãî àâòîíîìíîãî îêðóãà (ÓÎÁÀÎ), ÷àñòè÷íî èññëåäîâàíèÿìè îõâà÷åíû ðÿä ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê îêðóãó ëåñîñòåïíûõ òåððèòîðèé Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè. Ó÷¸òû õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ ïðîâîäèëèñü âî âðåìÿ àâòîìîáèëüíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ, êîòîðûìè îòíîñèòåëüíî ðàâíîìåðíî îõâà÷åíû âñå øåñòü ðàéîíîâ îêðóãà. Âñåãî â òå÷åíèå 2006 ã. àâòîìîáèëüíûìè ìàðøðóòàìè ïðîéäåíî 13155 êì. Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷¸òà õèùíûõ ïòèö ïðèâåäåíû â òàáëèöå 1, à ñîâ – â òàáëèöå 2.  íàèáîëåå èíòåðåñíûõ ìåñòàõ ïðîâîäèëèñü ðàäèàëüíûå ïåøèå ìàðøðóòû ñ öåëüþ ïîèñêà ãí¸çä. Ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü âñå âñòðå÷è õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ. Çà ñåçîí 2006 ã. íàìè çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî âñåãî 19 âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö è 6 âèäîâ ñîâ.  äàííîì ñîîáùåíèè ïðèâîäèòñÿ òîëüêî èíôîðìàöèÿ, ñîáðàííàÿ â õîäå äàííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, áåç àíàëèçà ëèòåðàòóðíûõ è èíûõ ñâåäåíèé.

×åðíîóõèé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans lineatus). Ôîòî Â. Ìàëååâà Black-eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus). Photo by V. Maleev

We surveyed the birds of prey and owls on the carried out on the territories of foreststeppe regions of the Ust-Ordynsk autonomous district in 2006. Surveys were carried out during vehicle routes and covered all of 6 regions of the district. The total length of vehicle routes was 13155 km in 2006. The results of surveys of birds of prey are in the table 1, owls – in the table 2. We registered 19 species of birds of prey and 6 species of owls in 2006. We revealed following species as common: Black-eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus), Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus) as common wintering species. Following species were noted as rare: Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). We found nests of Upland Buzzard, Golden Eagle, Peregrine Falcon, Kestrel, Eagle Owl, Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) and Ural Owl (Strix uralensis). There were the new record of the Merlin (Falco columbarius) in summer and new records of Western and Eastern Marsh Harriers (Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus, C. a. spilonotus). Besides the Rough-legged Buzzard we noted as wintering Upland Buzzard, Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Golden Eagle, Merlin and may be Kestrel. We noted the number of rodents has decreased in 2006 and certainly impacted on the number of raptors. Despite of this fact the number of raptors on the territory of the Ust-Ordynsk autonomous district is higher than on nearest territories of the Irkutsk district. Partly it can be explained as the result of traditional careful respect of local people to the birds of prey.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Îëüçîíû. Ñòîëü ïîçäíÿÿ âñòðå÷à êîðøóíà ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñî ñðåäíåãîäîâûìè äàííûìè (êîíåö ìàðòà – íà÷àëî àïðåëÿ), ñêîðåå âñåãî, ñâÿçàíà ñ àíîìàëüíî õîëîäíîé âåñíîé. Îòìå÷åíà ïîâûøåííàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü â êîíöå ìàÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà «Áàòûðîâà ðîùà» â Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå, ãäå íà 3 êì îòìå÷åíî 5 êîðøóíîâ. Ãí¸çä ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà íå íàéäåíî, òàê æå êàê è íå âñòðå÷åíî âûâîäêîâ. Êîðøóí ÷àùå äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòàõ.  îòëè÷èå îò äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö ÷èñëåííîñòü â òå÷åíèå ñåçîíà, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ñåíòÿáðÿ (â ñâÿçè ñ îòë¸òîì), íå ïðåòåðïåâàåò èçìåíåíèé è ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ â ïðåäå-

Õîõëàòûé îñîåä (Pernis ptilorhynchus) Âñòðå÷åí âñåãî îäèí ðàç – ïòèöà ñâåòëîé ìîðôû – 25 àâãóñòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåðåâíè Çàõàðîâêà â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå. ×åðíîóõèé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans lineatus) Îáû÷íûé øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé âèä. Âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîâñåìåñòíî, íî ñêîïëåíèé, õàðàêòåðíûõ äëÿ Òóâû è Ìîíãîëèè, íå îáðàçóåò. Ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à â 2006 ã. íà òåððèòîðèè îêðóãà ïðîèçîøëà 12 àïðåëÿ – ïî îäíîìó êîðøóíó âñòðå÷åíî â Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì ðàéîíå íà îç. Îðäûíñêîì è â Áàÿíäàåâñêîì ðàéîíå â

Òàáë. 1. ×èñëåííîñòü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðàéîíîâ ÓÎÁÀÎ â 2006 ã. Table 1. Numbers of birds of prey on the territories of forest-steppe regions of the Ust-Ordynsk autonomous district in 2006

¹ Âèä ï/ï Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Õîõëàòûé îñîåä (Pernis ptilorhynchus) ×åðíîóõèé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans lineatus) Ïîëåâîé ëóíü (Circus cyaneus) Áîëîòíûé ëóíü (Circus aeruginosus) Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentiles) Ïåðåïåëÿòíèê (Accipiter nisus) Çèìíÿê (Buteo lagopus) Ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê (Buteo hemilasius) Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus) Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga) Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) Ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus) ×åãëîê (Falco subbuteo) Äåðáíèê (Falco columbarius) Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) Âñåãî Total

01.06* 02.06 03.06 04.06 05.06 06.06 07.06 08.06 09.06 10.06 11.06 12.06 850 300** 350 800 1000 1875 1490 1615 2065 1415 640 755 -

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-

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15/ 0.15 -

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

29/ 0.15 4/ 0.02 5/ 0.03 -

25/ 0.17 8/ 0.05 2/ 0.01 -

30/ 0.18 3/ 0.02 1/ 0.01 -

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-

12/ 0.40 3/ 0.10 -

8/ 0.22 2/ 0.06 -

6/ 0.08 -

1/ 0.01 -

2/ 0.01 -

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-

11/ 0.11 2/ 0.02 7/ 0.07 -

1/ 0.01 5/ 0.03 8/ 0.04 13/ 0.07 -

1/ 0.01 5/ 0.03 -

12/ 0.07 9/ 0.05 -

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1/ 0.33 -

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1/ 0.01 1/ 0.01 -

1/ 0.01 -

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1/ 0.01 -

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16/ 0.53

10/ 0.28

1/ 0.01 7/ 0.09

1/ 0.01 9/ 0.09 45/ 0.45

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* – ìåñÿö 2006 ã. / month of 2006 ** – ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ìàðøðóòîâ, êì / length of routes, km

4/ 0.02 1/ 0.01 -

1/ 0.01 3/ 0.02 -

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1/ 0.01 -

-

1/ 0.01 -

2/ 0.01 -

21/ 0.11 89/ 0.47

15/ 0.10 64/ 0.43

34/ 0.21 98/ 0.61

1/ 0.01 44/ 0.21 47/ 0.23 1/ 0.01 1/ 0.01 3/ 0.01 11/ 0.05 6/ 0.03 3/ 0.01 2/ 0.01 4/ 0.02 2/ 0.01 1/ 0.01 1/ 0.01 5/ 0.02 1/ 0.01 139/ 0.67 271/ 1.31

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7/ 0.05 18/ 0.13 -

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1/ 0.01 -

2/ 0.03 1/ 0.02 -

7/ 0.09 1/ 0.01 -

2/ 0.02 1/ 0.01 -

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1/ 0.01 4/ 0.03 -

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1/ 0.01 -

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Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 ëàõ 0,15 (ìàé – àïðåëü) – 0,21 (àâãóñò) îñîáåé íà 10 êì ìàðøðóòà. Íåñêîëüêî ïîâûøåíà ÷èñëåííîñòü â êîíöå àâãóñòà, íî ýòî, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ñâÿçàíî ñ ïîäë¸òîì ïòèö ñ ñåâåðà.  ñåíòÿáðå ÷èñëåííîñòü ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà ðåçêî ïàäàåò. Íà ïîáåðåæüå Îáóñèíñêîãî çàëèâà 7 ñåíòÿáðÿ âñòðå÷åíî 5 ÿâíî ïðîë¸òíûõ ïòèö. Åù¸ ïî îäíîé ïòèöå âñòðå÷åíî 12 ñåíòÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé è ÷åðåç äåíü â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Áàòõàé Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîãî ðàéîíà.

49

íå ð. Èäà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Óêûð â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå è íà 15 ñåíòÿáðÿ â äîëèíå ð. Ìóðèí â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Õàðàíóò (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Áîëîòíûé ëóíü (Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus, C. a. spilonotus) Ðåäêèé âèä.  Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå íàìè íàáëþäàëñÿ â òð¸õ ïóíêòàõ – 2 ñàìöà çàïàäíîãî ïîäâèäà (C. a. aeruginosus) 5 ìàÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Íûãäà, 31 ìàÿ ñàìåö âîñòî÷íîãî ïîäâèäà (C. a. spilonotus) íà þãå îç. Àëÿòû è ñàìåö çàïàäíîãî ïîäâèäà íà ïðóäó â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Çàáèòóé.  Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì ðàéîíå áîëîòíûõ ëóíåé çàïàäíîãî ïîäâèäà íàáëþäàëè: ñàìêó – 24 ìàÿ, ñàìöîâ – 8 è 21 èþíÿ íà ïðóäó â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêîãî, 27 èþëÿ â äîëèíå ð. Èøèí-Ãîë ó îç. Îðäûíñêîãî è ñàìêó – 21 àâãóñòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Íîâîíèêîëàåâñêèé.

Ïîëåâîé ëóíü (Circus cyaneus) Îáû÷íûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä. Ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à â 2006 ã. îòìå÷åíà 31 ìàðòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Õîìóòîâî (Èðêóòñêèé ðàéîí). Íà òåððèòîðèè îêðóãà ïåðâûå âñòðå÷è – 1 ìàÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Áàòõàé è 3 ìàÿ â âåðõíåì òå÷åíèè ð. Êóäà ê þãó îò äåð. Áóõòóìóð (îáå âñòðå÷è â Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì ðàéîíå). Âñòðå÷è â îñíîâíîì ïðèóðî÷åíû ê çàáîëî÷åííûì è âëàæíûì ëóãàì â äîëèíàõ ðåê è ðó÷ü¸â è ê çàáðîøåííûì ïîëÿì. ×èñëåííîñòü ïîëåâûõ ëóíåé ðåçêî âîçðàñòàåò â àâãóñòå ïîñëå âûëåòà ìîëîäûõ ïòèö. Âûâîäêè ìû íàáëþäàëè 4 àâãóñòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåðåâåíü Çàäû è Áóëóñà è â óðî÷èùå Øåðòîé ñåâåðíåå ñ. Íîâîíèêîëàåâñê (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Áîëåå âûñîêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîëåâûõ ëóíåé îòìå÷åíà â Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì è Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíàõ. Íàìè âñòðå÷åíî äâà ìîëîäûõ ïîëåâûõ ëóíÿ ïðîøëîãî ãîäà, ñî÷åòàþùèõ ýëåìåíòû îêðàñêè ñàìöà è ñàìêè. Ê ñåðåäèíå ñåíòÿáðÿ îñíîâíàÿ ÷àñòü ïîëåâûõ ëóíåé îòëåòàåò. Ïîñëåäíèå âñòðå÷è ïðèøëèñü íà 14 ñåíòÿáðÿ â äîëè-

Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis) Çà ñåçîí 2006 ã. âñòðå÷åí âñåãî 4 ðàçà: 29 àâãóñòà â äîëèíå ð. Óíãóðà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Øèòõóëóí (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí); 7 ñåíòÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Íîâî-Ëåíèíî (Îñèíñêèé ðàéîí) è 14 ñåíòÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Áàòõàé (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). 15 äåêàáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Øàðàãóí (Áîõàíñêèé ðàéîí) íàáëþäàëè òåòåðåâÿòíèêà, äîáûâøåãî áîðîäàòóþ êóðîïàòêó. Ïåðåïåëÿòíèê (Accipiter nisus)  ãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ âñòðå÷åí âñåãî 4 ðàçà: 24 ìàÿ ê ñåâåðó îò äåð. Õàðàãóí è 7 èþëÿ â äîëèíå ð. Êàìåíêà ê þãó îò äåð. Íàãàëûê

Òàáë. 2. ×èñëåííîñòü ñîâ íà òåððèòîðèè ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðàéîíîâ ÓÎÁÀÎ â 2006 ã. Table 2. Numbers of owls on the territories of forest-steppe regions of the Ust-Ordynsk autonomous district in 2006

¹ Âèä ï/ï Species 1 2 3 4 5 6

Áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca) Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà (Asio otus) Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà (Asio flammeus) ßñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà (Surnia ulula) Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis) Âñåãî Total

01.06* 300**

02.06 350

03.06 800

04.06 1000

05.06 1875

06.06 1490

07.06 1615

08.06 2065

09.06 1415

10.06 640

11.06 755

12.06 850

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* – ìåñÿö 2006 ã. / month of 2006 ** – ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ìàðøðóòîâ, êì / length of routes, km


50

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10 â Áàÿíäàåâñêîì ðàéîíå, 6 èþíÿ â äîëèíå ð. Èäà ê çàïàäó îò äåð. Òàï÷åãèð â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå è 14 èþëÿ â äîëèíå ð. ÈøèíÃîë ê ñåâåðî-âîñòîêó îò äåð. Áàÿíãàçóé. Íà îñåííåì ïðîë¸òå äâóõ ïåðåïåëÿòíèêîâ âñòðåòèëè 5 ñåíòÿáðÿ ê þãó îò ïîñ. ÓñòüÎðäûíñêèé è 13 ñåíòÿáðÿ îäíîãî â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Ìîãî¸íîê â Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå. Çèìíÿê (Buteo lagopus) Îáû÷íûé çèìóþùèé âèä, ñîñòàâëÿåò â ñðåäíåì äî 80% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà õèùíûõ ïòèö, âñòðå÷àþùèõñÿ â çèìíèé ïåðèîä.  îñíîâíîì âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â ñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ, íàèáîëüøàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü áûëà îòìå÷åíà â äîëèíå ð. Êóäà îò ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé äî Êàïñàëüñêîé ãîðû – â îòäåëüíûå äíè â ÿíâàðå âñòðå÷àëè äî 3–4 ïòèö íà 20-òè êì ìàðøðóòå. Âñòðå÷åí âî âñåõ ðàéîíàõ îêðóãà.  ìàðòå ÷èñëåííîñòü çèìíÿêà ïàäàåò, ñêîðåå âñåãî, çà ñ÷¸ò îòë¸òà ÷àñòè îñîáåé è èõ ðàññðåäîòî÷åíèÿ ïî òåððèòîðèè, â àïðåëå ñíîâà âîçðàñòàåò çà ñ÷¸ò ïîäë¸òà îñîáåé ñ þãà ðåãèîíà.  ìàå ÷èñëåííîñòü ïàäàåò â ñâÿçè ñ îòë¸òîì íà ñåâåð, ïîñëåäíèå âñòðå÷è â ìàå ýòîãî ãîäà ïðîèçîøëè 11 ÷èñëà â äîëèíå ð. Êóäà îêîëî Êàïñàëüñêîé ãîðû è 15 ÷èñëà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Íîâîâîñêðåñåíêà â äîëèíå ð. Èäà â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå. Îñåíüþ 2006 ã. ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à îòìå÷åíà 16 îêòÿáðÿ â Îñèíñêîì ðàéîíå â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Óñòü-Àëòàí. Ñ êîíöà îêòÿáðÿ ðåãóëÿðíî âñòðå÷àëñÿ íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè ñòåïíûõ è ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðàéîíîâ. Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî çèìîé 2006– 2007 ãã., â ñâÿçè ñ íàñòóïèâøåé äåïðåññèåé ÷èñëåííîñòè ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ, ÷èñëåííîñòü çèìíÿêà ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ çèìíèì ñåçîíîì 2005–06 ãã. çíà÷èòåëüíî ñíèçèëàñü. Íàïðèìåð, 16 äåêàáðÿ 2005 ã. íà

Êàíþê (Buteo buteo). Ôîòî Â. Ìàëååâà Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). Photo by V. Maleev

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ 20-òè êì ìàðøðóòå îò ïîñ¸ëêà Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé äî Êàïñàëüñêîé ãîðû áûëà âñòðå÷åíà 21 õèùíàÿ ïòèöà – 17 çèìíÿêîâ è 4 ìîõíîíîãèõ êóðãàííèêîâ, à â àíàëîãè÷íûé ïåðèîä 2006 ã. íà ýòîì ìàðøðóòå âñòðå÷àëîñü íå áîëåå äâóõ-òð¸õ çèìíÿêîâ. Ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê (Buteo hemilasius) Îáû÷íûé îñ¸äëûé âèä.  2006 ã. íàìè îòìå÷àëñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè íà ïðîòÿæåíèè âñåãî ãîäà çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ìàðòà, íî, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ ìàëûì îáú¸ìîì ðàáîò â ýòîì ìåñÿöå. Âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â îñíîâíîì â ñòåïíûõ è ëåñîñòåïíûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ. Òîêîâîé ïîë¸ò îòìå÷åí 22 ìàÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ îç. Îðäûíñêîå è 25 ìàÿ ñåâåðíåå äåð. Øåðàãóë â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå. Íåñêîëüêî ïàð îòìå÷åíî íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Ãíåçäî, ðàñïîëîæåííîå íà ñîñíå íà ñêëîíå þæíîé ýêñïîçèöèè, îáíàðóæåíî 17 èþëÿ ê âîñòîêó îò äåð. Ñåðàôèìîâñê.  ãíåçäå áûëî íå ìåíåå 2-õ îïåðèâøèõñÿ ïòåíöîâ. Ðîäèòåëÿìè îêàçàëèñü ïòèöû ñâåòëîé è ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû. Äâà ãíåçäà, îáíàðóæåííûå â ïðîøëûå ãîäû, â 2006 ã. áûëè ïóñòûå.  öåëîì ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ñðåäè âñòðå÷åííûõ ìîõíîíîãèõ êóðãàííèêîâ ðåçêî ïðåîáëàäàþò ïòèöû ñâåòëîé ìîðôû, ïòèöû ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû âñòðå÷àþòñÿ åäèíè÷íî è òîëüêî ëåòîì. ×èñëåííîñòü çèìóþùèõ ïòèö çàâèñèò îò êîëè÷åñòâà ãðûçóíîâ, ýòî âèäíî ïî êîëè÷åñòâó âñòðå÷ â çèìíèå ïåðèîäû 2005–2006 ãã. (â íà÷àëå çèìû âûñîêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü è ñïàä â êîíöå çèìíåãî ïåðèîäà) è 2006–2007 ãã. (äåïðåññèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðûçóíîâ íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè òåððèòîðèè îêðóãà). Ñïàä ÷èñëåííîñòè â èþíå ñâÿçàí ñ òåì, ÷òî ïòèöû, ïðèñòóïèâ ê ãíåçäîâàíèþ, âåëè ñêðûòûé îáðàç æèçíè, à ïîâûøåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè â êîíöå èþëÿ è àâãóñòå – ñ âûëåòîì ìîëîäûõ ïòèö. ×àñòü ïòèö ïîêèäàåò Ïðèàíãàðüå â ñåíòÿáðå, ÷àñòü îñòàåòñÿ íà çèìîâêó. Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Îáû÷íûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä. Ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à â 2006 ã. ïðîèçîøëà 12 àïðåëÿ â äîëèíå ð. Êàìåíêà â 5-òè êì ê þãó îò äåð. Ìóðîìöîâêà (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í â îêðóãå ïîâñåìåñòíî, íî ñòàðàåòñÿ ïðèäåðæèâàòüñÿ êðóïíûõ ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì êàíþê áîëåå îáû÷åí â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå è â çàïàäíîé ÷àñòè Àëàðñêîãî ðàéîíà. ×èñëåííîñòü â öåëîì ïî ñåçîíó îòíîñèòåëüíî ñòàáèëüíà ñî ñïàäîì â èþíå (â ýòî âðåìÿ ïòèöû ñèäÿò íà ãí¸çäàõ) è ðåçêèì ïîäú¸ìîì â ñåíòÿáðå, êîãäà êàíþê âûõîäèò íà ïåðâîå ìåñòî ïî âñòðå÷àåìîñòè ñðåäè õèùíûõ ïòèö. Íà


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 íàø âçãëÿä, ýòîò ïîäú¸ì îáóñëîâëåí ìèãðèðóþùèìè ñ äðóãèõ ðåãèîíîâ ïòèöàìè. Ïèê ïðîë¸òà ïðèø¸ëñÿ íà êîíåö ïåðâîé – íà÷àëî âòîðîé äåêàäû ñåíòÿáðÿ, êîãäà â äåíü ìîæíî áûëî íàáëþäàòü äî 7–8 îñîáåé. Âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå ñåíòÿáðÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîñòåïåííî ïàäàåò. Ïîñëåäíÿÿ âñòðå÷à – 27 ñåíòÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Áàòõàé (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî â 2005 ã. ïðè î÷åíü âûñîêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ ïîñëåäíÿÿ âñòðå÷à êàíþêà ïðèøëàñü íà 29 îêòÿáðÿ íà ãîðå Áóëåí â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé. Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus) Âñòðå÷åí òðèæäû: 17 àâãóñòà íà ãîðå Áóëåí â 5 êì ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íåé ïîñ. ÓñòüÎðäûíñêèé è äâå ïòèöû 29 àâãóñòà â 5 è â 7 êì âîñòî÷íåé ïîñ. Áàÿíäàé. Âñå âñòðå÷åííûå ïòèöû áûëè ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû. Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) Îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà âñòðå÷åíà íà ãîðå íà ëåâîì áåðåãó ð. Êóäà â 5 êì ñåâåðíåå ïîñ. Ãàõàíû. Ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè ñêëîíîâ ãîðû ãíåçäà íàéòè íå óäàëîñü. Âòîðîé ðàç äâà îðëà âñòðå÷åíû 28 àâãóñòà â äîëèíå ð. Ìóðèí â 2-õ êì ê çàïàäó îò ïîñ. Àëóæèíî, ïòèöû ëåòåëè âäîëü ñêëîíà íà íåáîëüøîé âûñîòå.

Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Photo by I. Karyakin

Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga) Ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à – 19 àïðåëÿ â äîëèíå ð. Áàëåé â Èðêóòñêîì ðàéîíå. 15 ìàÿ âñòðå÷åí â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå â äîëèíå ð. Èäà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Íîâîâîñêðåñåíñê. Ñèäÿùåãî íà ñòîëáå ïîäîðëèêà íàáëþäàëè 27 èþëÿ íà Êà÷óãñêîì òðàêòå îêîëî ñâîðîòà íà ïîñ. Áàçîé â 5 êì îò ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé. Ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè Íûãäà è Àëàðü â Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà íàáëþäàëè äâàæäû – 16 àâãóñòà 3 ïòèöû è îäíà 24 àâãóñòà.  Áàÿíäàåâñêîì ðàéîíå âñòðå÷åí 24 ñåíòÿáðÿ íà Êà÷óãñêîì òðàêòå â äîëèíå ð. Êàìåíêà. Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Íàèáîëåå îáû÷íûé âèä èç îðëîâ. Çà ïðåäåëàìè îêðóãà 30 ìàÿ âñòðå÷åíà ïàðà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Áàëóõàðü ×åðåìõîâñêîãî ðàéîíà. Ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à â îêðóãå ïðîèçîøëà 11 ìàÿ â Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì ðàéîíå â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Ñòàðûé Îëîé, òàì

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æå îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà áûëà âñòðå÷åíà 7 èþëÿ. Òàêæå ìîãèëüíèêà íàáëþäàëè 1 èþíÿ íà ïðóäó â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé è íà Êà÷óãñêîì òðàêòå, 21 àâãóñòà íà ñâîðîòå íà ïîñ. Áàçîé è 15 ñåíòÿáðÿ íà ñâîðîòå â äåð. Çàäû.  Áàÿíäàåâñêîì ðàéîíå âñòðå÷åí äâàæäû – 22 èþíÿ â äîëèíå ð. Óíãóðà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Êàéçåðàí è 29 àâãóñòà ìåæäó ïîñåëêàìè Øàìàíêà è Áàÿíäàé.  Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå ìîãèëüíèêà íàáëþäàëè 29 èþíÿ â ïîñ. Íîâàÿ Èäà.  Îñèíñêîì ðàéîíå ýòîò îð¸ë âñòðå÷åí 7 àâãóñòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ¸ëêîâ Íîâî-Ëåíèíî è Ïðèìîðñêèé ïî ðàçíûì áåðåãàì Îáóñèíñêîãî çàëèâà. Íà òåððèòîðèè Íóêóòñêîãî ðàéîíà îòìå÷åí 14 èþíÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Âîðîò-Îíãîé è 12 èþëÿ â Æåðáàíîâñêîé ïàäè ñåâåðíåå ñ. Ïåðâîìàéñêîå.  Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå ìîãèëüíèê âñòðå÷åí 5 èþëÿ â äîëèíå ð. Êàìåíêà ê þãî-çàïàäó îò ñ. Àïõóëüòà è 13 ñåíòÿáðÿ ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè Èäåàë è Êóéòà. Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) Íà 65 êì Êà÷óãñêîãî òðàêòà îäèíî÷íûé îð¸ë âñòðå÷åí 15 ÿíâàðÿ. Îäíó ïòèöó íàáëþäàëè 22 èþíÿ â äîëèíå ð. Óíãóðà ìåæäó äåðåâíÿìè Äóõîâùèíà è Êàéçåðàí (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí), à 23 àâãóñòà áåðêóò âñòðå÷åí â 5 êì âîñòî÷íåå ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé. Ãíåçäî áåðêóòà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ áûâøåãî ïîñ¸ëêà Äàíèëîâñêîå (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí). Ãíåçäî áûëî ðàñïîëîæåíî íà ñòàðîé ëèñòâåííèöå íà âûñîòå 10 ì íà çàðàñòàþùåé ãàðè.  ñåðåäèíå èþíÿ â ãíåçäå íàõîäèëîñü 2 ïòåíöà. Ðÿäîì â 150 ì òàêæå íà ñòàðîé ëèñòâåííèöå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî âòîðîå íåæèëîå ãíåçäî. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) Çà ñåçîí âñòðå÷åí âñåãî 3 ðàçà, íî ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî îñíîâíûå ìåñòà åãî îáèòàíèÿ â Íóêóòñêîì ðàéîíå ìû ïîñåùàëè âñåãî îäèí ðàç è ñïåöèàëüíûõ ðàáîò ïî ïîèñêó ãí¸çä íå âåëè.  Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå áàëîáàíà íàáëþäàëè 31 ìàÿ íà ïðóäó â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Çàáèòóé.  Íóêóòñêîì ðàéîíå áàëîáàí áûë âñòðå÷åí 12 èþëÿ â äîëèíå ð. Óíãà ñåâåðíåå ãîðû Õàøêàé â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Íîâîíóêóòñêèé. Åù¸ îäíó ïòèöó äâàæäû â òå÷åíèå äíÿ íàáëþäàëè 7 ñåíòÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. ÍîâîËåíèíî â Îñèíñêîì ðàéîíå íà ïîáåðåæüå Îáóñèíñêîãî çàëèâà. Ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus) Ðàçîð¸ííîå ãíåçäî ñàïñàíà íàéäåíî 7 èþëÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Íàãàëûê Áàÿí-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10 äàåâñêîãî ðàéîíà.  ãíåçäå, ðàñïîëîæåííîì â ñêàëüíîé íèøå, íàéäåíû ïîãàäêè ïòåíöîâ è âçðîñëûõ ïòèö, îñòàòêè ïèùè. Ïî âñåé âèäèìîñòè, ãíåçäî áûëî ðàçîðåíî â êîíöå èþíÿ. Âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ðÿäîì ñ ãíåçäîì îáíàðóæåíî íå áûëî. Ïðîë¸òíûé ñàïñàí áûë âñòðå÷åí 28 àâãóñòà â äîëèíå ð. Ìóðèí â 3-õ êì çàïàäíåå ïîñ. Àëóæèíî (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Íà ñèäÿùåãî íà ïíå ñàïñàíà íàïàäàëè ïóñòåëüãà è ïîëåâîé ëóíü. ×åãëîê (Falco subbuteo)  2006 ã. ÷åãëîê îêàçàëñÿ ðåäêèì âèäîì, çà ñåçîí âñòðå÷åí âñåãî 8 ðàç. Ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à – 6 èþíÿ â ïîñ. Àëåêñàíäðîâñêèé â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå.  Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì ðàéîíå âñòðå÷åí 14 èþëÿ íà îç. Îðäûíñêîå, 17 èþëÿ â 4-õ êì âîñòî÷íåå äåð. Ñåðàôèìîâñê â ëåñó íà ñêëîíå ãîðû è 21 àâãóñòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Íîâîíèêîëàåâñê.  Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå ïàðó íàáëþäàëè 8 àâãóñòà ñåâåðíåå ïîñ. Áàõòàé â îäíîèìåííîé ïàäè è ïî îäíîé ïòèöå 16 àâãóñòà ìåæäó äåðåâíÿìè Êèðêåé è Êóðêóò è 21 àâãóñòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Íàðåíû â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Êàìåíêà. Ïîñëåäíÿÿ âñòðå÷à – 7 ñåíòÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Íîâî-Ëåíèíî â Îñèíñêîì ðàéîíå.  ïðîøëûå ñåçîíû ÷åãëîê áûë îäíèì èç îáû÷íûõ âèäîâ ëåñîñòåïè.

Áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca). Ôîòî Â. Ìàëååâà Snow Owl (Nyctea scandiaca). Photo by V. Maleev

Äåðáíèê (Falco columbarius) Âñòðå÷åí çà ñåçîí âñåãî 4 ðàçà. Ïåðâîãî äåðáíèêà íàáëþäàëè íà îç. Îðäûíñêîå (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí) 24 àïðåëÿ. Ïðåäñòàâëÿåò èíòåðåñ âñòðå÷à ñàìêè äåðáíèêà â ãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ 11 èþëÿ â 5-òè êì ê þãó îò ïîñ. Çàëàðè (Çàëàðèíñêèé ðàéîí Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè), ýòà âñòðå÷à ãîâîðèò î âîçìîæíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ýòîãî âèäà â ëåñîñòåïè. Ñàìåö âñòðå÷åí 30 àâãóñòà íà ñâÿùåííîé ãîðå â 1 êì ê âîñòîêó îò äåð. Áàéòîã. Ñàìêà âñòðå÷åíà 12 äåêàáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Îëîé (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) Íàèáîëåå îáû÷íûé è øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé âèä õèùíûõ ïòèö èññëåäóåìîãî ðàéîíà. Ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à â 2006 ã. ïðîèçîøëà 21 ìàðòà íà îêðàèíå ïîñ. Îñà. Ñ íåêîòîðîé íàòÿæêîé ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü, ÷òî ýòà ïòèöà áûëà çèìóþùàÿ, òàê êàê ñëåäóþùèé

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ðàç ïóñòåëüãó óäàëîñü íàáëþäàòü òîëüêî 12 àïðåëÿ – ñàìöà â äåð. Íóõóíóð (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí) è ñàìêó ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè Ìóðîìöîâêà è Íîâîíèêîëàåâñê (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Íà÷èíàÿ ñî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíû àïðåëÿ, ïóñòåëüãà âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ðåãóëÿðíî, çàíèìàÿ ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè â ìàå, èþíå è ñåíòÿáðå âòîðîå ìåñòî, à â èþëå è àâãóñòå – ïåðâîå ñðåäè õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ãíåçäî ñ êëàäêîé 6 ÿèö íàéäåíî 30 ìàÿ â Áàõòàéñêîé ïàäè çàïàäíåå ïîñ. Àíãàðñêèé (Àëàðñêèé ðàéîí). Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ñòàðîì ñîðî÷üåì ãíåçäå íà áåð¸çå íà âûñîòå 4 ì. Âòîðîå ãíåçäî îáíàðóæåíî 8 èþíÿ íà ãîðå Áóëåí â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé. Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà ñîñíå â ñòàðîì ñîðî÷üåì ãíåçäå íà âûñîòå 8 ì íà ñêëîíå, îáðàùåííîì ê ð. Êóäà. Ñàìêà ñèäåëà íà ãíåçäå. Âûâîäêè ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå èþëÿ. 21 èþëÿ â íèçîâüÿõ ð. Èäà (Áîõàíñêèé ðàéîí) áûëî âñòðå÷åíî äâà ïëîõî ëåòàþùèõ ñë¸òêà.  íà÷àëå àâãóñòà íà îòäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ïóñòåëüãà äîñòèãàåò âûñîêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè (â ñðåäíåì, â àâãóñòå 0,67 îñ. íà 10 êì).  Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Õàäàõàí 9 àâãóñòà ïðèìåðíî íà 10 êì ìû íàñ÷èòàëè 15 ïòèö, ÷àñòü èç êîòîðûõ áûëè ìîëîäûìè. Íà ìàðøðóòå ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè Ãàõàíû è Áàéòîã â Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì ðàéîíå 21 àâãóñòà íàìè âñòðå÷åíî 25 îñîáåé, â òîì ÷èñëå 2 âûâîäêà ïî 5 ïòåíöîâ. ×åðåç äåíü â Áàÿíäàåâñêîì ðàéîíå âñòðå÷åíî â îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè 25 ïòèö ýòîãî âèäà.  Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå ìåæäó ñ¸ëàìè Íûãäà è Àëàðü áûëî âñòðå÷åíî 16 îñîáåé, â ÷èñëå êîòîðûõ âûâîäîê èç 7 ïòèö. Îòë¸ò íà÷èíàåòñÿ â ïîñëåäíèå äíè àâãóñòà, â ñåíòÿáðå ÷èñëåííîñòü ïóñòåëüãè ðåçêî ïàäàåò. Ïîñëåäíÿÿ âñòðå÷à ïóñòåëüãè â ýòîì ãîäó – 12 ñåíòÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Îëîé (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca) Íàìè áûëà âñòðå÷åíà 14 ìàðòà 2006 ã. â 5 êì ê çàïàäó îò ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé, è îäíà ìîëîäàÿ ïòèöà 12 è 27 äåêàáðÿ íà ó÷àñòêå âîñòî÷íåå Êàïñàëüñêîé ãîðû. Êðîìå ýòîãî, áåëûõ ñîâ íàáëþäàëè 20 ìàðòà â óðî÷èùå Äàíèëîâñêîì, 25 ìàðòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Áàÿíäàé (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí) è 20 ìàðòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Áóëàê (Áîõàíñêèé ðàéîí). Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Âñòðå÷åí íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ñ ãí¸çäàìè ýòîãî ãîäà íà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ 14 èþëÿ â äîëèíå ð. Èøèí-Ãîë â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Áàÿíãàçóé è 17 èþëÿ â îêðåñòíî-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà (Asio flammeus) Âñòðå÷åíà òîëüêî îäèí ðàç – 20 äåêàáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Òûðãåòóé Àëàðñêîãî ðàéîíà.

Ñë¸òîê ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo). Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Juvenile Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). Photo by E. Nikolenko

ßñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà (Surnia ulula). Ôîòî Â. Ìàëååâà Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula). Photo by V. Maleev

ñòÿõ äåð. Ñåðàôèìîâñê (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Êðîìå ýòîãî, ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ñ ïîêèíóòûìè ãí¸çäàìè ýòîãî ãîäà íàéäåíû â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Íàãàëûê (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí) è â äîëèíå ð. Êàìåíêà (Àëàðñêèé ðàéîí). Îäèíî÷íûé ôèëèí âñòðå÷åí 23 àâãóñòà â ñìåøàííîì ëåñó íà áåðåãó íåáîëüøîãî îçåðêà â èñòîêàõ ð. Ìóðèí (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí). Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà (Asio otus)  Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå â Áàõòàéñêîé ïàäè ê çàïàäó îò ïîñ. Àíãàðñêèé â êîëîíèè ãðà÷åé 30 ìàÿ áûëî íàéäåíî ãíåçäî, êîòîðîå ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ñòàðîì ãíåçäå ãðà÷à íà èâå íà âûñîòå 5 ì. Ïðè ïðèáëèæåíèè ñîâà âûëåòåëà èç ãíåçäà. 2 èþíÿ óøàñòàÿ ñîâà âñòðå÷åíà â äîëèíå ð. Êóäà, ñåâåðíåå äåð. Áàéòîã â Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîì ðàéîíå. Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis). Ôîòî Â. Ìàëååâà Ural Owl (Strix uralensis). Photo by V. Maleev

ßñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà (Surnia ulula) Âåñíîé âñòðå÷åíà 2 ðàçà – 9 àïðåëÿ â óðî÷èùå Äàíèëîâñêîå (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí) è 14 àïðåëÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Ìóðîìöîâêà (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí).  çèìíåå âðåìÿ ÿñòðåáèíóþ ñîâó íàáëþäàëè 28 íîÿáðÿ â ñòåïè íà ñòîëáå ñåâåðíåå ïîñ. Áàçîé (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí), 12 äåêàáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Áàÿíäàé è 20 äåêàáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Àïõóëüòà (Àëàðñêèé ðàéîí). Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis) Ãíåçäî íàéäåíî 25 ìàÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Êàçà÷èé â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå. Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ñòàðîì ãíåçäå âîðîíû íà áåð¸çå íà âûñîòå 8 ì. Ñàìêà ñèäåëà íà ãíåçäå. Âòîðîé ðàç âñòðå÷åíà 16 íîÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Ãðåõíåâêà (Áîõàíñêèé ðàéîí). 12 äåêàáðÿ íåÿñûòü íàáëþäàëè â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåð. Ðåâÿêèíî Èðêóòñêîãî ðàéîíà. 15 äåêàáðÿ âñòðå÷åíà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Áóðåòü â Áîõàíñêîì ðàéîíå. Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ñåçîí 2006 ã. õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ äåïðåññèåé ÷èñëåííîñòè ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ, ÷òî íå ìîãëî íå ñêàçàòüñÿ íà ÷èñëåííîñòè õèùíûõ ïòèö, îñîáåííî âèäîâ, îñíîâó ïèòàíèÿ êîòîðûõ ñîñòàâëÿþò ãðûçóíû. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ÷èñëåííîñòü õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Óñòü-Îðäûíñêîãî Áóðÿòñêîãî àâòîíîìíîãî îêðóãà çíà÷èòåëüíî âûøå, ÷åì íà ïðèëåãàþùèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè. Îò÷àñòè ýòî ìîæíî îáúÿñíèòü òðàäèöèîííî áåðåæíûì îòíîøåíèåì áóðÿòñêîãî íàñåëåíèÿ ê õèùíûì ïòèöàì.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ

ShortReports КРАТКИЕСООБЩЕНИЯ BirdsofPreyofForestsBetweentheShumbutandtheBersut Rivers,TatarstanRepublic,Russia ХИЩНЫЕПТИЦЫЛЕСНЫХУГОДИЙМЕЖДУРЕЧЬЯРЕКШУМБУТ ИБЕРСУТ,ТАТАРСТАН,РОССИЯ NikolenkoE.G.(SiberianEnvironmentalCenter,Novosibirsk,Russia) НиоленоЭ.Г.(МБОО«Сибирсийэолоичесийцентр»,Новосибирс,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» 630090 Ðîññèÿ Íîâîñèáèðñê à/ÿ 547 òåë./ôàêñ: +7 (383) 339 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru Contact: Elvira Nikolenko NGO Siberian Environmental Center P.O. Box 547 Novosibirsk 630090 Russia tel./fax: +7 (383) 339 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru

Äàííàÿ ñòàòüÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåçóëüòàòîì íåñêîëüêèõ ýêñêóðñèé ïî ëåñíûì óãîäüÿì Ðûáíî-Ñëîáîäñêîãî è Ìàìàäûøñêîãî ðàéîíîâ ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí â 2006–07 ãã. (â èþëå 2006 ã., â íîÿáðå 2006 ã. è âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå èþíÿ 2007 ã). Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñîñòàâèëà îêîëî 60 êì. Òåððèòîðèÿ èññëåäîâàíèé îãðàíè÷åíà ëåñíûì ìàññèâîì, ðàñïîëîæåííûì íà ïîáåðåæüå Êóéáûøåâñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà ñåâåðíåå ã. ×èñòîïîëü. Íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ àêòèâíîå ëåñîïîëüçîâàíèå, êàê ìèíèìóì, ñ íà÷àëà ïðîøëîãî âåêà. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ìàññèâà – âòîðè÷íûé ëåñ, âûðîñøèé íà ìåñòå ðóáîê, ïðåäñòàâëåííûé ëèñòâåííûìè ïîðîäàìè (áåð¸çà, äóá, êë¸í, îñèíà, ëèïà) ñ ðåäêèìè ìàÿ÷íûìè ñîñíàìè 150–250-òè ëåòíåãî âîçðàñòà. Ñðåäè âòîðè÷íîãî ëèñòâåííîãî ëåñà èìå-

This paper is the result of several excursions through the forests of Rybno-Slobodskoy and Mamadysh regions of the Republic of Tatarstan in 2006–07. The total length of pedestrian routes was about 60 km. Three types of inhabitant places of raptors were recognized in the surveyed forest: forest along the side of reservoir, the edge of forest and no fragmented disturbed forest. Found nests and observed birds are in fig. 1. We found 4 breeding territories of the Black Kite (Milvus migrans), nests were found only in 3 (fig. 1, points 5–7) in the forest along the side of reservoir. Also we noted here the nest of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) with 2 fledglings; 2 breeding territories of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) with 3 nests (fig. 1, points 1–3), the breeding were noted in both territories in 2006 and 2007; empty but occupied nests of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (fig. 1/4). We noted an old nest of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and observed the adult in the edge of forest (fig. 1/10–11). Also we found a nest of the Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) with chicks (fig. 1/12). Despite of the high level of human disturbance the forest between Shumbut and Bersut rivers is the important inhabitant place for different species of raptors. The coastal zone of the Kuibyshevskoe reservoir and the edges of the forest surrounded by fields and pastures that inhabited by rare raptors such as the White Tailed Eagle and the Imperial Eagle have the special significance.

Ðèñ. 1. Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè è ìåñòà âñòðå÷ õèùíûõ ïòèö Fig. 1. Breeding territories and registration places of birds of prey


Short Reports

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 þòñÿ ïîñàäêè ñîñíû è åëè äî 50 ëåò. Ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûå ñîñíû ñîõðàíèëèñü ëèøü â âîäîîõðàííîé çîíå âîäîõðàíèëèùà è â íåêîòîðûõ ïîéìàõ ðó÷ü¸â, ãäå ãëóáèíà ðàñïàäêîâ çàòðóäíÿëà èõ âûðóáêó. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â ïëàíå ìåñòîîáèòàíèé õèùíûõ ïòèö â äàííîì ëåñíîì ìàññèâå ìîæíî âûäåëèòü 3 çîíû: óçêóþ ïðèáðåæíóþ, îïóøå÷íóþ (îáðàù¸ííóþ ê ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûì ïîëÿì) è ñïëîøíûå ìàññèâû âòîðè÷íîãî ëåñà, ðàçäåë¸ííûå êâàðòàëüíûìè ïðîñåêàìè.

Ïðèáðåæíàÿ çîíà Êóéáûøåâñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà ñî ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûìè ñîñíàìè. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Coastal zone of the Kuibyshevskoe reservoir: mixed forest with old pine trees. Photo by E. Nikolenko

׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans)  ïðèáðåæíîé çîíå âîäîõðàíèëèùà îáíàðóæåíî 4 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, íà òð¸õ èç êîòîðûõ íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà (ðèñ. 1, òî÷êè 5– 7). Âñå ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü ó ñàìîé êðîìêè êîðåííîãî áåðåãà, â 50–80 ì îò âîäû. Íà îäíîì ó÷àñòêå â 50 ì îò æèëîãî ãíåçäà íàéäåíà ñòàðàÿ ïîñòðîéêà. Íà ìîìåíò îáñëåäîâàíèÿ 22.07.2006 ã. ñë¸òêè óæå ïîêèíóëè ãí¸çäà è íàáëþäàëèñü ïîáëèçîñòè. Ïðè ïðèáëèæåíèè ê ãíåçäó âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, êàê ïðàâèëî, àêòèâíî áåñïîêîèëèñü. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó æèëûìè ãí¸çäàìè êîðøóíîâ ñîñòàâèëî â ñðåäíåì 650 ì (n=3). Áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî êîðøóíîâ íàáëþäàëîñü íàä âîäîõðàíèëèùåì è â èþëå 2006 ã., è â èþíå 2007 ã. Òàêæå 2–3 äåñÿòêà êîðøóíîâ ðåãóëÿðíî êðóæèëè âìåñòå ñ âîðîíàìè íàä àâòîòðàññîé ó äåð. Óðìàí÷ååâî âáëèçè çâåðîñîâõîçà, â 7 êì îò âîäîõðàíèëèùà. Îð¸ë-ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà íàáëþäàëàñü 20.07.2006 ã. íà îïóøêå íåáîëüøîãî ñòàðîâîçðàñòíîãî áîðà ó äåð. Øóìáóò (ðèñ. 1/10). Ïòèöà ñèäåëà â êðàéíåì ðÿäó äåðåâüåâ è áûëà õîðîøî âèäíà ñ äîðîãè. Ïðè ïðèáëèæåíèè îð¸ë ïåðåëåòåë âäîëü îïóøêè âãëóáü ìàññèâà, äàâ ñåáÿ õîðîøî ðàññìîòðåòü.

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Ïîçæå, 24 èþëÿ â 1 êì îò ìåñòà íàáëþäåíèÿ ìîãèëüíèêà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ñòàðîå ãíåçäî (ðèñ. 1/11). Ïîñòðîéêà ðàñïîëàãàëàñü íà âåðøèíå ñòàðîé ìàÿ÷íîé ñîñíû, íà ñåâåðíîé îïóøêå òîãî æå ñòàðîâîçðàñòíîãî ìàññèâà ó çàáðîøåííîãî è ïîëíîñòüþ ðàçðóøåííîãî ëàãåðÿ ñêîòà. Ñîêðàùåíèå âûïàñà ïðèâåëî ê çàðàñòàíèþ ïàñòáèù, è îðëû ëèáî íå ðàçìíîæàþòñÿ, ëèáî ïîñòðîèëè íîâîå ãíåçäî, êîòîðîå îáíàðóæèòü íå óäàëîñü. Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla)  âîäîîõðàííîé çîíå âîäîõðàíèëèùà íàéäåíî 2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà îðëàíîâ, ñîâïàäàþùèõ ïî ìåñòîïîëîæåíèþ ñ ó÷àñòêàìè, âûÿâëåííûìè â 1992 ã. (È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, ëè÷íîå ñîîáùåíèå).  èþëå 2006 ã. íà îáîèõ ó÷àñòêàõ âñòðå÷åíû âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, à â íîÿáðå – íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà. Íà çàïàäíîì ó÷àñòêå îáíàðóæåíî äâå ìíîãîëåòíèå ïîñòðîéêè îäíîé ïàðû íà ðàññòîÿíèè 370 ì äðóã îò äðóãà. Îáå ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ íà âåðõóøêàõ ìàÿ÷íûõ ñîñåí îêîëî 250- è 300-ëåòíåãî âîçðàñòà (ðèñ. 1/1–2).  2006 è 2007 ãã. ðàçìíîæåíèå áûëî çàôèêñèðîâàíî â ïîñòðîéêå íà áîëåå ìîëîäîé ñîñíå. Íà âîñòî÷íîì ó÷àñòêå ãíåçäî òàêæå ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà âåðøèíå ìàÿ÷íîé ñîñíû íà âûñîòå 30 ì.  ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä ýòî ãíåç-

Ñòàðîå ãíåçäî ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca) íà îïóøêå íàä ðàçâàëèíàìè ëàãåðÿ ñêîòà, òî÷êà 11. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Old nest of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) at the edge near ruins of a cattle camp, point 11. Photo by E. Nikolenko


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10 äî íå ïðîâåðÿëîñü, îäíàêî âáëèçè íåãî è â 2006, è â 2007 ãã. íàä âîäîõðàíèëèùåì íàáëþäàëèñü âçðîñëûå îðëàíû (ðèñ. 1/3). Èíòåðåñíî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî âñå 3 ãíåçäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ìàÿ÷íûõ ñîñíàõ, ðàñòóùèõ íà áîðòó íåáîëüøèõ ðàñïàäêîâ, ó äàëüíåãî êðàÿ âîäîîõðàííîé çîíû, íåòðîíóòîé ðóáêàìè. Èõ óäàëåíèå îò áåðåãà ñîñòàâèëî 160, 200 è 280 ì.

Ãíåçäî îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà (Haliaeetus albicilla), òî÷êà 3. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Nest of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), point 3. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Ïòåíöû îñîåäà (Pernis apivorus) â ãíåçäå, òî÷êà 12. 24.07.2006. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Chicks of the Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) in the nest, point 12. 24/07/ 2006. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Îñîåä (Pernis apivorus) Ãíåçäî îñîåäà ñ äâóìÿ îïåðÿþùèìèñÿ ïòåíöàìè íàéäåíî â ñåâåðíî-çàïàäíîé ïðèîïóøå÷íîé ÷àñòè ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà âáëèçè äåð. Øóìáóò 24.07.2006 ã. (ðèñ. 1/12). Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â 300 ì îò êðîìêè ëåñà, íà äîñòàòî÷íî ìîëîäîé ñîñíå ñðåäè ëèñòâåííûõ ïîðîä, îáðàçóþùèõ ñïëîøíîé ïîëîã. Ïîñëå îñìîòðà ãíåçäà íàä áëèæàéøèì ïîëåì áûëè âñòðå÷åíû ñàìåö è ñàìêà ñ ýòîãî ãíåçäà. Îäèíî÷íûé îñîåä íàáëþäàëñÿ 25.06.2007 ã. íàä âîñòî÷íîé îïóøêîé òîãî æå ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà, îáðàù¸ííîé ê ð. Áåðñóò, â 4-õ êì îò èçâåñòíîãî ãíåçäà. Ïòèöà êðóæèëà âûñîêî íàä ëåñîì, ñêîðåå âñåãî, íàä ñâîèì ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêîì (ðèñ. 1/13). Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus) Ãíåçäî îðëà-êàðëèêà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî â ïðèáðåæíîé çîíå âîäîõðàíèëèùà 22.07.2006 ã. (Íèêîëåíêî, Áåêìàíñóðîâ, 2006).  ãíåçäå íàõîäèëèñü 2 ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ îïåðåííûõ ïòåíöà. Ìíîãîëåòíÿÿ ïîñòðîéêà ðàñïîëàãàëàñü íà ñòàðîé áåð¸çå ñðåäè ïëîòíûõ çàðîñëåé ëèïû. Ãíåçäî óäàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü òîëüêî ïî ïèñêó ïòåíöîâ. Íàäî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ãíåçäî îðëà-êàðëèêà ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ðÿäó 4-õ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñò-

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ êîâ êîðøóíà, â 500-õ ìåòðàõ îò áëèæàéøèõ ãí¸çä. Îäíàêî, â îòëè÷èå îò ïîñòðîåê êîðøóíà, êîòîðûå äîñòàòî÷íî ëåãêî îáíàðóæèâàëèñü, ãíåçäî êàðëèêà áûëî çíà÷èòåëüíî ìåíåå çàìåòíî è ðàñïîëàãàëîñü äàëüøå îò áåðåãà (ðèñ. 1/9). Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Ãíåçäî, ïîñåùàåìîå êàíþêîì, íàéäåíî â ïðèáðåæíîé ÷àñòè ëåñà 13.11.2006 ã. (ðèñ. 1/4). Ïîñòðîéêà ðàñïîëàãàëàñü íà ëèïå â ïëîòíîì ëèïîâîì ëåñó íà êðàþ íåáîëüøîãî ëîãà.  èþíå 2007 ã. ãíåçäî îêàçàëîñü ïóñòûì, íî àáîíèðóåìî ïòèöàìè – òóò áûëî íàéäåíî ïåðî êàíþêà è ñâåæàÿ âåòî÷êà ëèñòâåííèöû. Îäèíî÷íûå êàíþêè íàáëþäàëèñü 20.07.2006 ã. íà îïóøêå ñòàðîâîçðàñòíîãî ó÷àñòêà áîðà ó äåð. Øóìáóò (ðèñ. 1/14) è 24.06.2007 ã. íà âîñòî÷íîé îïóøêå ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà, îáðàùåííîãî ê ð. Áåðñóò (ðèñ. 1/15). Ïòåíåö îðëà-êàðëèêà (Hieraaetus pennatus) â ãíåçäå, òî÷êà 9. 24.07.2006. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Chick of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) in the nest, point 9. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Ïîëåâîé ëóíü (Circus cyaneus) Îáíàðóæåíî 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ïîëåâûõ ëóíåé (ðèñ. 1, òî÷êè 16–18). Îäèí ñàìåö ïîëåâîãî ëóíÿ íàáëþäàëñÿ íåñêîëüêî ðàç â 2006 ã. è â 2007 ã. âáëèçè àâòîòðàññû íà äåð. Áåðñóò (ðèñ. 1/16), äðóãîé áûë âñòðå÷åí íà ïîëÿõ ó âîñòî÷íîé îïóøêè ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà, îáðàùåííîãî ê ð. Áåðñóò 24.06.2007 ã. (ðèñ. 1/17), â 4-õ êì îò ïðåäûäóùåãî ó÷àñòêà. Ïàðà íàáëþäàëàñü íà çàïàäíîé îïóøêå ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà, íà âîäîðàçäåëå íàä äåð. Øóìáóò 24.07.2006 ã. (ðèñ. 1/18). Êàê ïîêàçûâàþò ïðîâåä¸ííûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ, ëåñíîé ìàññèâ Êàìñêîãî ëåñïðîìõîçà â ìåæäóðå÷üå ðåê Øóìáóò è Áåðñóò, íåñìîòðÿ íà âûñîêóþ îñâîåííîñòü, îñòà¸òñÿ âàæíûì ìåñòîì îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Îñîáóþ öåííîñòü ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ïðèáðåæíàÿ çîíà Êóéáûøåâñêîãî âîäîõðàíè-


Short Reports

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 ëèùà, ãäå, áëàãîäàðÿ å¸ âîäîîõðàííîìó ñòàòóñó, ñîõðàíÿþòñÿ ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûå äåðåâüÿ, íåîáõîäèìûå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà. Îïóøå÷íàÿ ÷àñòü ëåñíîãî ìàññèâà, îêðóæ¸ííàÿ ïîëÿìè è ïàñòáèùàìè, òàêæå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ìåñòîì ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, â ò.÷. ðåäêîãî îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà, îäíàêî äëÿ ïîñëåäíåãî íåîáõîäèìà ñîâîêóïíîñòü äâóõ ôàêòîðîâ: íàëè÷èå ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûõ ñîñåí, ÷èñëî êîòîðûõ ñ êàæäûì ãî-

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äîì ñíèæàåòñÿ, è ïàñòáèù, íàñåë¸ííûõ ñóñëèêîì, ïëîùàäü êîòîðûõ çíà÷èòåëüíî ñîêðàòèëàñü çà ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ. Ýòà ïðîáëåìà, âîçìîæíî, àêòóàëüíà äëÿ âñåé ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíû Òàòàðñòàíà, è å¸ ðåøåíèþ íåîáõîäèìî óäåëÿòü îñîáîå âíèìàíèå. Ëèòåðàòóðà Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ. Íîâûå íàõîäêè íà ãíåçäîâàíèè îðëà-êàðëèêà â Òàòàðñòàíå – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2006. ¹ 6. Ñ. 65–66.

NoBreedingConcentrationsoftheBlack-earedKite intheSouthofSiberiaandinMongolia ВНЕГНЕЗДОВЫЕ СКОПЛЕНИЯ ЧЕРНОУХОГО КОРШУНА НА ЮГЕ СИБИРИ И В МОНГОЛИИ PopovV.V.(IrkutskBranchoftheRussianBirdsConservationUnion,Russia) ПоповВ.В.(Ир тс оеотделениеСоюзаохраныптицРоссии,Ир тс ,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Âèêòîð Ïîïîâ Èðêóòñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ òåë.: +7 (3952) 48 04 03 vpopov@irk.ru Contact: Viktor Popov The Irkutsk branch of RBCU tel.: +7 (3952) 48 04 03 vpopov@irk.ru

Îòëè÷èòåëüíîé ñïîñîáíîñòüþ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà (Milvus migrans lineatus) â îòëè÷èå îò äðóãèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñïîñîáíîñòü îáðàçîâûâàòü âíåãíåçäîâûå ñêîïëåíèÿ, ïðèðîäà êîòîðûõ íå ÿñíà. Ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ äàííîãî ñîîáùåíèÿ áûëè ñîáðàíû âî âðåìÿ ïîëåâûõ ðàáîò â Áàéêàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå ñ 1976 ã., â Þãî-Çàïàäíîé Òóâå ñ 1983 ïî 1988 ãã. è â Ìîíãîëèè ñ 1987 ïî 1990 ãã. Òàêæå áûë ïðîâåä¸í àíàëèç ëèòåðàòóðíûõ äàííûõ è ñáîð îïðîñíûõ ñâåäåíèé. Âûÿñíåíî, ÷òî ÷åðíîóõèé êîðøóí ìîæåò îáðàçîâûâàòü âíåãíåçäîâûå ñêîïëåíèÿ âî ìíîãèõ ìåñòàõ íåçàâèñèìî îò òèïà ëàíäøàôòà, íî âñ¸ æå èõ áîëüøå îòìå÷åíî â ñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ.  Þãî-Çàïàäíîé Òóâå íàèáîëåå çíà÷èòåëüíîå ïî ðàçìåðàì ñêîïëåíèå â òå÷åíèå íåñêîëüêèõ ëåò (ñ 1983 ã. ïî 1988 ã.) ìû íàáëþäàëè â äîëèíå ð. Êàðãû â óðî÷èùå «Ñåìèãîðêè» íà ãðàíèöå ñ Ìîíãîëèåé.  ýòîì ñêîïëåíèè íàñ÷èòûâàëîñü îò 80 äî 120–130 ÷åðíîóõèõ êîðøóíîâ. Ñêîïëåíèå îáðàçîâûâàëîñü â êîíöå àïðåëÿ è ñóùåñòâîâàëî äî àâãóñòà, ÷èñëåííîñòü êîðøóíà â òå÷åíèå ñåçîíà ñèëüíî íå ìåíÿëàñü, ëèøü ê àâãóñòó ïðîèñõîäèëî íåêîòîðîå ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè. Íî÷åâàëè ïòèöû íà îãðàíè÷åííîì ó÷àñòêå íà òîïîëÿõ â ïîéìå ð. Êàðãû, ïðè÷¸ì íà îäíîì äåðåâå ìîãëî ñèäåòü ñâûøå 10 ïòèö, ìàêñèìàëüíîå ÷èñëî çà âñ¸ âðåìÿ íàáëþäåíèé – 35 ïòèö. ×åðíîóõèå êîðøóíû (Milvus migrans lineatus). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Black-Yeared Kites (Milvus migrans lineatus). Photo by I. Karyakin

There is very interesting peculiarity typical only for the Black-eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus) to create the no breeding concentrations consisting of up to 100 and more number of birds. There are known the such conglomerations existing on the southwestern of Tuva, Mongolia, Irkutsk district and Buryatia. These conglomerations are often noted near built-up areas, farms and dumps, but some of ones are unusual. Some concentrations are stable and can exist during several seasons or years. However the mechanisms forming and reasons of such concentrations have not known. We suppose they to be a population reserve providing the stable number. Some disparity between the high number of the Black-eared Kite and the little number of found nests were noted. We expect that breeding pairs can not keep the high number of the species. Therefore it is essential to mark of birds from such concentrations for the Black-eared Kite researching.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10 Ìåñòî íî÷¸âêè áûëî ïîñòîÿííûì, è â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîä äåðåâüÿìè îáðàçîâàëñÿ òîëñòûé ñëîé èç ïîì¸òà è ïîãàäîê êîðøóíîâ. Äí¸ì êîðøóíû îáû÷íî êðóæèëèñü âáëèçè îò ìåñòà íî÷¸âêè.  îêðåñòíîé ñòåïè áûëè îòìå÷åíû íåçíà÷èòåëüíûå ïî ïëîòíîñòè ïîñåëåíèÿ ìîíãîëüñêîé ïèùóõè (Ochotona pallasi), íà ïîëÿõ è â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ôåðìû ñóùåñòâîâàëî äîâîëüíî ïëîòíîå ïîñåëåíèå ìîíãîëüñêîé ïåñ÷àíêè (Meriones unguiculatus), äëÿ ïîéìû áûëà îòìå÷åíà âûñîêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü õîìÿ÷êîâ äàóðñêîãî (Cricetulus barabensis) è äæóíãàðñêîãî (Phodopus sungorus) è òóøêàí÷èêà-ïðûãóíà (Allactaga sibirica), îäíàêî àíàëèç ïîãàäîê êîðøóíîâ ïîêàçàë, ÷òî îíè â îñíîâíîì ñîñòîÿëè èç øåðñòè äîìàøíèõ æèâîòíûõ. Ò.å. ñêîðåå âñåãî êîðøóíû ïèòàëèñü ïàäàëüþ.  äîëèíå ð. Êàðãû, íà 30-êì ó÷àñòêå óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå ïðèìåðíî 10 ïàð ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà, ïðè÷¸ì íà 5-êì ó÷àñòêå ïîéìû, ïðèìûêàþùåì ê ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ãðàíèöå, îòìå÷åíî åæåãîäíî ãíåçäîâàíèå îò 5 äî 7 ïàð. Êðîìå ïîéìû ð. Êàðãè, äðóãèå ìåñòà, ïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà, ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóþò. Êðîìå ýòîãî ñêîïëåíèÿ â 25 êì íà îêðàèíàõ ïîñ. Ìóãóð-Àêñû ïîñòîÿííî äåðæàëîñü åù¸ 20–25 êîðøóíîâ, êîòîðûå êîðìèëèñü íà ñâàëêàõ îòáðîñàìè è ôàêòè÷åñêè çàíèìàëè ýêîëîãè÷åñêóþ íèøó âîðîí. Êðîìå ýòîãî, Â.Í. Ñòåïàíåíêî ñîîáùàåò î ñêîïëåíèè ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà ëåòîì 1984 ã. â ïîñ. Òîðà-Õåì (Òîäæèíñêèé ðàéîí).  Ìîíãîëèè ñêîïëåíèÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà óäàëîñü îòìå÷àòü äîâîëüíî ÷àñòî. Âî ìíîãèõ íåáîëüøèõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòàõ â Õýíòåéñêîì, Óáñó-Íóðñêîì è Öåíòðàëüíîì àéìàêàõ áûëè îòìå÷åíû ñêîïëåíèÿ îò 10 äî 25, à èíîãäà è áîëåå ïòèö. ×åðíîóõèõ êîðøóíîâ (îêîëî 5–6 îñîáåé) ìû âñòðå÷àëè â öåíòðå Óëàí-Áàòîðà. Èç êðóïíûõ ñêîïëåíèé ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü âñòðå÷è â èþëå 1988 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Áýðõ (Õýíòåéñêèé àéìàê) – 46 ïòèö è 24 èþíÿ 1979 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Êîáäî – ñâûøå 100 ïòèö (Ïîïîâ è äð., 1998).  Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè ñêîïëåíèÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà îòìå÷åíû â îñíîâíîì â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ. Â.Â. Ðÿáöåâ (1991) îòìåòèë ñêîïëåíèÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ôåðìû â äåð. Áûñòðîé (Ñëþäÿíñêèé ðàéîí): 6 àïðåëÿ 1982 ã. òàì áûëî îòìå÷åíî 20–25 êîðøóíîâ; íà ñëåäóþùèé äåíü – 15–18; 24 àâãóñòà 1981 ã. – 50–70; 26 àâãóñòà 1979 ã. – 89–100; 6 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1980 ã. – 40; 10 è 11 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1978 ã. – 40–50 ïòèö. Âòîðîå ñêîïëåíèå èç 50 êîðøóíîâ áûëî îáíàðóæåíî èì 4

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ àâãóñòà 1988 ã. íà áåðåãó ð. Àíãàðà â 3-õ êì âûøå ïî òå÷åíèþ îò ìåñòà âïàäåíèÿ ð. Êóäà (Èðêóòñêèé ðàéîí). Íàìè ñêîïëåíèå èç 50–80 ïòèö íåñêîëüêî ðàç îòìå÷àëîñü â èþíå-èþëå 1998 ã. â ðàéîíå çîëîîòâàëà Íîâî-Èðêóòñêîé ÒÝÖ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Ìàðêîâî. Íåïîäàëåêó îò ýòîãî ìåñòà íàõîäèëàñü ïòèöåôàáðèêà, è êîðøóíû, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ïèòàëèñü å¸ îòõîäàìè.  ìàå 2006 ã. ñêîïëåíèå èç 30–35 ïòèö îòìå÷åíî â ïîñåëêå Áîëüøàÿ Ðå÷êà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ çâåðîôåðìû.  óñòüå ð. Óíãà (Íóêóòñêèé ðàéîí) 1 èþëÿ 2007 ã. îòìå÷åíî ñêîïëåíèå èç 9 êîðøóíîâ. È.Í. Ñèðîõèí 26 àâãóñòà 1991 ã. íàáëþäàë ñêîïëåíèå îêîëî 50 êîðøóíîâ íà ãîðîäñêîé ñâàëêå ã. Òàéøåò (êàðòîòåêà áèîôàêà ÈÃÓ). Ïî îïðîñíûì äàííûì, â 80-õ ãîäàõ ñêîïëåíèÿ êîðøóíà íåîäíîêðàòíî íàáëþäàëèñü â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Êàðëóê ó ïòèöåôàáðèêè.  Áóðÿòèè ñêîïëåíèÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà îòìå÷åíû 2 èþëÿ 1957 ã. – îêîëî 40 îñîáåé â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Èñèíãà, 1 èþëÿ 1960 ã. – îêîëî 30 ïòèö ó îç. Ìàëîå Åðàâíîå è ñòîëüêî æå ïòèö 18–19 èþëÿ 1961 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Ñîñíîâîîçåðñêà (Èçìàéëîâ, 1967). Êàê ìû âèäèì, âíåãíåçäîâûå ñêîïëåíèÿ äëÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà äîâîëüíî îáû÷íîå ÿâëåíèå, è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû îíè, ñêîðåå âñåãî, øèðå, ÷åì îòìå÷åíî íàìè. Ïðè÷èíû, ïîðîæäàþùèå îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñêîïëåíèé, íå âñåãäà ÿñíû.  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ (îêðàèíû ïîñ¸ëêîâ, îêðåñòíîñòè ïòèöåôàáðèê è çâåðîôåðì) èõ ìîæíî îáúÿñíèòü íàëè÷èåì äîñòóïíîãî èñòî÷íèêà ïèòàíèÿ. Íî â íåêîòîðûõ ñëó÷àÿõ (ñêîïëåíèå â óðî÷èùå «Ñåìèãîðêè», íåïîäàëåêó îò óñòüÿ ð. Êóäà) ýòî îáúÿñíåíèå íå ïîäõîäèò. Îáðàùàåò íà ñåáÿ âíèìàíèå è ñòàáèëüíîñòü ìåñò îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñêîïëåíèé, êàê â òå÷åíèå íåñêîëüêèõ ëåò, òàê è â òå÷åíèå ñåçîíà (íàïðèìåð, óðî÷èùå «Ñåìèãîðêè», îêðåñòíîñòè ïîñ. Áûñòðîé). Òàêæå ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ñêîïëåíèÿ ñîñòîÿò èç ðàçíîâîçðàñòíûõ ïòèö, à íå òîëüêî èç ìîëîäûõ, íå ïðåñòóïèâøèõ ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ. ßñíîãî îáúÿñíåíèÿ ïðè÷èí îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñêîïëåíèé ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà íåò. Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü åù¸ îäíó îñîáåííîñòü ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà – íåêîòîðîå íåñîîòâåòñòâèå îòíîñèòåëüíî âûñîêîé îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà è ìàëîãî êîëè÷åñòâà íàéäåííûõ ãí¸çä. Íàïðèìåð, ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì ðàáîòû â Ìîíãîëèè (Ïîïîâ è äð., 1998), ãäå çà 4 ãîäà áûëî ïðîéäåíî 1070 êì ïåøèõ è 9795 êì àâòîìîáèëüíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ, â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ êîðøóí çàíèìàë ïåðâîå, èíîãäà âòîðîå ìåñòî ïî ÷èñëåí-


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Raptors Conservation 2007, 10 íîñòè, â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ ñ áîëüøèì îòðûâîì îò äðóãèõ âèäîâ.  òî æå âðåìÿ áûëî íàéäåíî 43 æèëûõ ãíåçäà äðóãèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö, â òîì ÷èñëå ðåäêèõ, íî íå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî íè îäíîãî ãíåçäà è íè îäíîãî âûâîäêà ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà. Â.Â. Ðÿáöåâûì (1991) áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 13 ãí¸çä ýòîãî âèäà, ìåíüøå, ÷åì ãí¸çä áîëåå ðåäêèõ âèäîâ – ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca) è áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug).  2006 ã. â ëåñîñòåïÿõ Âåðõíåãî Ïðèàíãàðüÿ ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ÷åðíîóõèé êîðøóí òàêæå çàíÿë ïî ìåñÿöàì ïåðâîå-âòîðîå ìåñòî, íî îïÿòü ãí¸çä è âûâîäêîâ íàéäåíî íå áûëî (Ìàëååâ, Ïîïîâ, 2007).  ëèòåðàòóðå òàêæå èìååòñÿ ìàëî óïîìèíàíèé î íàõîäêàõ ãí¸çä êîðøóíà (ïî Áàéêàëüñêîìó ðåãèîíó íå áîëåå 25 óêàçàíèé íà íàõîäêè ãí¸çä), íî ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñåãäà îòìå÷àåòñÿ åãî âûñîêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü.  Þãî-çàïàäíîé Òóâå íà 10 ïàð ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ êîðøóíîâ ïðèõîäèëîñü ñâûøå 130 íåãíåçäÿùèõñÿ òîëüêî â ñîñòàâå ñêîïëåíèé, åù¸ íåñêîëüêî äåñÿòêîâ íåãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö íàõîäèëîñü âíå ñêîïëåíèé. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñîîòíîøåíèå ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ è íåãíåçäÿùèõñÿ îñîáåé ìîæåò íà ïðèìåðå Þãî-Çàïàäíîé Òóâû äîñòèãàòü 1:8 – 1:10. Ïîëó÷àåòñÿ, ÷òî áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ïîïóëÿöèè êîðøóíà íå ó÷àñòâóåò â ðàçìíîæåíèè. Ìîæåò âñòàòü âîïðîñ î âîçìîæíîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ îñîáåé ïðè óñïåøíîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ 1,5 ñë¸òêà íà ðàçìíîæàâøóþñÿ ïàðó

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(Ðÿáöåâ, 1991) ñòàáèëüíî îáåñïå÷èâàòü ñòîëü âûñîêóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíàÿ ðîëü ñêîïëåíèé ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà â íåêîòîðîé ñòåïåíè ìîæåò çàêëþ÷àòüñÿ â òîì, ÷òî îíè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñâîåîáðàçíûì ðåçåðâîì ïîïóëÿöèè, îáåñïå÷èâàþùèì ñòàáèëüíóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà. Íî äëÿ ïîëíîãî ïîíèìàíèÿ ýòîãî ÿâëåíèÿ íåîáõîäèìî ïðîâåäåíèå ñïåöèàëüíûõ ðàáîò, âêëþ÷àþùèõ â ñåáÿ êàê ìå÷åíèå îñîáåé êðûëîìåòêàìè, òàê è ðàäèîïåðåäàò÷èêàìè, äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ïðîñëåäèòü ïîâåäåíèå ïòèö, âõîäÿùèõ â ñîñòàâ ñêîïëåíèé âî âðåìÿ çèìîâîê, è èõ ó÷àñòèå â ðàçìíîæåíèè â áóäóùåì. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, âíåãíåçäîâûå ñêîïëåíèÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà ÿâëÿþòñÿ èíòåðåñíûì ôàêòîì, íà êîòîðûé ñëåäóåò îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå. Ëèòåðàòóðà Èçìàéëîâ È.Â. Ïòèöû Âèòèìñêîãî ïëîñêîãîðüÿ. Óëàí-Óäý, 1967. 305 ñ. Ìàëååâ Â.Ã., Ïîïîâ Â.Â. Ïòèöû ëåñîñòåïåé Âåðõíåãî Ïðèàíãàðüÿ. Èðêóòñê: ÍÖ ÐÂÕ ÂÑÍÖ ÑÎ ÐÀÌÍ, 2007. 276 ñ. Ïîïîâ Â.Â., Êàðäàø À.È., Âåðæóöêèé Ä.Á. Ê ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ è ýêîëîãèè õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ íà âîñòîêå è çàïàäå Ìîíãîëèè. – Òðóäû ÁàéêàëîËåíñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ïðèðîäíîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Âûï.1. Ì., «Èíêîìáóê» 1998. Ñ. 85–91. Ðÿáöåâ Â.Â. Ýêîëîãèÿ ÷åðíîãî êîðøóíà â ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ Ïðåäáàéêàëüÿ. – Ýêîëîãèÿ è ôàóíà ïòèö Âîñòî÷íîé Ñèáèðè. Óëàí-Óäý, 1991. Ñ. 152–161.

AColonyoftheBlackKiteattheOb’ReservoirTerrace,Russia КОЛОНИЯЧЁРНОГОКОРШУНАНАПОБЕРЕЖЬЕОБСКОГО ВОДОХРАНИЛИЩА,РОССИЯ NikolenkoE.G.(SiberianEnvironmentalCenter,Novosibirsk,Russia) НиоленоЭ.Г.(МБОО«Сибирсийэолоичесийцентр»,Новосибирс,Россия)

׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Black Kite (Milvus migrans). Photo by I. Karyakin

Êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) ñêëîíåí îáðàçîâûâàòü ãíåçäîâûå êîëîíèè ÷èñëåííîñòüþ äî íåñêîëüêèõ äåñÿòêîâ ïàð, â êîòîðûõ ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò íåñêîëüêî äåñÿòêîâ ìåòðîâ (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951; Êàðÿêèí, 2004). Òàêèå êîëîíèè îïèñàíû â Ïîâîëæüå, Ïðåäóðàëüå è Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå, îäíàêî äëÿ Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè èíôîðìàöèÿ î ãíåçäîâûõ êîëîíèÿõ êîðøóíà ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóåò. Áëèæàéøàÿ ê Íîâîñèáèðñêó êîëîíèÿ êîðøóíîâ îïèñàíà â Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè â Âàãàíîâñêîì áîðó (Êàðÿêèí, Áàêêà, 2004).

We found a colony of the Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in a pine forest located on the Ob’ Reservoir terrace in the Iskitim region of the Novosibirsk district on 19 August, 2006. The colony consists of 14 perennial nests located on the area of 400 m2 (fig. 1), we noted 12 nests occupyied in 2006. The average distance between living nests was 100 m (n=12; range 70–160 m). Nests located at the edge of the colony were at the distance of 300–400 m from the reservoir bank and only in 200 m far from a sanatorium. The main object of the Black Kite’s diet was fish. No less than 24 adults (40 including young birds) were observed to inhabit the colony in 2006.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ

Ðèñ. 1. Êîëîíèÿ ÷¸ðíîãî êîðøóíà (Milvus migrans) â ïðèòåððàñíîì áîðó Îáñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà. MM01-MM14 – ãí¸çäà êîðøóíà Fig. 1. A colony of the Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in a pine forest at the Ob’ reservoir terrace. MM01-MM14 – Black Kite’s nests

Áîð íà ó÷àñòêå ñ êîëîíèåé ÷¸ðíîãî êîðøóíà. Ãíåçäî ÌÌ11. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Fragment of the pine forest with the colony of the Black Kite. Nest ÌÌ11. Photo by E. Nikolenko

 ïðèòåððàñíîì áîðó Îáñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà â Èñêèòèìñêîì ðàéîíå Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè 19 àâãóñòà 2006 ã. áûëà îáíàðóæåíà êîëîíèÿ ÷¸ðíûõ êîðøóíîâ, ñîñòîÿùàÿ èç 14 ìíîãîëåòíèõ ïîñòðîåê, ðàñïîëàãàþùèõñÿ íà ó÷àñòêå ïëîùàäüþ 400 ì2 (ðèñ. 1). Êîëîíèÿ ðàñïîëàãàåòñÿ â íåáîëüøîì ó÷àñòêå ëåñà, îñòàâøåìñÿ îò äðåâíåãî ïðèòåððàñíîãî áîðà íà áåðåãó âîäîõðàíèëèùà. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ëåñà âäîëü êðîìêè âîäû ñîñòàâëÿåò 14 êì, à ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ øèðèíà – 2,3 êì.  27 êì âûøå ïî âîäîõðàíèëèùó íà÷èíàåòñÿ Êàðàêàíñêèé áîð – îäèí èç ñàìûõ êðóïíûõ òåððàñíûõ áîðîâ Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè. Îñòàëüíàÿ îáøèðíàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ Èñêèòèìñêîãî ðàéîíà, ïðèëåãàþùàÿ ê âîäîõðàíèëèùó, ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïîëÿ è çàëåæè ñ ðåäêèìè áåð¸çîâûìè êîëêàìè. Ó÷àñòîê ëåñà, â êîòîðîì îáíàðóæåíà êîëîíèÿ, íåñ¸ò ñèëüíóþ ðåêðåàöèîííóþ íàãðóçêó. Çäåñü ðàñïîëàãàåòñÿ íåñêîëüêî âåäîìñòâåííûõ áàç îòäûõà, à òàêæå âåäóòñÿ ðóáêè, âñëåäñòâèå êîòîðûõ áîëüøàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ ìàññèâà ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ñìåøàííûé áåð¸çîâî-ñîñíîâûé ëåñ ñ íåáîëüøèìè ôðàãìåíòàìè ÷èñòûõ ñðåäíåâîçðàñòíûõ ñîñíÿêîâ. Èìåííî â òàêîì ñîñíÿêå, ïëîùàäüþ ìåíåå 1 êì2, áûëà íàéäåíà êîëîíèÿ. Ïðèìå÷àòåëüíî òî, ÷òî â îêðåñòíîñòè íåñêîëüêèõ ñîò ìåòðîâ âîêðóã êîëîíèè

áîëåå íå áûëî íàéäåíî íè îäíîé ïîñòðîéêè êîðøóíîâ, êàê, ñîáñòâåííî, è äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, íåñìîòðÿ íà íàëè÷èå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ñîñåí. Êðàéíèå ïîñòðîéêè â êîëîíèè ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ â 300– 400 ì îò áåðåãà âîäîõðàíèëèùà è âñåãî â 200-õ ì îò áëèæàéøåé áàçû îòäûõà. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó æèëûìè ãí¸çäàìè âàðüèðóåò îò 70 äî 160 ì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 100 ì (n=12). Ñðåäíèé âîçðàñò ñîñåí íà ó÷àñòêå ñ êîëîíèåé – îêîëî 50 ëåò. Âñå ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ íà ñàìûõ ñòàðûõ äåðåâüÿõ – âîçðàñòîì îêîëî 80 ëåò è áîëåå. Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ïîñòðîåê êîëåáëåòñÿ îò 8 äî 20 ì, ñðåäíÿÿ âûñîòà – 14,8 ì (n=14), âûñîòà îò âåðøèíû äåðåâà – 4–10, â ñðåäíåì 6,9 ì (n=14).  ìîìåíò îáíàðóæåíèÿ êîëîíèè ïòåíöû óæå ïîêèíóëè ãí¸çäà è îõîòèëèñü âìåñòå ñî âçðîñëûìè ïòèöàìè íà ïîáåðåæüå, ïîýòîìó îïðåäåëèòü êîëè÷åñòâî ñë¸òêîâ â êàæäîì ãíåçäå áûëî íåâîçìîæíî. Òåì íå ìåíåå, íàä ìíîãèìè ãí¸çäàìè áûëè çàôèêñèðîâàíû áåñïîêîÿùèåñÿ ïòèöû – êàê ñë¸òêè, òàê è âçðîñëûå, à î çàíÿòîñòè ãí¸çä ìîæíî áûëî ñóäèòü ïî ïèùåâûì îñòàòêàì è ïîì¸òó ïîä íèìè. Èç 14 ïîñòðîåê 12, îïðåäåë¸ííî, áûëè æèëûìè â 2006 ã. Îñíîâó ïèòàíèÿ ÷¸ðíîãî êîðøóíà íà ïîáåðåæüå, ñóäÿ ïî ïîåäÿì, ñîñòàâëÿåò ðûáà. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî çíà÷èòåëüíóþ ÷àñòü ðàöèîíà îáåñïå÷èâàþò áàçû îòäûõà è ñòîÿíêè îòäûõàþùèõ. Ìîæíî ñäåëàòü âûâîä, ÷òî êîëè÷åñòâî êîðøóíîâ, ðàçìíîæàþùèõñÿ â 2006 ã. â îáíàðóæåííîé êîëîíèè, áûëî íå ìåíåå 24, à ÷èñëåííîñòü ïòèö ïîñëå âûëåòà ïòåíöîâ áëèçêà ê 40.


Short Reports Ă&#x160;Îíòà êò: Ă?Íßâèðà Ă?èêÎÍüíêÎ Ă&#x152;Ă Ă&#x17D;Ă&#x17D; ÂŤĂ&#x2018;èåèðùêèÊ ýêÎÍÎãèáüùêèÊ Üüíòð 630090 Ă?Îùùèÿ Ă?ÎâÎùèåèðùê Ă /Ăż 547 òüÍ./Ă´Ă ĂŞĂą: +7 (383) 339 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru Contact: Elvira Nikolenko NGO Siberian Environmental Center P.O. Box 547 Novosibirsk 630090 Russia tel./fax: +7 (383) 339 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru

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Ă&#x152;íÎãÎÍüòíüü ãíüçäÎ êÎðøóíà Ă&#x152;Ă&#x152;04. 19.08.2007. Ă&#x201D;ÎòÎ Ă?. Ă?èêÎÍüíêÎ Perennial nest of the Black Kite Ă&#x152;Ă&#x152;04. 19/08/2007. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Ă&#x2039;èòüðà òóðà Ă&#x201E;üÏüíòßüâ Ă&#x192;.Ă?. Ă&#x17D;òðÿä þèÚíÝü ïòèÜÝ. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Ă?òèÜÝ Ă&#x2018;ÎâüòùêÎãÎ Ă&#x2018;ÎÞçà. Ă&#x152;.: Ă&#x2018;Îâüòùêàÿ íàóêà, 1951. Ă&#x2019;.1. Ă&#x2018;. 70â&#x20AC;&#x201C;341. Ă&#x160;àðÿêèí Ă&#x2C6;.Ă&#x201A;. Ă?üðíàòÝü þèÚíèêè (ÏüòÎäèáüùêèü ðüêÎÏüíäàÜèè ĂŻĂŽ èçóáüíèÞ ùÎêÎÍÎÎåðàçíÝþ è ùÎâÎÎåðàçíÝþ). Ă?èÌíèÊ Ă?ÎâãÎðÎä: Ă&#x2C6;çäàòüÍßùòâÎ ÂŤĂ?ÎâÎÍÌßü, 2004. 351 Ăą. Ă&#x160;àðÿêèí Ă&#x2C6;.Ă&#x201A;., Ă Ă ĂŞĂŞĂ  Ă&#x2018;.Ă&#x201A;. Ă&#x2C6;íâüíòàðèçàÜèÿ Ă&#x160;Ă&#x17D;Ă&#x2019;Ă? ÏüÌäóíàðÎäíÎãÎ çíàáüíèÿ Ă­Ă  Þãü Ă&#x2021;àïàäíÎÊ Ă&#x2018;èåèðè. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Ă&#x2C6;íôÎðÏàÜèÎííÝÊ åÞÍÍüòüíß ÂŤĂ&#x160;ÍÞáüâÝü ÎðíèòÎÍÎãèáüùêèü òüððèòÎðèè Ă?Îùùèè. 2004. š 2 (20). Ă&#x2018;. 34â&#x20AC;&#x201C;36.

FiveFledglingsinBroodoftheGyrfalconontheYamal Peninsula,Russia Đ&#x;ЯТЏĐĄĐ&#x203A;РТĐ&#x161;Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x2019;Đ&#x2019;Đ&#x2019;ĐŤĐ&#x2019;Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x201D;Đ&#x161;Đ&#x2022;Đ&#x161;Đ Đ&#x2022;ЧĐ&#x2022;ТĐ?Đ?Đ?ĐŻĐ&#x153;Đ?Đ&#x203A;Đ&#x2022;,Đ Đ&#x17E;ĐĄĐĄĐ&#x2DC;ĐŻ MechnikovaS.A.,KudryavtsevN.V.(MoscowMunicipalPedagogicalUniversity, Moscow,Russia) Đ&#x153;ĐľŃ&#x2021;ниОваĐĄ.Đ?.,Đ&#x161;Đ´Ń&#x20AC;Ń?вŃ&#x2020;овĐ?.Đ&#x2019;.(Đ&#x153;ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛Ń иКĐžŃ&#x20AC;ĐžĐ´Ń ОКподаĐžиŃ&#x2021;ĐľŃ иК нивоŃ&#x20AC;Ń Đ¸Ń&#x201A;ĐľŃ&#x201A;,Đ&#x153;ĐžŃ ва,Đ ĐžŃ Ń Đ¸Ń?) Ă&#x160;Îíòàêò: Ă&#x152;üáíèêÎâà Ă&#x2018;âüòÍàíà Ă&#x152;ÎùêÎâùêèÊ ãÎðÎäùêÎÊ ïüäàãÎãèáüùêèÊ óíèâüðùèòüò Ă&#x160;àôüäðà çÎÎÍÎãèè è åÎòàíèêè Ă?Îùùèÿ 105043 Ă&#x152;Îùêâà, óÍ. 3-Ăż Ă?àðêÎâàÿ 8/19, êâ. 50 òüÍ.: +7 (495) 367 60 56 mechnikova@rambler.ru Ă&#x160;óäðÿâÜüâ Ă?èêÎÍàÊ òüÍ.: +7 (495) 654 36 55 Nikolay63@yandex.ru Contact: Mechnikova Svetlana Department of Zoology and Botany, Moscow Municipal Pedagogical University Tretya Parkovaya Str., 8/19 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 50, Moscow 105043 Russia tel.: +7 (495) 367 60 56 mechnikova@rambler.ru Kudryavtsev Nikolay tel.: +7 (495) 654 36 55 Nikolay63@yandex.ru

Ă&#x201A; êÍà äêàþ êðüáüòà (Falco rusticolus) ÎåÝáíÎ åÝâàüò Îò äâóþ äÎ áüòÝð¸þ ÿèÜ, Ă  â âÝâÎäêàþ â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Îò ÎäíÎãÎ äÎ áüòÝð¸þ ïòüíÜÎâ (Potapov, Sale, 2005). Ă&#x160;Íàäêè èç ïÿòè ÿèÜ è âÝâÎäêè èç ïÿòè ïòüíÜÎâ âùòðüáàÞòùÿ èùêÍÞáèòüÍßíÎ ðüäêÎ. Ă&#x201A; Íèòüðàòóðü Ă­Ă ĂŹ óäàÍÎùß íàÊòè òÎÍßêÎ äâà ùÎÎåÚüíèÿ ĂŽ òàêèþ ùÍóáàÿþ: äâü êÍàäêè ĂŻĂŽ 5 ÿèÜ íàþÎäèÍ Ă&#x17D;.Ă&#x160;. Ă?èÍßùüí (O.K. Nielsen) â Ă&#x2C6;ùÍàíäèè (Cade et al., 1998); è Îäíó ãíüçäÿÚóÞùÿ ĂŻĂ Ă°Ăł Ăą ïÿòßÞ ù͸òêàÏè ÎåíàðóÌèÍ Ă?. Ă&#x160;ÎùêèÏèüù (P. Koskimies) â ùüâüðíÎÊ Ă&#x2DC;âüÜèè â 2004 ĂŁ., ïðè ýòÎÏ áèùÍüííÎùòß ĂĄĂĽĂŤĂŽĂŠ êóðÎïàòêè (Lagopus lagopus) â òÎÏ Ă°Ă ĂŠĂŽĂ­ĂĽ åÝÍà Îáüíß âÝùÎêÎÊ (Koskimies, 2005). Ă&#x152;Ăť íàåÍÞäàÍè âÝâÎäÎê êðüáüòà Ăą ïÿòßÞ ïÎÍíÎùòßÞ Îïüð¸ííÝÏè ù͸òêàÏè Ă­Ă  Þãü ïÎÍóÎùòðÎâà Ă&#x;ĂŹĂ ĂŤ (åàùùüÊí Ă°. Ă&#x2122;óáßüÊ) 12 èÞÍÿ 2007 ĂŁ. Ă&#x201A;ùü ÏÎÍÎäÝü äüðÌàÍèùß ĂŽĂŞĂŽĂŤĂŽ ãíüçäà, ÍüòàÍè üÚ¸ Ă­ĂĽ Îáüíß þÎðÎøÎ. Ă&#x201A; òÎ ĂŚĂĽ âðüÏÿ â òð¸þ äðóãèþ ÎåíàðóÌüííÝþ íàÏè âÝâÎäêàþ êðüáüòÎâ åÝÍè Îäèí, äâà è òðè ù͸òêà. Ă&#x2014;èùÍüííÎùòß ĂĄĂĽĂŤĂŽĂŠ êóðÎïàòêè â ýòÎÏ ãÎäó åÝÍà ùðüäíüÊ, è óùïüøíÎü âÝêàðÏÍèâàíèü êðüáüòàÏè âÝâÎäêà èç 5 ïòüíÜÎâ íèêàê Ă­ĂĽ ùâÿçàíÎ Ăą ÎåÚèÏ óâüÍèáüíèüÏ áèùÍüííÎùòè êóðÎïàòêè Ă­Ă  Ă&#x17E;ĂŚĂ­ĂŽĂŹ Ă&#x;ĂŹĂ ĂŤĂĽ.

The Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) brood size varies usually from one to four (Potapov, Sale, 2005). Clutches of 5 eggs and broods of 5 chicks are extremely rare. In all available for us literature we found only two such reports: O.K. Nielsen found two clutches of 5 eggs in Iceland (Cade et al., 1998); and P. Koskimies observed a breeding pair with five full-grown fledglings in northenmost Sweden in 2004, where Willow Grouse (Lagopus lagopus) population was very high (Koskimies, 2005). 12.07.2007 we also observed a Gyrfalcon brood of five full-grown fledglings in the south of the Yamal peninsula (Schuchya river basin). All fledglings were near their nest, they flew not very well. In three another broods were one, two and three fledglings. Willow Grouse population was mean. References Cade, T.J., Koskimies, P. & Nielsen, O.K. Falco rusticolus Gyrfalcon. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Birds of Western Palearctic Update, 1998. 2(1). P. 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;25. Koskimies, P. Locality report from Finnish Lapland, Finland. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Arctic Birds. Newsletter of the International Breeding Conditions Survey (compiled by M. Soloviev and P. Tomkovich). 2005. No.7. P. 4. Potapov E.R., Sale R. The Gyrfalcon. Yale University Press. 2005. 288 p.


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NewRecordsoftheSakerFalconintheRepublicofMordovia, Russia НОВЫЕДАННЫЕОБАЛОБАНЕНАТЕРРИТОРИИРЕСПУБЛИКИ МОРДОВИЯ,РОССИЯ KorolkovM.A.(SimbirskBranchofRBCU,Ulyanovsk,Russia) MatsinaA.I.(LaboratoryofOrnithologyunderEcocenter«Dront»,N.Novgorod) КорольовМ.А.(СимбирсоеотделениесоюзаохраныптицРоссии,.Ульяновс, Россия) МацынаА.И.(Орнитолоичесаялабораторияэоцентра«Дронт»,.Н.Новород, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Ìàêñèì Êîðîëüêîâ birdmax@mail.ru Àëåêñàíäð Ìàöûíà mai@sandy.ru Contact: Maxim Korolkov birdmax@mail.ru Alexander Matsina mai@sandy.ru

Íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Ìîðäîâèÿ áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – ðåäêèé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ óÿçâèìûé âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ. Íà ãíåçäîâàíèè îòìå÷àëñÿ áîëåå 25 ëåò íàçàä. Ïî ñîîáùåíèþ Ë.Ï. Áîðîäèíà (1967) â èþíå 1962 ã. îðíèòîëîãîì Ìîðäîâñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà È.Ä. Ùåðáàêîâûì íåäàëåêî îò ãíåçäà, ðàñïîëîæåííîãî íà ñîñíå, ïîéìàí ñë¸òîê áàëîáàíà. Ïîñëåäíèå íàáëþäåíèÿ äàííîãî âèäà â Ìîðäîâèè îòíîñÿòñÿ ê 1996 ãîäó: îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà íàáëþäàëàñü 11 àâãóñòà â ïîéìå ð. Âàä áëèç ñ. Æóðàâêèíî â Çóáîâî-Ïîëÿíñêîì ðàéîíå (Ëàïøèí, Ëûñåíêîâ, 2001). Âî âðåìÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ ýêñïåäèöèîííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè è Ðåñïóáëèêè Ìîðäîâèè â ìàå 2007 ã. íàìè îòìå÷åíà ïàðà áàëîáàíîâ. Ïòèöû íàáëþäàëèñü 11 ìàÿ â ïîéìå ð. Ìîêøà íåäàëåêî îò ä. Ñòàðûé Òåøòåëèì (Åëüíèêîâñêèé ðàéîí) (ðèñ. 1). Îäíà èç íèõ èìåëà âûðàæåííóþ ðûæåâàòóþ îêðàñêó, ó äðóãîé â öâåòå îïåðåíèÿ ïðåîáëàäàëè ñåðûå òîíà. Ñóäÿ ïî ïîâåäåíèþ áàëîáàíîâ (ïòèöû ïåðèîäè÷åñêè îáëåòàëè ïîéìåííûå ó÷àñòêè è ïîäâåðãàëèñü àòàêàì ñî ñòîðîíû áåëîêðûëûõ êðà÷åê (Chliodonias leucopterus) è ÷èáèñîâ (Vanellus vanellus)), ñîêîëû, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ðàçìíîæàëèñü ãäå-òî íåïîäàë¸êó. Îñìîòð áëèæàéøèõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ íå ïðèí¸ñ ïîëîæèòåëüíîãî ðåçóëüòàòà. Çà ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå ýòî ïåðâîå íàáëþäåíèå ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä íà òåððèòîðèè Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ.

A pair of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) was observed in the Moksha river valley near Stariy Teshtelim of the Elnikovskiy region, the Republic of Mordovia, on 11 May 2007 (fig. 1). This is the first registration of the pair of sakers during breeding period on the territory of the Middle Volga Region for last ten years.

Ðèñ. 1. Ìåñòî âñòðå÷è ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug) Fig. 1. Place of observation of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug)

Ëèòåðàòóðà Áîðîäèí Ë.Ï. Äîïîëíåíèÿ ê ôàóíå Ìîðäîâñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà ïî ìàòåðèàëàì È.Ä. Ùåðáàêîâà. - Òðóäû Ìîðäîâñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Ñàðàíñê. 1967. Âûï. 4. Ëàïøèí À.Ñ., Ëûñåíêîâ Å.Â. 2001. Ðåäêèå ïòèöû Ìîðäîâèè / Ïîä. ðåä. äîöåíòà À.Å. Ëóãîâîãî; Ìîðäîâ. ãîñ. ïåä. èí-ò. Ñàðàíñê. 176 ñ.


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ReportontheOccurrenceofLong-earedOwlfromZabol,Iranâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s BorderwithAfghanistan-Pakistan Đ Đ?ĐĄĐ&#x;Đ Đ&#x17E;ХТРĐ?Đ?Đ&#x2022;Đ?Đ&#x2DC;Đ&#x2022; УШĐ?ХТĐ&#x17E;Đ&#x2122; ĐĄĐ&#x17E;Đ&#x2019;ĐŤ Đ&#x2019; Đ&#x2014;Đ?Đ&#x2018;Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x203A;Đ&#x2022;, ĐŁ Đ&#x2DC;Đ Đ?Đ?ĐĄĐ&#x161;Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x2122; Đ&#x201C;Đ Đ?Đ?Đ&#x2DC;ĐŚĐŤ ĐĄ Đ?ФĐ&#x201C;Đ?Đ?Đ&#x2DC;ХТĐ?Đ?Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x153; Đ&#x2DC; Đ&#x;Đ?Đ&#x161;Đ&#x2DC;ХТĐ?Đ?Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x153; GholamrezaNoori(FacultyofGeography,UniversityofSeistan&Baluchestan) TayebehArbabi,MasoudKhamari(DepartmentofEnvironment,UniversityofZabol,Zabol) Đ&#x201C;Ń&#x2026;ОНаПŃ&#x20AC;оСаĐ? Ń&#x20AC;и(Фа ĐťŃ&#x152;Ń&#x201A;ĐľŃ&#x201A;оОŃ&#x20AC;Đ°Ń&#x201E;ии,УнивоŃ&#x20AC;Ń Đ¸Ń&#x201A;ĐľŃ&#x201A;ĐĄĐľĐšŃ Ń&#x201A;онаиĐ&#x2018;оН Đ´ĐśĐ¸Ń Ń&#x201A;ана,Đ&#x2DC;Ń&#x20AC;Đ°Đ˝) ТаКойоŃ&#x2026;Đ?Ń&#x20AC;йайи,Đ&#x153;Đ°Ń Đž Đ´Đ&#x161;СаПаŃ&#x20AC;и(Đ&#x201D;опаŃ&#x20AC;Ń&#x201A;аПонŃ&#x201A;ĐžŃ&#x20AC; МаŃ&#x17D;Ń&#x2030;оКŃ Ń&#x20AC;одŃ&#x2039;,УнивоŃ&#x20AC;Ń Đ¸Ń&#x201A;ĐľŃ&#x201A; Đ&#x2014;айОНа,Đ&#x2014;айОН,Đ&#x2DC;Ń&#x20AC;Đ°Đ˝) Contact: Tayebeh Arbabi Department of Environment University of Zabol t_arbabi@yahoo.com

Ă?èù. 1. Ă&#x201C;øà ùòàÿ ùÎâà (Asio otus) â ÍüùíÎÏ ĂŻĂ Ă°ĂŞĂĽ Ă?ĂŹĂ ĂŹ Ă&#x20AC;Íè, Ă&#x2021;Ă ĂĄĂŽĂŤ, Ă&#x2018;üÊùòüí è à üÍóäÌèùòàí. 28 äüêàåðÿ 2006. Ă&#x201D;ÎòÎ T. Aðåàåè Fig. 1. A Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) photographed at Emam Ali (Jazinak) Forest Park, Zabol, Seistan & Baluchestan. 28 December 2006. Photo by T. Arbabi

Ă&#x201A; Ă&#x2C6;Ă°Ă Ă­ĂĽ ùòàòóù óøàùòÎÊ ùÎâÝ (Asio otus) Ă­ĂĽ Îïðüäü͸í; âÎçÏÎÌíÎ, áèùÍÎ ÎåÝáíÎ çèÏóÞÚèþ â Ă&#x2C6;Ă°Ă Ă­ĂĽ ïòèÜ âüÍèêÎ, Ă­ĂŽ Îíè, ĂŞĂ ĂŞ ïðàâèÍÎ, Ă­ĂĽ âÝÿâÍÿÞòùÿ. Ă&#x2018;ÎãÍàùíÎ Ă&#x2021;àðóäíè (Zarudnyi, 1911), âèä ðàçÏíÎÌàüòùÿ Ă­Ă  Þãü Ă&#x160;àùïèÊùêÎãÎ ðüãèÎíà (Mansoori 2001), Ă­ĂŽ Ă?ðàðä è Ă?ùþüêÎïàð (Erard & Etchecopar, 1970) ÎòÏüòèÍè, áòÎ âùü ýêçüÏïÍÿðÝ ÎòÏüáàÍèùß â ùüçÎí ÏèãðàÜèÊ èÍè çèÏÎÊ, è, ùÍüäÎâàòüÍßíÎ, ÎòíÎùÿòùÿ ĂŞ ÏèãðàíòàÏ. Ă&#x201A;ĂŽ âðüÏÿ íàåÍÞäüíèÊ ïòèÜ ùÎÍíüáíÝÏ óòðÎÏ 8 äüêàåðÿ 2004 ĂŽĂŞĂŽĂŤĂŽ 15â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20 ÎùÎåüÊ óøàùòÎÊ ùÎâÝ íàåÍÞäàÍèùß Ă­Ă  òÎïÎÍÿþ (Populus euphratica) è òàÏàðèùêàþ (Tamarix stricta) â ÍüùíÎÏ ĂŻĂ Ă°ĂŞĂĽ Ă?ĂŹĂŹĂ ĂŹ Ă&#x20AC;Íè (51 ĂŁĂ ), ĂŻĂŽ äÎðÎãü èç Ă&#x2021;àþàêà â Ă&#x;çèíàê, â 15 ĂŞĂŹ ÞãÎâÎùòÎáíüü Ă&#x2021;Ă ĂĄĂŽĂŤĂ , â ïðÎâèíÜèè Ă&#x2018;üÊùòàí è à üÍóäÌèùòàí, âåÍèçè ãðàíèÜÝ Ă&#x20AC;ôãàíèùòàíĂ?àêèùòàí. Ă&#x2022;Îòÿ ïÍÎòíÝü âüòâè äüðüâßüâ çàòðóäíÿÍè íàåÍÞäüíèü ïòèÜ, â ïÎ͸òü è ïðè ïüðüÏüÚüíèè ÏüÌäó äüðüâßÿÏè ĂŹĂť ùÏÎãÍè èäüíòèôèÜèðÎâàòß â íèþ óøàùòÝþ ùÎâ. Ă?ÎùÍü áüãÎ ĂŹĂť ïÎùüÚàÍè ýòÎò Ă°Ă ĂŠĂŽĂ­ äÎùòàòÎáíÎ áàùòÎ è â þÎÍÎäíÝÊ è âüòðüíÝÊ äüíß 26 ÿíâàðÿ 2006 ĂŁ. íàåÍÞäàÍè ĂŽĂŞĂŽĂŤĂŽ 15 ïòèÜ â òÎÏ ĂŚĂĽ ùàÏÎÏ Ïüùòü. Ă&#x201A;äÎåàâÎê, â þÎÍÎäíÝÊ äüíß 28 äüêàåðÿ 2006 ĂŁ. (ðèù. 1) ĂŹĂť íàåÍÞäàÍè ĂŽĂŞĂŽĂŤĂŽ 40 ïòèÜ, è èþ íàåÍÞäüíèü åÝÍÎ óùïüøíÎ ïÎâòÎðüíÎ 12 ôüâðàÍÿ

In Iran status of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) is uncertain; possibly a fairly common winter visitor to much of Iran, but greatly overlooked. According to Zarudnyi (1911), the species breeds in the south Caspian region (Mansoori 2001), but Erard & Etchecopar (1970) note that all specimens were taken during the migration seasons or in winter, and could therefore refer to migrants. During a bird survey at a sunny morning on 8 December 2004, about 15â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20 individuals of the Long-eared Owl were observed on Populus euphratica and Tamarix stricta trees at Emam Ali Forst Park (51 ha), on the way Zahak to Jazinak, c. 15 km southeast Zabol, Seistan & Baluchestan province, near Iranâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s border with Afghanistan/Pakistan. Although dense branches of the trees made the problem seeing the birds, we could identified them as Long-eared Owl when flying and moving between trees. After that we had many visits to this area, and on a cold and wind day of 26 January 2006 about 15 individuals of Long-eared Owl were observed at the same previous place. In addition, on cold day of 28 December 2006 (fig. 1) about 40 birds were observed, and their observations were successfully repeated on 12 February and 18 March 2007, but no birds were observed in April 2007. In the 1970s, Derek A. Scott (in litt. to A. Khaleghizadeh) had seen one bird in a public garden in Zabol, Seistan, on 25 October 1975 and at least four in gardens in Zabol on 17 January 1976. Our present surveys (supported by observations of the local people in last years, but officially published nowhere) and D.A. Scottâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s observations in the 1970s show that this owl species winters from midautumn to late winter seasons at this area of southeast Iran. However after record of about 40 individuals on 28 December


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Ă?üðíà òÝü þèÚíèêè è èþ Îþðàíà 2007, 10 è 18 Ïàðòà 2007 ĂŁ., Ă­ĂŽ ïòèÜÝ ÎòùóòùòâÎâàÍè â Ă ĂŻĂ°ĂĽĂŤĂĽ. Ă&#x201A; 70-Ăľ ãÎäàþ Ă&#x201E;ĂĽĂ°ĂĽĂŞ Ă&#x20AC;. Ă&#x2018;êÎòò (Derek A. Scott) (in litt. to A. Khaleghizadeh) âùòðüáàÍ Îäíó ïòèÜó â ÎåÚüùòâüííÎÏ ùàäó â Ă&#x2021;Ă ĂĄĂŽĂŤĂĽ, Ă&#x2018;üÊùòàí, 25 Îêòÿåðÿ 1975 ĂŁ. è, ĂŻĂŽ ĂŞĂ°Ă ĂŠĂ­ĂĽĂŠ ĂŹĂĽĂ°ĂĽ, áüòÝð¸þ â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â ùàäàþ Ă&#x2021;Ă ĂĄĂŽĂŤĂ  17 ÿíâàðÿ 1976 ĂŁ. Ă?àøü íàùòÎÿÚüü èùùÍüäÎâàíèü (ïÎäòâüðÌä¸ííÎü â ïÎùÍüäíèü ãÎäÝ ÎôèÜèàÍßíÎ Ă­ĂĽ ÎïóåÍèêÎâàííÝÏè íàåÍÞäüíèÿÏè ÏüùòíÝþ ÌèòüÍüÊ) è íàåÍÞäüíèÿ Ă&#x201E;.Ă&#x20AC;. Ă&#x2018;êÎòòà â 70-Ăľ ãÎäàþ ïÎêàçÝâàÞò, áòÎ óøàùòàÿ ùÎâà çèÏóüò Ăą ùüðüäèíÝ Îùüíè äÎ ïÎçäíüÊ çèÏÝ â ýòÎÏ Ă°Ă ĂŠĂŽĂ­ĂĽ ÞãÎ-âÎùòÎáíÎãÎ Ă&#x2C6;Ă°Ă Ă­Ă . Ă&#x17D;äíàêÎ ùÎêðàÚüíèü áèùÍà äüðüâßüâ â ðüçóÍßòàòü íüäàâíüÊ çàùóþè ÏÎÌüò ïÎíèçèòß áèùÍüííÎùòß ýòÎÊ ùÎâÝ â ïÎùÍüäóÞÚèü ãÎäÝ ĂŻĂŽ ùðàâíüíèÞ Ăą ðüãèùòðàÜèüÊ 40 ÎùÎåüÊ 28 äüêàåðÿ 2006 ĂŁ.

Ă&#x160;ðà òêèü ùÎÎåÚüíèÿ 2006, recent decrease in number of Popolus euphratica trees, in result of drought, may decrease number of these owls in the future years. References Erard C., Etchecopar R.E. Contribution a lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;etude des oiseux dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Iran. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Memoires du Museum National dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Histoire Naturelle. Serie. A: Zoologie. 1970. 64: 146. Paris. Mansoori J. A field guide to the birds of Iran. Zehn-Aviz Publishing, Tehran. 2001. [In Persian] Zarudnyi N.A. Verzeichnis der Vogel Persiens. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Journal fur Ornithologie. 1911. 59: 185â&#x20AC;&#x201C;241.

NewRecordsoftheLong-earedOwlBreedinginKazakhstan Đ?Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x2019;ĐŤĐ&#x2022; Đ&#x201D;Đ?Đ?Đ?ĐŤĐ&#x2022; Đ&#x17E; Đ&#x201C;Đ?Đ&#x2022;Đ&#x2014;Đ&#x201D;Đ&#x17E;Đ&#x2019;Đ?Đ?Đ&#x2DC;Đ&#x2DC; УШĐ?ХТĐ&#x17E;Đ&#x2122; ĐĄĐ&#x17E;Đ&#x2019;ĐŤ Đ&#x2019; Đ&#x161;Đ?Đ&#x2014;Đ?мХТĐ?Đ?Đ&#x2022; KaryakinI.V.(CenterforFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) KorepovM.V.(SimbirskBiodiversityResearchSociety,Ulyanovsk,Russia) LevinA.S.(InstituteofZoology,MinistryofEducationandSciences,Almaty, Kazakhstan) Đ&#x161;Đ°Ń&#x20AC;Ń?инĐ&#x2DC;.Đ&#x2019;.(ЌонŃ&#x201A;Ń&#x20AC;пОНовŃ&#x2039;Ń&#x2026;Đ¸Ń Ń ĐťĐľĐ´ĐžĐ˛Đ°Đ˝Đ¸Đš,Đ?.Đ?ОвĐžŃ&#x20AC;Од,Đ ĐžŃ Ń Đ¸Ń?) Đ&#x161;ĐžŃ&#x20AC;опОвĐ&#x153;.Đ&#x2019;.(ХиПйиŃ&#x20AC;Ń ОоОйŃ&#x2030;ĐľŃ Ń&#x201A;вОиС Ń&#x2021;ониŃ?йиОŃ&#x20AC;аСнООйŃ&#x20AC;аСиŃ?,ĐŁĐťŃ&#x152;Ń?Đ˝ĐžĐ˛Ń , Đ ĐžŃ Ń Đ¸Ń?) Đ&#x203A;овинĐ?.ĐĄ.(Đ&#x2DC;Đ˝Ń Ń&#x201A;иŃ&#x201A; Ń&#x201A;СООНОии,Đ&#x153;Đ¸Đ˝Đ¸Ń Ń&#x201A;ĐľŃ&#x20AC;Ń Ń&#x201A;вООйŃ&#x20AC;аСОваниŃ?ина и,Đ?НПаŃ&#x201A;Ń&#x2039;, Đ&#x161;аСаŃ&#x2026;Ń Ń&#x201A;Đ°Đ˝) Ă&#x160;Îíòàêò: Ă&#x2C6;ĂŁĂŽĂ°Ăź Ă&#x160;àðÿêèí Ă&#x2013;üíòð ïÎÍüâÝþ èùùÍüäÎâàíèÊ 603000 Ă?Îùùèÿ Ă?èÌíèÊ Ă?ÎâãÎðÎä óÍ. Ă&#x160;ĂŽĂ°ĂŽĂŤĂĽĂ­ĂŞĂŽ, 17aâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;17 òüÍ.: +7 (831) 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Ă&#x152;èþàèÍ Ă&#x160;ÎðüïÎâ korepov@list.ru Ă&#x20AC;íàòÎÍèÊ Ă&#x2039;üâèí levin_saker@nursat.kz Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17aâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (831) 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Mikhail Korepov korepov@list.ru Anatoliy Levin levin_saker@nursat.kz

Ă&#x201A; ïÎùÍüäíüÊ ùâÎäêü ĂŻĂŽ ïòèÜà Ï Ă&#x2018;ðüäíüÊ Ă&#x20AC;çèè èíôÎðÏàÜèÿ ĂŽ ãíüçäÎâàíèè óøàùòÎÊ ùÎâÝ (Asio otus) â Ă&#x160;àùïèÊùêÎ-Ă&#x20AC;ðàÍßùêÎÏ ðüãèÎíü è â çàïàäíÎÏ è ùüâüðíÎÏ Ă?ðèåàÍþàøßü Îòùóòùòâóüò (Ă&#x152;èòðÎïÎÍßùêèÊ, Ă?óùòàÏÎâ, 2007), ïÎýòÎÏó ùÎåðàííÝÊ íàÏè â 2003â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2007 ĂŁĂŁ. ÏàòüðèàÍ èíòüðüùüí äÍÿ ïÎíèÏàíèÿ ÎåÚüÊ êàðòèíÝ ðàùïðÎùòðàíüíèÿ äàííÎãÎ âèäà â Ă&#x20AC;çèè. Ă&#x201A; 2003 ĂŁ. óøàùòàÿ ùÎâà åÝÍà âïüðâÝü âùòðüáüíà Ă­Ă  áèíêàþ ïÍàòÎ Ă&#x201C;ùòÞðò: 25 Ă ĂŻĂ°ĂĽĂŤĂż Ă­Ă  çàïàäíÎÏ áèíêü ïÍàòÎ â 17 ĂŞĂŹ ùüâüðÎ-çàïàäíüü Ăą. Ă&#x2018;Ă ĂŠ-Ă&#x201C;òüù âùïóãíóòà ÎäèíÎáíàÿ ïòèÜà, ùêðÝâàâøàÿùÿ â ðàùÚüÍèíü Ă?òüíüÜ óøàùòÎÊ ùÎâÝ (Asio otus) â ãíüçäü. 18.05.2004. Ă?ÍàòÎ Ă&#x201C;ùòÞðò, Ă&#x160;àçàþùòàí. Ă&#x201D;ÎòÎ Ă&#x2C6;. Ă&#x160;àðÿêèíà Chick of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) in nest. 18/05/2004. Usturt Plateau, Kazakhstan. Photos by I. Karyakin

There is no information about the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) breeding in the Caspian-Aral region and the western and northern Balhash Lake region in the latest check-list of birds of the Middle Asia (Mitropolskiy, Rustamov, 2007), therefore the data that we collected in 2003â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2007 may be interesting for understanding the distribution of the species in Asia.


Short Reports

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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Ãíåçäî óøàñòîé ñîâû íà ñòåíå îáðûâà. 07.04.2004. Âïàäèíà Êàðàãèå, Êàçàõñòàí. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Long-eared Owl on cliff-face. 07/04/2004. Karagie depression, Kazakhstan. Photos by I. Karyakin

ñòåíû óùåëüÿ; 28 àïðåëÿ íà ñåâåðíîì ÷èíêå â óðî÷èùå Ìûíñóàëìàñ îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî óøàñòîé ñîâû â ïîñòðîéêå ñîðîêè (Pica pica) íà ëîõå (Elaegnus angustifolium), â êîòîðîì ïòèöà íàñèæèâàëà êëàäêó; 30 àïðåëÿ íà ÷èíêå Äîíûç-Òàó â óðî÷èùå Êóðóñàé îáíàðóæåíî êàê ìèíèìóì äâà ó÷àñòêà ñîâ, íà îäíîì èç êîòîðûõ èç-ïîä ñòàðîé ïîñòðîéêè ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca), ðàñïîëàãàâøåéñÿ íà âåðøèíå ëîõà â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè ÷èíêà, âñïóãíóòà âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà, à íà äðóãîì îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî ñ 4 ïóõîâèêàìè â âîçðàñòå 2–3-õ äíåé â ïîñòðîéêå ñîðîêè íà ëîõå.  2004 ã. áûëî ïîäòâåðæäåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå óøàñòîé ñîâû íà ñåâåðíîì ÷èíêå ïëàòî Óñòþðò, è îáíàðóæåíû íîâûå òî÷êè îáèòàíèÿ âèäà (Ëåâèí, Êàðÿêèí, 2005). Âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà âñòðå÷åíà 27 àïðåëÿ â äðåâåñíî-êóñòàðíèêîâûõ çàðîñëÿõ óð. Êûçûëæîë íà ïðèìîðñêîì ÷èíêå ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè ï-îâà Ìàíãûøëàê, åù¸ îäíó ïòèöó íàáëþäàëè íî÷üþ â äîëèíå ñîë¸íîé ðå÷êè ñåâåðíåå ï. Òàó÷èê 3 ìàÿ. Ãíåçäî óøàñòîé ñîâû, ðàñïîëàãàâøååñÿ â òîé æå ïîñòðîéêå ñîðîêè, ÷òî è â 2003 ã., îáíàðóæåíî â óðî÷èùå Ìûíñóàëìàñ: â ãíåçäå 18 ìàÿ íàõîäèëèñü äâà îïåðÿþùèõñÿ ïòåíöà, ãîòîâûõ ïîêèíóòü ãíåçäî, è äâà íåîïëîäîòâîðåííûõ ÿéöà (ðàçìåðû ÿèö: 39,5õ33,2; 40,0õ32,8 ìì). Äâà ãíåçäà óøàñòûõ ñîâ, áëèç îäíîãî èç êîòîðûõ äåðæàëèñü 4 ñë¸òêà, îáíàðóæåíû 22 ìàÿ 2004 ã. â ïîñòðîéêàõ ñîðîê íà èâàõ (Salix sp.), ïðîèçðàñòàþùèõ â ïîäíîæèè ÷èíêîâ âîçâûøåííîñòåé Êîëåíêåëè è Æåëüòàó. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, çà äâà ïîëåâûõ ñåçîíà óøàñòàÿ ñîâà áûëà îáíàðóæåíà íà ÷èíêàõ ïëàòî ïî âñåìó âîñòî÷íîìó ïîáåðåæüþ Êàñïèÿ – âåçäå, ãäå èìååòñÿ äðåâåñíî-êóñòàðíèêîâàÿ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòü. Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî èìåííî íàëè÷èå äåðåâüåâ è êóñòàðíèêîâ îïðåäåëÿåò ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå óøàñòîé ñîâû íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Àçèè (Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé, Ðóñòàìîâ, 2007), â Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå âèä ãíåçäèòñÿ è íà òåððèòîðèÿõ, ëèø¸ííûõ äðåâåñíî-êóñòàðíèêîâîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè, â ñòåíàõ îáðûâîâ. Âî âïàäèíå Êàðàãèå â íî÷ü 6/7 àïðåëÿ 2004 ã. ïðèøëîñü ñëûøàòü òîê 3-õ ñàìöîâ óøàñòîé ñîâû â 300–400-õ ì

The first record of the Long-eared Owl was in cliff-faces of the Usturt Plateau in 2003. We confirmed the fact of the Long-eared Owl breeding in northern cliff-faces of the Usturt Plateau and found new inhabitant places of the species (Levin, Karyakin, 2005). The main part of pairs occupied nests of magpies (Pica pica) on Elaegnus sp. and Salix sp. Also the Long-eared Owl’s nesting was registered in niches of cliff-faces of the Karagie Depression and along the Aral Sea. The breeding density of the species is 0.72/100 km of cliff-faces. We project 50– 60 pairs of owls to breed in the Kazakhstan part of the Aral-Caspian region with the total length of cliff-faces of 8085 km. We revealed two main reasons limited the number of the species: the lack of nesting sites (bushes) and the high number of raptors that prey on owls. At the Balkhash Lake region the Longeared Owl was recognized as a breeding species only for the southern part (Mitropolskiy, Rustamov, 2007). We found remains of owls three times at the northern cliff-faces of Betpak-Dala in 2005 and 2007 and observed adults in the Sara-Su river floodland, however no facts of breeding have registered up to the recent time. We found the first nest of the Long-eared Owl at the Kazakh Upland on 30 April 2007. It was located in a nest of magpie on the aspen (Populus tremula). Also two nests and adults at 3 breeding territories were recorded in the region on 1–13 May. We found the Long-eared Owl is typical but sufficient rare breeding species of aspen forests at granite mountains of the far south of the Kazakh Upland. The breeding density of the species is 0.94 pair per 1 km2 of breeding territories and 1.16 pairs/100 km2 of the total territory. A total of 100–130 pairs are estimated to breed on the territory of the left side of the Sara-Su river upper reaches (Kazakh Upland) that is 9899.77 km2.


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Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà â ãíåçäå. 30.04.2007. Âåðõîâüÿ ð. Àòàñó, Êàçàõñòàí. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Long-eared Owl in the nest. 30/04/2007. The upper reaches of the Atasu river, Kazakhstan. Photos by I. Karyakin

äðóã îò äðóãà, à 7 àïðåëÿ óäàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü ãíåçäî óøàñòîé ñîâû â ðàñùåëèíå ñòåíû ÷èíêà. Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ñòàðîé ïîñòðîéêå âîðîíà (Corvus corvus) íà âûñîòå 20 ì â 1,5 ì îò âåðõà, è â í¸ì ñàìêà íàñèæèâàëà êëàäêó. Åù¸ îäíî æèëîå ãíåçäî, óñòðîåííîå àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì, áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 18 àïðåëÿ 2005 ã. íà îáðûâàõ çàë. Áóòàêîâà (Àðàëüñêîå ìîðå). Çà 4 ãîäà ðàáîòû â ðåãèîíå îñòàíêè óøàñòîé ñîâû áûëè îáíàðóæåíû â ãíåçäå áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos), 2-õ ãíåçäàõ ìîãèëüíèêà, 2-õ ãíåçäàõ êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus), 4-õ ãíåçäàõ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug), 12-òè ãíåçäàõ ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) è ïîä 4 ïðèñàäàìè õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ò.å. îñòàíêè óøàñòîé ñîâû ìû íàõîäèëè áîëåå ÷åì â 2 ðàçà ÷àùå, ÷åì âñòðå÷àëè ñàìèõ ñîâ. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáñëåäîâàííûõ ÷èíêîâ ñîñòàâèëà 1797 êì. Ïëîòíîñòü óøàñòîé ñîâû ïî ãí¸çäàì è âñòðå÷àì, êîòîðûå ìîæíî èäåíòèôèöèðîâàòü êàê ãíåçäîâûå, îïðåäåëåíà â 0,72 ïàðû/100 êì îáðûâîâ. Ïðè ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè îáðûâîâ â êàçàõñòàíñêîé ÷àñòè Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà â 8065 êì ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü çäåñü ãíåçäîâàíèå íå ìåíåå 50–60 ïàð óøàñòûõ ñîâ. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè, åñòåñòâåííî, çàíèæåíà, òàê êàê ñïåöèàëüíûõ ó÷¸òîâ óøàñòîé ñîâû íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè íå ïðîâîäèëîñü, êàê è ñïåöèàëüíîãî ïîèñêà å¸ ãí¸çä. Îäíàêî ýòó îöåíêó ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü íåêîé îòïðàâíîé òî÷êîé â äàëüíåéøåì èññëåäîâàíèè âèäà íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî â ãîäû îáèëèÿ ìåëêèõ ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ ÷èñëåííîñòü óøàñòîé ñîâû íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ðåãèîíå ìîæåò óâåëè÷èâàòüñÿ íà ïîðÿäîê, íî, òåì íå ìåíåå, îíà áóäåò îñòàâàòüñÿ ðåäêîé. Åñòü äâå îñíîâíûå ïðè÷èíû, îáóñëàâëèâàþùèå ðåäêîñòü âèäà: ëèìèò îïòèìàëüíûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, êîèìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ äðåâåñíî-êóñòàðíèêîâûå íàñàæäåíèÿ, è âûñîêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü áîëåå êðóïíûõ õèùíèêîâ, äîáûâàþùèõ óøàñòóþ ñîâó.

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ Äëÿ Ïðèáàëõàøüÿ óøàñòàÿ ñîâà óêàçûâàåòñÿ â êà÷åñòâå ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ âèäà ëèøü äëÿ þæíîé ÷àñòè, ãäå îíà ðàçìíîæàåòñÿ â ïîéìàõ ðåê (Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé, Ðóñòàìîâ, 2007). Ìû òðèæäû íàõîäèëè îñòàíêè óøàñòîé ñîâû íà ñåâåðíîì ÷èíêå Áåòïàê-Äàëû â 2005 è 2007 ãã., à âèçóàëüíî âçðîñëûõ ïòèö íàáëþäàëè â ïîéìå Ñàðû-Ñó, îäíàêî ãíåçäîâàíèå å¸ çäåñü äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè íå óñòàíîâëåíî, õîòÿ è âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî.  íîðìå óøàñòàÿ ñîâà ãíåçäèòñÿ â êîëêîâûõ ëåñàõ Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà, îäíàêî äëÿ êðàéíåãî þãà ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà (ëåâîáåðåæíàÿ ÷àñòü áàññåéíà Ñàðû-Ñó â å¸ âåðõîâüÿõ) èíôîðìàöèÿ î å¸ ãíåçäîâàíèè äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè îòñóòñòâîâàëà. Ïåðâîå ãíåçäî óøàñòîé ñîâû â äàííîì ðåãèîíå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî íàìè 30 àïðåëÿ 2007 ã. â îñèíîâîì êîëêå â óùåëüå ãðàíèòíîãî ìàññèâà â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Àòàñó áëèç ã. Àêòàó. Îíî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ïîñòðîéêå ñîðîêè íà îñèíå (Populus tremula) íà âûñîòå 3-õ ì. Ñàìêà ïëîòíî ñèäåëà íà êëàäêå. Åù¸ äâà æèëûõ ãíåçäà â ýòîì æå ðàéîíå, ðàñïîëàãàâøèåñÿ íà îñèíàõ â ïîñòðîéêàõ ñîðîêè è âîðîíû (Corvus cornix), îáíàðóæåíû 1 è 5 ìàÿ 2007 ã. ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, à 7 ìàÿ óäàëîñü íàáëþäàòü âçðîñëóþ ïòèöó íà åù¸ îäíîì ó÷àñòêå. Âçðîñëûå ïòèöû íàáëþäàëèñü òàêæå â êîëêàõ ãðàíèòíûõ ìàññèâîâ Ñåâ. Êûçûëòàó è Îðòàó 11 è 13 ìàÿ 2007 ã., íî ãí¸çä çäåñü íàéäåíî íå áûëî. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, óøàñòàÿ ñîâà îêàçàëàñü õàðàêòåðíûì, íî äîñòàòî÷íî ðåäêèì ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ âèäîì îñèíîâûõ êîëêîâ ãðàíèòíûõ ìàññèâîâ êðàéíåãî þãà Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà.  2007 ã. íàìè áûëà îáñëåäîâàíà òåððèòîðèÿ ïëîùàäüþ 516,89 êì2, íà êîòîðîé ëåñà çàíèìàþò 24,46 êì2, èç êîòîðûõ ëèøü 6,37 êì2 íå ïðîéäåíû ïîæàðàìè è ïðèãîäíû äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ óøàñòîé ñîâû. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîâû ïî ó÷¸òó âñåõ ðåãèñòðàöèé ñîñòàâèëà 0,94 ïàðû/ êì2 ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîé ïëîùàäè è 1,16 ïàð/100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè. ×èñëåííîñòü óøàñòîé ñîâû äëÿ òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà â ëåâîáåðåæíîé ÷àñòè áàññåéíà Ñàðû-Ñó â å¸ âåðõîâüÿõ (9899,77 êì2) îöåíåíà â 100–130 ïàð. Ëèòåðàòóðà Ëåâèí À.Ñ., Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ðåçóëüòàòû ýêñïåäèöèè íà Ìàíãûøëàê è Óñòþðò â 2004 ã. – Êàçàõñòàíñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé áþëëåòåíü 2004. Àëìàòû: «Tethys», 2005. Ñ. 14–19. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé Î.Â., Ðóñòàìîâ À.Ê. Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Asio otus Linnaeus, 1758. – Ïòèöû Ñðåäíåé Àçèè (â 5 òîìàõ). Ò.1. Àëìàòû, 2007. C. 431– 438.


Short Reports

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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TheFactofNestingoftheLong-earedOwlontheGround ОГНЕЗДОВАНИИУШАСТОЙСОВЫНАЗЕМЛЕ KaryakinI.V.(CenterforFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) KovalenkoA.V.(InstituteofEcologicalResearches,Almaty,Kazakhstan) NovikovaL.M.(StateNatureReserve«Kerzhensky»,N.Novgorod,Russia) КаряинИ.В.(Центрполевыхисследований,Россия,Н.Новород) КоваленоА.В.(Инститтэолоичесихисследований,Казахстан,Алматы) НовиоваЛ.М.(Керженсийзаповедни,Россия,Н.Новород) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 (831) 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Àíäðåé Êîâàëåíêî akoval@nursat.kz Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà lyudovik14@yandex.ru

 íîðìå óøàñòàÿ ñîâà (Asio otus) ãíåçäèòñÿ â ïîñòðîéêàõ âðàíîâûõ íà äåðåâüÿõ, îäíàêî èìåþòñÿ óêàçàíèÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèå âèäà íà çåìëå.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ïîäîáíàÿ èí-

A nest of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) contained the clutch with 2 eggs was found on the ground in the Mugodzhary Mountains (Kazakhstan) on 20 May 2006.

ôîðìàöèÿ áåç êàêîé-ëèáî êîíêðåòèçàöèè èìååòñÿ ó Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâà (1951). Ïî ñîîáùåíèþ Ñ.Í. Åðîõîâà, â ïîéìå ð. Êóðòû (Êàçàõñòàí), íåäàëåêî îò êîëîíèè ãðà÷åé, 26 àïðåëÿ 1989 ã. íàéäåíî ãíåçäî ñ 6 ñâåæèìè ÿéöàìè, ðàñïîëàãàâøååñÿ íà ñêëîíå áóãðà ïîä êóñòîì ñóõîãî ïåðåêàòè-ïîëÿ (Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé, Ðóñòàìîâ, 2007). Íàìè ãíåçäî óøàñòîé ñîâû ñ íåïîëíîé êëàäêîé èç 2-õ ÿèö, ðàñïîëàãàâøååñÿ íà çåìëå, îáíàðóæåíî â öåíòðå íåáîëüøîãî ÷àñòè÷íî çàáîëî÷åííîãî îñèíîâî-áåðåçîâîãî êîëêà â Ìóãîäàæðàõ (Êàçàõñòàí) 20 ìàÿ 2006 ã. Ãíåçäî áûëî óñòðîåíî ïîä óïàâøèì ñòâîëîì íåáîëüøîé îñèíû. Íàñèæèâàþùàÿ ïòèöà âûäåðæàëà äèñòàíöèþ äî ïîëóìåòðà è, áóäó÷è âñïóãíóòîé, ñêðûëàñü â ñîñåäíåì êîëêå.  ðàäèóñå 50 ì îò ãíåç-

Ãíåçäî óøàñòîé ñîâû (Asio otus) íà çåìëå. 20.05.2006. Ìóãîäæàðû, Êàçàõñòàí. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà

Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (831) 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Andrey Kovalenko akoval@nursat.kz Ludmila Novikova lyudovik14@yandex.ru

The nest of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) on the ground. 20/05/2006. Mugodzhary Mountains, Kazakhstan. Photos by I. Karyakin

äà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü 3 ðàçðóøåííûå ïîñòðîéêè ñîðîê (Pica pica), â îäíîé èç êîòîðûõ ðàçìíîæåíèå óøàñòîé ñîâû ïðîèñõîäèëî ãîäîì ðàíüøå. Ëèòåðàòóðà Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï. Îòðÿä õèùíûå ïòèöû. – Ïòèöû Ñîâåòñêîãî Ñîþçà. Ì.: Ñîâåòñêàÿ íàóêà, 1951. Ò.1. Ñ. 70–341. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé Î.Â., Ðóñòàìîâ À.Ê. Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Asio otus Linnaeus, 1758. – Ïòèöû Ñðåäíåé Àçèè (â 5 òîìàõ). Ò.1. Àëìàòû, 2007. C. 431–438.


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Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ

TheFirstRecordoftheScopsOwl’sNestinN.NovgorodDistrict, Russia ПЕРВАЯНАХОДКАГНЕЗДАСПЛЮШКИВНИЖЕГОРОДСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ,РОССИЯ LevashkinA.P.(N.NovgorodStateUniversity,N.Novgorod,Russia) ЛевашинА.П.(Нижеородсийосдарственныйниверситет,НижнийНовород, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ëåâàøêèí ÍÍÃÓ Ðîññèÿ, Í.Íîâãîðîä óë. Áîí÷-Áðóåâè÷à, 1-56 òåë.: (831) 464 30 96 aple_avesbp@mail.ru Contact: Alexey Levashkin N.Novgorod State University Bonch-Bruevich str., 1-56 N.Novgorod, Russia tel.: (831) 464 30 96 aple_avesbp@mail.ru

Ñïëþøêà (Otus scops) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ ïåðåë¸òíûì âèäîì, îäíàêî î íàõîäêàõ æèëûõ ãí¸çä â ëèòåðàòóðå íå ñîîáùàåòñÿ (Áàêêà è äð., 2006).  Âîëîäàðñêîì ðàéîíå 1 èþëÿ 2007 ã. áûë âñòðå÷åí òîêóþùèé ñàìåö ñïëþøêè. Íà ñëåäóþùèé äåíü, 2 èþëÿ â õîäå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ âûÿâëåííîãî ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî ñïëþøêè. Îíî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â äóïëå, âûäîëáëåííîì äÿòëîì, â îáëîìàííîì íàêëîíåííîì ñòâîëå ñóõîé 11-òè ìåòðîâîé ñîñíû íà âûñîòå 7 ì. Ãíåçäîâîå äåðåâî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü ñðåäè ñîñíîâîãî ëåñà íà áåðåãó îçåðà Åëîâîå (N 56,3535 E 42,76994). Ïðè ïðèáëèæåíèè ê ãíåçäó ñàìêà âûëåòåëà è ñòàëà íàáëþäàòü çà íèì, ñèäÿ ðÿäîì. Íî÷üþ âçðîñëûå ïòèöû ïðèñàæèâàëèñü íà êðàé ëåòêà, âåðîÿòíî, êîðìÿ ïòåíöîâ. Äàííàÿ íàõîäêà ïîäòâåðæäàåò ñòàòóñ ñïëþøêè êàê ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ ïòèöû Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè.

The first nest (N 56.3535 E 42.76994) of the Scops Owl (Otus scops) for the N.Novgorod district was found in the Volodarsk region on 2 June 2007. It was placed in the hollow of the broken inclined trunk of a dry 11 m pine tree on height 7 m. The tree with the nest was located in the pine forest on a bank of the Elovoe Lake.

Ëèòåðàòóðà Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Êèñåëåâà Í.Þ., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì. Íîâûå äàííûå î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè è ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2006. ¹5. Ñ. 22–36.

Ñïëþøêà (Otus scops) â ãíåçäå. Ôîòî À. Ëåâàøêèíà Scops Owl (Otus scops) in the nest. Photo by A. Levashkin

TheFirstRecordoftheScopsOwl’sNestNearTumen,Russia ПЕРВАЯНАХОДКАГНЕЗДАСПЛЮШКИБЛИЗТЮМЕНИ,РОССИЯ MoshkinA.V.(CenterforFieldStudies,Kurgan,Russia) МошинА.В.(Центрполевыхисследований,Кран,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñàíäð Ìîøêèí Moshkin_Alex@mail.ru Contact: Alex Moshkin Moshkin_Alex@mail.ru

Ñïëþøêà (Otus scops) èçðåäêà íàáëþäàëàñü áëèç Òþìåíè, îäíàêî å¸ ãíåçäîâàíèå çäåñü äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè íå áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî. Îêîëî ä. Ïàäåðèíà íà êðàþ ñìåøàííîãî ëåñà (N 57,083 E 65,478) 26 èþëÿ 2007 ã. îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî ñïëþøêè, ðàñïîëàãàâøååñÿ â åñòåñòâåííîì äóïëå áåð¸çû íà âûñîòå 6 ì.  äóïëå íàõîäèëèñü 3 ïòåíöà â ìåçîïòèëå.

The first nest (N 57.083 E 65.478) of the Scops Owl (Otus scops) for the Tumen district was found in 26 July 2007. It was placed in the hollow of a birch tree on height 6 m. In hollow were observed 3 chicks.


New Publications and Videos

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

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NewPublicationsandVideos НОВЫЕПУБЛИКАЦИИИФИЛЬМЫ Books КНИГИ

(10) Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Ñêëÿðåíêî Àññîöèàöèÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ Êàçàõñòàíà (ÀÑÁÊ) 050043 Êàçàõñòàí Àëìàòû óë. Îðáèòà–1 îôôèñ 203, 40 òåë./ôàêñ: 007 3272 203877 ìîá.: 007 300 3508749 sergey.sklyarenko@acbk.kz (10) Contact: Sergey L. Sklyarenko Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity in Kazakhstan (ACBK) off. 203, 40, Orbita–1 Almaty 050043 Republic of Kazakhstan tel./fax: 007 3272 203877 mob.: 007 300 3508749 sergey.sklyarenko@acbk.kz Img_0509.jpg

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Ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèé õèùíûõ ïòèö â Âîñòî÷íîé Ôåííîñêàíäèè. Ìàòåðèàëû ñåìèíàðà, Êîñòîìóêøà, Ðîññèÿ, 8–10 íîÿáðÿ 2005. Ðåä. Ï. Êîñêèìèåñ, Í.Â. Ëàïøèí. Ïåòðîçàâîäñê, 2006. 184 ñ. Ñáîðíèê ìàòåðèàëîâ ñåìèíàðà ñîäåðæèò ñòàòüè íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ïî îðëàíó-áåëîõâîñòó (Haliaeetus albicilla), ñêîïå (Pandion haliaetus), êðå÷åòó (Falco rusticolus) è ñàïñàíó (Falco peregrinus). Ñîäåðæàíèå ñáîðíèêà ðàçìåùåíî íà ñàéòå Êàðåëüñêîãî íàó÷íîãî öåíòðà Ðîññèéñêîé Àêàäåìèè íàóê8. Çäåñü æå äîñòóïåí äëÿ ñêà÷èâàíèÿ âåñü ñáîðíèê â ôîðìàòå .pdf9.

Status of Raptor Populations in Eastern Fennoscandia. Proceedings of the Workshop, Kostomuksha, Karelia, Russia, November 8–10, 2005 / Editors: P. Koskimies, N.V. Lapshin. Petrozavodsk: KarRC RAS, 2006. 184 p. Proceedings of the Workshop consists of papers (in English) on the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) and Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Contents of proceeding are available on the web-site of the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences8. Also the book can be downloaded in .pdf format9.

Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïî êëþ÷åâûì îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèì òåððèòîðèÿì â Êàçàõñòàíå è Ñðåäíåé Àçèè. Ðåä. Ñ.Ë. Ñêëÿðåíêî. – Àëìàòû, 2006. 227 ñ. (ISBN 9965–25–293–9).  ñáîðíèêå ïðåäñòàâëåíû ìàòåðèàëû, ïîëó÷åííûå â õîäå âûïîëíåíèÿ ïðîãðàììû ïî êëþ÷åâûì îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèì òåððèòîðèÿì â Êàçàõñòàíå è Ñðåäíåé Àçèè. Áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü êíèãè çàíèìàþò äàííûå ê îïèñàíèþ 25 êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé â Êàçàõñòàíå, èçëîæåííûå ïî åäèíîìó ïëàíó.  ðàçäåëå «Ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèé íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ ïòèö» ñîáðàíû ìàòåðèàëû ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ ñòåðâÿòíèêà (Neophron percnopterus), ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis), ñòåïíîãî ëóíÿ (Circus macrourus) è ðÿäà äðóãèõ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ. Âêëþ÷åíû òàêæå ñòàòüè î âîçìîæíîñòÿõ çàêîíîäàòåëüíîé îõðàíû ÊÎÒð â Êàçàõñòàíå. Ñòîèìîñòü êíèãè – 50 ðóáëåé, èëè 250 òåíãå, ïëþñ ñòîèìîñòü ïåðåñûëêè. Êîíòàêò (10).

Research of Important Bird Areas in Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. / Editor: S.L. Sklyarenko. – Almaty, 2006. 227 p. (ISBN 9965–25–293–9). There is information collected within the project of Important Bird Areas in Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. The great part of the book is descriptions of 25 IBAs in Kazakhstan. The chapter «Population status of some bird species» presents information on number and distribution of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) and other rare species. Also there are papers about possibilities of legislative conservation measures of IBAs in Kazakstan. Price – 50 Rubles or 250 KZT + post costs. Contact (10).

Ïòèöû Ñðåäíåé Àçèè (â 5 òîìàõ). Òîì 1. Àëìàòû, 2007. 574 ñ. (áèáë. 1445 íàçâ., èëë. 251, òàáë. 2). Ðåäàêòîðû òîìà – àêàä. À.Ê. Ðóñòàìîâ è ïðîô. À.Ô. Êîâøàðü. (ISBN 9965–25–294–7). Ãåîãðàôè÷åñêè ñâîäêà îõâàòûâàåò Ñðåäíþþ Àçèþ â êëàññè÷åñêîì ïîíèìàíèè, òî

The Birds of Middle Asia (in 5 volumes). Volume 1. Almaty, 2007 574 p. Editors – Rustamov A.K. and Kovshar A.F. (ISBN 9965–25–294–7). The first volume of the monograph contains data on the distribution and biology of 119 bird species from 14 Orders: Gaviiformes, Podicipediformes, Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicopteriformes, Anseriformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, Cuculi-

http://www.krc.karelia.ru/publ.php?id=2396&plang=r http://www.krc.karelia.ru/doc_download.php?id=723&table_name=publ&table_ident=2396


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 10

(11) Êîíòàêò: Àíàòîëèé Êîâøàðü akovshar@nursat.kz (11) Contact: Anatoliy F. Kovshar akovshar@nursat.kz

(12) Êîíòàêò: Ðàáèãà Áåêáîñûíîâà Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ëàáîðàòîðèÿ îðíèòîëîãèè Êàçàõñòàí Àëìàòû 050060 ïð. Àëü-Ôàðàáè, 93 (12) Contact: Rabiga Bekbosynova Institute of Zoology laboratory of ornithology Al-Farabi avenue, 93 Almaty 050060 Kazakhstan

(13) Contact: Arend Wassink Postweg 64 1795 JR De Cocksdorp, Texel, The Netherlands arendwassink@texel.com

10

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû

åñòü Òóðêìåíèñòàí, Óçáåêèñòàí, Òàäæèêèñòàí, Êèðãèçñòàí è þæíóþ ïîëîâèíó Êàçàõñòàíà äî ïðèìåðíî 470 ñ.ø. Ïåðâûé òîì ñîäåðæèò îïèñàíèå 119 âèäîâ ïòèö èç 14 îòðÿäîâ: ãàãàðîîáðàçíûå, ïîãàíêîîáðàçíûå, âåñëîíîãèå, ãîëåíàñòûå, ôëàìèíãî, ãóñåîáðàçíûå, êóðîîáðàçíûå, æóðàâëåîáðàçíûå, êóêóøêîîáðàçíûå, ñîâîîáðàçíûå, êîçîäîåîáðàçíûå, ñòðèæåîáðàçíûå, ðàêøåîáðàçíûå è óäîäîîáðàçíûå. Ïî êàæäîìó âèäó ïðèâîäÿòñÿ äàííûå î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè (ñ êàðòîé) è õàðàêòåðå ïðåáûâàíèÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Ñðåäíåé Àçèè, ñðîêàõ ôåíîëîãè÷åñêèõ ÿâëåíèé, âêëþ÷àÿ ìèãðàöèè è ðàçìíîæåíèå, î ïëîäîâèòîñòè è ïèòàíèè, ñóòî÷íîé è ñåçîííîé àêòèâíîñòè è äð. Äàíû êðàòêèå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè îòðÿäîâ. Êíèãà ñíàáæåíà ñïèñêîì èñïîëüçîâàííîé ëèòåðàòóðû è óêàçàòåëÿìè íàçâàíèé ïòèö íà ëàòûíè, ðóññêîì, êàçàõñêîì, óçáåêñêîì, êèðãèçñêîì, òóðêìåíñêîì è òàäæèêñêîì ÿçûêàõ. Öåíà êíèãè 2000 òåíãå (16 äîëëàðîâ, 12,5 Åâðî èëè 400 ðîññèéñêèõ ðóáëåé). Âîçìîæíà âûñûëêà êíèãè ïî ïî÷òå ñ ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûì ñîãëàñîâàíèåì äåòàëåé ïî ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òå (11) è ïðåäîïëàòîé ïî÷òîâûì ïåðåâîäîì (12).

formes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Apodiformes, Coraciiformes and Upupiformes. Information about the distribution of each species found in the Middle Asia territory (with map), seasonal activity, migrations, breeding, fertility, diet, daily activity and so on, is presented. Short characteristics of Orders are also presented. The book has a full Reference and index for Latin scientific names and for names in Russian, Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrghyz, Turkmen and Tadjik. Price – 2000 KZT (16 USD, 12,5 Euro, 400 Rubles). The book can be sent by post with preliminary agreement (11) and money transfer with postal order (12).

Âàññèíê A. è Îðååë Äæ. Ïòèöû Êàçàõñòàíà. 2007. 288 ñ. ISBN 978–90– 811462–1–0. Ýòà ïîëíîöâåòíàÿ êíèãà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîñëåäíåé ñâîäêîé ïî àâèôàóíå Êàçàõñòàíà è ñîäåðæèò èíôîðìàöèþ î ñòàòóñå, ìåñòàõ îáèòàíèÿ, ðàñïðåäåëåíèè è ìèãðàöèÿõ 498 âèäîâ ïòèö, âñòðå÷åííûõ â Êàçàõñòàíå çà ïåðèîä äî íà÷àëà 2007 ã. Áîëåå ÷åì 900 êàðò èëëþñòðèðóþò ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå êàæäîãî âèäà ïî ïîäâèäàì. Äëÿ ðÿäà âèäîâ ïðèâîäÿòñÿ öâåòíûå ôîòîãðàôèè. Êíèãà «Ïòèöû Êàçàõñòàíà» ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïåðâîé ñâîäêîé íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, ñóùåñòâåííûì âêëàäîì â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå èíôîðìàöèè î ïòèöàõ Êàçàõñòàíà è Ñðåäíåé Àçèè, è áóäåò èíòåðåñíà ìíîãèì ëþáèòåëÿì ïòèö è îðíèòîëîãàì, ðàáîòàþùèì â Êàçàõñòàíå. Öåíà, âêëþ÷àÿ ïåðåñûëêó, 49.50 Åâðî äëÿ Íèäåðëàíäîâ è 55.00 Åâðî äëÿ îñòàëüíûõ ñòðàí ìèðà10. Êîíòàêò (13).

Wassink, A. and Oreel, G. J. The Birds of Kazakhstan. De Cocksdorp, Texel. 2007. 288 p. ISBN 978–90–811462–1–0. This full-colour book brings together invaluable information on status, habitats, distribution and migration on the birds of Kazakhstan, packed into 288 pages. All 498 species recorded in Kazakhstan (up to early 2007) are covered, and more than 900 maps and graphs give their breeding and temporal distribution. The text, including the introductory chapters, is further illustrated by maps, watercolour paintings and many photographs. The Birds of Kazakhstan is an essential reference for anyone with an interest in the avifauna of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Price (including postage and package) Euro 49.50 in The Netherlands and Euro 55.00 in the rest of the world10. Contact (13).

http://www.birdsofkazakhstan.com/Order.html


Contents

Raptors Conservation 2007, 10

71

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Ñîáûòèÿ ................................................................. 3

Events ...................................................................... 3

Ðåçîëþöèÿ 2-é Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé Êîíôåðåíöèè ïî ñîêîëó-ñàïñàíó .............................................. 10

2nd International Peregrine Falcon Conference Resolutions ......................................................... 10

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .............................. 14

Raptors Conservation ...........................................14

Ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè, Ðîññèÿ. Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ., Êàðÿêèí È.Â. ............... 14

Actions on Installing of Artificial Nests for Raptors in the Samara District, Russia. Pazhenkov A.S., Karyakin I.V. ........................................................ 14

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .......................... 17

Raptors Research .................................................. 17

Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå, Ðîññèÿ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. .......... 17

Distribution and Number of the Eagle Owl in the Altai-Sayan Region, Russia. I.V. Karyakin ............. 17

Ôèëèí â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè, Ðîññèÿ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â.,Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ. ............................. 37

Eagle Owl in the Samara District, Russia. Karyakin I.V., Pazhenkov A.S. .............................. 37

Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ñîâû ëåñîñòåïåé Âåðõíåãî Ïðèàíãàðüÿ, Ðîññèÿ. Ïîïîâ Â.Â., Ìàëååâ Â.Ã..... 47

Birds of Prey and Owls of Forest-Steppes in the Upper Angara Region, Russia. Popov V.V., Maleev V.G. ...................................... 47

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ ............................................ 54 Õèùíûå ïòèöû ëåñíûõ óãîäèé ìåæäóðå÷üÿ ðåê Øóìáóò è Áåðñóò, Òàòàðñòàí, Ðîññèÿ. Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã. ................................................... 54 Âíåãíåçäîâûå ñêîïëåíèÿ ÷åðíîóõîãî êîðøóíà íà þãå Ñèáèðè è â Ìîíãîëèè. Ïîïîâ Â.Â. ......... 57 Êîëîíèÿ ÷¸ðíîãî êîðøóíà íà ïîáåðåæüå Îáñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà, Ðîññèÿ. Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã. ............ 59 Ïÿòü ñë¸òêîâ â âûâîäêå êðå÷åòà íà ßìàëå, Ðîññèÿ. Ìå÷íèêîâà Ñ.À., Êóäðÿâöåâ Í.Â. ........... 61 Íîâûå äàííûå î áàëîáàíå íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Ìîðäîâèÿ, Ðîññèÿ. Êîðîëüêîâ Ì.À., Ìàöûíà À.È. ........................... 62 Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå óøàñòîé ñîâû â Çàáîëå, ó Èðàíñêîé ãðàíèöû ñ Àôãàíèñòàíîì è Ïàêèñòàíîì. Ãõîëàìðåçà Íóðè, Òàéåáåõ Àðàáè, Ìàñîóä Êçàìàðè .................................... 63 Íîâûå äàííûå î ãíåçäîâàíèè óøàñòîé ñîâû â Êàçàõñòàíå. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Êîðåïîâ Ì.Â., Ëåâèí À.Ñ. .......................................................... 64 Î ãíåçäîâàíèè óøàñòîé ñîâû íà çåìëå.................. 67 Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Êîâàëåíêî À.Â., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì. ..... 67

Short Reports ........................................................ 54 Birds of Prey of Forests Between the Shumbut and the Bersut Rivers, Tatarstan Republic, Russia. Nikolenko E.G.......................................... 54 No Breeding Concentrations of the Black-eared Kite in the South of Siberia and in Mongolia. Popov V.V. ........................................................... 57 A Colony of the Black Kite at the Ob’ Reservoir Terrace, Russia. Nikolenko E.G. ........................... 59 Five Fledglings in Brood of the Gyrfalcon on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. Mechnikova S.A., Kudryavtsev N.V. .................... 61 New Records of the Saker Falcon in the Republic of Mordovia, Russia. Korolkov M.A., Matsina A.I. ... 62 Report on the Occurrence of Long-eared Owl from Zabol, Iran’s Border with Afghanistan-Pakistan. Gholamreza Noori, Tayebeh Arbabi, Masoud Khamari .............................................................. 63 New Records of the Long-eared Owl Breeding in Kazakhstan. Karyakin I.V., Korepov M.V., Levin A.S. ........................................................... 64

Ïåðâàÿ íàõîäêà ãíåçäà ñïëþøêè â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, Ðîññèÿ. Ëåâàøêèí À.Ï. ........................ 68

The Fact of Nesting of the Long-eared Owl on the Ground. Karyakin I.V., Kovalenko A.V., Novikova L.M. .................................................... 67

Ïåðâàÿ íàõîäêà ãíåçäà ñïëþøêè áëèç Òþìåíè, Ðîññèÿ. Ìîøêèí À.Â. ......................................... 68

The First Record of the Scops Owl’s Nest in N.Novgorod District, Russia. Levashkin A.P. ........ 68

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû ........................... 69

The First Record of the Scops Owl’s Nest Near Tumen, Russia. Moshkin A.V. ........................................... 68 New Publications and Videos .............................. 69

Îòïå÷àòàíî â òèïîãðàôèè ÎÎÎ «ÀÏÄ» ñ ãîòîâîãî îðèãèíàë-ìàêåòà 603139, ã. Í. Íîâãîðîä, óë. Ãàóãåëÿ, 16–49


Profile for Igor Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 10/2007  

Pernatye khishniki i ikh okhrana / Raptors Conservation is the unique peer-reviewed periodical journal in the countries of the former USSR,...

Raptors Conservation 10/2007  

Pernatye khishniki i ikh okhrana / Raptors Conservation is the unique peer-reviewed periodical journal in the countries of the former USSR,...

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