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RaptorsConservation ПЕРНАТЫЕХИЩНИКИИИХОХРАНА 2007№9

ISSN 1814–0076

Ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè The Newsletter of the raptors of the East Europe and North Asia Áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» ó÷ðåæä¸í ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê) è íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé» (Í.Íîâãîðîä).

The Raptors Conservation Newsletter was founded by the non-governmental organizations the Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk) and the Center for Field Studies (Nizhniy Novgorod).

Ðåäàêòîðû íîìåðà: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáýêîöåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê) è Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä)

Editors: Elvira Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia) and Igor Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia).

Ýòîò âûïóñê ãîòîâèëè: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî, Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí, Íèêîëàé è Åâãåíèé Ïîòàïîâû, Àííà Øåñòàêîâà

This issue has been made by: Elvira Nikolenko, Igor Karyakin, Nikolay and Eugene Potapov, Anna Shestakova

Ôîòîãðàôèÿ íà ëèöåâîé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè: ïòåíåö áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â ãíåçäå, Òóâà, Ðîññèÿ, èþíü 2006 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà.

Photo on the front cover: chick of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in the nest, Tyva Republic, Russia, June 2006. Photo by I. Karyakin.

 èëëþñòðàöèè çàäíåé ñòîðîíû îáëîæêè èñïîëüçîâàíû ôîòîãðàôèè È. Êàðÿêèíà è C. Ãîìáîáààòàðà.

Photos on the back cover by I. Karyakin and S. Gombobaatar.

Èçäàíèå îñóùåñòâëåíî ïðè ÷àñòè÷íîé ôèíàíñîâîé ïîääåðæêå Ïðîåêòà ÏÐÎÎÍ/ÃÝÔ «Ñîõðàíåíèå áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ â ðîññèéñêîé ÷àñòè Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî Ýêîðåãèîíà». This issue is supported by the Project of UNDP/GEF «Biodiversity Conservation in the Russian Part of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion».

Ðåäàêöèîííàÿ êîëëåãèÿ: Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, âíñ, ê.á.í., ÃÏÁÇ «Êåðæåíñêèé», Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; sopr@dront.ru Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí, ê.á.í., ÐÃÏÓ, Ðîñòîâ-íà-Äîíó, Ðîññèÿ; timbar@bk.ru Ñ.À. Áóêðååâ, ñíñ, ê.á.í., ÈÒèÝÁ ÐÀÍ, Ïóùèíî, Ðîññèÿ; sbukreev@rol.ru Í.Þ. Êèñåëåâà, ê.ïåä.í., ÑÎÏÐ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; sopr@dront.ru Ð.Ä. Ëàïøèí, äîö., ê.á.í., ÍÃÏÓ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; lapchine@mail.ru À.Ñ. Ëåâèí, äîö., ê.á.í., Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ÌÎèÍ, Àëìàòû, Êàçàõñòàí; levin_saker@nursat.kz Î.Â. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé, ïðîô., ä.á.í., Íàöèîíàëüíûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Òàøêåíò, Óçáåêèñòàí; olmit@list.ru À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ, ê.á.í., ÖÑÂÓÝÑ, Ñàìàðà, Ðîññèÿ; f_lynx@hotbox.ru Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ, ê.á.í., Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò», Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; vipera@dront.ru Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâ, Ph.D, Èññëåäîâàíèå Ïðèðîäû, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ; EugenePotapov@gmail.com Þ.Ñ. Ðàâêèí, ïðîô., ä.á.í., ÈÑèÝË ÑÎ ÐÀÍ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ; zm@eco.nsc.ru È.Ý. Ñìåëÿíñêèé, Ñèáýêîöåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ; ilya@ecoclub.nsu.ru À.À. Øåñòàêîâà, ê.á.í., ÍÍÃÓ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; f_s_c@mail.ru T. Katzner, Ph.D., Conservation and Field Research National Aviary, USA; todd.katzner@aviary.org M.J. McGrady, Ph.D., Natural Research, UK; MikeJMcGrady@aol.com

Àäðåñ ðåäàêöèè: 630090 Ðîññèÿ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547 Editorial adress: P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090 Tel./Fax: (383) 339 78 85 E-mail:

rc_news@mail.ru ikar_research@mail.ru nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru

http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors Ýëåêòðîííàÿ âåðñèÿ/RC online http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC Ïðàâèëà äëÿ àâòîðîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå: Guidelines for Contributors available on website: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC/guidelines/


Events

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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Events СОБЫТИЯ (1) Contact: British Ornithologists’ Union Conference Office P.O. Box 417 Peterborough PE7 3FX tel.: +44 (0) 1 733 844 820 conferences@ bou.org.uk

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31 ìàðòà – 2 àïðåëÿ 2007 ã. â óíèâåðñèòåòå Ëåéñèñòåðà (Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü åæåãîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñîþçà áðèòàíñêèõ îðíèòîëîãîâ (BOU) «Ïòèöû êàê õèùíèêè è êàê æåðòâû». Õèùíè÷åñòâî ìîæåò áûòü êðèòè÷åñêè âàæíûì ïîêàçàòåëåì, ëèìèòèðóþùèì ÷èñëåííîñòü è ñòðóêòóðó ïîïóëÿöèé ðàçíûõ âèäîâ, è ÿâëÿåòñÿ øèðîêî èçó÷åííûì ÿâëåíèåì â ñðåäå ïòèö. Òåì íå ìåíåå, îöåíêà âëèÿíèÿ õèùíè÷åñòâà ïîñòîÿííî âûçûâàåò èíòåðåñ, ò.ê. îñíîâíûå ìåõàíèçìû ýòîãî ÿâëåíèÿ ÷àñòî ñìåøèâàþòñÿ ñ àíòðîïîãåííûìè ôàêòîðàìè èëè äàæå ôîðìèðóþòñÿ èìè. Öåëü äàííîé êîíôåðåíöèè – îáñóäèòü èññëåäîâàíèÿ îñíîâíûõ ïðè÷èí è ïîñëåäñòâèé õèùíè÷åñòâà äëÿ ïîïóëÿöèé â ñîâðåìåííîì ëàíäøàôòå. Êîíôåðåíöèÿ îõâàòèò áîëüøîé ñïåêòð òåì: – õèùíèêè-îðíèòîôàãè; – õèùíèêè-èõòèîôàãè è ïîïóëÿöèè ðûá; – èíòðîäóöèðîâàííûå ìëåêîïèòàþùèåõèùíèêè; – âçàèìîäåéñòâèå ìåæäó ïòèöàìè-õèùíèêàìè; – ýêîëîãèÿ ïîâåäåíèÿ õèùíèêîâ è çíà÷åíèå èõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé. Îñíîâíîå âíèìàíèå áóäåò óäåëåíî îïðåäåëåíèþ âëèÿíèÿ õèùíè÷åñòâà êàê ÿâëåíèÿ íà ïîïóëÿöèè è îáúÿñíåíèþ ìåõàíèçìîâ, ëåæàùèõ â åãî îñíîâå. Äëÿ ó÷àñòèÿ íåîáõîäèìî çàïîëíèòü ðåãèñòðàöèîííóþ ôîðìó, äîñòóïíóþ íà âåáñàéòå BOU1. Êîíòàêò (1).

British Ornithologists’ Union Annual Conference «Birds as Predators and as Prey» will be hold in University of Leicester (UK) on the 31 March – 2 April 2007. Predation can be a crucially important factor limiting populations and is a widely studied process in birds. However estimating the impacts of predation is an ongoing challenge, not least because the underlying mechanisms are often confounded or even driven by anthropogenic factors. The aim of this conference is to provide a general forum for current research into the underlying causes and population consequences of predation, placing special emphasis on these processes in the modern landscape. The conference will encompass a wide range of themes: – birds predating birds; – piscivorous birds and fish populations; – introduced mammals as predators; – interactions between avian predators themselves (intraguild predation); – the behavioral ecology of predation and habitat effects. Emphasis will be placed on establishing the impacts on populations and on explaining mechanisms underlying predation by accounting for ecological and behavioral complexity. It is intended that the conference will appeal to ornithologists with varied interests, and to those concerned generally with the management of habitats and bird populations. Every participant should fill the registration form available on BOU website1. Contact (1).

Ñîþç áðèòàíñêèõ îðíèòîëîãîâ (BOU), Öåíòð ýêîëîãèè è ãèäðîëîãèè (Äîðñåò) è êîìïàíèÿ «Biotrack»2 18 àïðåëÿ 2007 ã. ïëàíèðóþò ïðîâåäåíèå ñåìèíàðà «Ðàäèîïðîñëåæèâàíèå ïòèö». Ñåìèíàð áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü â òåõíîëîãè÷åñêîì öåíòðå â Äîð÷åñòåðå (Äîðñåò, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ).  òå÷åíèå îäíîäíåâíîãî ñåìèíàðà áóäóò ðàññìîòðåíû ñëåäóþùèå àñïåêòû ðàäèîïðîñëåæèâàíèÿ ïòèö: – äëÿ ÷åãî íóæíî ðàäèîïðîñëåæèâàíèå;

The British Ornithologists’ Union, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Dorset) and Biotrack2 are planning to hold the Workshop «Radio-tracking Birds» on 18 April 2007. The workshop will be in the CEH Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset, UK. This one-day workshop will cover the following aspects of radio tracking: – why radio-track; – how radio-tracking works; – designing experiments; – results from radio-tracking; – radio-tracking practical. To demonstrate how effective radio-tracking is we will explore a local ornithological

http://www.bou.org.uk/BOUConfform.pdf http://www.biotrack.co.uk


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 – êàê âåä¸òñÿ ðàáîòà ïî ðàäèîïðîñëåæèâàíèþ.  õîäå ñåìèíàðà áóäóò îáñóæäàòüñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêèå ñòîðîíû è âîçìîæíûå ðåçóëüòàòû ðàäèîïðîñëåæèâàíèÿ. Ó ó÷àñòíèêîâ áóäåò âîçìîæíîñòü íà ïðàêòèêå îñâîèòü ïðîñòåéøèå ìåòîäû ðàäèîïðîñëåæèâàíèÿ, ïîçíàêîìèòüñÿ ñ îáîðóäîâàíèåì è âûáðàòü íàèáîëåå ïîäõîäÿùåå äëÿ ðàçíûõ íàó÷íûõ è ïðàêòè÷åñêèõ çàäà÷. Äëÿ ó÷àñòèÿ íåîáõîäèìî çàïîëíèòü ðåãèñòðàöèîííóþ ôîðìó, äîñòóïíóþ íà âåáñàéòå BOU3. Êîíòàêò (1).

(2) Êîíòàêò: Ðàõèìîâ È.È. Êàôåäðà áèîýêîëîãèè ÒÃÃÏÓ Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí 420021 Êàçàíü óë. Òàòàðñòàíà, ä. 2 òåë.: +7 (843) 292 09 83 +7 (843) 571 20 36 Kazan-vorona@mail.ru (2) Contact: Rahimov I.I. TGGPU Tatarstana str., 2 Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan 420021 Russia tel.: +7 (843) 292 09 83 +7 (843) 571 20 36 Kazan-vorona@mail.ru

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21–23 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. â ã. Êàçàíè â Òàòàðñêîì ãîñóäàðñòâåííîì ãóìàíèòàðíîïåäàãîãè÷åñêîì óíèâåðñèòå ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðîâåäåíèå íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè «Ýêîëîãî-ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ â Ñðåäíåì Ïîâîëæüå».  ðàìêàõ ðàáîòû êîíôåðåíöèè ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ ðàññìîòðåòü è îáñóäèòü ñëåäóþùèå ïðîáëåìû: – èçó÷åíèå áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ â Ñðåäíåì Ïîâîëæüå è ñîïðåäåëüíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ; – ïðîáëåìû îõðàíû ïðèðîäû è ñîõðàíåíèå áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ; – ëàíäøàôòíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ â Ñðåäíåì Ïîâîëæüå; – ðåãèîíàëüíûå ïðîáëåìû ãåîýêîëîãèè; – ýêîëîãè÷åñêîå îáðàçîâàíèå è âîñïèòàíèå â øêîëå è âóçå. Ïðåäóñìîòðåíà íåáîëüøàÿ ýêñêóðñèîííàÿ ïðîãðàììà. Äëÿ ó÷àñòèÿ â êîíôåðåíöèè íåîáõîäèìî äî 1 èþëÿ 2007 ã. íàïðàâèòü â Îðãêîìèòåò ìàòåðèàëû è çàÿâêó íà ó÷àñòèå ñ óêàçàíèåì Ô.È.Î., ìåñòà ðàáîòû, äîëæíîñòè, ó÷¸íîé ñòåïåíè, çâàíèÿ, òåëåôîíà. Ïå÷àòíûé âàðèàíò ìàòåðèàëîâ ñîïðîâîäèòü äèñêåòîé ëèáî ïðîäóáëèðîâàòü ïî ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òå. Âçíîñ íà èçäàòåëüñêèå ðàñõîäû ñîñòàâëÿåò 150 ðóá. Åãî íåîáõîäèìî âûñûëàòü ïî÷òîâûì ïåðåâîäîì ïî àäðåñó: 420036, ã. Êàçàíü, óë. Òèìèðÿçåâà, ä. 6, êâ. 19, Èáðàãèìîâîé Ê.Ê. Îðãâçíîñ â ðàçìåðå 200 ðóá. îïëà÷èâàåòñÿ ïðè ðåãèñòðàöèè. Îðãàíèçàöèîííûé êîìèòåò îñòàâëÿåò çà ñîáîé ïðàâî îòêëîíÿòü ìàòåðèàëû, íå ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå òåìàòèêå êîíôåðåíöèè. Äëÿ ïðèíÿòèÿ ê ïóáëèêàöèè ïðåäïî÷òåíèå áóäåò îòäàâàòüñÿ ìàòåðèàëàì, ïîëó÷åííûì çà ïîñëåäíèå 4–5 ëåò èññëåäîâàíèé, ñîäåðæàùèì ñðàâíèòåëüíûé àíàëèç, îáîáùåíèÿ, à òàêæå íîâûå èäåè è ïðåäëîæåíèÿ. Êîíòàêò (2).

http://www.bou.org.uk/BOUWorkshopform.pdf

Ñîáûòèÿ study. Time will be spent explaining how to radio-track efficiently and get the best results. It is important to understand how radio-tracking works and how that influences tracking methods. Equipment will be described so that you can choose the best for your needs. You will have the chance to try out the equipment in different situations and to get expert advice on how best to radiotrack in the field. Every participant should fill the registration form available on BOU website3. Contact (1). The Tatar State Humanitarian-Pedagogical University is planning to hold the Conference «Ecological and Geographical research at the Middle Volga Region» on 21–23 September 2007. This conference will cover the following aspects of ecological and geographical research: – study of biodiversity at the Middle Volga region and bordering territories; – problems of biodiversity and nature conservation; – study of landscapes at the Middle Volga region; – regional problems of geological ecology; – environmental education in schools and universities. Some excursions will be organized. For the participation in the conference the application form and the report should be sent to the Conference Committee until 1 July 2007. Contact (2). Raptor Research Foundation’s 5th Eurasian Conference will be held in Batumi, Republic of Georgia from October 9th to 13th 2007. Organizers of the conference: the Raptor Research Foundation, the Georgian Center for the Conservation of Wildlife (GCCW) and the Directorate for Environment and Natural Resources of Adjara (DENRA). The conference will include a full program of scientific presentations, workshops and symposia, as well as social events to include wine tours and birding trips. Registration will open via conference’s website4 in February 2007 and priority will be given to Raptor Research Foundation members. Contact (3). 5th North Eurasian Conference about raptors will be held in Vitebsk, Republic of Byelorussia in February 2008. The publication of the book “Research and protection of Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga


Events (3) Contact: Lexo Gavashelishvili Local Organizing Committee Chair Info@gccw.org

(4) Êîíòàêò: Âëàäèìèð Ìåëüíèêîâ Êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè ÈâÃÓ 153002 Èâàíîâî ïð-ò Ëåíèíà, 136 ivanovobirds@mail.ru (4) Contact: Vladimir Melnikov IvSU, dep. of zoology Lenina str., 136 153002 Ivanovo Russia ivanovobirds@mail.ru

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Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 9–13 îêòÿáðÿ 2007 ã. â Áàòóìè (Ãðóçèÿ) áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü Ïÿòàÿ Åâðàçèéñêàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ ôîíäà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Îðãàíèçàòîðû êîíôåðåíöèè – Ôîíä èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, Ãðóçèíñêèé öåíòð îõðàíû äèêîé ïðèðîäû è Äèðåêöèÿ ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû è ïðèðîäíûì ðåñóðñàì Àäæàðèè. Êîíôåðåíöèÿ áóäåò âêëþ÷àòü îáøèðíóþ ïðîãðàììó óñòíûõ äîêëàäîâ, ñåìèíàðîâ è ñèìïîçèóìîâ, à òàêæå îáùåñòâåííûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé è ýêñêóðñèé. Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ ó÷àñòíèêîâ îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ñ ôåâðàëÿ 2007 ã. íà âåá-ñàéòå êîíôåðåíöèè4. Äëÿ ó÷àñòèÿ â êîíôåðåíöèè ïðèîðèòåò áóäåò îòäàí ÷ëåíàì ôîíäà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Êîíòàêò (3).  ôåâðàëå 2008 ã. â ã. Âèòåáñêå (Áåëîðóññèÿ) ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðîâåäåíèå ïÿòîé êîíôåðåíöèè ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Ê êîíôåðåíöèè ïëàíèðóåòñÿ èçäàíèå òåìàòè÷åñêîãî ñáîðíèêà «Èçó÷åíèå è îõðàíà áîëüøîãî Aquila clanga è ìàëîãî Aquila pomarina ïîäîðëèêîâ â Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè».  ñáîðíèê ïðèíèìàþòñÿ îðèãèíàëüíûå ñòàòüè è êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ, õàðàêòåðèçóþùèå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå, ÷èñëåííîñòü, äèíàìèêó íàñåëåíèÿ, ãíåçäîâàíèå, ïèòàíèå, ìèãðàöèè, ãèáðèäèçàöèþ è äðóãèå àñïåêòû ýêîëîãèè è ïîâåäåíèÿ áîëüøîãî è ìàëîãî ïîäîðëèêîâ, îïûò îõðàíû ýòèõ âèäîâ. Ìàòåðèàëû ìîãóò áûòü ïðåäñòàâëåíû íà ðóññêîì ëèáî àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêàõ. Àííîòàöèÿ íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ëèáî íà ðóññêîì ÿçûêå äëÿ àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ñòàòåé îáÿçàòåëüíà. Ïåðåâîä íàçâàíèÿ ðàáîòû è àííîòàöèè íà àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê (ðóññêèé äëÿ àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ñòàòåé) ìîæåò áûòü âûïîëíåí ðåäêîëëåãèåé ïî ñîãëàñîâàíèþ. Ñòàòüè ìîãóò áûòü èëëþñòðèðîâàíû ÷¸ðíî-áåëûìè ðèñóíêàìè è òàáëèöàìè. Îáú¸ì ðóêîïèñè ñòàòüè íå äîëæåí ïðåâûøàòü 10 ñòðàíèö òåêñòà è 6 òàáëèö è ðèñóíêîâ. Ñòàòüè áîëüøåãî îáú¸ìà ïðèíèìàþòñÿ ïî ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîìó ñîãëàñîâàíèþ ñ ðåäêîëëåãèåé. Îáú¸ì êðàòêîãî ñîîáùåíèÿ íå äîëæåí ïðåâûøàòü 1 ñòðàíèöó òåêñòà è ìîæåò âêëþ÷àòü 1 òàáëèöó ëèáî ðèñóíîê. Ðóêîïèñè ñòàòåé è êðàòêèõ ñîîáùåíèé ïðèíèìàþòñÿ äî 1 íîÿáðÿ 2007 ã. â ýëåêòðîííîé ôîðìå â âèäå zip-àðõèâà, âêëþ÷àþùåãî âñå ôàéëû ðóêîïèñè, ëèáî â ðàñïå÷àòàííîì âèäå. Êîíòàêò (4).

http://www.gccw.org/conference/index.html

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Ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê (Buteo hemilasius). Ðîññèÿ, ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà. Èþíü 2006 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius). Russia, Republic of Tyva. June 2006. Photo by I. Karyakin

and A. pomarina) in Northern Eurasia” is planning to the beginning of the conference. Reports and summaries about distribution, number, population trends, breeding, feeding, migrations, hybridization and other ecological and behavioral aspects of Spotted Eagles, conservation problems. Papers should be in Russian or in English. Abstract of the paper in another language should be in any case. The editorial staff on preliminary agreement will be able to translate of the title and abstract in English or in Russian if it is necessary. Reports should be no more than 10 pages and contain no more than 6 grayscale figures and tables. If the paper contains more pages it should be came to an agreement with editorial beforehand. The summary size should be no more than a page with a table or a figure. The deadline for submission of papers is 1 November 2007. Send the papers as an attached *.zip file or hard copies. Contact (4).

Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga). Ðîññèÿ, Àëòàéñêèé êðàé. Èþëü 2004 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Great-Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga). Russia, Altai Kray. July 2004. Photo by I. Karyakin


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè

ReviewsandComments ОБЗОРЫ И КОММЕНТАРИИ LegalInstrumentsforSupressingUnlawfulCaptureandTrade ofLargeFalconsinRussia ПРАВОВЫЕИНСТРУМЕНТЫПРЕСЕЧЕНИЯНЕЗАКОННОГО ОТЛОВАИОБОРОТАКРУПНЫХСОКОЛОВВРОССИИ SmelanskyI.E.(SiberianEnvironmentalCenter,Novosibirsk,Russia) KreyndlinM.L.(Greenpeace-Russia,Moscow,Russia) Смелянс ийИ.Э.(МБОО«Сибирс ийэ олоичес ийцентр»,Новосибирс ,Россия) КрейндлинМ.Л.(ГринписРоссии,Мос ва,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Èëüÿ Ñìåëÿíñêèé ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» Ðîññèÿ 630090 Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547 òåë./ôàêñ: (383) 339 78 85 ilya@ecoclub.nsu.ru Ìèõàèë Êðåéíäëèí Ýêñïåðò ïî ïðàâîâûì âîïðîñîì Ãðèíïèñ Ðîññèè 127994 Ìîñêâà ÃÑÏ–4 òåë.: +7 (095) 626 50 45 mkrendel@yandex.ru Contact: Ilya Smelansky NGO Siberian Environmental Center P.O. Box 547 Novosibirsk 630090 Russia tel./fax: (383) 339 78 85 ilya@ecoclub.nsu.ru Michael Kreyndlin Low Expert Greenpeace Russia GPS–4 127994 Moscow Russia tel.: +7 (095) 626 50 45 mkrendel@yandex.ru

Ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ â ðîññèéñêîì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâå Âñå òðè âèäà êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ, îáèòàþùèõ â Ðîññèè – êðå÷åò (Falco rusticolus), áàëîáàí (F. cherrug) è ñàïñàí (F. peregrinus) – ïðèçíàþòñÿ òðåáóþùèìè îõðàíû è çàùèùåíû çàêîíîì. Ýòî âûðàæàåòñÿ, ïðåæäå âñåãî, â òîì, ÷òî îíè âêëþ÷åíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ (Ïðèêàç Ãîñêîìýêîëîãèè Ðîññèè îò 19.12.1997 ¹ 569 ñ ïîñëåäóþùèìè èçìåíåíèÿìè). Ýòè ñîêîëû âêëþ÷åíû òàêæå â Êðàñíûå êíèãè ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñåõ ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ, ãäå èìååòñÿ òàêîé äîêóìåíò, è îáèòàþò ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå âèäû. Ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, íè îäèí èç âèäîâ ñîêîëîâ íå âêëþ÷¸í â ïåðå÷åíü îáúåêòîâ îõîòû, óòâåðæäåííûé Ïðàâèòåëüñòâîì ÐÔ. Âñå òðè âèäà âíåñåíû â Ïðèëîæåíèÿ ÑÈÒÅÑ: êðå÷åò è ñàïñàí – â Ïðèëîæåíèå 1, áàëîáàí (â ñîñòàâå âñåãî îòðÿäà Falconiformes) – â Ïðèëîæåíèå 2. Äàëåå ðàññìîòðèì âîçìîæíûå âàðèàíòû ñèòóàöèé, êîãäà ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ ïòèö ìîæåò îáåñïå÷èòü èõ ïðàâîâóþ çàùèòó.

Äîáûâàíèå â ïðèðîäå (îòëîâ) Äîáûâàíèå æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, äîïóñêàåòñÿ â èñêëþ÷èòåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ â öåëÿõ ñîõðàíåíèÿ ýòèõ îáúåêòîâ, ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ èõ ÷èñëåííîñòè, îõðàíû çäîðîâüÿ íàñåëåíèÿ, óñòðàíåíèÿ óãðîçû äëÿ æèçíè ÷åëîâåêà, ïðåäîõðàíåíèÿ îò ìàññîâûõ çàáîëåâàíèé ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ è äðóãèõ äîìàøíèõ æèâîòíûõ, îáåñïå÷åíèÿ òðàäèöèîííûõ íóæä êîðåííûõ ìàëî÷èñëåííûõ íàðîäîâ è â èíûõ öåëÿõ. Îíî âîçìîæíî

Conservation status of large falcons by Russian national legislation Three species of large falcons nest in Russia, namely are Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), Saker (F. cherrug), and Peregrine (F. peregrinus). All the species are protected by law. The first, they are listed in the Federal Red Data Book that is validated by the Federal Nature Protection Body. Then, they are listed in CITES Appendices: Peregrine and Gyrfalcon – Appendix I, Saker – Appendix II. The Russian Federation (RF) is a Part of the CITES; Russian Federal Government issues a rule regulating implementation of the Convention and the Federal Nature Protection Body issues several acts on the subject. No one of these species is listed in the federal list of game species.


Reviews and Comments òîëüêî â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ «Ïðàâèëàìè äîáûâàíèÿ îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè» (óòâåðæäåíû Ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè îò 6 ÿíâàðÿ 1997 ã. ¹13) íà îñíîâàíèè ðàçðåøåíèÿ, âûäàâàåìîãî Ôåäåðàëüíîé ñëóæáîé ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè (äàëåå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîð) â ïîðÿäêå, îïðåäåëåííîì ïðèêàçîì ÌÏÐ ÐÔ îò 03.09.2003 ã. ¹799 (â ðåä. îò 28 èþíÿ 2006 ã. ¹153) è ïðèêàçîì Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà îò 2 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. ¹9 (ôîðìà ðàçðåøåíèÿ äàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèè 5 ê ýòîìó ïðèêàçó). Ðàçðåøåíèå âûäàåòñÿ òîëüêî â Ìîñêâå, íî ïî ñîãëàñîâàíèþ ñ òåððèòîðèàëüíûì îðãàíîì Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà ïî ìåñòó äîáûâàíèÿ.  ñëó÷àå äîáûâàíèÿ íà òåððèòîðèè ÎÎÏÒ íåîáõîäèìî òàêæå ñîãëàñèå å¸ àäìèíèñòðàöèè. Ëèöî, ïîëó÷èâøåå ðàçðåøåíèå íà äîáûâàíèå îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, îáÿçàíî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàòü åãî â òåððèòîðèàëüíîì îðãàíå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà ïî ìåñòó äîáûâàíèÿ. Ïîñëå òîãî, êàê æèâîòíîå äîáûòî (îòëîâëåíî), ðàçðåøåíèå â äâóõìåñÿ÷íûé ñðîê âîçâðàùàåòñÿ â Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîð ñ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìè êîïèÿìè àêòîâ è ïîäðîáíûì îò÷¸òîì î ðåçóëüòàòàõ äîáûâàíèÿ. Êîïèÿ îò÷¸òà íàïðàâëÿåòñÿ â òåððèòîðèàëüíûé îðãàí, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàâøèé ðàçðåøåíèå.

Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü Çà íåçàêîííîå äîáûâàíèå âèäîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ ëèáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ìåæäóíàðîäíûìè äîãîâîðàìè, ïðåäóñìîòðåíà àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ñò. 8.35 «Óíè÷òîæåíèå ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âè-

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

Taking from nature (capture) Taking from nature is allowed only on special permits issued by the Federal Nature Protection Body (Federal Control Service in the sphere of nature management, Rosprirodnadzor) in Moscow and signed by its territorial Representative Offices in the Subjects of Federation where capturing should be done. Hunting Rules are another act that regulate capturing of falcons. It prohibits all methods used by illegal falconers in Russia. Violation of these norms is torts provided by the Code of Administrative Offences. Illegally captured birds are due to be confiscated and later may be freed under court decision. A poacher should pay the penalty and compensate damages (by official taxes). Illegal game may be considered as a crime and so it may sue by the Criminal Code.

Home trade in falcons According to the Federal Environmental Protection Act all the species listed in the Red Data Book are excluded from economic use. Circulation of living birds belonging these species may be allowed by special permits (Dispositive Licenses) only. The permit is issued by Rosprirodnadzor after expertise of the National Institute of Nature Protection and signed by a Rosprirodnadzor territorial body. Like illegal capture any violation of the procedure is a tort provided by the Administrative Code. Also there are several normative acts regulating circulation of derivates, especially stuffed birds. Any sale of processed derivates should be agreed with Federal Sale Rules and federal veterinary requirements.

Äîáûâàíèå æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, âîçìîæíî òîëüêî â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ «Ïðàâèëàìè äîáûâàíèÿ îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè» íà îñíîâàíèè

äîâ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé» ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ (ñ èçìåíåíèÿìè, âíåñ¸ííûìè ôåäåðàëüíûì çàêîíîì 182-ÔÇ îò 03.11.2006). Ýòà ñòàòüÿ ãëàñèò: «Óíè÷òîæåíèå ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ ëèáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ìåæäóíàðîäíûìè äîãîâîðàìè, à ðàâíî äåéñòâèÿ (áåçäåéñòâèå), êîòîðûå ìîãóò ïðèâåñòè ê ãèáåëè, ñîêðàùåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ëèáî íàðóøåíèþ ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ ýòèõ æèâîòíûõ èëè ê ãèáåëè òàêèõ ðàñòåíèé, ëèáî äîáûâàíèå, ñáîð, ñîäåðæàíèå, ïðèîáðåòåíèå, ïðîäàæà ëèáî ïåðåñûëêà óêàçàííûõ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, èõ ïðîäóêòîâ, ÷àñòåé ëèáî äåðèâàòîâ áåç íàäëåæàùåãî íà òî ðàçðåøåíèÿ èëè ñ íàðóøåíèåì óñëîâèé, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ðàçðåøå-

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ðàçðåøåíèÿ, âûäàâàåìîãî Ôåäåðàëüíîé ñëóæáîé ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè (Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîð) â ïîðÿäêå, îïðåäåë¸ííîì ïðèêàçîì ÌÏÐ ÐÔ îò 03.09.2003 ã. ¹799 è ïðèêàçîì Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà îò 2 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. ¹9.

Transboundary trade Export of large falcons is allowed in special cases under permissive documents only. There are two principal normative reasons regulating falcons transboundary trade: CITES and the Red Data Book legislation. Other acts are Government Resolutions on zoological collections and veterinary requirements. Violation of CITES norms is a tort provided by the Administrative Code of RF. Thus there are many reasons (provided under the Criminal Code) to qualify illegal export of large falcons as an event of contraband that shall be prosecuted by the Criminal Code and a smuggler may be sentenced to imprisonment from three to seven years. Birds should be confiscated.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

íèåì, ëèáî ñ íàðóøåíèåì èíîãî óñòàíîâëåííîãî ïîðÿäêà – âëå÷¸ò íàëîæåíèå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íà ãðàæäàí â ðàçìåðå îò ïÿòíàäöàòè äî äâàäöàòè ïÿòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé äîáûâàíèÿ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, à òàêæå ñàìèõ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, èõ ïðîäóêòîâ, ÷àñòåé ëèáî äåðèâàòîâ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö – îò ñòà ïÿòèäåñÿòè äî äâóõñîò ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé äîáûâàíèÿ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, à òàêæå ñàìèõ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, èõ ïðîäóêòîâ, ÷àñòåé ëèáî äåðèâàòîâ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö – îò òð¸õ òûñÿ÷ äî ïÿòè òûñÿ÷ ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé äîáûâàíèÿ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, à òàêæå ñàìèõ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, èõ ïðîäóêòîâ, ÷àñòåé ëèáî äåðèâàòîâ èëè áåç òàêîâîé». Çäåñü è äàëåå ìèíèìàëüíûé ðàçìåð îïëàòû òðóäà ïðèíèìàåòñÿ ðàâíûì 100 ðóá. – â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñî ñò. 4 Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà «Î ìèíèìàëüíîì ðàçìåðå îïëàòû òðóäà» (îò 19.06.2000 ã. ¹82-ÔÇ).

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè âåòñòâèè ñî ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ, íàðóøåíèå ëþáîãî èç ýòèõ óñëîâèé, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ðàçðåøåíèåì, ÿâëÿåòñÿ îñíîâàíèåì äëÿ íàñòóïëåíèÿ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòè. Ïîìèìî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà î Êðàñíîé êíèãå, äîáûâàíèå ñîêîëîâ íàðóøàåò Ïðàâèëà îõîòû. Ïðàâèëà îõîòû – íîðìàòèâíî-ïðàâîâîé äîêóìåíò, ïðèíèìàåìûé ñóáúåêòîì ÐÔ íà îñíîâàíèè Òèïîâûõ ïðàâèë îõîòû â ÐÔ (óòâåðæäåíû ïðèêàçîì Îõîòäåïàðòàìåíòà Ìèíñåëüõîçïðîäà Ðîññèè îò 4 ÿíâàðÿ 1988 ã. ¹1 (â ðåäàêöèè ïðèêàçîâ îò 03.05.1988 ã. ¹111; îò 23.05.1989 ã. ¹156; îò 26.04.1990 ã. ¹146; îò 30.05.1991 ã. ¹157).  ÷àñòíîñòè, Òèïîâûìè ïðàâèëàìè… íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè ÐÔ çàïðåùåíî èñïîëüçîâàíèå äëÿ ëþáèòåëüñêîé è ñïîðòèâíîé îõîòû ñåòåé, ïåòåëü, øàòðîâ (ï. 22.6), à òàêæå ïðèìåíåíèå àâòîìîòîòðàíñïîðòíûõ ñðåäñòâ äëÿ ïðåñëåäîâàíèÿ è äîáû÷è ëþáûõ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ (ï. 22.10), òàêæå çàïðåùåíû ñáîð ÿèö è ðàçîðåíèå ãí¸çä äèêèõ ïòèö (ï. 22.11). Êàê âèäíî, ïîä ýòè çàïðåòû ïîäïàäàþò ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå ñïîñîáû äîáû÷è ñîêîëîâ.

Òèïîâûå ïðàâèëà îõîòû ÐÔ íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè ÐÔ çàïðåùàþò èñïîëüçîâàíèå äëÿ ëþáèòåëüñêîé è ñïîðòèâíîé îõîòû ñåòåé, ïåòåëü, øàòðîâ, à òàêæå ïðèìåíåíèå  ôîðìóëèðîâêå ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ åñòü íåñêîëüêî ìîìåíòîâ, íà êîòîðûå ñëåäóåò îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå. Âî-ïåðâûõ, ðàññìàòðèâàåìûå âèäû ñîêîëîâ çàíåñåíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ ñ êàòåãîðèåé 2 «Ñîêðàùàþùèåñÿ â ÷èñëåííîñòè: òàêñîíû è ïîïóëÿöèè ñ íåóêëîííî ñîêðàùàþùåéñÿ ÷èñëåííîñòüþ, êîòîðûå ïðè äàëüíåéøåì âîçäåéñòâèè ôàêòîðîâ, ñíèæàþùèõ ÷èñëåííîñòü, ìîãóò â êîðîòêèå ñðîêè ïîïàñòü â êàòåãîðèþ íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ». Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â óçêîì ïîíèìàíèè îíè íå îòíîñÿòñÿ íè ê êàòåãîðèè «ðåäêèå» (3), íè ê êàòåãîðèè «íàõîäÿùèåñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ» (1). Îäíàêî çàíåñåíèå â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ñàìî ïî ñåáå óêàçàíî â ñòàòüå 8.35 êàê ðàñøèôðîâûâàþùåå âûðàæåíèå «ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ», áåç ðàçëè÷èÿ êàòåãîðèé âíóòðè Êðàñíîé êíèãè. Êðîìå òîãî, âñå ýòè ñîêîëà ïîïàäàþò ïîä äåéñòâèå ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ äîãîâîðîâ ÐÔ – à èìåííî Êîíâåíöèè ÑÈÒÅÑ. Âî-âòîðûõ, ïîÿñíèì, ÷òî íàäëåæàùåå ðàçðåøåíèå â äàííîì ñëó÷àå – ýòî ðàññìîòðåííîå âûøå «Ðàçðåøåíèå íà äîáûâàíèå îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ». Ðàçðåøåíèå âêëþ÷àåò ðÿä óñëîâèé. Îíî ÿâëÿåòñÿ èìåííûì äîêóìåíòîì, ïåðåäà÷à åãî äðóãèì þðèäè÷åñêèì è ôèçè÷åñêèì ëèöàì çàïðåùàåòñÿ. Ñðîê äåéñòâèÿ ðàçðåøåíèÿ îãðàíè÷åí. Äîëæíà áûòü îòìåòêà î ðåãèñòðàöèè â òåððèòîðèàëüíîì îðãàíå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà, áåç êîòîðîé ðàçðåøåíèå íåäåéñòâèòåëüíî. Îáÿçàòåëüíî äîëæíî áûòü óêàçàíî: êîëè÷åñòâî è ïîë äîáûâàåìûõ æèâîòíûõ; òåððèòîðèÿ, ãäå ðàçðåøåíî äîáûâàíèå; ñïîñîá äîáûâàíèÿ (îðóäèÿ ëîâà).  ñîîò-

àâòîìîòîòðàíñïîðòíûõ ñðåäñòâ äëÿ ïðåñëåäîâàíèÿ è äîáû÷è ëþáûõ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ, òàêæå çàïðåùåíû ñáîð ÿèö è ðàçîðåíèå ãí¸çä äèêèõ ïòèö.

Íàðóøåíèå ïðàâèë îõîòû ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèåì, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûì ÷. 1 ñò. 8.37 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ «Íàðóøåíèå ïðàâèë ïîëüçîâàíèÿ îáúåêòàìè æèâîòíîãî ìèðà»: «1. Íàðóøåíèå ïðàâèë îõîòû – âëå÷¸ò íàëîæåíèå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íà ãðàæäàí â ðàçìåðå îò ïÿòè äî äåñÿòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé îõîòû èëè áåç òàêîâîé èëè ëèøåíèå ïðàâà îõîòû íà ñðîê äî äâóõ ëåò; íà äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö – îò äâàäöàòè äî òðèäöàòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé îõîòû èëè áåç òàêîâîé.» Åñëè ñîêîëà íåçàêîííî äîáûòû â ïðåäåëàõ ÎÎÏÒ, ïðèìåíèìà òàêæå ñò. 8.39 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ «Íàðóøåíèå ïðàâèë îõðàíû è èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ íà îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ»: «Íàðóøåíèå óñòàíîâëåííîãî ðåæèìà èëè èíûõ ïðàâèë îõðàíû è èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ îêðóæàþùåé ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû è ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ïðèðîäíûõ çàïîâåäíèêîâ, íàöèîíàëüíûõ ïàðêîâ, ïðèðîäíûõ ïàðêîâ, ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ïðèðîäíûõ çàêàçíèêîâ, à òàêæå íà òåððèòîðèÿõ, íà êîòîðûõ íàõîäÿòñÿ ïàìÿòíèêè ïðèðîäû, íà èíûõ îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ ëèáî â èõ îõðàííûõ çîíàõ (îêðóãàõ) – âëå÷¸ò íàëîæåíèå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íà ãðàæäàí â ðàçìåðå îò äåñÿòè äî äâàäöàòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé ñîâåðøåíèÿ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ è ïðîäóêöèè íåçàêîííîãî ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö – îò äâàäöàòè äî ñîðîêà ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû


Reviews and Comments òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé ñîâåðøåíèÿ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ è ïðîäóêöèè íåçàêîííîãî ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö – îò òð¸õñîò äî øåñòèñîò ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé îðóäèé ñîâåðøåíèÿ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ è ïðîäóêöèè íåçàêîííîãî ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ èëè áåç òàêîâîé». Íàäî îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå, ÷òî â êîíöå 2006 ã. ðàçìåð àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà ïî ñòàòüÿì 8.35, ÷.2 ñò. 8.37 è 8.39 áûë ñóùåñòâåííî ïîâûøåí (Ôåäåðàëüíûìè çàêîíàìè îò 3 íîÿáðÿ 2006 ã. ¹ 181-ÔÇ è ¹ 182-ÔÇ). Ïîìèìî àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ øòðàôîâ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìè íîðìàìè ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ, âèíîâíûå â íåçàêîííîì äîáûâàíèè æèâîòíûõ (â òîì ÷èñëå ñîêîëîâ) äîëæíû âîçìåñòèòü ïðè÷èí¸ííûé óùåðá. Óùåðá â äàííîì ñëó÷àå ðàññ÷èòûâàåòñÿ ïî «Òàêñàì äëÿ èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âçûñêàíèÿ çà óùåðá, ïðè÷èíåííûé þðèäè÷åñêèìè è ôèçè÷åñêèìè ëèöàìè íåçàêîííûì äîáûâàíèåì èëè óíè÷òîæåíèåì æèâîòíûõ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ», óòâåðæä¸ííûì Ïðèêàçîì Ìèíèñòåðñòâà îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû è ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ ÐÔ îò 4 ìàÿ 1994 ã. ¹ 126. Ñîãëàñíî ýòîìó äîêóìåíòó, âçûñêàíèå çà äîáû÷ó îäíîãî ýêçåìïëÿðà êðå÷åòà, áàëîáàíà èëè ñàïñàíà, íåçàâèñèìî îò ïîëà è âîçðàñòà, ñîñòàâëÿåò 50 ÌÐÎÒ çà êàæäóþ îñîáü. Çà êàæäîå óíè÷òîæåííîå ëèáî íåçàêîííî èçúÿòîå ÿéöî ïòèöû âçûñêèâàåòñÿ 50% îò òàêñû çà 1 îñîáü. Çà êàæäîå ðàçðóøåííîå, ïîâðåæä¸ííîå èëè óíè÷òîæåííîå îáèòàåìîå ëèáî ðåãóëÿðíî èñïîëüçóåìîå ãíåçäî óùåðá èñ÷èñëÿåòñÿ â òð¸õêðàòíîì ðàçìåðå îò òàêñû çà 1 îñîáü. Çà òðàâìèðîâàíèå, åñëè îíî íå ïðèâåëî ê ãèáåëè æèâîòíîãî, âçûñêèâàåòñÿ 50% îò òàêñû çà 1 îñîáü. Ñòîèò îòìåòèòü òàêæå, ÷òî çà íåçà-

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

îñîáü. Ñóììû, âûðó÷åííûå çà ðåàëèçàöèþ êîíôèñêîâàííûõ íåçàêîííî äîáûòûõ æèâîòíûõ, çà÷¸òó â ñ÷¸ò âîçìåùåíèÿ óùåðáà íå ïîäëåæàò.

Óãîëîâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü Óãîëîâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà äîáûâàíèå âèäîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ ëèáî ïîäïàäàþùèõ ïîä äåéñòâèå ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ äîãîâîðîâ, çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì íå ïðåäóñìîòðåíà. Îäíàêî ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå äåéñòâèÿ ìîãóò ïîäïàäàòü ïîä äåéñòâèå ñò. 258 ÓÊ ÐÔ «Íåçàêîííàÿ îõîòà»: «1. Íåçàêîííàÿ îõîòà, åñëè ýòî äåÿíèå ñîâåðøåíî: à) ñ ïðè÷èíåíèåì êðóïíîãî óùåðáà; á) ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì ìåõàíè÷åñêîãî òðàíñïîðòíîãî ñðåäñòâà èëè âîçäóøíîãî ñóäíà, âçðûâ÷àòûõ âåùåñòâ, ãàçîâ èëè èíûõ ñïîñîáîâ ìàññîâîãî óíè÷òîæåíèÿ ïòèö è çâåðåé; â) â îòíîøåíèè ïòèö è çâåðåé, îõîòà íà êîòîðûõ ïîëíîñòüþ çàïðåùåíà; ã) íà òåððèòîðèè çàïîâåäíèêà, çàêàçíèêà ëèáî â çîíå ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî áåäñòâèÿ èëè â çîíå ÷ðåçâû÷àéíîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè, - íàêàçûâàåòñÿ øòðàôîì â ðàçìåðå äî äâóõñîò òûñÿ÷ ðóáëåé èëè â ðàçìåðå çàðàáîòíîé ïëàòû èëè èíîãî äîõîäà îñóæä¸ííîãî çà ïåðèîä äî âîñåìíàäöàòè ìåñÿöåâ, ëèáî èñïðàâèòåëüíûìè ðàáîòàìè íà ñðîê äî äâóõ ëåò, ëèáî àðåñòîì íà ñðîê îò ÷¸òûðåõ äî øåñòè ìåñÿöåâ. 2. Òî æå äåÿíèå, ñîâåðø¸ííîå ëèöîì ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ñâîåãî ñëóæåáíîãî ïîëîæåíèÿ ëèáî ãðóïïîé ëèö ïî ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîìó ñãîâîðó èëè îðãàíèçîâàííîé ãðóïïîé, íàêàçûâàåòñÿ øòðàôîì â ðàçìåðå îò ñòà òûñÿ÷ äî òð¸õñîò òûñÿ÷ ðóáëåé èëè â ðàçìåðå çàðàáîòíîé ïëàòû èëè èíîãî äîõîäà îñóæä¸ííîãî çà ïåðèîä

Çà íåçàêîííóþ îõîòó, åñëè îíà ñîâåðøåíà: à) ñ ïðè÷èíåíèåì êðóïíîãî óùåðáà, á) ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì ìåõàíè÷åñêîãî òðàíñïîðòíîãî ñðåäñòâà èëè âîçäóøíîãî ñóäíà, âçðûâ÷àòûõ âåùåñòâ, ãàçîâ èëè èíûõ ñïîñîáîâ ìàññîâîãî óíè÷òîæåíèÿ ïòèö è çâåðåé, â) â îòíîøåíèè ïòèö è çâåðåé, îõîòà íà êîòîðûõ ïîëíîñòüþ çàïðåùåíà,

êîííîå äîáûâàíèå èëè óíè÷òîæåíèå æèâîòíûõ íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ïðèðîäíûõ çàïîâåäíèêîâ, íàöèîíàëüíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ïàðêîâ è èõ îõðàííûõ çîí óùåðá èñ÷èñëÿåòñÿ â òð¸õêðàòíîì ðàçìåðå, à íà äðóãèõ ÎÎÏÒ – â äâóêðàòíîì ðàçìåðå îò òàêñ çà 1 îñîáü. Çà äîáûâàíèå æèâîòíûõ ïî ðàçðåøåíèÿì (ëèöåíçèÿì), âûäàííûì â ðåçóëüòàòå ïðåäîñòàâëåíèÿ èñêàæ¸ííîé, íåäîñòîâåðíîé, çàâåäîìî ëîæíîé èíôîðìàöèè, ëèáî ïî ðàçðåøåíèÿì, âûäàííûì íà äðóãîå ëèöî (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ñëó÷àåâ êîëëåêòèâíîé îõîòû), âçûñêèâàåòñÿ çà óùåðá â äâóêðàòíîì ðàçìåðå îò òàêñû çà 1

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ã) íà òåððèòîðèè çàïîâåäíèêà, çàêàçíèêà ëèáî â çîíå ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî áåäñòâèÿ èëè â çîíå ÷ðåçâû÷àéíîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè, – ñîãëàñíî ñò. 258 ÓÊ ÐÔ ïðåäóñìîòðåíà óãîëîâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü. Äîáû÷à îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ ÿâëÿåòñÿ êâàëèôèöèðóþùèì ïðèçíàêîì íåçàêîííîé îõîòû ñ ïðè÷èíåíèåì êðóïíîãî óùåðáà.

îò îäíîãî ãîäà äî äâóõ ëåò ëèáî ëèøåíèåì ñâîáîäû íà ñðîê äî äâóõ ëåò ñ ëèøåíèåì ïðàâà çàíèìàòü îïðåäåë¸ííûå äîëæíîñòè èëè çàíèìàòüñÿ îïðåäåëåííîé äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ íà ñðîê äî òð¸õ ëåò èëè áåç òàêîâîãî».  ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ï. 12 Ïîñòàíîâëåíèÿ Ïëåíóìà Âåðõîâíîãî Ñóäà ÐÔ «Î ïðàêòèêå ïðèìåíåíèÿ ñóäàìè çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà îá îòâåòñòâåííîñòè çà ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ» îò 05.11.1998 ã. ¹14 (â ðåäàêöèè Ïîñòàíîâëåíèÿ Ïëåíóìà Âåðõîâíîãî Ñóäà îò 06.02.2007 ã. ¹7), ïðè ðàññìîòðåíèè äåë î íåçàêîííîé îõîòå ñóäàì ñëåäóåò ó÷èòûâàòü, ÷òî îõîòîé ïðè-


10

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

çíàþòñÿ òàêèå äåéñòâèÿ, êàê âûñëåæèâàíèå ñ öåëüþ äîáû÷è, ïðåñëåäîâàíèå è ñàìà äîáû÷à äèêèõ ïòèö è çâåðåé. Ïðèçíàêàìè íåçàêîííîé îõîòû ÿâëÿþòñÿ îõîòà áåç ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî ðàçðåøåíèÿ ëèáî âîïðåêè ñïåöèàëüíîìó çàïðåòó, ëèáî ëèöîì, íå èìåþùèì ïðàâà íà îõîòó èëè ïîëó÷èâøèì ëèöåíçèþ áåç íåîáõîäèìûõ îñíîâàíèé, ëèáî îñóùåñòâëÿåìàÿ âíå îòâåä¸ííûõ ìåñò, â çàïðåù¸ííûå ñðîêè, çàïðåù¸ííûìè îðóäèÿìè è ñïîñîáàìè. Ñîñòàâ ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ îáðàçóåò ëþáîé èç ïóíêòîâ (à) – (ã) ñòàòüè 258 ÓÊ ÐÔ. Íàèáîëåå ïðîñòî äîêàçûâàòü, ÷òî ñîêîëà îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ïòèöàì, íà êîòîðûõ îõîòà ïîëíîñòüþ çàïðåùåíà (ïóíêò (â)). Ýòî êàæåòñÿ î÷åâèäíûì, íî â äåéñòâèòåëüíîñòè èìåííî òàêîé ôîðìóëèðîâêè çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî î Êðàñíîé êíèãå íå ñîäåðæèò. Ïîñòàíîâëåíèå Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ «Î Êðàñíîé êíèãå ÐÔ» (îò 19 ôåâðàëÿ 1996 ã. ¹158) ãîâîðèò ëèøü, ÷òî «èçúÿòèå èç åñòåñòâåííîé ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî è ðàñòèòåëüíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, äîïóñêàåòñÿ â èñêëþ÷èòåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ â ïîðÿäêå, óñòàíîâëåííîì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì ÐÔ». Ïîýòîìó íàäî èñõîäèòü èç òîãî, ÷òî îõîòà ðàçðåøåíà íà âèäû, âíåñ¸ííûå â Ïåðå÷åíü îáúåêòîâ îõîòû, óòâåðæäåííûé ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ ¹1289 îò 26.12.1995 ã. (ñ ïîñëåäóþùèìè èçìåíåíèÿìè). Íà ÂÑÅ âèäû, îòñóòñòâóþùèå â ïåðå÷íå – îõîòà çàïðåùåíà, ïðè÷¸ì â ñàìîì ïîñòàíîâëåíèè îãîâîðåíî, ÷òî â ïåðå÷åíü íå âêëþ÷åíû âèäû, ïîäâèäû è ïîïóëÿöèè, çàíåñ¸ííûå â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ è Êðàñíûå êíèãè ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ. Òàêæå íóæíî îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå, ÷òî äîáûâàíèå áàëîáàíà êàê ïðàâèëî ïðîèñõîäèò ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì àâòîìîáèëÿ (ï. (á)). Åñëè îõîòà ïðîèñõîäèò íà òåððèòîðèè çàïîâåäíèêà, çàêàçíèêà ëèáî â çîíå ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî áåäñòâèÿ èëè â çîíå ÷ðåçâû÷àéíîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè (ã) – ýòî òàêæå îñíîâàíèå äëÿ ïðèìåíåíèÿ äàííîé ñòàòüè (òàêæå ñì. âûøå). Íàêîíåö, ìîæíî óòâåðæäàòü, ÷òî ëþáîå äîáûâàíèå êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ ìîæåò êâàëèôèöèðîâàòüñÿ êàê êðóïíûé óùåðá.  ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ïóíêòîì 16 óïîìÿíóòîãî Ïîñòàíîâëåíèÿ Ïëåíóìà Âåðõîâíîãî Ñóäà ÐÔ, ïðè ðåøåíèè ñóäàìè âîïðîñà î òîì, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ëè óùåðá, ïðè÷èí¸ííûé íåçàêîííîé îõîòîé, êðóïíûì, íóæíî ó÷èòûâàòü êîëè÷åñòâî äîáûòîãî, ïîâðåæä¸ííîãî èëè óíè÷òîæåííîãî, ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííîñòü æèâîòíûõ, èõ îòíåñåíèå ê ñïåöèàëüíûì êàòåãîðèÿì, íàïðèìåð, ê ðåäêèì è èñ÷åçàþùèì âèäàì, ýêîëîãè÷åñêóþ öåííîñòü, çíà÷èìîñòü äëÿ êîíêðåòíîãî ìåñòà îáèòàíèÿ, îõîòíè÷üåãî õîçÿéñòâà, à òàêæå èíûå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ñîäåÿííîãî.  ñëó÷àå ïðè÷èíåíèÿ êðóïíîãî óùåðáà íåçàêîííîé îõîòîé íåîáõîäèìî óñòàíîâèòü ïðè÷èííóþ ñâÿçü ìåæäó äåéñòâèÿìè âèíîâíîãî è èõ ïîñëåäñòâèÿìè. Ïðè ýòîì ñóäàì íàäëåæèò â êàæäîì êîíêðåòíîì ñëó÷àå, êâàëèôèöèðóÿ ñîäåÿííîå, èñõîäèòü íå òîëüêî èç ñòîèìîñòè äîáûòîãî è êîëè÷åñòâåííûõ êðèòåðèåâ, íî è ó÷èòûâàòü ïðè÷èí¸ííûé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè âðåä, ò.å. âðåä, â öåëîì íàíåñ¸ííûé æèâîòíîìó è ðàñòèòåëüíîìó ìèðó. Ê òàêîìó âðåäó ñëåäóåò, â ÷àñòíîñòè, îòíîñèòü óùåðá, «ïðè÷èí¸ííûé … îòëîâîì èëè óíè÷òîæåíèåì æèâîòíûõ è ðàñòåíèé, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ». Òàêèì îáðàçîì, äîáû÷à îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, ïî ìíåíèþ Âåðõîâíîãî Ñóäà, ÿâëÿåòñÿ êâàëèôèöèðóþùèì ïðèçíàêîì íåçàêîííîé îõîòû ñ ïðè÷èíåíèåì êðóïíîãî óùåðáà. Òî åñòü, íåçàêîííîå äîáûâàíèå ñîêîëîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó, ñîäåðæèò ïðèçíàêè ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûå ñòàòüåé 258 ÓÊ ÐÔ. Êàê ïðàâèëî, ïðè çàäåðæàíèè ëîâöîâ îíè óñïåâàþò èçáàâèòüñÿ îò ïîéìàííûõ ñîêîëîâ è èìåþò ïðè ñåáå òîëüêî îðóäèÿ îõîòû (ñåòè, ëîâ÷èå æèëåòû è ò.ä.). Âàæíî, ÷òî íåçàâèñèìî îò òîãî, áûëè ëè îáíàðóæåíû äîáûòûå (îòëîâëåííûå) ñîêîëà èëè òîëüêî îðóäèÿ îõîòû, åñëè ôàêò ïðåñëåäîâàíèÿ, âûñëåæèâàíèÿ ïòèö çàôèêñèðîâàí â íàäëåæàùåì ïîðÿäêå, ñóä äîëæåí ðàññìàòðèâàòü ïðåñòóïëåíèå êàê îêîí÷åííîå (ï. 17 Ïîñò. Ïëåíóìà Âåðõîâíîãî Ñóäà ÐÔ «Î ïðèìåíåíèè çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà îá ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ» îò 05.11.1998 ã. ¹ 14).  òî æå âðåìÿ, ñîãëàñíî ýòîìó æå ïóíêòó, ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ, ñâÿçàííûå ñ ïðè÷èíåíèåì êðóïíîãî óùåðáà, îáðàçóþò îêîí÷åííûé ñîñòàâ ëèøü ïðè íàëè÷èè ðåàëüíîãî óùåðáà – òî åñòü åñëè æèâîòíûå áûëè äåéñòâèòåëüíî äîáûòû.  ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ýòèì, ñëåäóåò â êàæäîì êîíêðåòíîì ñëó÷àå ðåøàòü, íóæíî ëè äîáèâàòüñÿ ïðèçíàíèÿ ôàêòà êðóïíîãî óùåðáà.

Ïðîäàæà è èíîé îáîðîò âíóòðè ñòðàíû Ñîãëàñíî ï. 1 ñò. 60 Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà «Îá îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû» (îò 10 ÿíâàðÿ 2002 ã. ¹7ÔÇ, â ðåäàêöèè ôåäåðàëüíûõ çàêîíîâ ÐÔ îò 22.08.2004 ã. ¹122-ÔÇ, îò 29.12.2004 ã. ¹199-ÔÇ è îò 31.12.2005 ã. ¹199-ÔÇ), ðàñòåíèÿ, æèâîòíûå è äðóãèå îðãàíèçìû, îòíîñÿùèåñÿ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíûå êíèãè, ïîâñåìåñòíî ïîäëåæàò èçúÿòèþ èç õîçÿéñòâåííîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ. Çàïðåùàåòñÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòü, âåäóùàÿ ê ñîêðàùåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòèõ ðàñòåíèé, æèâîòíûõ è äðóãèõ îðãàíèçìîâ è óõóäøàþùàÿ ñðåäó èõ îáèòàíèÿ. Íàäî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî òóò èìååòñÿ â âèäó íå òîëüêî Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà ÐÔ, íî è Êðàñíûå êíèãè ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ, ÷òî ÿñíî èç ïðåäøåñòâóþùåãî òåêñòà ýòîé ñòàòüè. Ñîãëàñíî Ôåäåðàëüíîìó çàêîíó «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå» (ñò. 24), îáîðîòîñïîñîáíîñòü äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, äîïóñêàåòñÿ â èñêëþ÷èòåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïî ðàçðåøåíèþ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè), âûäàâàåìîìó ñïåöèàëüíî óïîëíîìî÷åííûì ãîñóäàðñòâåííûì îðãàíîì ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû â ïîðÿäêå, ïðåäóñìîòðåííîì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâîì ÐÔ. Ñîäåðæàíèå óêàçàííûõ æèâîòíûõ â íåâîëå è âûïóñê èõ â åñòåñòâåííóþ ïðèðîäíóþ ñðåäó òàêæå äîïóñêàþòñÿ òîëüêî â èñêëþ÷èòåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ, îïðåäåëÿåìûõ Ïðàâèòåëüñòâîì ÐÔ.


Reviews and Comments ×òî òàêîå îáîðîòîñïîñîáíîñòü äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ ðàçúÿñíÿåòñÿ â ïîñòàíîâëåíèè Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ ¹ 156 îò 19.02.1996 ã. (â ðåäàêöèè ïîñòàíîâëåíèé Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 24.04.2003 ã. ¹240, îò 14.12.2004 ã. ¹774) «Î ïîðÿäêå âûäà÷è ðàçðåøåíèé (ðàñïîðÿäè-

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

ïóñêà â åñòåñòâåííóþ ïðèðîäíóþ ñðåäó â öåëÿõ èõ ñîõðàíåíèÿ è (èëè) ïîïîëíåíèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé. Îäíàêî äëÿ òàêèõ æèâîòíûõ äîëæíû áûòü ïðåäñòàâëåíû äîêóìåíòû, óäîñòîâåðÿþùèå ôàêò èõ ðàçâåäåíèÿ â íåâîëå (âûïèñêà èç ïëåìåííîé êíèãè ñ

Ðàñòåíèÿ, æèâîòíûå è äðóãèå îðãàíèçìû, îòíîñÿùèåñÿ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíûå êíèãè (â ò.÷. Êðàñíûå êíèãè ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ), ïîâñåìåñòíî ïîäëåæàò èçúÿòèþ èç õîçÿéñòâåííîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ (ï. 1 ñò. 60 Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà «Îá îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû») – äåÿòåëüíîñòü, âåäóùàÿ ê ñîêðàùåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòèõ ðàñòåíèé, æèâîòíûõ è äðóãèõ îðãàíèçìîâ è óõóäøàþùàÿ ñðåäó èõ îáèòàíèÿ, çàïðåùàåòñÿ. Îáîðîòîñïîñîáíîñòü äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, òåëüíûõ ëèöåíçèé) íà îáîðîò äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè». Ýòî ïåðåõîä îò îäíîãî ëèöà ê äðóãîìó ïðàâà ïîëüçîâàíèÿ äèêèìè æèâîòíûìè. Äëÿ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, òàêîé ïåðåõîä ïðàâà âîçìîæåí òîëüêî íà îñíîâàíèè ðàçðåøåíèÿ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè) íà îáîðîò óêàçàííûõ æèâîòíûõ (ï. 2 Ïîñòàíîâëåíèÿ…). Ïðàâî âûäàâàòü ðàçðåøåíèÿ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíûå ëèöåíçèè) ïðåäîñòàâëåíî Ôåäåðàëüíîé ñëóæáå ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ (Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðó) (ï. 3). Ýòèì æå ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì óòâåðæä¸í óïîìÿíóòûé â çàêîíå «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå» ïîðÿäîê âûäà÷è ðàçðåøåíèé (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíûõ ëèöåíçèé) íà îáîðîò äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíàÿ ëèöåíçèÿ âûäà¸òñÿ òîëüêî ïðè íàëè÷èè ïîëîæèòåëüíîãî çàêëþ÷åíèÿ ÂÍÈÈ îõðàíû ïðèðîäû è òåððèòîðèàëüíîãî îðãàíà Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà (ïðè íåîáõîäèìîñòè – è èíûõ êîìïåòåíòíûõ îðãàíèçàöèé) î äîïóñòèìîñòè îñóùåñòâëåíèÿ ïîëüçîâàíèÿ çàÿâëÿåìûìè âèäàìè äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ. Ñàìî ðàçðåøåíèå äîëæíî áûòü çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî â ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåì òåððèòîðèàëüíîì îðãàíå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà ïî ìåñòó ñîâåðøåíèÿ îáîðîòà (ï. 2 Ðåêîìåíäàöèé â Ïðèëîæåíèè 7 ê ïðèêàçó Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà «Î ðàçðåøèòåëüíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè â Ôåäåðàëüíîé ñëóæáå ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ» îò 2 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. ¹ 9). Ôîðìà ðàçðåøåíèÿ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè) íà îáîðîò äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, óòâåðæäåíà ïðèêàçîì Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà «Î ðàçðåøèòåëüíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè â Ôåäåðàëüíîé ñëóæáå ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ» (îò 2 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. ¹ 9, Ïðèëîæåíèå 7). Íóæíî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ðàçðåøåíèå íà îáîðîò (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíàÿ ëèöåíçèÿ) íå âûäà¸òñÿ íà îáîðîò æèâîòíûõ, ðàçâåä¸ííûõ â íåâîëå, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì âû-

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ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, à òàêæå ñîäåðæàíèå èõ â íåâîëå è âûïóñê â åñòåñòâåííóþ ïðèðîäíóþ ñðåäó äîïóñêàåòñÿ â èñêëþ÷èòåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïî ðàçðåøåíèþ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè), âûäàâàåìîìó ñïåöèàëüíî óïîëíîìî÷åííûì ãîñóäàðñòâåííûì îðãàíîì ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû â ïîðÿäêå, ïðåäóñìîòðåííîì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâîì ÐÔ (ñò. 24 Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå»).

óêàçàíèåì äàòû è ìåñòà ðîæäåíèÿ, ïëåìåííûõ íîìåðîâ è êëè÷åê, ñ óêàçàíèåì ñâåäåíèé î ðîäèòåëÿõ äî 2ãî, à ïðè íåîáõîäèìîñòè è áîëåå ïîêîëåíèé). Äëÿ ñîêîëîâ ýòî ìîãóò áûòü âûïèñêè èç ðåãèñòðàöèîííîé êíèãè ïèòîìíèêà ñ íîìåðàìè íåñúåìíûõ êîëåö, ñîâïàäàþùèìè ñ íîìåðàìè íà ôàêòè÷åñêè èìåþùèõñÿ êîëüöàõ.

Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà íåçàêîííûé îáîðîò ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ èëè ðàñòåíèé, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ ëèáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ìåæäóíàðîäíûìè äîãîâîðàìè, óñòàíîâëåíà ðàññìîòðåííîé âûøå ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ. Ïðàâîíàðóøåíèåì ÿâëÿåòñÿ äîáûâàíèå, ñáîð, ñîäåðæàíèå, ïðèîáðåòåíèå, ïðîäàæà ëèáî ïåðåñûëêà óêàçàííûõ æèâîòíûõ, èõ ïðîäóêòîâ, ÷àñòåé ëèáî äåðèâàòîâ áåç íàäëåæàùåãî íà òî ðàçðåøåíèÿ èëè ñ íàðóøåíèåì óñëîâèé, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ðàçðåøåíèåì, ëèáî ñ íàðóøåíèåì èíîãî óñòàíîâëåííîãî ïîðÿäêà.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå íàäëåæàùèì ðàçðåøåíèåì ÿâëÿåòñÿ «Ðàçðåøåíèå (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíàÿ ëèöåíçèÿ) íà îáîðîò äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ». Óñëîâèÿ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûå ðàçðåøåíèåì: êîëè÷åñòâî æèâîòíûõ, èõ ïîë è âîçðàñò, ìåòêè è äð.; îòìåòêà î ðåãèñòðàöèè â òåððèòîðèàëüíîì îðãàíå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà ïî ìåñòó ñîâåðøåíèÿ îáîðîòà æèâîòíûõ; óêàçàíèå èñòî÷íèêà è îñíîâàíèé ïðèîáðåòåíèÿ æèâîòíûõ – äîëæíû áûòü óêàçàíû ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà äîáûâàíèå, íà îáîðîò ëèáî íà âëàäåíèå êîíôèñêàòîì, íà îñíîâàíèè êîòîðûõ äàííîå æèâîòíîå ïîïàëî ê íûíåøíåìó âëàäåëüöó. Ïåðå÷èñëåííûå òðåáîâàíèÿ ðåãóëèðóþò îáîðîò æèâûõ æèâîòíûõ, ÷òî äëÿ êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ íàèáîëåå àêòóàëüíî. Íî âîçìîæåí òàêæå ñëó÷àé îáîðîòà äåðèâàòîâ ñîêîëîâ – êîëëåêöèé ÿèö ëèáî (÷àùå) ÷ó÷åë. Íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûì ÷àñòíûì ñëó÷àåì îáîðîòà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîäàæà.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

«Ïðàâèëà ïðîäàæè îòäåëüíûõ âèäîâ òîâàðîâ» óñòàíàâëèâàþò, ÷òî «ïðîäàæà òîâàðîâ, èçãîòîâëåííûõ èç îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà (ìåõîâûå è êîæàíûå øâåéíûå, ãàëàíòåðåéíûå, äåêîðàòèâíûå èçäåëèÿ, îáóâü, ïèùåâûå ïðîäóêòû), ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ïðè íà-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ îãðàíè÷åíà çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì, âëå÷¸ò íàëîæåíèå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íà ãðàæäàí â ðàçìåðå îò ïÿòíàäöàòè äî äâàäöàòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé ïðåäìåòîâ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö – îò òðèäöàòè äî ñîðîêà ìèíèìàëüíûõ

Ïðîäàæà äåðèâàòîâ (êîëëåêöèé ÿèö ëèáî ÷ó÷åë) ðåãóëèðóåòñÿ «Ïðàâèëàìè ïðîäàæè îòäåëüíûõ âèäîâ òîâàðîâ», óòëè÷èè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé äîêóìåíòàöèè íà òîâàðû, ïîäòâåðæäàþùåé, ÷òî ýòè îáúåêòû æèâîòíîãî ìèðà äîáûòû â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè íà îñíîâàíèè ðàçðåøåíèÿ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè), âûäàâàåìîãî ôåäåðàëüíûì îðãàíîì èñïîëíèòåëüíîé âëàñòè â îáëàñòè îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû» (ï. 13). ×ó÷åëî ìîæåò ðàññìàòðèâàòüñÿ êàê äåêîðàòèâíîå èçäåëèå è ïîòîìó ïîäïàäàåò ïîä äåéñòâèå «Ïðàâèë…». Òîò æå ï. 13 Ïðàâèë óñòàíàâëèâàåò, ÷òî «ïðîäàæà ââåç¸ííûõ â ÐÔ òîâàðîâ, èçãîòîâëåííûõ èç îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, ïîäïàäàþùèõ ïîä äåéñòâèå Êîíâåíöèè î ìåæäóíàðîäíîé òîðãîâëå âèäàìè äèêîé ôàóíû è ôëîðû, íàõîäÿùèìèñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ (ÑÈÒÅÑ), îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ íà îñíîâàíèè ðàçðåøåíèÿ êîìïåòåíòíîãî îðãàíà ñòðàíû-ýêñïîðò¸ðà, à òîâàðîâ, êîíôèñêîâàííûõ â ðåçóëüòàòå íàðóøåíèÿ óêàçàííîé Êîíâåíöèè, – íà îñíîâàíèè ðàçðåøåíèÿ óïîëíîìî÷åííîãî îðãàíà». Îòíîñèòåëüíî ñîêîëîâ òàêàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ ìîæåò âîçíèêíóòü â ñëó÷àå ïðîäàæè ÷ó÷åëà, ââåç¸ííîãî èç äðóãîé ñòðàíû. Êîìïåòåíòíûì îðãàíîì ñòðàíû-ýêñïîðò¸ðà ÿâëÿåòñÿ Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûé îðãàí ÑÈÒÅÑ ýòîé ñòðàíû, óïîëíîìî÷åííûì îðãàíîì â îòíîøåíèè ïðîäàæè êîíôèñêîâàííîãî òîâàðà – Àäìè-

ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé ïðåäìåòîâ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö – îò òð¸õñîò äî ÷åòûðåõñîò ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé ïðåäìåòîâ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ èëè áåç òàêîâîé.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå ðå÷ü áóäåò èäòè î ïðÿìîì íàðóøåíèè óêàçàííîãî ïóíêòà «Ïðàâèë ïðîäàæè îòäåëüíûõ âèäîâ òîâàðîâ» è î íåçàêîííîé ïðîäàæå òîâàðîâ (âåùåé), ñâîáîäíàÿ ðåàëèçàöèÿ êîòîðûõ îãðàíè÷åíà ýòèìè «Ïðàâèëàìè…».

Ïåðåâîçêà è äîñìîòð òðàíñïîðòíîãî ñðåäñòâà Âàæíàÿ ÷àñòü îáîðîòà ñîêîëîâ âíóòðè Ðîññèè – èõ ïåðåâîçêà. Êàê ðàññìîòðåíî âûøå, ðàçðåøåíèå (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíàÿ ëèöåíçèÿ) íà îáîðîò æèâîòíûõ, îòíîñÿùèõñÿ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, íåîáõîäèìî íå òîëüêî äëÿ ñîâåðøåíèÿ òîðãîâûõ îïåðàöèé, íî è äëÿ ñîäåðæàíèÿ è ïåðåñûëêè ýòèõ æèâîòíûõ. Ïîýòîìó ïðîâîç ñîêîëîâ áåç íàäëåæàùèõ ðàçðåøèòåëüíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèåì, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûì ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ.

Ïðîâîç ñîêîëîâ âíóòðè ñòðàíû áåç ðàçðåøåíèÿ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè) íà îáîðîò æèâîòíûõ, îòíîñÿùèõñÿ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ íèñòðàòèâíûé îðãàí ÑÈÒÅÑ ïî Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè (â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ýòî Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîð – ï. 5.2.1 Ïîëîæåíèÿ î Ôåäåðàëüíîé ñëóæáå ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ, óòâåðæäåíî ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 30 èþëÿ 2004 ã. ¹400). Íàðóøåíèå ïðàâèë ïðîäàæè îòäåëüíûõ âèäîâ òîâàðîâ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèåì, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûì ñòàòüåé 14.15 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ, è âëå÷¸ò íàëîæåíèå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íà ãðàæäàí â ðàçìåðå îò òð¸õ äî ïÿòíàäöàòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà; íà äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö – îò äåñÿòè äî òðèäöàòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà; íà þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö – îò ñòà äî òð¸õñîò ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà. Êðîìå òîãî, ïðèìåíèìà òàêæå ñòàòüÿ 14.2 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ, ñîãëàñíî êîòîðîé íåçàêîííàÿ ïðîäàæà òîâàðîâ (èíûõ âåùåé), ñâîáîäíàÿ ðåàëèçàöèÿ êîòîðûõ çàïðåùåíà èëè

âåðæä¸ííûìè ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 19 ÿíâàðÿ 1998 ã. ¹ 55 ñ èçìåíåíèÿìè îò 6 ôåâðàëÿ 2002 ã. ¹81.

ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèåì, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûì ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ; áåç âåòåðèíàðíûõ ñîïðîâîäèòåëüíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ – ñò. 10.8 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ.

Îäíàêî ñóùåñòâóåò ñëîæíîñòü ñ âûÿâëåíèåì òàêîãî ïðîâîçà. Êàê ïðàâèëî, ïòèöû íå âèäíû ïðè ïîâåðõíîñòíîì îñìîòðå, äëÿ èõ âûÿâëåíèÿ òðåáóåòñÿ äîñìîòð òðàíñïîðòíîãî ñðåäñòâà. Ïðè íàõîæäåíèè â ïðåäåëàõ îõîòóãîäèé ïðàâî òàêîãî äîñìîòðà èìåþò äîëæíîñòíûå ëèöà îðãàíîâ îõîòíàäçîðà, èì æå ïðåäîñòàâëåíî ïðàâî ñîñòàâëåíèÿ ïðîòîêîëîâ ïî ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ (ñì. íèæå). Íî íà äîðîãàõ îáùåãî ïîëüçîâàíèÿ ïðàâî äîñìîòðà èìåþò òîëüêî ñîòðóäíèêè îðãàíîâ âíóòðåííèõ äåë (ìèëèöèè). Îíè, îäíàêî, íå èìåþò ïðàâà ñîñòàâëÿòü ïðîòîêîëû î ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ ïî ñò. 8.35 è ïîòîìó íå çàèíòåðåñîâàíû â âûÿâëåíèè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèé. Âûõîäîì èç ïîëîæåíèÿ ìîæåò áûòü òîëüêî îðãàíèçàöèÿ ñîâìåñòíûõ ïðîâåðîê òðàíñïîðòà ñîòðóäíèêàìè ìèëèöèè è êàêèõ-ëèáî îðãàíîâ, äîëæíîñòíûå ëèöà êîòîðûõ ìîãóò ñîñòàâëÿòü


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

ïðîòîêîëû ïî ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ (ïåðå÷åíü òàêèõ îðãàíîâ – ñì. íèæå). Òàêæå íóæíî èìåòü â âèäó, ÷òî ïåðåâîçêà ñîêîëîâ, êàê è ëþáûõ æèâûõ æèâîòíûõ, òðåáóåò îáÿçàòåëüíîãî íàëè÷èÿ âåòåðèíàðíûõ ñîïðîâîäèòåëüíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ. Ïðè ïåðåâîçêå â ïðåäåëàõ ðàéîíà (ãîðîäà) ýòî âåòå-

ïðèîñòàíîâëåíèå äåÿòåëüíîñòè íà ñðîê äî äåâÿíîñòà ñóòîê; íà þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö – îò òðèäöàòè äî ïÿòèäåñÿòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà èëè àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîå ïðèîñòàíîâëåíèå äåÿòåëüíîñòè íà ñðîê äî äåâÿíîñòà ñóòîê (â ðåä. Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà îò 09.05.2005 ã. ¹45-ÔÇ).

Òðàíñãðàíè÷íûé îáîðîò ñàïñàíà è êðå÷åòà (âèäû èç Ïðèëîæåíèÿ 1 ÑÈÒÅÑ), íå ïîïàäàþùèõ ïîä îïðåäåëåíèå «âûâåäåííûé â íåâîëå»*, òðåáóåò íàëè÷èÿ ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà ýêñïîðò, âûäàííîãî Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì îðãàíîì ÑÈÒÅÑ ñòðàíû-ýêñïîðò¸ðà, è ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà èìïîðò, âûäàííîãî Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì îðãàíîì ÑÈÒÅÑ ñòðàíû-èìïîðò¸ðà. Òðàíñãðàíè÷íûé îáîðîò áàëîáàíà (âèä èç Ïðèëîæåðèíàðíàÿ ñïðàâêà ôîðìû ¹4, çà ïðåäåëû ðàéîíà (ãîðîäà) ïî òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè – âåòåðèíàðíîå ñâèäåòåëüñòâî ôîðìû ¹1. Äåéñòâóþùèå ôîðìû äîêóìåíòîâ è ïîðÿäîê èõ âûäà÷è óñòàíîâëåíû ïðèêàçîì Ìèíñåëüõîçà Ðîññèè îò 16 íîÿáðÿ 2006 ã. ¹422 «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè ïðàâèë îðãàíèçàöèè ðàáîòû ïî âûäà÷å âåòåðèíàðíûõ ñîïðîâîäèòåëüíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ». Ïðîòîêîëû ïî íàðóøåíèþ âåòåðèíàðíîãî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà óïîëíîìî÷åíû ñîñòàâëÿòü òîëüêî äîëæíîñòíûå ëèöà îðãàíîâ, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèõ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé âåòåðèíàðíûé íàäçîð (â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ýòî Ðîññåëüõîçíàäçîð, ãäå ñóùåñòâóåò Óïðàâëåíèå âåòåðèíàðíîãî íàäçîðà).

Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà íàðóøåíèå âåòåðèíàðíî-ñàíèòàðíûõ ïðàâèë ïåðåâîçêè ïðåäóñ-

íèÿ 2 ÑÈÒÅÑ), à òàêæå ñàïñàíà è êðå÷åòà, ïîïàäàþùèõ ïîä îïðåäåëåíèå «âûâåäåííûé â íåâîëå»*, òðåáóåò íàëè÷èÿ òîëüêî ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà ýêñïîðò. Òàêæå ýêñïîðòíî-èìïîðòíûå îïåðàöèè ñ æèâûìè êðóïíûìè ñîêîëàìè òðåáóþò ðàçðåøåíèÿ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè) íà îáîðîò äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ.

Òðàíñãðàíè÷íûé îáîðîò (âûâîç, ïðîäàæà çà ãðàíèöó) Ýêñïîðò êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ âîçìîæåí â îñîáûõ ñëó÷àÿõ è îôîðìëÿåòñÿ îïðåäåë¸ííûìè äîêóìåíòàìè. Ïðåæäå âñåãî, âûâîç ñàïñàíà è êðå÷åòà êàê âèäîâ, âíåñ¸ííûõ â Ïðèëîæåíèå 1 ÑÈÒÅÑ, íå ïîïàäàþùèõ ïîä îïðåäåëåíèå «âûâåäåííûé â íåâîëå»*, òðåáóåò íàëè÷èÿ ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà ýêñïîðò, âûäàííîãî Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì îðãàíîì ÑÈÒÅÑ ñòðàíû-ýêñïîðò¸ðà, è ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà èìïîðò, âûäàííîãî Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì îðãàíîì ÑÈÒÅÑ ñòðàíû-èìïîðò¸ðà. Äëÿ áàëîáàíà (âèä, âíåñ¸ííûé â Ïðèëîæåíèå 2 ÑÈÒÅÑ), à òàêæå ñàïñàíà è êðå÷åòà, ïîïàäàþùèõ ïîä îïðåäåëåíèå «âûâåäåííûé â íåâîëå»*, íåîáõîäèìî òîëüêî îäíî ðàçðåøåíèå – íà ýêñïîðò (íå òðåáóåòñÿ äîïîëíèòåëüíîãî ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà èìïîðò). Îòìåòèì, ÷òî äàííûé ïîðÿäîê

Ïîðÿäîê âûâîçà èç Ðîññèè çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé îïðåäåë¸í Ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 17.07.96 ã. ¹823 «Î ïîðÿäêå ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ó÷¸òà, ïîïîëíåíèÿ, õðàíåíèÿ, ïðèîáðåòåíèÿ, ïðîäàæè, ïåðåñûëêè, âûâîçà çà ïðåäåëû Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè è ââîçà íà å¸ òåððèòîðèþ çîîìîòðåíà ñò. 10.8 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ. Ñîãëàñíî ýòîé ñòàòüå, òàêîå ïðàâîíàðóøåíèå âëå÷¸ò íàëîæåíèå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íà ãðàæäàí â ðàçìåðå îò îäíîãî äî òð¸õ ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà; íà äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö – îò òð¸õ äî ïÿòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà; íà ëèö, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèõ ïðåäïðèíèìàòåëüñêóþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü áåç îáðàçîâàíèÿ þðèäè÷åñêîãî ëèöà, – îò òð¸õ äî ïÿòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà èëè àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîå

13

ëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé» è Ïðèêàçîì Ãîñêîìýêîëîãèè Ðîññèè îò 30 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1997 ã. ¹411. Âûâîç çà ïðåäåëû ÐÔ è ââîç íà å¸ òåððèòîðèþ çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé, èõ ÷àñòåé è îòäåëüíûõ ýêñïîíàòîâ äîïóñêàþòñÿ òîëüêî íà îñíîâàíèè ðàçðåøåíèé, âûäàâàåìûõ Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðîì.

ðàñïðîñòðàíÿåòñÿ íà ýêñïîðò-èìïîðò êàê æèâûõ ïòèö, òàê è äåðèâàòîâ (÷ó÷åë, êîëëåêöèé ÿèö). Çàòåì, ëþáûå, â òîì ÷èñëå ýêñïîðòíî-èìïîðòíûå, îïåðàöèè ñ æèâûìè êðóïíûìè ñîêîëàìè òðåáóþò, êàê îïèñàíî âûøå, ðàçðåøåíèÿ (ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíîé ëèöåíçèè) íà îáîðîò äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê âèäàì, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ. Äåðèâàòû è æèâûå æèâîòíûå ìîãóò ðàññìàòðèâàòüñÿ êàê ïðåäìåòû êîëëåêöèîíèðîâàíèÿ èëè çîîëîãè-

* Âûâåäåííûé â íåâîëå – æèâîòíîå, ðîæäåííîå èëè ïîëó÷åííîå äðóãèì ïóò¸ì âî âòîðîì èëè ïîñëåäóþùèõ ïîêîëåíèÿõ â èñêóññòâåííî ðåãóëèðóåìûõ óñëîâèÿõ (Ðåçîëþöèÿ 10.16)


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

÷åñêèå êîëëåêöèè (â ñëó÷àå íåñêîëüêèõ îáðàçöîâ). Âûâîç çà ïðåäåëû ÐÔ è ââîç íà å¸ òåððèòîðèþ çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé (êàê âêëþ÷¸ííûõ, òàê è íå âêëþ÷¸ííûõ â ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ðååñòð çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé), èõ ÷àñòåé è îòäåëüíûõ ýêñïîíàòîâ äîïóñêàþòñÿ òîëüêî íà îñíîâàíèè ðàçðåøåíèé, âûäàâàåìûõ Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðîì (ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ïîëíîìî÷èÿ îïðåäåëåíû Ïðèêàçîì Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà îò 02.09.2004 ã. ¹9). Ôîðìà ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà âûâîç çà ïðåäåëû ÐÔ è ââîç íà å¸ òåððèòîðèþ çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé, èõ ÷àñòåé è îòäåëüíûõ ýêñïîíàòîâ óòâåðæäåíà Ïðèêàçîì Ãîñêîìýêîëîãèè Ðîññèè îò 30 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1997 ã. ¹411. Îäíàêî Ïîëîæåíèåì î çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèÿõ óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî âûâîç çà ïðåäåëû ÐÔ è ââîç íà å¸ òåððèòîðèþ çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé, îòíåñ¸ííûõ ê êóëüòóðíûì öåííîñòÿì, ðåãóëèðóþòñÿ Çàêîíîì ÐÔ îò 15 àïðåëÿ 1993 ã. ¹4804–1 «Î âûâîçå è ââîçå êóëüòóðíûõ öåííîñòåé». Òàêèì îáðàçîì, äëÿ ðåäêèõ êîëëåêöèé è îáðàçöîâ ôëîðû è ôàóíû, êîòîðûå â óñòàíîâëåííîì ïîðÿäêå âêëþ÷åíû â ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå îõðàííûå ñïèñêè èëè ðååñòðû êóëüòóðíûõ öåííîñòåé, óñòàíîâëåí äðóãîé ïîðÿäîê ïîëó÷åíèÿ ðàçðåøåíèé.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå ïðîâåäåíèå ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ýêñïåðòèç è âûäà÷à ðàçðåøåíèé îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì êóëüòóðû ÐÔ, åãî òåððèòîðèàëüíûìè îðãàíàìè, äðóãèìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ Ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 27 àïðåëÿ 2001 ã. ¹322 «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè Ïîëîæåíèÿ î ïðîâåäåíèè ýêñïåðòèçû è êîíòðîëÿ çà âûâîçîì êóëüòóðíûõ öåííîñòåé». Ñîãëàñíî æå ñò. 7 óïîìÿíóòîãî çàêîíà êóëüòóðíîé öåííîñòüþ ïðèçíàþòñÿ, ñðåäè ïðî÷åãî, «ðåäêèå êîëëåêöèè è îáðàçöû ôëîðû è ôàóíû». Ñîãëàñíî ñò. 9, ÷. 1 òîãî æå çàêîíà, ñðåäè êàòåãîðèé êóëüòóðíûõ öåííîñòåé, êîòîðûå íå ïîäëåæàò âûâîçó èç ÐÔ, óïîìÿíóòû è «äâèæèìûå ïðåäìåòû, ïðåäñòàâëÿþùèå … íàó÷íóþ èëè èíóþ êóëüòóðíóþ öåííîñòü è îòíåñ¸ííûå â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ äåéñòâóþùèì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì ê îñîáî öåííûì îáúåêòàì êóëüòóðíîãî íàñëåäèÿ íàðîäîâ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, íåçàâèñèìî îò âðåìåíè èõ ñîçäàíèÿ; äâèæèìûå ïðåäìåòû, íåçàâèñèìî îò âðåìåíè èõ ñîçäàíèÿ, îõðàíÿåìûå ãîñóäàðñòâîì è âíåñ¸ííûå â îõðàííûå ñïèñêè è ðååñòðû â ïîðÿäêå, óñòàíîâëåííîì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì ÐÔ». Æèâûå ñîêîëà ðàññìàòðèâàåìûõ âèäîâ ìîãóò áûòü îòíåñåíû ê îáåèì êàòåãîðèÿì, òàê êàê îíè ïðåäñòàâëÿþò îñîáóþ öåííîñòü â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì î Êðàñíîé êíèãå, è â ïîðÿäêå, óñòàíîâëåííîì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, âíåñåíû â îõðàííûå ñïèñêè – à èìåííî â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ.

Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà òðàíñãðàíè÷íûé îáîðîò (âûâîç, ââîç) âèäîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Ïðèëîæåíèÿ ÑÈÒÅÑ è Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, áåç íàäëåæàùåãî íà òî ðàçðåøåíèÿ èëè ñ íàðóøåíèåì óñëîâèé, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ðàçðåøåíèåì, ëèáî ñ íàðóøåíèåì èíîãî óñòàíîâëåííîãî ïîðÿäêà, íàñòóïàåò ïî óæå ðàññìîòðåííîé ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå Êîíâåíöèÿ

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè ÑÈÒÅÑ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷àñòíûì ñëó÷àåì ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ äîãîâîðîâ, óïîìÿíóòûõ â ýòîé ñòàòüå.  ñëó÷àå ïðèìåíåíèÿ ê âûâîçó ñîêîëîâ çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà î çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèÿõ ïðèìåíÿåòñÿ ñò. 8.34 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ «Íàðóøåíèå óñòàíîâëåííîãî ïîðÿäêà ñîçäàíèÿ, èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ èëè òðàíñïîðòèðîâêè áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé». Ñîãëàñíî ýòîé ñòàòüå, íàðóøåíèå óñòàíîâëåííîãî ïîðÿäêà ñîçäàíèÿ, ïîïîëíåíèÿ, õðàíåíèÿ, èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ, ó÷¸òà, ïðîäàæè, ïðèîáðåòåíèÿ, òðàíñïîðòèðîâêè èëè ïåðåñûëêè áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé âëå÷¸ò íàëîæåíèå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íà ãðàæäàí â ðàçìåðå îò òð¸õ äî ïÿòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé êîëëåêöèîííûõ îáúåêòîâ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö – îò ïÿòè äî äåñÿòè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé êîëëåêöèîííûõ îáúåêòîâ èëè áåç òàêîâîé; íà þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö – îò ïÿòèäåñÿòè äî ñòà ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ îïëàòû òðóäà ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé êîëëåêöèîííûõ îáúåêòîâ èëè áåç òàêîâîé.

Óãîëîâíàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü Íåçàêîííîå ïåðåìåùåíèå ñîêîëîâ ÷åðåç ãðàíèöó ïîäïàäàåò ïîä ïîíÿòèå êîíòðàáàíäû è ìîæåò ïðåñëåäîâàòüñÿ ïî ñò. 188 ÓÊ ÐÔ «Êîíòðàáàíäà».  ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ÷àñòüþ 1 ýòîé ñòàòüè, êîíòðàáàíäîé ÿâëÿåòñÿ «ïåðåìåùåíèå â êðóïíîì ðàçìåðå ÷åðåç òàìîæåííóþ ãðàíèöó ÐÔ òîâàðîâ èëè èíûõ ïðåäìåòîâ, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì óêàçàííûõ â ÷àñòè âòîðîé íàñòîÿùåé ñòàòüè, ñîâåðø¸ííîå ïîìèìî èëè ñ ñîêðûòèåì îò òàìîæåííîãî êîíòðîëÿ ëèáî ñ îáìàííûì èñïîëüçîâàíèåì äîêóìåíòîâ èëè ñðåäñòâ òàìîæåííîé èäåíòèôèêàöèè ëèáî ñîïðÿæ¸ííîå ñ íåäåêëàðèðîâàíèåì èëè íåäîñòîâåðíûì äåêëàðèðîâàíèåì».  ÷àñòè 2 ýòîé ñòàòüè ïåðå÷èñëåíû òå ïðåäìåòû (òîâàðû), ïåðåìåùåíèå êîòîðûõ ÷åðåç òàìîæåííóþ ãðàíèöó ÿâëÿåòñÿ êîíòðàáàíäîé, åñëè ýòî äåÿíèå ñîâåðøåíî ïîìèìî èëè ñ ñîêðûòèåì îò òàìîæåííîãî êîíòðîëÿ ëèáî ñ îáìàííûì èñïîëüçîâàíèåì äîêóìåíòîâ èëè ñðåäñòâ òàìîæåííîé èäåíòèôèêàöèè ëèáî ñîïðÿæåíî ñ íåäåêëàðèðîâàíèåì èëè íåäîñòîâåðíûì äåêëàðèðîâàíèåì, íî âíå çàâèñèìîñòè îò ðàçìåðîâ óùåðáà.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ê òàêîâûì îòíîñÿòñÿ êóëüòóðíûå öåííîñòè, â îòíîøåíèè êîòîðûõ óñòàíîâëåíû ñïåöèàëüíûå ïðàâèëà ïåðåìåùåíèÿ ÷åðåç òàìîæåííóþ ãðàíèöó ÐÔ (â ðåä. Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà îò 07.05.2002 ã. ¹50-ÔÇ). Ïðåñòóïëåíèå, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå ÷àñòè 1 ñòàòüè 188, íàêàçûâàåòñÿ øòðàôîì â ðàçìåðå îò ñòà òûñÿ÷ äî òð¸õñîò òûñÿ÷ ðóáëåé èëè â ðàçìåðå çàðàáîòíîé ïëàòû èëè èíîãî äîõîäà îñóæä¸ííîãî çà ïåðèîä îò îäíîãî ãîäà äî äâóõ ëåò ëèáî ëèøåíèåì ñâîáîäû íà ñðîê äî ïÿòè ëåò (â ðåä. Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà îò 08.12.2003 ã. ¹162-ÔÇ); ïðåñòóïëåíèå, ïîäïàäàþùåå ïîä þðèñäèêöèþ ÷àñòè 2 ýòîé ñòàòüè, íàêàçûâàåòñÿ ëèøåíèåì ñâîáîäû íà ñðîê îò òð¸õ äî ñåìè ëåò ñî øòðàôîì â ðàçìåðå äî îäíîãî ìèëëèîíà ðóáëåé èëè â ðàçìåðå çàðàáîòíîé ïëàòû èëè èíîãî äîõîäà îñóæä¸ííîãî çà ïåðèîä äî ïÿòè ëåò ëèáî áåç òàêîâîãî (â ðåä. Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà îò 08.12.2003 ã. ¹162-ÔÇ).


Reviews and Comments Ïðè ýòîì äåÿíèÿ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûå ÷àñòÿìè ïåðâîé è âòîðîé ñòàòüè 188, ñîâåðø¸ííûå îðãàíèçîâàííîé ãðóïïîé, íàêàçûâàþòñÿ ëèøåíèåì ñâîáîäû íà ñðîê îò ñåìè äî äâåíàäöàòè ëåò ñî øòðàôîì â ðàçìåðå äî îäíîãî ìèëëèîíà ðóáëåé èëè â ðàçìåðå çàðàáîòíîé ïëàòû èëè èíîãî äîõîäà îñóæä¸ííîãî çà ïåðèîä äî ïÿòè ëåò ëèáî áåç òàêîâîãî (â ðåä. Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà îò 08.12.2003 ã. ¹162-ÔÇ).

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

Ïîäâåäîìñòâåííîñòü äåë îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ Äëÿ ïðèìåíåíèÿ ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ âàæíî çíàòü, êàêèå ñóäüè è îðãàíû óïîëíîìî÷åíû ðàññìàòðèâàòü äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ óêàçàííûìè âûøå ñòàòüÿìè.

Êðóïíûé ðàçìåð óùåðáà (ñîãëàñíî ïðèìå÷àíèþ ê ñò. 169 ÓÊ ÐÔ) – ñóììà, ïðåâûøàþùàÿ äâåñòè ïÿòüäåñÿò òûñÿ÷ ðóáëåé, Êàê âèäíî, åñëè óäà¸òñÿ äîêàçàòü â ñóäå, ÷òî ñîêîëà ïîäïàäàþò ïîä îïðåäåëåíèå «êóëüòóðíîé öåííîñòè» ïî Çàêîíó ÐÔ «Î âûâîçå è ââîçå êóëüòóðíûõ öåííîñòåé», êàê îïèñàíî âûøå, òî äîëæíû ïðèìåíÿòüñÿ íîðìû ÷àñòè 2 ñò. 188, åñëè æå ýòî äîêàçàòü íå óäà¸òñÿ, îñòà¸òñÿ âîçìîæíîñòü ïðèìåíèòü ÷àñòü 1 ýòîé ñòàòüè. Íî ïîñëåäíåå âîçìîæíî òîëüêî â òîì ñëó÷àå, åñëè âûâîç ñîêîëîâ ñîïðÿæ¸í ñ êðóïíûì ðàçìåðîì óùåðáà. Ðàçìåð óùåðáà îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ïðèìå÷àíèåì ê ñò. 169 ÓÊ ÐÔ: êðóïíûì ðàçìåðîì, êðóïíûì óùåðáîì … ïðèçíàþòñÿ ñòîèìîñòü, óùåðá … â ñóììå, ïðåâûøàþùåé äâåñòè ïÿòüäåñÿò òûñÿ÷ ðóáëåé, îñîáî êðóïíûì – îäèí ìèëëèîí ðóáëåé (ïðèìå÷àíèå ââåäåíî Ôåäåðàëüíûì çàêîíîì îò 08.12.2003 ã. ¹162-ÔÇ). Ðàçìåð óùåðáà â äàííîì ñëó÷àå ñîîòâåòñòâóåò òàìîæåííîé ñòîèìîñòè êîíòðàáàíäíîãî òîâàðà (ïòèö). Ñîãëàñíî ÷àñòè 3 ñò. 288 Òàìîæåííîãî êîäåêñà ÐÔ «ïðè îòñóòñòâèè äîêóìåíòîâ è ñâåäåíèé, ïîäòâåðæäàþùèõ ïðàâèëüíîñòü îïðåäåëåíèÿ òàìîæåííîé ñòîèìîñòè, çàÿâëåííîé ôèçè÷åñêèì ëèöîì, òàìîæåííûé îðãàí ìîæåò ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî îïðåäåëèòü òàìîæåííóþ ñòîèìîñòü òîâàðîâ íà îñíîâàíèè äàííûõ, óêàçûâàåìûõ â êàòàëîãàõ èíîñòðàííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèõ ïðîäàæó òîâàðîâ, ëèáî íà îñíîâå èíîé öåíîâîé èíôîðìàöèè, èìåþùåéñÿ â ðàñïîðÿæåíèè òàìîæåííîãî îðãàíà â îòíîøåíèè ïîäîáíûõ òîâàðîâ. Ïðè èñïîëüçîâàíèè óêàçàííîé öåíîâîé èíôîðìàöèè òàìîæåííûé îðãàí ïðîèçâîäèò êîððåêòèðîâêó òàìîæåííîé ñòîèìîñòè â çàâèñèìîñòè îò êà÷åñòâà òîâàðîâ, èõ ðåïóòàöèè íà ðûíêå, ñòðàíû ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ, âðåìåíè èçãîòîâëåíèÿ è äðóãèõ ôàêòîðîâ, âëèÿþùèõ íà öåíó». Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ðàçìåð óùåðáà áóäåò îïðåäåëÿòüñÿ ðûíî÷íîé ñòîèìîñòüþ âûâîçèìûõ ñîêîëîâ. Êðîìå òîãî, íóæíî èìåòü â âèäó, ÷òî âûâîç çà ãðàíèöó æèâûõ æèâîòíûõ âîçìîæåí òîëüêî ïðè íàëè÷èè âåòåðèíàðíîãî ñåðòèôèêàòà ïî ôîðìå 5à, âûâîç äåðèâàòîâ – ïðè íàëè÷èè âåòåðèíàðíîãî ñåðòèôèêàòà ôîðìû 5j, äëÿ ïåðåâîçêè ïî òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè æèâûõ æèâîòíûõ, ââåç¸ííûõ èç-çà ãðàíèöû, îò ìåñòà òàìîæåííîãî îôîðìëåíèÿ äî ìåñòà íàçíà÷åíèÿ òðåáóåòñÿ âåòåðèíàðíûé ñåðòèôèêàò ôîðìû ¹6.1. Îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà íåñîáëþäåíèå ýòèõ òðåáîâàíèé íàñòóïàåò ïî ðàññìîòðåííîé âûøå ñòàòüå 10.8 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ.

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îñîáî êðóïíûé ðàçìåð – îäèí ìèëëèîí ðóáëåé. Ñóììà óùåðáà îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ðûíî÷íîé ñòîèìîñòüþ âûâîçèìûõ ñîêîëîâ.

 ñëó÷àå, åñëè àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîå ïðàâîíàðóøåíèå ñîâåðøåíî íà çåìëÿõ ëåñíîãî ôîíäà è ëåñîâ, íå âõîäÿùèõ â ëåñíîé ôîíä, äåëî ìîãóò ðàññìàòðèâàòü îðãàíû, óïîëíîìî÷åííûå â îáëàñòè èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ, îõðàíû è çàùèòû ëåñíîãî ôîíäà. Äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ñò. 8.35 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ, ðàññìàòðèâàþò ðàéîííûå ñóäüè â ñëó÷àÿõ, åñëè îðãàí èëè äîëæíîñòíîå ëèöî, ê êîòîðûì ïîñòóïèëî äåëî î òàêîì àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîì ïðàâîíàðóøåíèè, ïåðåäà¸ò åãî íà ðàññìîòðåíèå ñóäüå.  àíàëîãè÷íûõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà ïðàâîíàðóøåíèå ñîâåðøåííî âîåííîñëóæàùèìè ëèáî ãðàæäàíàìè, ïðèçâàííûìè íà âîåííûå ñáîðû, äåëî ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ ñóäüåé ãàðíèçîííîãî âîåííîãî ñóäà (ñò. 23.1, ÷. 2, 3). Òàêæå ýòè äåëà ìîãóò ðàññìàòðèâàòüñÿ ñëåäóþùèìè îðãàíàìè: (à) Ïîãðàíè÷íûå îðãàíû, â òîì ÷èñëå: 1) íà÷àëüíèêè òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïîãðàíè÷íûõ îðãàíîâ, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè; 2) íà÷àëüíèêè ïîãðàíè÷íûõ îòðÿäîâ, êîìàíäèðû ñîåäèíåíèé è ÷àñòåé ïîãðàíè÷íîãî êîíòðîëÿ, êîìàíäèðû ìîðñêèõ ñîåäèíåíèé è ÷àñòåé; 3) íà÷àëüíèêè îáëàñòíûõ îòäåëîâ ïîãðàíè÷íîé ñòðàæè; 4) ñòàðøèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà îðãàíîâ ìîðñêîé îõðàíû; 5) êîìåíäàíòû ïîãðàíè÷íûõ êîìåíäàòóð, êîìàíäèðû ïîäðàçäåëåíèé ïîãðàíè÷íîãî êîíòðîëÿ; 6) íà÷àëüíèêè ðàéîííûõ îòäåëîâ ïîãðàíè÷íîé ñòðàæè; 7) ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà îðãàíîâ ìîðñêîé îõðàíû; 8) êîìàíäèðû ïîãðàíè÷íûõ êîðàáëåé, ñóäîâ (êàòåðîâ); 9) íà÷àëüíèêè ïîãðàíè÷íûõ çàñòàâ; 10) ó÷àñòêîâûå èíñïåêòîðà îðãàíîâ ìîðñêîé îõðàíû. (á) Îðãàíû, óïîëíîìî÷åííûå â îáëàñòè èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ, îõðàíû è çàùèòû ëåñíîãî ôîíäà – åñëè àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîå ïðàâîíàðóøåíèå ñîâåðøåíî íà çåìëÿõ ëåñíîãî ôîíäà è ëåñîâ, íå âõîäÿùèõ â ëåñíîé ôîíä.  òîì ÷èñëå: 1) ãëàâíûé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé èíñïåêòîð Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè ïî êîíòðîëþ çà ñîñòîÿíèåì, èñïîëüçîâàíèåì, îõðàíîé, çàùèòîé ëåñíîãî ôîíäà è âîñïðîèçâîäñòâîì ëåñîâ, åãî çàìåñòèòåëè;


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

2) ãëàâíûå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà â ñóáúåêòàõ ÐÔ ïî êîíòðîëþ çà ñîñòîÿíèåì, èñïîëüçîâàíèåì, îõðàíîé, çàùèòîé ëåñíîãî ôîíäà è âîñïðîèçâîäñòâîì ëåñîâ, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè; 3) ñòàðøèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ÐÔ ïî êîíòðîëþ çà ñîñòîÿíèåì, èñïîëüçîâàíèåì, îõðàíîé, çàùèòîé ëåñíîãî ôîíäà è âîñïðîèçâîäñòâîì ëåñîâ; 4) ñòàðøèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà â çîíå äåÿòåëüíîñòè ëåñõîçîâ ïî êîíòðîëþ çà ñîñòîÿíèåì, èñïîëüçîâàíèåì, îõðàíîé, çàùèòîé ëåñíîãî ôîíäà è âîñïðîèçâîäñòâîì ëåñîâ, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè; 5) ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà â çîíå äåÿòåëüíîñòè ëåñõîçîâ ïî êîíòðîëþ çà ñîñòîÿíèåì, èñïîëüçîâàíèåì, îõðàíîé, çàùèòîé ëåñíîãî ôîíäà è âîñïðîèçâîäñòâîì ëåñîâ (â ýòîì ñëó÷àå ðàçìåð àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî øòðàôà íå ìîæåò ïðåâûøàòü òðè ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðà îïëàòû òðóäà). (â) Îðãàíû, óïîëíîìî÷åííûå â îáëàñòè îõðàíû, êîíòðîëÿ è ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, îòíåñ¸ííûõ ê îáúåêòàì îõîòû, è ñðåäû èõ îáèòàíèÿ. Ðàññìàòðèâàòü äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ îò èìåíè ýòèõ îðãàíîâ âïðàâå èõ ðóêîâîäèòåëè â ñóáúåêòàõ ÐÔ è â ðàéîíàõ. (ã) Îðãàíû, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé êîíòðîëü. Ðàññìàòðèâàòü äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ îò èìåíè îðãàíîâ, óêàçàííûõ â ÷àñòè 1 íàñòîÿùåé ñòàòüè, âïðàâå: 1) ãëàâíûé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé èíñïåêòîð ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû, åãî çàìåñòèòåëè; 2) ñòàðøèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû; 3) ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû; 4) ãëàâíûå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû â çîíå ñâîåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè; 5) ñòàðøèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû â çîíå ñâîåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè; 6) ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû â çîíå ñâîåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè; 7) ãëàâíûå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè; 8) ñòàðøèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû; 9) ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû; 10) ãëàâíûå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû â çîíå äåÿòåëüíîñòè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ãîðîäñêèõ, ìåæðàéîííûõ, ðàéîííûõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ ñòðóêòóð â ñîñòàâå òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ îðãàíîâ ôåäåðàëüíîãî îðãàíà èñïîëíèòåëüíîé âëàñòè, óïîëíîìî÷åííîãî â îáëàñòè îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè; 11) ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå èíñïåêòîðà ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû â çîíå äåÿòåëüíîñòè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ãîðîäñêèõ, ìåæðàéîííûõ, ðàéîííûõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ ñòðóêòóð â ñîñòàâå òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ îðãàíîâ ôåäåðàëüíîãî îðãàíà èñïîëíèòåëüíîé âëàñòè, óïîëíîìî÷åííîãî â îáëàñòè îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû.

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè Îðãàíû âíóòðåííèõ äåë (ìèëèöèÿ) íå ðàññìàòðèâàþò äåëà ïî ñòàòüÿì 8.35, 8.37. Äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ñòàòüÿìè 14.2 è 14.15 (íåçàêîííàÿ òîðãîâëÿ è íàðóøåíèå ïðàâèë òîðãîâëè) ðàññìàòðèâàþò îðãàíû ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé èíñïåêöèè ïî òîðãîâëå, êà÷åñòâó òîâàðîâ è çàùèòå ïðàâ ïîòðåáèòåëåé (ñò. 23.49 ï.1). Ðàññìàòðèâàòü äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ îò èìåíè ýòèõ îðãàíîâ âïðàâå íà÷àëüíèêè òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ óïðàâëåíèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé èíñïåêöèè ïî òîðãîâëå, êà÷åñòâó òîâàðîâ è çàùèòå ïðàâ ïîòðåáèòåëåé, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè (ñò. 23.49 ï.2). Äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ñòàòüåé 10.8, ðàññìàòðèâàþò îðãàíû, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé âåòåðèíàðíûé íàäçîð (ñì. âûøå). Îò èìåíè ýòèõ îðãàíîâ ðàññìàòðèâàòü äåëà âïðàâå, â ÷àñòíîñòè: ãëàâíûå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå âåòåðèíàðíûå èíñïåêòîðà ãîðîäîâ, ðàéîíîâ, èõ çàìåñòèòåëè, ÿâëÿþùèåñÿ íà÷àëüíèêàìè (äèðåêòîðàìè) ðàéîííûõ, ãîðîäñêèõ ñòàíöèé ïî áîðüáå ñ áîëåçíÿìè æèâîòíûõ, íà÷àëüíèêàìè (äèðåêòîðàìè) ðàéîííûõ, ãîðîäñêèõ âåòåðèíàðíûõ ëàáîðàòîðèé; ãëàâíûå ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå âåòåðèíàðíûå èíñïåêòîðà çîíàëüíûõ óïðàâëåíèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî íàäçîðà íà Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ãðàíèöå ÐÔ è òðàíñïîðòå; ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå âåòåðèíàðíûå èíñïåêòîðà òåððèòîðèé, îáñëóæèâàåìûõ âîçãëàâëÿåìûìè èìè âåòåðèíàðíûìè ëå÷åáíèöàìè, âåòåðèíàðíûìè ïóíêòàìè. Äëÿ ïðàêòèêè âàæíî, ÷òî ïðîòîêîëû îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ ñîñòàâëÿþòñÿ äîëæíîñòíûìè ëèöàìè îðãàíîâ, óïîëíîìî÷åííûõ ðàññìàòðèâàòü äåëà îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ â ïðåäåëàõ êîìïåòåíöèè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî îðãàíà (ñò. 28.3, ÷. 1 ÊîÀÏ ÐÔ). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïðîòîêîëû îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ñò. 8.35, 8.37, ñîñòàâëÿþòñÿ äîëæíîñòíûìè ëèöàìè ïåðå÷èñëåííûõ âûøå óïîëíîìî÷åííûõ îðãàíîâ. Êðîìå òîãî, ïðîòîêîëû ïî ýòèì ñòàòüÿì óïîëíîìî÷åíû ñîñòàâëÿòü òàêæå äîëæíîñòíûå ëèöà îðãàíîâ âíóòðåííèõ äåë (ìèëèöèè) – îá àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿõ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ÷àñòÿìè 1 è 2 ñòàòüè 8.37, à òàêæå ñò. 14.2 è 14.15.

Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Ñòàòüÿ ïîäãîòîâëåíà â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà Ñèáýêîöåíòðà «Îáåñïå÷åíèå èíôîðìàöèîííîé è ìåòîäè÷åñêîé ïîääåðæêè ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ñòðóêòóð ïî áîðüáå ñ áðàêîíüåðñòâîì è íåëåãàëüíîé òîðãîâëåé âèäàìè ôàóíû è ôëîðû â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ýêîðåãèîíå» (êàê ÷àñòü ïðîåêòà «Ñîõðàíåíèå áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ â ðîññèéñêîé ÷àñòè Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ýêîðåãèîíà – ôàçà 1» ÏÐÎÎÍ/ÃÝÔ). Àâòîðû áëàãîäàðÿò Í.Â. Êðàåâà (ÂÍÈÈÎÇ, Êèðîâ) è Â.Ë. è À.Ë. Ìèùåíêî (Ýêîþðèñ, Ìîñêâà), ðàçðàáîòêè êîòîðûõ áûëè èñïîëüçîâàíû ïðè ïîäãîòîâêå ñòàòüè, à òàêæå È.Â. Êàðÿêèíà (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í. Íîâãîðîä) çà öåííûå çàìå÷àíèÿ, âûñêàçàííûå ïðè îáñóæäåíèè çàìûñëà ñòàòüè.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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RaptorsResearch ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ПЕРНАТЫХ ХИЩНИКОВ BreedingBiologyoftheSakerFalconinMongolia БИОЛОГИЯРАЗМНОЖЕНИЯСОКОЛАБАЛОБАНАBМОНГОЛИИ GombobaatarS.(MongolianOrnithologicalSociety) SumiyaD.(NationalUniversityofMongolia) PotapovE.(NaturalResearch,UK) MunkhzayaB.,OdkhuuB.(MongolianOrnithologicalSociety) ГомбобаатарС.(Монольс оеорнитолоичес оеобщество) С$мъяаД.(Монольс ийнациональный$ниверситет) ПотаповЕ.(Исследованиеприроды,Вели обритания) М$нхзаяаБ.,Одх$$Б.(Монольс оеорнитолоичес оеобщество)

Êîíòàêò: Ñ. Ãîìáîáààòàð Á. Îäõóó Á. Ìóíõçàÿà Ìîíãîëüñêîå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîå îáùåñòâî Ìîíãîëèÿ Óëààíáààòàð 210646À à/ÿ 537 òåë.: 976 11 323 970 976 99 180 148 ôàêñ: 976 11 320 159 gomboo@num.edu.mn mongolianbirds@mail.com http://num.edu.mn/ ornithology Ä. Ñóìúÿà Ìîíãîëüñêèé Íàöèîíàëüíûé Óíèâåðñèòåò Ìîíãîëèÿ Óëààíáààòàð 210646À à/ÿ 537 òåë.: 976 11 323 970 monbird_mos@yahoo.com

Ââåäåíèå

Introduction

 Ìîíãîëèè îáèòàåò àçèàòñêèé áàëîáàí Falco cherrug milvipes Jerdon, 1871. Îí øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í â ñòåïíîé, ëåñîñòåïíîé, ïóñòûííî-ñòåïíîé çîíàõ è ìàëî÷èñëåí â ïóñòûíè (Shagdarsuren 1983). Ïèòàåòñÿ áàëîáàí øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûìè â ìåñòàõ åãî îáèòàíèÿ, àêòèâíûìè, â òîì ÷èñëå è â çèìíèé ïåðèîä, è ëåãêî äîáûâàåìûìè âèäàìè æèâîòíûõ, òàêèìè êàê ïîë¸âêà Áðàíäòà (Lasiopodomys brandtii), ìîíãîëüñêàÿ ïåñ÷àíêà (Meriones unguiculatus), ðîãàòûé (Eremophila alpestris) è ìîíãîëüñêèé æàâîðîíêè (Melanocorypha mongolica) (Shagdarsuren, 1983, Bold, Boldbaatar, 2001, Gombobaatar et al., 1999a,b, 2000, 2001a,b, 2002, 2006). Ê äâóì ãîäàì áàëîáàí äîñòèãàåò ïîëîâîé çðåëîñòè. Ãíåçäèòñÿ íà åñòåñòâåííûõ èëè èñêóññòâåííûõ ñóáñòðàòàõ â ãí¸çäàõ âîðîíà (Corvus corax), ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius), áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos) è ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) (Ellis et al., 1995, 1997, Potapov et al., 2000, 2002, Gombobaatar, 2006). Îòêëàäûâàåò äî 6 ÿèö è âûðàùèâàåò ïðèìåðíî ñòîëüêî æå ïòåíöîâ. Îáû÷íî ñàìêà çàáîòèòñÿ î ïòåíöàõ, à ñàìåö äîáûâàåò äëÿ íèõ ïèùó (Potapov et al., 2002b, Gombobaatar, 2006). Çèìóåò â Êèòàå è Âíóòðåííåé Ìîíãîëèè.  çàâèñèìîñòè îò òîëùèíû ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà è íàëè÷èÿ êîðìîâîé áàçû íåêîòîðûå âçðîñëûå áàëîáàíû çèìóþò â ïðåäåëàõ Ìîíãîëèè, ñîâåðøàÿ íåáîëüøèå êî÷¸âêè (Potapov, 2003, Gombobaatar, 2006).

Subspecies Falco cherrug milvipes Jerdon, 1871 of Saker falcon widely distributes in steppe, forest steppe, desert steppe and occurs rarely in Gobi desert in the Mongolia. Saker preys Brandt’s Vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), Mongolian Lark (Melanocorypha mongolica) which are abundant species in number, occur all year around in Mongolia (Shagdarsuren, 1983, Bold, Boldbaatar, 2001, Shagdarsuren et al., 2001, Gombobaatar et al., 1999a,b, 2000, 2001a,b, 2002, 2006). This species of falcon prefer to nest in old and newly built nests by Raven (Corvus corax), Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), Steppe (Aquila nipalensis) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) located on natural and artificial substrates (Ellis et al.1995, 1997, Potapov et al., 2000, 2002, Gombobaatar, 2006). Clutch size is max. 6, average in 3.7±1.02 (1 – 6, n=330). Female broods and males spend much time in hunting during breeding season (Potapov et al., 2002b, Gombobaatar, 2006). Sakers of Mongolia winter in China and Inner Mongolia and also in the country depending on snow coverage and food supply. All fledglings are migratory and seasonal movement is recorded for few adult individuals (Potapov, 2003, Gombobaatar, 2006). Scientific collaboration is urgent in order to conserve and sustainable use of the species in regional and International levels (Fox, 2001, 2002, Gombobaatar, 2006).


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

Contact: S. Gombobaatar B. Odkhuu B. Munkhzaya Mongolian Ornithological Society P.O. Box 537, 210646A Ulaanbaatar Mongolia tel.: 976 11 323 970 976 99 180 148 fax: 976 11 320 159 gomboo@num.edu.mn mongolianbirds@mail.com http://num.edu.mn/ ornithology D. Sumiya National University of Mongolia P.O. Box 537, 210646A Ulaanbaatar Mongolia tel.: 976 11 323 970 monbird_mos@yahoo.com

Òðåáóåòñÿ ïðèíÿòèå ìåð ïî îõðàíå áàëîáàíà è åãî ðàöèîíàëüíîìó èñïîëüçîâàíèþ (Fox, 2001, 2002, Gombobaatar, 2006).

Ðàñïîëîæåíèå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäåé Äëÿ ïðîñòîòû è ÿñíîñòè âñå ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäè óñëîâíî îòìå÷åíû çíàêàìè: ALT, BH, BGC, EK, UB, DA, CH (ðèñ. 1). Õîòÿ áàëîáàí èçðåäêà âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â òàéãå, âûñîêîãîðíûõ ëåñàõ íà âûñîòå 3000–4000 ì íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ, à òàêæå â ïóñòûíå, ñâåäåíèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè íà ýòèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ îòñóòñòâóþò.  Ìîíãîëèè áàëîáàíû ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû â ñòåïíîé, ëåñîñòåïíîé è îïóñòûíåííîé çîíàõ, à òàêæå â ãîðàõ íà âûñîòàõ íå áîëåå 3000–4000 ì í.ó.ì. Îáùàÿ ïëîùàäü òåððèòîðèè ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ è ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà ñîñòàâëÿåò 1085400 êì2. Ïëîùàäü âñåõ îáñëåäîâàííûõ òåððèòîðèé – 15986,9 êì2, ÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò 1,1% îò òåððèòîðèè Ìîíãîëèè è 1,4% âñåõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ìåñò.

Ðèñ. 1. Íàçâàíèå è ðàñïîëîæåíèå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäåé

Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäèêà èññëåäîâàíèé

Fig. 1. Name and location of study areas

Îáðàáîòêà ñîáðàííûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ ïðîèçâîäèëàñü íà Êàôåäðå çîîëîãèè Ìîíãîëüñêîãî ãîñóíèâåðñèòåòà, â èíñòèòóòå Çîîëîãèè óíèâåðñèòåòà Õàëëå-Âèòòåíáåðãà, Ãåðìàíèÿ (2000–2002 ãã.) è â ìóçåå Íàóìàííà ãîðîäà Êåòýí, Ãåðìàíèÿ (2000–2001 ãã.), â Èíñòèòóòå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé ßàìàøèíà ßïîíèè (2000–2001 ãã.) è â íàöèîíàëüíîì îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîì öåíòðå Àíãëèè (2005 ã.). Òàì æå, à òàêæå â Óíèâåðñèòåòå Ãåòòèíãåíà (Ãåðìàíèÿ), â òð¸õ öåíòðàõ ïî êîëüöåâàíèþ ïòèö, áûëè ñîáðàíû ëèòåðàòóðíûå äàííûå ïî ñîêîëó áàëîáàíó.

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Location of Study Areas We marked all study areas by letters in order to understand easy and simply (fig. 1). Sakers are rarely registered in taiga, high mountains, elevated in 3000–4000 m above sea level, and desert. But there is no record of breeding in these areas. Suitable breeding territories of the species are steppe, forest steppe, desert steppe, mountain steppe and mountains elevated less than 3000– 4000 m above sea level. Size of suitable breeding and distribution territories for Sakers in Mongolia is 1085400 sq. km. The size of our study areas represents 1.1% of whole Mongolian territory and 1.4% of suitable breeding territories of Sakers.

Ìaterials and Methods We analyzed all data in the Zoology Department of the National University of Mongolia, Institute of Zoology, Halle-Wittenberg University, Germany in 2000–2002, Naumann Museum in Kothen, Germany in 2000–2001, and Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, Japan in 2000 and 2001). In the result of field works, we recorded and rechecked in total of 498 breeding pairs in order to study the taxonomy, nest site selection, age group of nestlings, estimate number and density, clutch and brood size of breeding pairs, and calculate the breeding success of Sakers depending on food supply. Long term monitoring studies of breeding Sakers in study areas were conducted by following the International standard methods of Fox et al. (1997). AnovaSingle factor, Anova-two tail, Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic, correlation and discritive analyzes of the Ms. Excel, Systat 10.0 software’s were used for statistic analyze. We used ArcView 3.2, OZI-Explorer 4.0. software for mapping and estimation of breeding pairs.

Results and Discussions Role of female and male to select nest sites and nesting period Most successful breeding pairs of Sakers, Ravens, and Upland Buzzards prefer to nest on cliffs, rocks, trees and artificial substrates where are located in outside of blocks of high cliffs and rocks middle of flat steppe in our study areas. The reason for selection of nest site for those breeding pairs was to save energy during hunting (close by food resources) and to reduce of predator threats (Eagle Owl Bubo bubo). Nest site selection


Raptors Research

Ïàðà áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug) íà ãíåçäå â Öåíòðàëüíîé Ìîíãîëèè. Ìàðò 2004 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Ãîìáîáààòàð A pair of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in the nest in Central Mongolia. March 2004. Photo by S. Gombobaatar

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9  ðåçóëüòàòå ýêñïåäèöèîííûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ó÷òåíî 498 ïàð áàëîáàíîâ è ïðîâåäåíû èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïî ñèñòåìàòèêå, îêðàñêå, ÷èñëåííîñòè è ïëîòíîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, âûáîðó ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, ðàçìåðàì êëàäêè è âûâîäêîâ, âîçðàñòíûì ãðóïïàì ïòåíöîâ, çàâèñèìîñòè óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ îò ñòàáèëüíîñòè êîðìîâîé áàçû. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïî ìîíèòîðèíãó ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ïðîâîäèëèñü åæåãîäíî ïî îáùåïðèíÿòîé ìåæäóíàðîäíûìè èññëåäîâàòåëÿìè ìåòîäèêå (Fox et al., 1997). Ñòàòèñòè÷åñêóþ îáðàáîòêó äàííûõ ïðîâîäèëè ñ ïîìîùüþ ïðîãðàìì Ms. Excel, Systat 10.0, AnovaSingle factor, Anova-two tail, Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic, ïðîâåäåíû êîððåëÿöèîííûé è äèñêðèòèâíûé àíàëèçû è êàðòèðîâàíèå ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì ArcView 3.2, OZI-Explorer 4.0.

Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé è îáñóæäåíèå Ðîëü ñàìêè è ñàìöà â âûáîðå ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé, ãí¸çä è âðåìåíè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ Áàëîáàíû, âîðîíû è ìîõíîíîãèå êóðãàííèêè â áîëüøåé ÷àñòè ãíåçäÿòñÿ â ïîãðàíè÷íîé ìåæäó ñòåïüþ è ñêàëèñòûìè ãîðàìè çîíå. Òàêîå ðàñïîëîæåíèå ãí¸çä âûãîäíî ïî äâóì ïðè÷èíàì: âî-ïåðâûõ, áëèçîñòü îñíîâíûõ îáúåêòîâ ïèòàíèÿ ïîçâîëÿåò óìåíüøèòü çàòðàòû ýíåðãèè íà ïîèñê ïèùè, âî-âòîðûõ, îíî îáåñïå÷èâàåò çàùèù¸ííîñòü ãí¸çä îò ôèëèíîâ (Bubo bubo). Âûáîð ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíàìè, à òàêæå ñìåðòíîñòü ïòåíöîâ è âçðîñëûõ îñîáåé çàâèñÿò îò öåëîãî ðÿäà ôàêòîðîâ, òàêèõ êàê ÷èñëåííîñòü è ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà, äîñòàòî÷íîñòü êîðìîâîé áàçû, îñîáåííîñòè ìåñòíîñòè, àíòðîïîãåííûé ôàêòîð, íàëè÷èå ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê, ïëîòíîñòü äðóãèõ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö (ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê, âîðîí è äð.). Ñðîêè âûáîðà ãíåçäà è åãî îñâîåíèÿ ïàðîé ðàçëè÷íû. Ïî äàííûì 1998–2005 ãã. âûáîð ãíåçäà íà÷èíàåòñÿ ñî âòîðîé-òðåòüåé íåäåëè ìàðòà (n=13), è íåêîòîðûå ïòèöû â ýòî âðåìÿ óæå ñïàðèâàþòñÿ (n=1).  ïåðâóþ íåäåëþ àïðåëÿ ýòîò ïðîöåññ èä¸ò èíòåíñèâíåå: ïàðû âûáèðàþò ãí¸çäà è àêòèâíî çàùèùàþò èõ (n=21), ñïàðèâàþòñÿ (n=3). Áî-

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was directly and highly depended on series factors such as number and density of Eagle Owl, food supply, location of nest substrates, and human disturbance. According to data of 1998–2005, nest selection of breeding pairs started from second half of the March (n=13) and was very intensive in a first week of the April. Breeding pairs actively defended nest sites (n=21) and copulated (n=3) at this time. Rising of air temperature and thinning of snow coverage were the main factors to early nesting and copulating in 1998–2005. 66.7% of observed old or newly built nests (n=21) were selected by males. Types of nest substrates All nest substrates of successful breeding pairs were categorized as natural (cliff, rock column, ground, tree, sandy precipice) and artificial (rest of substrates). A total of 21 types of natural and artificial nest substrates were selected by 303 breeding pairs of Sakers in 1998–2005. High percentages of nest site selected by Sakers were cliffs 78 (25.7%), rock columns 48 (15.8%) from natural and pylons 56 (18.5%), wooden poles 36 (11.9%) of high power electric line from artificial substrates (table 1). 43.2% (n=131) Ïàðà áàëîáàíîâ â ãíåçäå íà äåðåâÿííîé îïîðå ËÝÏ (ââåðõó) è ñàìêà â ãíåçäå íà çåìëå (âíèçó). 2004 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Ãîìáîáààòàð A pair of the Saker Falcon in the nest on the wooden electric pole (upper) and female in the nest on the ground (bottom). 2004. Photos by S. Gombobaatar


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

of 303 breeding pairs successfully nested on natural substrates and 56.8% on artificial substrates (fig. 2). Nest site selection of Saker was heavily depended on number of suitable nest substrates and nests of other raptors. Average height of nest substrates was 15.8±0.7 m (min. 0, max. 120, n=303) and height of nest location – 10.2±0.4 m (min. 0, max. 60, n=303). “0” means ground nesting sakers.

Áàëîáàíû â ãí¸çäàõ íà ñêàëå (ââåðõó) è íà äíå ñòàðîãî êîëîäöà íà çåìëå (âíèçó). 2004 – 2005 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Ãîìáîáààòàð Sakers in the nests on the rock (upper) and on the ground in the pit (bottom). 2004 – 2005. Photos by S. Gombobaatar

ëåå ðàííèå ñðîêè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ñïàðèâàíèÿ íåêîòîðûõ ïàð ñâÿçàíû ñ óâåëè÷åíèåì òåìïåðàòóðû âîçäóõà è óìåíüøåíèåì ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà â ÿíâàðå-ìàðòå. Ïî íàáëþäåíèÿì çà 21 ïàðîé áàëîáàíîâ, êîòîðûå çàíèìàëè ñâåæåïîñòðîåííûå ãí¸çäà èëè âïåðâûå ïîñåëÿëèñü íà ñòàðûõ ãí¸çäàõ, âûÿâëåíî, ÷òî â 14 ñëó÷àÿõ (66,7%) ãëàâíóþ ðîëü èãðàëè ñàìöû. Òàáë. 1. ×èñëî ïàð è õàðàêòåðèñòèêà ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê, çàíèìàåìûõ áàëîáàíîì (Falco cherrug) Table 1. Number of breeding pairs and nest substrates occupied by Sakers (Falco cherrug)

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Nest and nest site selection Sometimes female lays eggs into shallow scrapes of the sandy and gravel ground, and dusty remains of pellets in concrete banks of abandoned well without nest materials. There was significant difference between nests of raptor species selected by Sakers (ANOVA0.05:F10,55=2.0; p=0.0001). Upland Buzzard, a dominant species in numbers, was a pioneering nest builder for Saker. Size, nest materials, and location of the Buzzard nests are suitable for laying eggs, brooding and feeding chicks, and easily occupying for Sakers in the steppe zone. Northern Raven was a second important nest provider species. Adult falcons attack to host of the nest, kill them and occupy freshly built theirs nests. Sakers are always keeping a distance from powerful raptors comparing own body size such as Black Vulture, Steppe and Golden Eagles.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 Ãíåçäîâûå ñóáñòðàòû Ðàçëè÷àþò åñòåñòâåííûå è èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâûå ñóáñòðàòû (òàáë. 1). Ïî äàííûì íàáëþäåíèÿ çà 303 ïàðàìè áàëîáàíîâ â 1998–2005 ãã., ïòèöû èñïîëüçîâàëè äëÿ ïîñòðîéêè ãí¸çä 21 òèï åñòåñòâåííûõ è èñêóññòâåííûõ ñóáñòðàòîâ. Íà åñòåñòâåííûõ ñóáñòðàòàõ ãíåçäèëèñü 131 èëè 43,2% ïàð (n=131). Íà èñêóññòâåííûõ – 172 ïàðû, ÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò 56,8% (ðèñ. 2).

Ðèñ. 2. ×èñëî è ïðîöåíòíîå ñîîòíîøåíèå ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà åñòåñòâåííûõ è èñêóññòâåííûõ ñóáñòðàòàõ íà êîíòðîëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ Fig. 2. Number and percentage of breeding pairs nested on natural and artificial or man made substrates in control territories of study

Âûáîð ãíåçäîâûõ ñóáñòðàòîâ íàõîäèòñÿ â ïðÿìîé çàâèñèìîñòè îò èõ íàëè÷èÿ, à òàêæå îò íàëè÷èÿ íà íèõ ïîñòðîåê äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö – ïîñòàâùèêîâ ãí¸çä äëÿ áàëîáàíîâ. Ñðåäíÿÿ âûñîòà ñóáñòðàòîâ, âûáèðàåìûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ – 15,8±0,7 ì (0–120, n=303), ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà âûñîòå 10,2±0,4 ì (0–60, n=303). Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçäà, ðàâíàÿ íóëþ, ïîäðàçóìåâàåò åãî óñòðîéñòâî íà çåìëå. Âûáîð ãí¸çä è èõ îñîáåííîñòè Áàëîáàíû íå ñòðîÿò ñîáñòâåííûõ ãí¸çä, à çàíèìàþò ãí¸çäà äðóãèõ ïòèö. Èíîãäà îíè îòêëàäûâàþò ÿéöà è âûðàùèâàþò ïòåíöîâ íà ïåñ÷àíûõ è êàìåíèñòûõ ðîññûïÿõ, íà çåìëå èëè íà ñêîïëåíèè ïîãàäîê â âàííàõ çàáðîøåííûõ êîëîäöåâ. Íà îñíîâàíèè èññëåäîâàíèé 466 ãí¸çä âûÿâëåíî, ÷òî âûáîð ïîñòðîåê äðóãèõ ïòèö ðàçëè÷àåòñÿ ïî âèäàì (ANOVA 0.05:F10,55=2,0; p=0,0001).  áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ áàëîáàíû âûáèðàþò ãí¸çäà ãîñïîäñòâóþùåãî ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà – îíè ïîäõîäÿò ïî ðàçìåðó äëÿ îòêëàäêè ÿèö è âûðàùèâàíèÿ ïòåíöîâ, à òàêæå èõ ëåã÷å îòáèòü ó õîçÿåâ. Äðóãèì íå ìåíåå âàæíûì “ïîñòàâùèêîì” ãí¸çä ÿâëÿåòñÿ âîðîí. Óáèâ âîðîíà, ïàðà áàëîáàíîâ çàíèìàåò ïîñòðîåííîå èì íîâîå ãíåçäî. Êàê ïðàâèëî, áàëîáàíû óêëîíÿþòñÿ îò áîðüáû çà ãíåçäî ñ êðóïíûìè ïòèöàìè, òàêèìè êàê ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, áåðêóò è ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus).

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Repeating and shifting of nest sites Sakers are a very conservative for nesting. Few breeding pairs nested from 2 to 7 times at the same nests. Sakers prefer to nest mostly in Upland Buzzard nets. There was significant difference between nests of raptors selected by Sakers (ANOVA0.05: F4,50=2.5, p=0.00001). The reason for this was caused by size, location, and nest materials of the Buzzard nests were more suitable for Sakers and also prey species of Sakers and Upland Buzzards were almost same in Mongolia. Eggs of Sakers nested on nests of Black Vulture, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra), Steppe and Golden Eagles easily overcooled because of size of these nests was big, nest materials were unsuitable for egg laying. After 2–3 times repeat nesting, most nests were unsuitable for laying eggs and brooding chicks in these nests. 42 (52.5%) of repeated nesting pairs was on natural and 38 (47.5%) on artificial substrates. 52 (10.4%) breeding pairs from a total of 498, was shifted to neighboring nests due to destroyed nests caused by wind, failure of first attempt of nesting, disturbance of Eagle Owls and possibly ectoparasites in the nests. Distance between shifted nests was 1.02±0.3 km in average, the furthest was 5 km and the nearest was 10 sm. Copulation Each breeding pair has individual breeding behavior. While female was eating food passed by male, theirs copulation started on the nest, poles, cliffs and ground. Duration of copulation was 4.1±0.9 såc. (min. 1, max. 12, n=11). Pose of female in eating food was similar to pre-copulation pose of female for males. Therefore, it might be one of the simulative factors to males for successful copulating. Number and Density of breeding pairs According to our studies of 1998–2005, there was no significant decline of numbers of breeding pairs in Central Mongolian study areas. Positive and medium correlation was occurred between number of breeding pairs and density of Brandt’s Vole, average air temperature. Our data show that influence from wind speed and snow depth to number of breeding pairs was not significant. Number of breeding pairs changed and fluctuated across years due to complex various factors including number of Brandt’s Vole, snow depth, air temperature in FebruaryMarch, and human activities and disturbance. High density of breeding pairs in average was recorded in BGC and EK study


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 Ïîâòîðíîå ãíåçäîâàíèå è ñìåíà ãí¸çä Áàëîáàíû ãíåçäÿòñÿ â îäíîì ãíåçäå â òå÷åíèå 2–7 ëåò. Îíè ïðåäïî÷èòàþò ïîâòîðíî ãíåçäèòüñÿ â ïîñòðîéêàõ êóðãàííèêà (ANOVA0.05: F4,50=2,5, p=0,00001). Êðîìå òîãî, ÷òî ãí¸çäà êóðãàííèêà áîëüøå ïîäõîäÿò ïî ôîðìå è ðàçìåðàì, ýòîò âèä èìååò òîò æå ñîñòàâ ïèòàíèÿ. Ãí¸çäà ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà, ÷¸ðíîãî àèñòà (Ciconia nigra), áåðêóòà è ñòåïíîãî îðëà êðóïíåå, ïîýòîìó â íåíàñòíóþ ïîãîäó âåëèêà îïàñíîñòü ïåðåîõëàæäåíèÿ ÿèö. Ïîñëå 2–3-õ ëåòíåãî ïîâòîðíîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íåêîòîðûå ãí¸çäà ñòàíîâÿòñÿ íåïðèãîäíûìè äëÿ îòêëàäêè è íàñèæèâàíèÿ ÿèö. Èç ïîâòîðíî ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð íà åñòåñòâåííûõ îáúåêòàõ îòìå÷åíî 42 (52,5%), íà èñêóññòâåííûõ 38 (47,5%) ïàð. Äëÿ íåêîòîðûõ ïàð îòìå÷åíà ñìåíà ãí¸çä. Èç 498 ïàð ñìåíèëè ãí¸çäà 52 ïàðû, ÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò 10,4%. Ïðè ýòîì ñðåäíåå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ñîñòàâèëî 1,02±0,3 êì, íàèáîëüøåå ðàññòîÿíèå – 5 êì, íàèìåíüøåå – 10 ñì. Ãëàâíûìè ïðè÷èíàìè ñìåíû ãí¸çä ÿâëÿþòñÿ èõ ðàçðóøåíèå îò ñèëüíûõ âåòðîâ, áåçóñïåøíîñòü ïåðâîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, ïðèñóòñòâèå â ïîñòðîéêå ýêòîïàðàçèòîâ èëè ãíåçäîâàíèå ôèëèíîâ íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè.

Êîïóëèðóþùàÿ ïàðà áàëîáàíîâ. Öåíòðàëüíàÿ Ìîíãîëèÿ. Ìàðò 2004 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Ãîìáîáààòàð Sakers copulating. Central Mongolia. March 2004. Photo by S. Gombobaatar

Ñïàðèâàíèå Êàæäàÿ ïàðà èìååò ñâîè èíäèâèäóàëüíûå îñîáåííîñòè áðà÷íîãî ïîâåäåíèÿ. Íåêîòîðûå ñàìöû ïðèíîñÿò ïèùó ñàìêàì è â ìîìåíò êîðìåæêè èëè ïîñëå íå¸ âñòóïàþò â ñïàðèâàíèå. Ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü ñïàðèâàíèÿ ñîñòàâëÿåò 4,1±0,9 ñåê. (1–12, n=11). Ïîçû, êîòîðûå ñàìêè ïðèíèìàþò âî âðåìÿ êîðìåæêè è ïåðåä ñïàðèâàíèåì

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ areas (fig. 1), which consisted of only natural substrates. No sharp difference of density of breeding pairs per 100 km2 across years and study areas was occurred. We estimated density of breeding pairs in average using observed breeding pairs, non-breeding birds and successful fledged chicks in study areas per 100 km2 each year (table 2). Egg laying and incubation Period of egg laying of Sakers in the country varied across years depending on average air temperature, food supply and snow coverage. Interval of egg laying was 1–2 days. In 2000, egg laying started early due to thin snow cover and rising of air temperature. In 1998–2005, intensive mass egg laying was observed at the end of the March. Full or 4–5 clutches were recorded at the end of the April. Color, size and influencing factors to number of egg Color. Eggshell is from red brown to yellowish brown with informal dark brown and pinkish brown spots and dots with 0.05–10 mm diameter. Under the influence of sunrays and wind, spots and dots of eggs becoming dull (depigmentation) and color of eggs changed from red brown to yellowish brown and complete white. Size. Egg length was 56.5±2.0 (M±SD) mm (min 50.86, max 66.2, n=220), width 46.69±1.6 mm (min 32.5, max 47.24, n=90), and weight 50.64±5.9 gr. (min 36, max 65, n=90) in average. Egg size was bigger than other subspecies of Sakers in European countries and similar to Chinese population. Number. Average clutch size was 3.7±1.02 (min 1, max 6, N=330). Clutch size significantly varied with years and control territories (ANOVA 0.05 : F 7,322 =2.03, p=0.0001). Old breeding pairs naturally lay eggs less than 2–5 years (Ilichiev et al. 1982). For Mongolian Sakers, clutch size was 4 (3–5) shows that age of breeding population of Mongolia is consisted of comparatively younger females. G.P. Dementiev (1951), D.W. Snow et al. (1989) mentioned about 6 eggs for Saker, but there was not any proffer documentation before our surveys (Potapov et al. 2002a). Laying of six eggs depends on individual behavioral hereditary of breeding female, air temperature, snow coverage, and sufficient of food supply. No negative affects of height of nest substrates and height of nest location on substrates, type of nest substrates, nest di-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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Òàáë. 2. Ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü îñîáåé íà 100 êì2 âñåõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê Table 2. Average density of the Saker Falcon in study areas by 100 km2

* ðàññ÷èòàíî ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè îäèíî÷íûõ âçðîñëûõ îñîáåé ñ ïëîùàäîê * number calculated on adult birds from study areas

îäèíàêîâû, ÷òî äåéñòâóåò êàê âîçáóæäàþùèé ôàêòîð è âëèÿåò íà óñïåøíîå ñïàðèâàíèå ñàìöà. ×èñëåííîñòü è ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð Ïî äàííûì 1998–2005 ãã., íåñìîòðÿ íà òåíäåíöèþ ñîêðàùåíèÿ, ÷èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ îñòàâàëàñü ñðàâíèòåëüíî ñòàáèëüíîé. Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé ïîêàçûâàþò íà ñóùåñòâîâàíèå íåáîëüøèõ ïîëîæèòåëüíûõ êîððåëÿöèé ìåæäó ÷èñëåííîñòüþ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, ïëîòíîñòüþ ïîë¸âêè è ñðåäíåé òåìïåðàòóðîé âîçäóõà. Cêîðîñòü âåòðà ïî÷òè íå âëèÿåò íà ÷èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, îòìå÷åíà íåçíà÷èòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ ñ âûñîòîé ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èçìåíåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð áàëîáàíîâ çàâèñèò îò öåëîãî ðÿäà ôàêòîðîâ, âêëþ÷àÿ àíòðîïîãåííûé. Âûñîêàÿ ïëîòíîñòü íàáëþäàëàñü íà ó÷àñòêàõ BGC è EK (ðèñ. 1), ñîñòîÿùèõ òîëüêî èç åñòåñòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ñóáñòðàòîâ. Ñðàâíèòåëüíûé àíàëèç ïëîòíîñòè îñîáåé íà ïëîùàäè â 100 êì2 íå âûÿâèë ðåçêèõ ðàçëè÷èé ïî ó÷àñòêàì è ãîäàì (òàáë. 2). Îòêëàäêà ÿèö è íàñèæèâàíèå Ñðîêè îòêëàäûâàíèÿ ÿèö â óñëîâèÿõ Ìîíãîëèè çàâèñÿò îò ñðåäíåãîäîâîé òåìïåðàòóðû âîçäóõà è òîëùèíû ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà, ïîýòîìó îíè íåìíîãî âàðüèðóþò ïî ãîäàì. Îòêëàäêà ÿèö ïðîèñõîäèò ñ èíòåðâàëîì â 1–2 äíÿ.  2000 ã. èç-çà ïîòåïëåíèÿ è íåáîëüøîãî ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà êëàäêà íà÷àëàñü ðàíüøå.  1998–2005 ãã. íàáëþäàëîñü ìàññîâîå ïîÿâëåíèå êëàäîê íà 3–4 íåäåëå ìàðòà. Êëàäêè ñ 4 è 5 ÿéöàìè îáû÷íî íàáëþäàþòñÿ â 3–4-þ íåäåëè àïðåëÿ, íî èíîãäà, â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ïî-

ameter, depth, wind speed, snow coverage, and air temperature to clutch size was recorded in study areas. High and positive correlation was appeared between clutch size and density of Brandt’s Vole. Incubation and hatching Females and males do not incubate first and second eggs but shelter eggs from cold wind. Intensive incubation started from third eggs in the nest. According to our observation of incubation of females and males, 73.9% (51) out of 69 occasions was female and 26.1% male. After 26.5 – 33.5 days (28 days in average) of first incubation, chicks pip inside of eggshell. This result was confirmed by L. Brown, D. Amadon (1968). Late hatching of eggs was caused by nest location close by busy car route, disturbance of lifestock, dropping of air temperature, lack of nest materials for stick nests on artificial substrates, and less sheltered nests from wind and rain. After 31.5 – 38.5 days of first incubation or after 2 – 3 days of first piping, eggs hatch asynchrony. Therefore, age difference of chicks was 1 – 4 days for the same nest. Number of chicks and influencing factors to them Eggs 3.79 and 3.31 (min 1, max 6, n=401) hatchlings, and 2.8±0,7 (min 1, max 6, n=401) fledglings in average from 401 breeding records were for successful breeding pairs. There was no difference between number of chicks across years and study areas. 3.34 chicks hatched from 3.79 eggs, so hatching success was 88.1% in average. Breeding success was 73.8% based on calculation of 2.8 hatchlings from 3.79 eggs. Number of successful fledged chicks depends on nest selection of raptors (North-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 ãîäíûõ óñëîâèé, ìîãóò áûòü ñäâèíóòû ê ïåðâîé íåäåëå àïðåëÿ. ×èñëî, ðàçìåðû, îêðàñêà ÿèö è ôàêòîðû, âëèÿþùèå íà íèõ Îêðàñêà. ßéöà áëåäíî-áóðîâàòûå, îõðèñòûå, ñ ðûæåâàòî-áóðûìè, áóðûìè ïÿòíàìè íåîïðåäåë¸ííîé ôîðìû ðàçìåðîì â 0,05–10 ìì. Îêðàñêà ñêîðëóïû çàâèñèò îò îêðàñêè ôîíà è ïÿòåí. Ïîñêîëüêó öâåò ïÿòåí ðåçêî îòëè÷àåòñÿ îò ôîíîâîé îêðàñêè ÿéöà, îíè îïðåäåëÿþò îáùóþ îêðàñêó ÿèö. Ïðè âîçäåéñòâèè ñîëíöà è âåòðà ïðîèñõîäèò äåïèãìåíòàöèÿ ñêîðëóïû, âñëåäñòâèå ÷åãî ïÿòíà èñ÷åçàþò, è ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîíîâàÿ îõðèñòàÿ, áëåäíî-áóðîâàòàÿ îêðàñêà. Ðàçìåðû. Äëèíà ÿéöà ñîñòàâëÿåò 56,5±2,0 (M±SD) ìì (50,86–66,2, n=220), øèðèíà 46,69±1,6 ìì (32,5–47,24, n=90), âåñ 50,64±5,9 ã. (36–65, n=90). ßéöà áàëîáàíîâ, æèâóùèõ â Ìîíãîëèè, íå îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò ÿèö áàëîáàíîâ, æèâóùèõ â Êèòàå, è êðóïíåå, ÷åì ó ïòèö èç äðóãèõ ìåñò. Êîëè÷åñòâî.  ñðåäíåì êëàäêà ñîñòîèò èç 3,7±1,02 ÿèö (1–6, n=330). ×èñëî ÿèö â êëàäêå ðàçëè÷àåòñÿ ïî ãîäàì è ó÷¸òíûì ïëîùàäêàì (ANOVA 0.05 : F 7,322 =2,03, p=0,0001). Ñòàðûå ïàðû îòêëàäûâàþò îáû÷íî ìåíüøå ÿèö (Èëüè÷åâ è äð., 1982). Äëÿ ìîíãîëüñêèõ áàëîáàíîâ îáû÷íûì ÿâëÿåòñÿ 4 ÿéöà â êëàäêå (3–5) è, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ñàìêè â ïîïóëÿöèè ðàçìíîæàþùèõñÿ ïàð â îñíîâíîì ìîëîäûå. Õîòÿ â ðàáîòàõ Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâà (1951) è D.W. Snow et al. (1989) óïîìèíàåòñÿ î òîì, ÷òî êëàäêà áàëîáàíîâ ñîäåðæèò 6 ÿèö, äîêàçàòåëüñòâà

Êëàäêà áàëîáàíà èç 6 ÿèö (ââåðõó) è âûâîäîê èç 6 ïòåíöîâ (âíèçó). 2002 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Ãîìáîáààòàð Clutch of the Saker Falcon from 6 eggs (upper) and brood from 6 nestlings (bottom). 2002. Photos by S. Gombobaatar

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ern Raven, Upland Buzzard, Black Vulture, Black Kite, Steppe and Golden Eagles). Most chicks of Sakers in control territories successfully fledged in nests of Upland Buzzards. Negative and positive, low correlation was appeared between number of fledglings and height of nest substrates (r=–0.01), nest diameter (r=0.1), nest depth (r=0.08), height of nest location on substrates (r=–0.1), and number of perches surrounded nest sites. The main limiting factors to number of fledgling were density of Brandt’s Vole and weather conditions (air temperature, wind speed, snow coverage) (correlation between number of fledglings and the factors: r=0.5 – 0.7). Age group of chicks and color variation Due to limited data of chicks, we could not describe all features and plumages which identify age and sex of chicks. But we have written group of ages in general as follows: Nestlings with first down (15 –17 days old). Nestlings with first vascular of primaries (wing length 187 mm for male, 204.5 ìì for females, ~17 – 30 days old). Nestlings with second vasculars of primaries (wing length more than 187 mm for male, more than 204.5 mm for females, more than 30 days old). Fledglings (Dispersed but depends on parent birds). Young birds (left breeding sites and independent from parents, more than 75 days). Upper part of fledglings is a dark or chocolate brown with yellowish brown or buffish edges. There are distinct 3 color morphs (brown (normal), dark brown, reddish brown) and also transit colors in plumage. Portion 1% from recorded 498 breeding pairs was symmetrically developed the narrow and whitish gray stripe of feathers along third and fourth toes. This might be appearance of atavism. According to biogenetic principles, this is facts of that ancestor of Sakers was feathered tarsus and lived in cold habitats and zones. 0.6% (3 nearly fledged chicks) from total recorded pairs was asymmetrically grown 13 tail feathers.

Literature Bold A. & Boldbaatar S. Range and seasonal distribution, peak and decline of the Saker Falcon in Mongolia. – Proc. of the II International Conference on the Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard. Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. 2001. P. 155–159.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 ýòîìó áûëè ïîëó÷åíû ëèøü íàìè. Îòêëàäûâàíèå 6 ÿèö ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàñëåäñòâåííûì ïðèçíàêîì âçðîñëûõ ñàìîê è çàâèñèò îò ñóììàðíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ ñðåäíåãîäîâîé òåìïåðàòóðû âîçäóõà, òîëùèíû ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà è îáèëèÿ ïèùè. Ïîêàçàòåëè âûñîòû ìåñòíîñòè, ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçäà, îáúåêòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, íàðóæíîãî è âíóòðåííåãî äèàìåòðà, ãëóáèíû ãíåçäà, ñêîðîñòè âåòðà íå îêàçûâàþò çàìåòíîãî îòðèöàòåëüíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà ÷èñëî ÿèö â êëàäêå. Íî, ìåæäó òåì, áûëà âûÿâëåíà ïîëîæèòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ ìåæäó ÷èñëîì ÿèö â êëàäêå è ïëîòíîñòüþ ïîë¸âêè, ÷òî ëèøíèé ðàç äîêàçûâàåò ñâÿçü ìåæäó ÷èñëîì ÿèö è îáèëèåì êîðìîâîé áàçû. Íàñèæèâàíèå è âûëóïëåíèå ïòåíöîâ  äíåâíûå ÷àñû êëàäêó èç 1–2 ÿèö ïòèöû àêòèâíî íå íàñèæèâàþò, à ëèøü ïðèêðûâàþò èõ, çàùèùàÿ îò ïåðåîõëàæäåíèÿ. Íà÷èíàÿ ñ 3-ãî ÿéöà íà÷èíàåòñÿ àêòèâíîå íàñèæèâàíèå. Ïî íàøèì íàáëþäåíèÿì, èç 69 ñëó÷àåâ â 73,9% (51) êëàäêó íàñèæèâàëà ñàìêà, à â 26,1% ñàìöû. Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, ñàìêè èãðàþò ãëàâíóþ ðîëü â ýòîì ïðîöåññå. ×åðåç 26,5–33,5 äíÿ, â ñðåäíåì 28 äíåé ïîñëå íàñèæèâàíèÿ â ÿéöàõ ñëûøíû çâóêè, èçäàâàåìûå ïòåíöàìè. Ýòè ñðîêè ñîâïàäàþò ñ äàííûìè L. Brown, D. Amadon (1968). Ñðîêè âûëóïëåíèÿ ïòåíöîâ íåîäèíàêîâû. Áëèçêîå ðàñïîëîæåíèå äîðîã, âûïàñîâ ñêîòà, ïîíèæåíèå òåìïåðàòóðû âîçäóõà, íåäîñòàòî÷íàÿ ïîäñòèëêà íà áåòîííûõ, æåëåçíûõ ñóáñòðàòàõ ãí¸çä, ïëîõàÿ çàùèù¸ííîñòü îò âåòðà ïðèâîäÿò ê ïåðåîõëàæäåíèþ ÿèö, ñëåäñòâèåì ÷åãî è ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïîçäíèå ñðîêè âûëóïëåíèÿ ïòåíöîâ. ×åðåç 31,5–38,5 äíÿ ïîñëå íàñèæèâàíèÿ èëè ÷åðåç 2–3 äíÿ ïîñëå ïåðâûõ çâóêîâ â ÿéöàõ èç ñêîðëóïû ïîî÷åðåäíî âûëóïëÿþòñÿ ïòåíöû. Ïîýòîìó ïòåíöû èç îäíîé êëàäêè ðàçëè÷àþòñÿ â âîçðàñòå â 1–4 äíÿ. ×èñëî ïòåíöîâ è ôàêòîðû, âëèÿþùèå íà íèõ Êëàäêè 401 ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ ñîäåðæàëè â ñðåäíåì 3,79 ÿèö, âûâîäêè – 3,31 ïòåíöîâ (1–6, n=401), ëåòíûå âûâîäêè – 2,8±0,7 ñë¸òêîâ (1–6, n=401) íà óñïåøíîå ãíåçäî. Åñëè ñðàâíèòü ÷èñëî ñë¸òêîâ íà âñåé ãíåçäîâîé òåððèòîðèè ïî ãîäàì è ó÷¸òíûì ïëîùàäêàì, òî âèäèìûõ ðàçëè÷èé íå âûÿâëåíî. Èç 3,79 ÿèö âûëóïèëîñü 3,34 ïòåíöà, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, óñïåøíîñòü êëàäêè ñîñòàâëÿåò â ñðåäíåì 88,1%. Èç 3,34 âûâîäêîâ 2,8 âñòàëè íà êðûëî, ò.å. âûëåòåëî 83,8% ñë¸òêîâ íà óñïåøíîå ãíåçäî. Íà 3,79 ÿèö áàëîáàíà ïðèõîäèòñÿ 2,8 ñë¸òêà, à îáùèé óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñîñòàâëÿåò 73,8%.

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Brown L., Amadon D. Eagles Hawks and Falcons of the World. V.2. Great Britain. 1968. 842 p. Dementiev G.P. Birds of prey. – Birds of Soviet Union. T. 1. Moskow. 1951. P.70–341. (In Russian) Ellis D.H., Ellis M.H., Tsengeg Pu. Productivity of Saker Falcons Falco cherrug in Mongolia. – Proceedings Specialist Workshop, Middle East Falcon Research Group, Abu Dhabi, UAE. 1995. P. 117–330. Ellis D.H., Ellis M.H., Tsengeg Pu. Remarkable Saker Falcons Falco cherrug breeding records for Mongolia – Journal Raptor Research. 1997. 31. P. 234–240 . Fox N., Eastam Ch., Macdonald H. ERWDA Handbook of Falcon Protocols. National Avian Research Center. ERWDA, Abu Dhabi, UAE. 1997. 76 p. Fox C.N. Future trends, captive breeding, trade controls or market forces. – Proceedings of the II International Conference on the Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard. Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. 2001. P. 212–214. Fox N.C. Work on the Conservation of Asian falcons by ERWDA. – The conservation of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) and the role of CITES in UAE 2002. 2002. P. 4–8. Gombobaatar S., Sumya D., Shagdarsuren O., Uuganbayar Ch., Erdembileg D., Potapov E., Fox N. On diet studies of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Mongolia. Scientific Journal of the National University of Mongolia. 1999a. 9 (146). P. 156–173. (In Mongolian). Gombobaatar S., Sumiya S., Shagdarsuren O., Potapov E.R., Fox N.C. On Saker Falcon diet studies in Mongolia. – Proceedings of 3rd International Conference of Raptor research Foundation. Milkulov, Czech Republic 21–26 September 1999. Buteo 1999. 1999b. 51. Gombobaatar S., Potapov E., Fox N, Sumiya D., Stubbe M. On the diet studies of breeding Saker Falcons in Mongolia. – Proceeding of the Conference for 150 years anniversary of the German Ornithological Society. Leipzig. 2000. 82. Gombobaatar S., Sumya D., Shagdarsuren O., Potapov E., Fox N. Diet studies of Saker falcon (Falco cherrug) in Mongolia. – Proceedings of the II international Conference on the Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard, Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. 2000. 2001a. P. 116–127. Gombobaatar S., Uuganbayar Ch., Sumiya D., Shagdarsuren O., Potapov E., Fox N. On diet studies of breeding and wintering Saker Falcon in Mongolia. – Scientific Journal of the National University of Mongolia. 2001b. 12 (172). P. 89– 95 (In Mongolian) Gombobaatar S., Uuganbayar Ch., Potapov E. Comparative diet studies of breeding Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in different sites of Central Mongolia. – Proceedings of Biodiversity of Mongolia. 23–25 September 2002. Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia. 2002. P. 41–42. Gombobaatar S. Biology, Ecology and Conservation of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug milvipe Jerdon) in Central Mongolia. PhD thesis. 2006. 213 p. (In Mongolian)


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

×èñëî óñïåøíî ðàçâèâàþùèõñÿ ïòåíöîâ ñèëüíî çàâèñèò îò âèäà ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê, òî åñòü ãí¸çäà êàêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö áûëè çàíÿòû áàëîáàíàìè. Áîëüøå âñåõ ïòåíöîâ îòìå÷åíî â ïîñòðîéêàõ ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà. Âûÿâëåíà ñëàáàÿ îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ ìåæäó ÷èñëîì ïòåíöîâ è âûñîòîé ìåñòíîñòè (r=–0,01), íåçíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ – ìåæäó ÷èñëîì ïòåíöîâ, äèàìåòðîì (r=0,1) è ãëóáèíîé (r=0,08) ãíåçäà, âûñîòîé ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçäà (r=–0,1) è ÷èñëîì ïðèñàä (r=0,3) – ÷òî ãîâîðèò î òîì, ÷òî âëèÿíèå ýòèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé íà ÷èñëî ïòåíöîâ íå ñóùåñòâåííî. Ãëàâíûìè ëèìèòèðóþùèìè ôàêòîðàìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîë¸âêè è ïîãîäíûå óñëîâèÿ (òåìïåðàòóðà âîçäóõà, ñêîðîñòü âåòðà, òîëùèíà ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà) (r=0,5–0,7). Âîçðàñòíûå ãðóïïû ïòåíöîâ, âíåøíèå ïðèçíàêè è èõ èçìåí÷èâîñòü Ñîáðàííûé íàìè ìàòåðèàë íåäîñòàòî÷åí äëÿ ïîëíîãî îïèñàíèÿ âîçðàñòíûõ ãðóïï ïòåíöîâ, ïîýòîìó çäåñü ìû îãðàíè÷èìñÿ ëèøü îáùèìè ñîîáðàæåíèÿìè: – Âçðîñëûå ïóõîâèêè (15–17 äíåâíûå). – Ñ ïåðâè÷íûìè ñîñóäèñòûìè ìàõîâûìè (ó ñàìöà äëèíà êðûëà–187 ìì, ó ñàìêè– 204.5 ìì, ~17–30 äíåâíûå). – Ðàçâèòû âòîðè÷íîñîñóäèñòûå ìàõîâûå ïåðüÿ (ó ñàìöà äëèíà êðûëà–187 ìì, ó ñàìêè-áîëåå 204.5 ìì, áîëüøå 30 äíåé). – Ñë¸òêè èëè ïòåíöû ñ ïîëíûì îïåðåíèåì (ïîêèäàþò ãíåçäà, çàâèñÿò îò ðîäèòåëåé). – Ìîëîäàÿ ïòèöà (íå çàâèñèò îò ðîäèòåëåé è æèâ¸ò ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî, 75 äíåé è áîëüøå). Îêðàñêà. Ôîíîâàÿ îêðàñêà ïåðüåâ ñïèíû â îñíîâíîì áóðàÿ, íî â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ïèãìåíòàöèè ìîæåò èìåòü 3 öâåòîâûå âàðèàöèè: áóðóþ, ò¸ìíî-áóðóþ, áëåäíî-áóðóþ. Ñóùåñòâóþò òàêæå ðàçëè÷íûå ïåðåõîäíûå ôîðìû ðàñöâåòêè. Ñëó÷àéíûå ïðèçíàêè. Ó 1% ñàìîê (n=498) íà 3, 4 ïàëüöàõ è âíóòðåííåé ñòîðîíå 1 ïàëüöà, îáðàçóÿ óçêèå ïîëîñû, âûðîñëè ñèììåòðè÷íî ðàñïîëîæåííûå ïó÷êè áëåäíî-ñåðûõ ïåðüåâ. Òàêîå îïåðåíèå ïàëüöåâ è öåâêè ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîÿâëåíèåì "àòàâèçìà". Ïî áèîãåíåòè÷åñêîìó çàêîíó ýòî ñëóæèò äîêàçàòåëüñòâîì òîìó, ÷òî ïðåäêàìè áàëîáàíîâ áûëè ïòèöû õîëîäíûõ ïîÿñîâ ñ îïåðåííîé öåâêîé.  íîðìå ó áàëîáàíà 12 ñèììåòðè÷íî ðàñïîëîæåííûõ ðóëåâûõ ïåðüåâ. Ó 0,6% ïòèö íàáëþäàåòñÿ óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëà ðóëåâûõ ïåðüåâ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ó 3-õ ñàìîê îòìå÷åíî 13 ðóëåâûõ ïåðüåâ.

Ðàçëè÷íûå àòàâèçìû ó áàëîáàíîâ: 13 ðóëåâûõ (ââåðõó) è ÷àñòè÷íîå îïåðåíèå ïàëüöåâ (âíèçó). Âîñòî÷íàÿ Ìîíãîëèÿ. 2004 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Ãîìáîáààòàð Different atavisms beside from Saker Falcon: 13 tail feathers (upper) and feathered fingers (bottom). Eastern Mongolia. 2004. Photos by S. Gombobaatar

Ilichiev V.D., Êartashev V.D., Shilov I.A. General Ornithology. Moskow. 1982. 464 p. (In Russian). Krebs Ch.J. Ecological methodology. USA. 1989. P. 293–371. Potapov E.R., Fox N., Sumiya D., Shagdarsuren O., Gombobaatar S. Nest site selection for Mongolian Saker. – Proceedings of the II international Conference on the Saker Falcon and Houbara bustard, Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. 2000. P. 132–137 Potapov E., Sumiya D., Gombobaatar S., Fox N. Nest site selection in Mongolian sakers. – Falco. 2002a. 19. P. 9–10. Potapov E., Sumiya D., Gombobaatar S., Shagdarsuren O., Tuya S., Ochirkhuyag L., Fox N. First documented clutch and brood of six in Saker Falcons. The newsletter of the Middle East Falcon Research Group. – Falco. 2002b. 20. P. 14–16. Potapov E. Report of migration studies of Saker Falcon in Mongolia. – Report for the NARC, UK, and ERWDA, UAE. 2003. Shagdarsuren O. Raptors of Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. 1983. (In Mongolian) Shagdarsuren O., Sumiya D., Gombobaatar S., Potapov E., Fox N. The Saker in Mongolia: numbers and distribution. – Proceedings of the II international Con. on the Saker Falcon and Houbara bustard, Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. 2001. P. 25–33. Snow D.W., Perrins C.M. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. V. I. Non–Passerines. Oxford University Press. 1998. P. 346–348.


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Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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TheBootedEagleintheVolgaRegion,UralandSiberia,Russia ОРЁЛ-КАРЛИКВПОВОЛЖЬЕ,НАУРАЛЕИВСИБИРИ,РОССИЯ KaryakinI.V.(CenterforFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) Каря инИ.В.(Центрполевыхисследований,Н.Новород,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus) îäèí èç ñàìûõ ìàëîèçó÷åííûõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö íàøåé ñòðàíû.  ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ ê íåìó ïðîÿâëÿþò èíòåðåñ ìíîãèå îðíèòîëîãè â ñâÿçè ñ ðîñòîì åãî ÷èñëåííîñòè íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè àðåàëà, îñîáåííî íà âîñòîêå Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè. Äàííàÿ ñòàòüÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîïûòêîé ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàòü èíôîðìàöèþ, íàêîïëåííóþ ïî ýòîìó âèäó îðíèòîëîãàìè, ðàáîòàþùèìè â Ïîâîëæüå, íà Óðàëå è â Ñèáèðè, à òàêæå ïðåäñòàâèòü ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ, ÷èñëåííîñòè è ãíåçäîâîé áèîëîãèè îðëà-êàðëèêà â Ðîññèè, ðåàëèçîâàííîãî â ðàìêàõ ðàáîòû Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé â 2000–2006 ãã.

Ìåòîäèêà

Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Photo by I. Karyakin

Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà èçó÷àëîñü â õîäå ýêñïåäèöèé ïî èçó÷åíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ñ 1996 ïî 2006 ãã. àâòîìàðøðóòàìè áûëà îõâà÷åíà ïî÷òè âñÿ îáëàñòü âîçìîæíîãî îáèòàíèÿ êàðëèêà îò Ïðåäâîëæüÿ äî Çàáàéêàëüÿ.  õîäå ðàáîòû ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü âñå âñòðå÷è îðëîâ è, ïî âîçìîæíîñòè, èñêàëèñü èõ ãí¸çäà. Âñå âñòðå÷è ïòèö è íàõîäêè ãí¸çä êàðòèðîâàëèñü è âíîñèëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ â ArcView 3x ESRI. Äàííûå, ñîáðàííûå ïîñëå 1998 ã., ïðèâÿçûâàëèñü ê ñèñòåìå êîîðäèíàò ñ ïîìîùüþ ïåðñîíàëüíûõ ñïóòíèêîâûõ íàâèãàòîðîâ Garmin.

Methods Distribution of the Booted Eagle was investigated during field trips in 1996 – 2006. During the clustering of satellite image Resurs-Î/MSU-E, Landsat–7/ÅÒÌ+ and TERRA/ASTER (1998–2004) in ERDAS Imagine 8.7 the inhabitant places for the Booted Eagle were verified. To estimate a number of the Booted Eagle in GIS (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA) the map of inhabitant places that encompass a total area of 42283 km2 was created. Also we set 65 study plots. The area of inhabitant places per each study plot was 20 km2, the total area of inhabitant places in the all of plots was 1300 km2. Extrapolation of data was carried out for every local population: density of breeding pairs in inhabitant places of a study plot was extrapolated for the total area of inhabitant places within a local population range. For researching breeding biology we surveyed 3 breeding pairs with using video cameras in 2004. For evaluation of breeding success we twice visited 6–9 nests a breeding season. The breeding success was estimated as a portion of fledglings per the total number of laid eggs. A diet was analyzed with using video cameras and collecting remains of preys in and under a nest. A total of 120 preys were surveyed in nests as well as 113 remains were collected, 5 pellets were analyzed and 46 facts of bringing preys in nests by adults were registered with using video camera. Statistical analysis was realized with using following software: MS Excel 2003, Spatial Statistics 1.0, Statistica 6.0.

Distribution Only two notes of the Booted Eagle that considered as a vagrant was known in the Middle Volga at the end of XIX century. The Booted Eagles was found breeding in forests along the Volga and Ural rivers to 1960s (Voinstvenskiy, 1960), and the fact of his breeding was fixed in the N. Novgorod district in 1965 (Zimin, Molodovskiy, 1968). More notes of the Booted Eagle breeding


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ ïòèö îñóùåñòâëÿëàñü â õîäå âèçóàëüíîãî íàáëþäåíèÿ çà ìåñòíîñòüþ ñ ïîìîùüþ áèíîêëåé è çðèòåëüíûõ òðóá óâåëè÷åíèåì 12–60 êðàò ñ òî÷åê, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ íà âîçâûøåííûõ ýëåìåíòàõ ðåëüåôà ëèáî ñðåäè îòêðûòîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà â 200– 1500 ì îò îïóøåê ëåñîâ. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó òî÷êàìè âàðüèðîâàëî îò 1 äî 6 êì, â çàâèñèìîñòè îò òèïà ìåñòíîñòè, è áûëî ìèíèìàëüíûì â ìåñòàõ ñ íàèáîëåå ïåðåñå÷¸ííûì ðåëüåôîì è áîëüøåé ïëîùàäüþ ëåñîïîêðûòûõ ó÷àñòêîâ. Ìåæäó òî÷êàìè èññëåäîâàòåëüñêàÿ ãðóïïà ïåðåäâèãàëàñü íà àâòîìîáèëÿõ ÂÀÇ 21213 «Íèâà» è ÓÀÇ 31519. Ê ìîìåíòó ðåàëèçàöèè ñïåöèàëüíîãî ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ îðëà-êàðëèêà, ñòàðòîâàâøåãî â 2000 ã., óæå áûë íàêîïëåí îïðåäåë¸ííûé ñâîä äàííûõ ïî ýòîìó âèäó, òåì íå ìåíåå, ïîëíîöåííûå ó÷¸òû, êîòîðûå ëåãëè â îñíîâó îöåíîê ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà, áûëè ïðîâåäåíû èìåííî â 2000–2006 ã. Äëÿ îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè îðëà-êàðëèêà â ñðåäå ÃÈÑ áûëà ïîäãîòîâëåíà êàðòîãðàôè÷åñêàÿ îñíîâà.  ðåçóëüòàòå âåêòîðèçàöèè ðàñòðîâûõ òîïîãðàôè÷åñêèõ êàðò Ì 1:200000, ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî ïðèâÿçàííûõ ê ñèñòåìå êîîðäèíàò WGS84 â ïðîåêöèè Àëüáåðñà äëÿ Åâðîïû è Ñèáèðè, ïîäãîòîâëåíû ñëîè ëåñîâ, ãèäðîñåòè è ðåëüåôà.  õîäå àíàëèçà êîñìîñíèìêîâ Landsat 7 ETM+ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ERDAS Imagine 8.7 îáúåêòû âåêòîðíîé êàðòû ëåñîâ áûëè äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíû ïî òèïàì è ñ ïîìîùüþ ìîäóëÿ Xtools äëÿ ArcView 3x ðàçðåçàíû áóôåðàìè íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ (R=1 êì), ïîëèãîíàìè âûñîêîãîðèé è êëàñòåðàìè ñïëîøíûõ ëåñîâ (S>100 êì2), óäàë¸ííûõ îò îïóøå÷íîé çîíû äàëåå 1 êì.  ðåçóëüòàòå àíàëèçà òîïîãðàôè÷åñêèõ ñëî¸â ïîäãîòîâëåíà êàðòà ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé êàðëèêà (ëåñîâ, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ). Âûäåëåíî 17046 ëåñíûõ êëàñòåðîâ, îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 461051 êì2 è ïåðèìåòðîì 415954 êì. Íà îñíîâå ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé âûÿâëåíû ñïåöèôè÷åñêèå ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè îðëà-êàðëèêà. Äëÿ íèõ îïðåäåëåíû îñíîâíûå ïàðàìåòðû ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (òèï ëåñà, àáñîëþòíàÿ è îòíîñèòåëüíàÿ âûñîòà). Íà îñíîâàíèè ýòèõ ïàðàìåòðîâ íà áàçå êàðòû ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé â ArcView 3x ìåòîäîì ïðîñòðàíñòâåííîãî àíàëèçà (Spatial analysis) ïîäãîòîâëåíà âåêòîðíàÿ êàðòà òèïè÷íûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, íà êîòîðûå è ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè, ïîëó÷åííûå â õîäå ó÷¸òîâ. Îáùàÿ ïëîùàäü òèïè÷íûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, êîòîðûå ìû áóäåì óñëîâíî ñ÷èòàòü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûìè áèîòîïàìè, ñîñòàâèëà 42283 êì2.

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ in the Middle Volga region have appeared since 1980s (Borodin et al., 2003). Booted Eagles were registered regularly in two parts of the Sura river valley in 2004–2005. And no less than 5 breeding territories were known in Mordovia till 2005 (Lapshin et al., 2005). Two breeding territories were found in the Alatyr river valley in the N.Novgorod district in August 2003. Booted Eagles have been regularly observed breeding at Samarskaya Luka (Samara district) since 1990s. Two breeding territories were found in pine forests on terraces of the Volga river in 1997, and 3 breeding territories were noted in forests in ravines and flood-lands in the south of the Samara district in 1999. T.O. Barabashin (2006) also observed Booted Eagles in the Samara district behind the Volga river. The species have been registered in the Ural Mountains foothills since 1990s (Karyakin, 1998). A brood of 2 fledglings was observed in the Dema river flood-lands. The Booted Eagle was found breeding in the Bugulminsko-Belebeevskaya upland in 2006 (Karyakin, 2006). Also in July 2002, 2 breeding territories with nests were found in the right side of the Kama river (Nikolenko, Bekmansurov, 2006). Thus being a vagrant or rare breeding species at the beginning of XX century the Booted Eagle has become a common raptor inhabiting forest-steppe landscapes. The Booted Eagle has already inhabited almost the whole territory of the Volga region and the Ural Mountains foothills and the right side of the Kama river in Tataria, and it was happen during last decade. The Booted Eagle was not registered in Southern Ural before 1990s (Karyakin, 1989). Only adults were registered since 1996 to 2002, but a brood of 2 fledglings was observed on the Ik river in Bashkiria in August 2002. L.V. Korshikov (2001) surveyed single birds in the southern edge of Southern Ural. For the recent time the territory of Western Siberia including Northern Kazakhstan was considered to be out of the Booted Eagle’s breeding range (Deventyev, 1951). However single birds were observed in the south of the Chelyabinsk district in 2002 ( Gashek, 2002) and in 2003. The species was believed to be a vagrant in the Kurgan district (Ryabitsev et al., 2001), but A.V. Moshkin (2006) found a nest and a brood of 2 chicks in a terrace pine forest of the Tobol river. The species was not registered in the Novosibirsk district for the recent time too. The first fact of breeding in the district was noted in the Berd river valley in the Salair


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 Äëÿ ðàñ÷¸òà ÷èñëåííîñòè îðëà-êàðëèêà ñ ïîìîùüþ ìîäóëåé Spatial Analyst 1.1 è Animal Movement Analysis 2.0 äëÿ ArcView 3x íà áàçå âåêòîðíîé êàðòû ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â ïðåäåëàõ çàäàííûõ ïîëèãîíîâ ìåòîäîì ñëó÷àéíîãî âûáîðà (Random selection) âûäåëåíû 65 ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê. Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â ïðåäåëàõ êàæäîé ïëîùàäêè ñîñòàâèëà 20 êì2, à îáùàÿ ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ – 1300 êì2. Ïëîùàäêè ïîñåùàëèñü â õîäå ñïåöèàëüíîãî ïðîåêòà. Àëãîðèòì îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê áûë òàêèì æå, êàê ïðè ðàáîòå ïî âûÿâëåíèþ âèäà âíå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäåé, ñ òîé ëèøü ðàçíèöåé, ÷òî íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ ìåòîäè÷íî îñìàòðèâàëñÿ âåñü äîñòóïíûé äëÿ íàáëþäåíèÿ ñåêòîð ðàäèóñîì 1,5–3 êì ñ äîâîëüíî øèðîêîé çîíîé ïåðåêðûòèÿ. Íàáëþäåíèÿ íà òî÷êàõ âåëèñü íå ìåíåå ÷àñà. Âî âñåõ ñëó÷àÿõ íàáëþäåíèÿ íà òî÷êàõ êîìáèíèðîâàëè ñ îñìîòðîì ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ íà ïðåäìåò îáíàðóæåíèÿ ãí¸çä äàæå â òîì ñëó÷àå, åñëè ïòèö íå óäàâàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü.  ðÿäå ñèëüíî ìîçàè÷íûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ ïðàêòèêîâàëîñü ïîëíîå ïðî÷åñûâàíèå ëåñíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, îäíàêî â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ ïîèñê ãí¸çä áûë îðèåíòèðîâàí íà òèïè÷íûå äëÿ êàðëèêà ïîñòðîéêè â ïðèîïóøå÷íîé çîíå.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè ïåðâîãî ãíåçäà, ÷òîáû ñîêðàòèòü âðåìÿ íà ïîèñê ñëåäóþùèõ, â ïðåäïîëàãàåìîé ìèíèìàëüíîé áóôåðíîé çîíå óæå íàéäåííîãî ãíåçäà (ðàäèóñîì 1,5 êì) ïîèñê äðóãèõ ãí¸çä íå îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ. Ãðóïïà ïåðåäâèãàëàñü çà ïðåäåëû áóôåðà è ïðîäîëæàëà íàáëþäåíèå ñ íîâîé òî÷êè è ïîèñê ãí¸çä â àíàëîãè÷íûõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ íà ïðåäïîëàãàåìûõ ó÷àñòêàõ äðóãèõ ïàð. Åñëè òåððèòîðèÿ, â ïðåäåëàõ êîòîðîé áûëà âûäåëåíà ïëîùàäêà, ïîñåùàëàñü ðàíåå, òî å¸ îáñëåäîâàíèå îñóùåñòâëÿëîñü òàê æå, êàê îáñëåäîâàíèå íîâûõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäåé, âíå çàâèñèìîñòè îò íàëè÷èÿ ãí¸çä êàðëèêà, îáíàðóæåííûõ â ïðåæíèå ãîäû. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êàðëèêà íà ïëîùàäêàõ â ïðåäåëàõ ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà ðàññ÷èòûâàëàñü êàê ñðåäíåâçâåøåííàÿ, âû÷èñëÿëàñü ñòàíäàðòíàÿ îøèáêà ñðåäíåé (M±SE) è íåñèììåòðè÷íûé äîâåðèòåëüíûé èíòåðâàë (Ðàâêèí, ×åëèíöåâ, 1990). Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ âåëàñü äëÿ êàæäîé ñïåöèôè÷åñêîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè â îòäåëüíîñòè, ïóò¸ì ïåðåñ÷¸òà äàííûõ ïî ïëîòíîñòè â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ íà

29

Mountains foothills in 2002 (Karyakin et al., 2005). I.F. Zhimulev (2005) recorded a brood of Booted Eagles in the Botanical garden in Novosibirsk on 21 August 2005. Several records were fixed in the left side of the Ob river in the Altai Kray (Karyakin et al., 2005). Now the Booted Eagle seems to be settling into the east of Western Siberia. The first who recorded the species breeding in the Republic of Altai was P.P. Sushkin (1938). He found Booted Eagles breeding in the Ulaganskoe Plateau. We observed adult birds with breeding behavior four times in June 2000, also noted a single adult in the Ursul river valley on 24 June 2003, a pair of adults – in the Yabogan river flood-lands in the Kan depression, and found two living nests in the Chuya and Bugusun river valleys. Seven nests of Booted Eagles were found in flood-forests of several rivers in Tuva: Kargy, Tes-Hem, Ersin, Shuurmak and UlugHem (Baranov, 1991). The Booted Eagle was found breeding in the all valleys of large rivers in steppe depressions in 1999–2006 as well as we found 74 breeding territories and nests of 44 pairs in the Balgasyn pine forest. The first registration of the species in the Kemerovo district was in the upper reaches of the Srednya Ters river in the “Kuznetskiy Alatau” State Nature Reserve (Vasilchenko, 1999). A total of 5 nest were found in the Shectakovskie bogs during 14 years of surveys (Vasilchenko, 2004). It was not known the Booted Eagle breeding in Khakasia in 1970-1980s (Prokofyev, 1987; 1993), however we found the species breeding on the almost territory of Minusinsk depression in 2000. We registered 24 breeding territories (in 11 of them we found nests) on the territory of the republic in 2000–2003. The first information about records of the species in the Krasnoyarsk Kray was appeared in 1970s. Single birds were observed in the Gagula depression at the end of August 1971, in the Us depression – on May 1982 (Syroechkovskiy, Bezborodov, 1987). We surveyed 2 breeding areas in the Us depression in 2001 and else 2, where we found a nest in one of them (Karyakin et al., 2005). We found several breeding territories in the right side of the Enisey river: in the Shushenskiy (1), Znamenskiy (1) and Minusinsk (2) pine forests and in the Tuba river valley (2 pairs). Also we project the Booted Eagle breeding in the Kan forest-steppe, where we surveyed males hunting in the upper reaches of the Bolshaya Avda river on 23 June 2005 and in the Kan river valley near Kansk on 22 July 2005.


30

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 îáùóþ ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â ïðåäåëàõ îáëàñòè îáèòàíèÿ ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè.  Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå, ãäå ó÷¸òàìè áûëà îõâà÷åíà íàèáîëüøàÿ ïëîùàäü ìåñòîîáèòàíèé êàðëèêà, âûøåïðèâåä¸ííûé ìåòîä ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ÷èñëåííîñòè ïðîäóáëèðîâàí ðàñ÷¸òîì ëèíåéíûõ ïîêàçàòåëåé îáèëèÿ ïàð íà ïëîùàäêàõ íà îáùóþ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, èìåþùèõ ÷¸òêèå ëèíåéíûå ïîêàçàòåëè (ðóñëà ðåê, îïóøêè ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ). Ãíåçäîâàÿ áèîëîãèÿ èçó÷àëàñü ìåòîäàìè âèäåîíàáëþäåíèÿ çà òðåìÿ ïàðàìè â ñåçîí 2004 ã. Íà ðàçíûõ ýòàïàõ ðàçâèòèÿ ïòåíöîâ (7–10 äíåé, 15–20 äíåé, 30–35 äíåé) íà äåðåâüÿõ, ñîñåäíèõ ñ ãíåçäîâûì äåðåâîì, óñòàíàâëèâàëèñü äèñòàíöèîííûå êàìåðû, ñ ïîìîùüþ êîòîðûõ ñíèìàëàñü æèçíü âûâîäêà â òå÷åíèå 4–7 äíåé â ñâåòëîå âðåìÿ ñóòîê. Äëÿ îïðåäåëåíèÿ óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ åæåãîäíî îò 6 äî 9 ãí¸çä ïîñåùàëèñü 2 ðàçà çà ñåçîí. Óñïåøíîñòü ðàçìíîæåíèÿ îöåíèâàëè êàê äîëþ âûëåòåâøèõ ñë¸òêîâ îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà îòëîæåííûõ ÿèö. Ïèòàíèå èçó÷àëîñü â îñíîâíîì â ðåçóëüòàòå àíàëèçà âèäåîìàòåðèàëà è îñòàíêîâ æåðòâ, îáíàðóæåííûõ â ãíåçäå è ïîä íèì.  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè îñìîòðåíî 120 òóøåê æåðòâ â ãí¸çäàõ îðëîâ, 113 îñòàíêîâ ïîä ãí¸çäàìè, ðàçîáðàíî 5 ïîãàäîê è ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàíî 46 èçîáðàæåíèé æåðòâ, ïðèíåñ¸ííûõ âçðîñëûìè ïòèöàìè â ãíåçäî. Ìàòåìàòè÷åñêàÿ îáðàáîòêà äàííûõ îñóùåñòâëÿëàñü â Microsoft Excel 2003, Spatial Statistics 1.0, Statistica 6.0. Äëÿ ñðåäíèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé â âûáîðêàõ ðàññ÷èòûâàëîñü ñòàíäàðòíîå îòêëîíåíèå (M±SD) è ñèììåòðè÷íûé äîâåðèòåëüíûé èíòåðâàë.

Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà â Ïîâîëæüå è Ïðåäóðàëüå  êîíöå XIX ñòîëåòèÿ íà Ñðåäíåé Âîëãå áûëè èçâåñòíû ëèøü 2 âñòðå÷è îðëà-êàðëèêà, êîòîðûå ðàññìàòðèâàëèñü êàê çàë¸òû. Î âñòðå÷àõ îðëà-êàðëèêà â Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè èìååòñÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ ó Í.À. Çàðóäíîãî (1897). Íà òåððèòîðèè Òàòàðèè îð¸ë-êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ â êîíöå ÕIÕ âåêà áëèç ãðàíèöû ñ Áóãóëüìèíñêèì óåçäîì Ñàìàðñêîé ãóáåðíèè (íûíå òåððèòîðèÿ Áóãóëüìèíñêîãî ðàéîíà Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí) (Ìåíçáèð, 1895). Â.Ì. Àðòîáîëåâñêèé (1923–1924) ïðèâîäèò îïðîñíóþ èíôîðìàöèþ î âñòðå÷å îðëà-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ The history of surveys of the Booted Eagle in the Baikal region has almost 150 years, unfortunately the reliable information about the Booted Eagle breeding in the region was absent to the beginning of XXI century (Popov, 2003). We observed Booted Eagles in 6 points of the Irkutsk district, and in 2 of them we found active nests (Karyakin et al., 2006). The Booted Eagle has been observed in the Tunkinskaya valley in Buryatia since 1930s. Also we observed single birds 4 times (Karyakin et al., 2006). In the Chita district an adult of the Booted Eagle was hunted near Alexandrovskiy Zavod in September 1935 (Skalon, 1936) and another bird was observed near Kaylastuy (Gagina, 1960). Also Booted Eagles were recorded in flood-lands of several rivers: Shilka, Nerch and Aleur (Shkatulova, 1974). The modern breeding range of the Booted Eagle can be divided into 3 parts (fig. 3): 1 – breeding range at the end of IX – beginning of ÕÕ centuries (Dementiev, 1951), 2 – breeding range at the end of ÕÕ century, 3 – breeding range at the beginning of ÕÕI century. The territory being inhabited by Booted Eagles during last 20–30 years exceeds now the former range more than in 1.5 times.

Inhabitant Places The statistical analysis was shown breeding density of Booted Eagles to correlate negatively with forest fragmentation (r = – 0.767; p < 0.001) (fig. 5) and with domination of birch in the tree canopy of forests (r = – 0.657; p < 0.001). The main pairs prefer to inhabit two types of habitat – forests in flood-lands and on river terraces surrounded by steppe pastures. The distribution of Booted Eagle nests correlates positively with river valleys (r = 0.897; p < 0.005). The main part of pairs (60.1%; n=193) breed in flood-forests, 87,9% of which inhabit flood-lands of rivers in the Altai-Sayan region (fig. 7). 18.1% of pairs prefer to nest in forests on river terraces, 77.1% of with inhabit the Volga river region. If the whole territory of the range is analyzed next habitats will dominate: poplar (35.2%), mixed (29.0%) and pine (13.5%) forests while pine forests locate mainly on river terraces (38.5%, n=26) (fig. 8), but in different native regions the portion of habitat predominated as a favorite for Booted Eagles nesting is different (fig. 9)


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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Population Number and Trend

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà (Hieraaetus pennatus) â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Óñëîâíûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ: 1 – ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè, 2 – ãðàíèöû îáëàñòåé, 3 – ðåêè, 4 – âîäî¸ìû, 5 – ëåñ Fig. 1. Distribution of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) in the central part of the Volga-Ural region. Labels: 1 – breeding territory, 2 – district borders, 3 – rivers, 4 – water bodies, 5 – forests

êàðëèêà â 1898 ã. áëèç ñ. Âüÿñà áûâøåãî Ñàðàíñêîãî óåçäà (òåððèòîðèÿ ñîâðåìåííîé Ìîðäîâèè). Èíòåðåñíî, ÷òî â Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè ïîñëå ñîîáùåíèÿ Í.À. Çàðóäíîãî (1897) è â Òàòàðèè ïîñëå ñîîáùåíèÿ Ì.À. Ìåíçáèðà (1895), âïëîòü äî êîíöà 80-õ è ñåðåäèíû 90-õ ãã. ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ñâåäåíèé î êàðëèêå íå ïîñòóïàëî (Äàâûãîðà, 1989; Ãðèãîðüåâ è äð., 1977). Òî æå ñàìîå ìîæíî ñêàçàòü è î òåððèòîðèè Ìîðäîâèè, ãäå âòîðîå ãíåçäî êàðëèêà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ñïóñòÿ 74 ãîäà ïîñëå îáíàðóæåíèÿ ïåðâîãî (Ëûñåíêîâ è äð., 1997).  40-õ ãã. Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâ (1951) ïðîâîäèë ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íóþ ãðàíèöó ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà ïî þæíûì ðàéîíàì Ìîñêîâñêîé îáëàñòè, ÷åðåç Ðÿçàíñêóþ, Òàìáîâñêóþ è Âîðîíåæñêóþ îáëàñòè, íà âîñòîê äî Îêè, ðàñöåíèâàÿ 2 âñòðå÷è âèäà â Ïîâîëæüå êàê çàë¸òû. Îäíàêî ñïîðàäè÷íîå ãíåçäîâàíèå âèäà áûëî èçâåñòíî âîñòî÷íåå ð. Îêè. Ñ.À. Ïðåäòå÷åíñêèé (1928) íàø¸ë 10 ìàÿ 1921 ã. ãíåçäî îðëà-êàðëèêà ñ äâóìÿ ïòåíöàìè â ëåñó ïî ð. Âàä â ñåâåðî-çàïàäíîé ÷àñòè Ñïàññêîãî óåçäà Òàìáîâñêîãî êðàÿ, òî åñòü â íûíåøíåì Çóáîâî-Ïîëÿíñêîì ðàéîíå Ìîðäîâèè, íî ïîçæå, â òå÷åíèå áîëåå ÷åì ïîëóâåêà, èíôîðìàöèè î âèäå ñ òåððèòîðèè Ìîðäîâèè íå ïîñòóïàëî. À.Ò. Ëåïèí (1940) ïðèâîäèò äàííûå î ãíåçäîâàíèè êàðëèêà íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå (Æèãóë¸âñêèé çàïîâåäíèê) â ðàéîíå Áàõèëîâîé ãîðû â 1937 ã., ãäå åìó áûëè èçâåñòíû 24 âñòðå÷è âèäà â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä. Ì.È. Çÿáðåâ (1944) îòìå÷àåò êàðëèêà êàê íåìíîãî÷èñëåííóþ ãíåçäÿùóþñÿ ïòèöó íà ëåâîáåðåæüå ð. Âîëãè íàïðîòèâ Æèãóë¸âñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà: çäåñü 4 àâãóñòà 1940 ã. áûë äîáûò ýêçåìïëÿð ýòîãî âèäà. Îäíàêî ñ 40-õ è âïëîòü äî 90-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè êàðëèêà íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå îòñóòñòâóåò,

The density of Booted Eagles varies from 5 to 25 breeding pairs/100 km2 of forested area and not depends mainly on the type of forest or geological peculiarities of the territory but on a number of preys. We noted the positive correlation for density and distances from nests to Daurian Pike’s (Ochotona daurica) colonies (r = 0.812; p < 0.01) in Tuva, and to Major Souslik’s (Spermophilus major) (r = 0.657; p < 0.01). The highest density (15–25 pairs/100 km2 of forested area) was noted only in 12.1% of study plots (n=65), where the predominate habitats were flood-forests (n=15; 53.3%) and terrace forests (40.0%). More than a half of that plots (53.3%) is in the Altai-Sayan region mainly in Tuva (33.3%), others – in the Volga river region and the Ural Mountains foothills, especially in the Samara district and the Republic of Tatarstan (26.7%). The average distance between Booted Eagle nests in the all plots 5.52±2.84 êì (Ex = – 0.33; n=64; range 1.19 – 12.87). The spatial analysis of the Booted Eagle distribution in Russia (fig. 6) was shown the existence of two distinguished population groups that are centers of two subspecies – nominal (H. pennatus pennatus) and oriental (H. pennatus milvoides) (Stepanyan, 1990). Now birds spread actively from these centers on the territory of Western Siberia. A total of 1700–2600 pairs of Booted Eagles are estimated to breed on the surveyed territory of Russia.

Morphs Analysis of published sources was demonstrated dark morph to dominate (n=48; 64.6%) in the Booted Eagle’s populations inhabited the territory between the Volga and the Amur rivers. Our observations of 298 birds in different regions of Russia also show the predominance of dark morph (85.2%) in surveyed part of the range (fig. 15). Decreasing the portion of pale birds in the population is noted from west to east. If the portion registered pale morph birds in the Volga-Ural region is 34.8% but to the east from Ural it will be 6.8%.

Breeding Biology Phenology In Russia Booted Eagles return into breeding territories in April. Birds lay eggs main-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 õîòÿ ñïîðàäè÷íûå âñòðå÷è âèäà ïðîäîëæàþò ðåãèñòðèðîâàòüñÿ (Áåëÿíèíà, Áåëÿíèí, 1981; Ðîìàíþê, 1985). Ê 60-ì ãã. îð¸ë-êàðëèê áûë íàéäåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ëåñàõ ïî Âîëãå è Óðàëó (Âîèíñòâåíñêèé, 1960), à â 1965 ã. ãíåçäîâàíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà óñòàíîâëåíî â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Çèìèí, Ìîëîäîâñêèé, 1968). Ñ 80-õ ãã. ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ âñå áîëüøå ñâåäåíèé î ãíåçäîâàíèè êàðëèêà íà òåððèòîðèè Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ (Áîðîäèí è äð., 2003).  1979 ã. êàðëèê âïåðâûå îáíàðóæåí â Ïåíçåíñêîé áëàñòè – â Áåëèíñêîì ðàéîíå (Ôðîëîâ è äð., 2001). Ïîçæå ñòàëè èçâåñòíû åäèíè÷íûå ñëó÷àè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â Áåêîâñêîì è Ïåíçåíñêîì ðàéîíàõ (Ôðîëîâ, Êîðêèíà, 1997; Êîðêèíà, Ôðîëîâ, 2002).  Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè îð¸ë-êàðëèê âïåðâûå îáíàðóæåí â èþíå 1988 ã. íà áåðåãó Âîëãè ê þãó îò ñ. Øèëîâêà Ñåíãèëååâñêîãî ðàéîíà. Çäåñü, íà ëåñîñòåïíîé âîçâûøåííîñòè («Ñåíãèëååâñêèå ãîðû») ê 2003 ã. îáðàçîâàëàñü óñòîé÷èâàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà, â êîòîðîé íàñ÷èòûâàåòñÿ 5–10 ïàð. Ïåðâîå ãíåçäî áûëî íàéäåíî 1 ìàÿ 1994 ã.  òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäóþùèõ ëåò åæåãîäíî (ñ ìàðòà ïî àâãóñò) îðëû-êàðëèêè ìíîãîêðàòíî ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðàéîíàõ Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè (Ñåíãèëååâñêîì, Óëüÿíîâñêîì, Ðàäèùåâñêîì, Ñòàðîêóëàòêèíñêîì, Íèêîëàåâñêîì, Ñòàðîìàéíñêîì, Èíçåíñêîì, Ñóðñêîì). ×àñòî îòìå÷àëè áðà÷íîå è òåððèòîðèàëüíîå ïîâåäåíèå, âûÿâëåí ðÿä ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé. Ñàìàÿ ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íàÿ òî÷êà îáèòàíèÿ ýòèõ ïòèö â îáëàñòè áûëà óñòàíîâëåíà 17 èþëÿ 2001 ã. îêîëî «Êëþêâåííîãî» çàëèâà Êóéáûøåâñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà (ñåâåðíåå ïîñ. Ñòàðàÿ Ìàéíà, 54°38' ñ. ø., 48°58' â. ä.) (Áîðîäèí è äð., 2003).  ×óâàøèè îð¸ë-êàðëèê áûë îòìå÷åí âïåðâûå â 1993 ã. (Ëàñòóõèí, 1997; ßêîâëåâ è äð., 2002), à â 2001 ã. óñòàíîâëåíî åãî ãíåçäîâàíèå â ïîéìå ð. Ìàë. Öèâèëü (ßêîâëåâ è äð., 2002).  2004– 2005 ã. êàðëèêè ðåãóëÿðíî íàáëþäàþòñÿ íà 2-õ ó÷àñòêàõ äîëèíû ð. Ñóðû áëèç ñ. Ïîðåöêîå (äàííûå àâòîðà).  Ìîðäîâèè ïîñëå íàõîäêè ãíåçäà Ñ.À. Ïðåäòå÷åíñêèì (1928) íà ð. Âàä âïëîòü äî 90õ ãã. èìåëèñü ëèøü ñêóäíûå äàííûå î âñòðå÷àõ ïòèö â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä.  êîíöå àïðåëÿ – íà÷àëå ìàÿ 1969 ã.

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ly during 25 April–20 May. Late clutches were noted until 5 June. Earliest broods have been registered since 20 May. The chicks are hutching out mainly on 27 May – 22 June. Latest broods were registered until 10 July. Chicks set in the nest 49–56 days. As a rule fledglings are fed by parents additionally in the breeding territory during 1.5–2 week. A total period of chick feeding is 60– 70 days. Fledglings leave a nest on 17 July– 15 August. Booted Eagle start to migrate in September. Nests Eagles prefer to build their nests (n=102) a poplar tree (38.2%) and a larch tree (31.4%). Pine as a nesting tree is at the third place (20.6%).At all in the range we registered 52% of nests on coniferous trees and 48% – on deciduous. We know the single nest of the Booted Eagle located on a cliff on the Elegest river in Tuva, however we consider that fact as extraordinary and unusual for the species, because in that case eagles occupied an old nest of the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) after their own nest with the

Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå: òåððàñíûé áîð â Ïîâîëæüå (ââåðõó) è øèðîêîëèñòâåííûé ëåñ íà õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòîì âîäîðàçäåëå â Ïðåäóðàëüå (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Inhabitant places of the Booted Eagle in the VolgaUral region: pine forest on a river terrace in the Volga region (upper) and broadleaved forest on a hilly watershed in foothills of the Ural Mountains (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 êàðëèêè íàáëþäàëèñü íà ð. Ñóðå áëèç Ñàáàåâî (Ëóãîâîé, 1975).  1993 ã. êàðëèê áûë äîáûò îõîòíèêàìè â Çóáîâî-Ïîëÿíñêîì ðàéîíå (Ñåäîâ, 1997).  1995 ã. îð¸ëêàðëèê áûë îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Ìîðäîâñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå (Ëûñåíêîâ è äð., 1997; Ãðèøóòêèí, 2001). Ïîçæå, â 1997 ã., êàðëèê íà ãíåçäîâàíèè âñòðå÷åí â íàöïàðêå «Ñìîëüíûé» â ëåâîáåðåæüå Àëàòûðÿ (Ãðèøóòêèí, Àëüáà, 2000; Àëüáà, Ãðèøóòêèí, 2001), à ê 2005 ã. êàê ìèíèìóì 5 ó÷àñòêîâ îáèòàíèÿ êàðëèêà âûÿâëåíî â öåëîì ïî ðåñïóáëèêå (Ëàïøèí, Ëûñåíêîâ, 2001; Ëàïøèí è äð., 2005).  Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Ïóñòûíñêèå îç¸ðà ñ 1965 ã. è âïëîòü äî 90-õ ãã. îñòàâàëèñü åäèíñòâåííîé òåððèòîðèåé, ãäå áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå âèäà â îáëàñòè, õîòÿ ïîçæå ïîÿâèëàñü èíôîðìàöèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ êàðëèêà â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä èç íåñêîëüêèõ òî÷êàõ Ïðåäâîëæüÿ (Áàêêà, Êèñåëåâà, 2003).  2000 ã. êàðëèê áûë âñòðå÷åí â Çàâîëæüå íà òåððèòîðèè Êàìñêî-Áàêàëäèíñêèõ áîëîò (Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, ëè÷íîå ñîîáùåíèå). Íà þãå îáëàñòè â äîëèíå ð. Àëàòûðü ñë¸òîê êàðëèêà íàáëþäàëñÿ 26 àâãóñòà 2003 ã. â Ëóêîÿíîâñêîì ðàéîíå; ãíåçäî, áëèç êîòîðîãî äåðæàëñÿ âûâîäîê èç 2-õ ïòåíöîâ, îáíàðóæåíî 28 àâãóñòà íà ãðàíèöå Ëóêîÿíîâñêîãî è Ïî÷èíêîâñêîãî ðàéîíîâ, è 2 âçðîñëûå ïòèöû âñòðå÷åíû 24–25 àâãóñòà íà 2-õ ó÷àñòêàõ â Ïî÷èíêîâñêîì ð-íå, ïîñëåäíÿÿ áëèç ãðàíèöû ñ Ìîðäîâèåé. Ãíåçäî, îáíàðóæåííîå 28 àâãóñòà, çàíèìàëîñü êàðëèêàìè è â 2006 ã. (äàííûå àâòîðà).  Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ñ ñåðåäèíû 90-õ ãã. íàáëþäàåòñÿ ðåãóëÿðíîå ãíåçäîâàíèå îðëàêàðëèêà íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå (Ëåáåäåâà, Ïàíòåëååâ, 2000), à ñ 1996 ã. – â Áóçóëóêñêîì áîðó (Êàðÿêèí, 1998).  1997 ã. 2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà êàðëèêîâ âûÿâëåíû â òåððàñíûõ áîðàõ Âîëãè íàïðîòèâ Æèãóë¸âñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà, â 1999 ã. 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà âûÿâëåíû â áàéðà÷íûõ è ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ þãà Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè (1 – ïîéìà Âîëãè â ïðåäåëàõ Áåçåí÷óêñêîãî ð-íà, 2 – ïîéìà ð. Èðãèç â Ïåñòðàâñêîì ð-íå è ëîã Ñòåðåõ íà ãðàíèöå Ñàìàðñêîé è Ñàðàòîâñêîé îáëàñòåé) è 1 – íà çàïàäå îáëàñòè, â Ðà÷åéñêîì áîðó (äàííûå àâòîðà). Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí (2006) íàáëþäàë îðëà-êàðëèêà â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè â äîëèíå ð. Êèíåëü 22 èþëÿ 2003 ã. â 4-õ êì þãî-âîñòî÷íåå Áîãäàíîâêè, 2 ïàðû îðëîâ ýòîãî âèäà – â àâãóñòå 2004 ã. â äîëèíå ð. Ñîê è îäíó, ÿâíî òåððèòîðèàëüíóþ ïàðó, – â ëåñó íà Ñîê-Êîíäóð÷èíñêîì âîäîðàçäåëå.  90-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ âèä íà÷èíàåò ðåãèñòðèðîâàòüñÿ â Ïðåäóðàëüå (Êàðÿêèí, 1998).

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first clutch located on a poplar in floodlands was perished by the reason of fire. Next year that pair built new nest on a poplar that they have occupied last 5 years. Birds use for nesting trees growing near the edge of forest while the average distance between nesting tree and the edge of forest is 88.2±65.7 m (n=90; range 10 – 237 m), by the way the longest distances were noted in forests on river terraces and hilly watersheds. Frequently the edge of forest is close to a river or a water reservoir (40.2%). Birds (n=102) prefer the densest part of forest as a nesting habitat (71.6%). For nest building (fig. 17) birds (n=102) use mainly a branch fork (90.2%) in the upper part (69.6%) or in the middle part of tree. We estimated exposition for 64 nests (fig. 18): the most part of them had southern orientations (59.4%), mainly south-easter n (21.9%).The average height of nest position was 10.8±4.44 m (n=102; range 4–22 m). As a result of position in a branch fork nests have oval forms. Nest dimensions: the average external diameter of the nest is 93.4±29.49 õ 80.6±34.17 cm (n=9; 55 – 150 õ 35 – 150 cm); the average height of the nest construction – 100.6±27.34 cm (range 60 – 135 cm); the average internal diameter of the nest – 19.8±3.35 õ 18.3±3.08 cm (range 16 – 25 õ 15 – 25 cm); the average nest depth – 4.2±1.64 cm (range 2 – 7 cm). The most observed nests were used during many ears and only 2 were built in that year when we surveyed they. Booted Eagles often use old or new nests of other bird species: mainly Black Kites (Milvus migrans), sometimes Buzzards (Buteo buteo) or Goshawks (Accipiter gentitlis), in the east of the range – Upland Buzzards, rarely Great Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Hooded and Carrion Crows (Corvus cornix, C. corone) and Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). We recorded 12 such facts (11.8% of observed nests). Booted Eagles use such nests in the most cases as a foundation for building their own nest, but sometimes they occupy a nest without any reconstructions and only hardly renew it during laying eggs. The nests built by Booted Eagles themselves have some particular features. Booted Eagles used for building nest only fresh branches with foliage. In coniferous forests eagles cover the bottom of a nest by a thick layer of conifer branches (obligatory with green needles), in deciduous forests it is replaced by a thick layer of green leaves especially of poplar or birch trees.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9  Áàøêèðñêîì Ïðåäóðàëüå îð¸ë-êàðëèê âïåðâûå áûë âñòðå÷åí 20 ìàÿ 1994 ã. â ïîéìåííîì ëåñó â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè ð. Áåëîé, à â 1996 ã. îðëà-êàðëèêà ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû íàáëþäàë À.À. Êîçëîâ íà ñåâåðíîé ïåðèôåðèè Òðîèöêîãî ëåñà (Êàðÿêèí, 1998).  õîäå ñîâìåñòíîé äèñêóññèè ñ À.À. Êîçëîâûì è Ñ.Â. Áûñòðûõ, ïîñëåäíèì áûëî âûñêàçàíî ïðåäïîëîæåíèå î òîì, ÷òî êàðëèê äîëæåí â òå÷åíèå ñëåäóþùèõ 5–10 ëåò ïîÿâèòüñÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íà òåððèòîðèè Áóãóëüìèíñêî-Áåëåáååâñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè è ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðàéîíîâ êðàéíåãî þãîçàïàäà Áàøêèðèè (Êàðÿêèí, 1998), ÷òî è ñëó÷èëîñü â ñàìîì íà÷àëå XXI ñòîëåòèÿ.  àâãóñòå 2002 ã. âûâîäîê êàðëèêîâ èç 2-õ ñë¸òêîâ âñòðå÷åí â ïîéìå ð. ĸìà áëèç Óôû (äàííûå àâòîðà).  2005 ã. îäèíî÷íûå êàðëèêè íàáëþäàëèñü 27 èþëÿ íàä ð. ×åðìàñàí áëèç ä. Ñòàðîàìèðîâî Áëàãîâàðñêîãî ð-íà è íà îïóøêå Òðîèöêîãî ëåñà áëèç ï. Ñåðàôèìîâñêèé Òóéìàçèíñêîãî ð-íà; íà ïîñëåäíåì ó÷àñòêå 7 èþíÿ 2006 ã. óäàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü ãíåçäî, íà êîòîðîì ïëîòíî ñèäåëà ñàìêà è îáîãðåâàëà ìåëêèõ ïóõîâèêîâ (Êàðÿêèí, 2006).  2004, 2005 è 2006 ãã. îäèíî÷íûå ïòèöû íàáëþäàëèñü íàä ïîéìîé Áåëîé áëèç ñ¸ë ×åðíîëåñîâñêèé è Êóøíàðåíêîâî, ïðè÷¸ì â ïåðâîì ñëó÷àå 2 àâãóñòà 2004 ã. íàáëþäàëàñü ÿâíî òåððèòîðèàëüíàÿ ïòèöà, áåñïîêîèâøàÿñÿ â ïðèñóòñòâèè áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (äàííûå àâòîðà).  Òàòàðèè ïîñëå ñîîáùåíèÿ Ì.À. Ìåíçáèðà (1895) î âñòðå÷å îäèíî÷íîãî îðëàêàðëèêà íà þãî-âîñòîêå ðåñïóáëèêè, âïëîòü äî 90-õ ãã. ñâåäåíèé î âèäå íå ïîñòóïàëî (Ãðèãîðüåâ è äð., 1977).  íà÷àëå ñåíòÿáðÿ 1996 ã. îäèíî÷íûé êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Ñàðàëîâñêîãî ó÷àñòêà Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî çàïîâåäíèêà (Ãîñäîêëàä î ñîñòîÿíèè ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû ÐÒ â 1996 ã. èç: Àñüêååâ, Àñüêååâ, 1999). Íà êðàéíåì þãî-çàïàäå Òàòàðèè â Ùó÷üèõ ãîðàõ áëèç ãðàíèöû ñ Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòüþ 19 àâãóñòà 2002 ã. âïåðâûå áûë îáíàðóæåí âûâîäîê îðëîâêàðëèêîâ, à ïî áåðåãó Êóéáûøåâñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà 20 àâãóñòà ó÷òåíî 8 îðëîâ (Áàðàáàøèí è äð., 2002).  2004 ã. òåððèòîðèÿ Ùó÷üèõ ãîð áûëà îáñëåäîâàíà áîëåå äåòàëüíî, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî óäàëîñü âûÿâèòü 5 ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé îðëà-êàðëèêà, îáíàðóæèòü 3 ãíåçäà, 2 èç êîòîðûõ îêàçàëèñü æèëûìè (Êîðåïîâ, 2004; Êîðåïîâ è äð., 2004). Ïî îöåíêàì Ì.Â. Êîðåïîâà (2006) â Ùó÷üèõ ãîðàõ ê 2006 ã. ãíåçäèëîñü íå ìåíåå 10 ïàð êàðëèêîâ (ëîêàëèçîâàíî 7 ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé, íà 5 èç êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà). Âûâî-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Clutches Eggs of Booted Eagles are white. Often we noted small spots on the shell of eggs, the color of spots varies from ochre to redbrown. Large spots were not observed. During the all period of surveys we observed only full clutches consisted of 2 eggs (n=30). The average size of eggs was 55.8±2.41 õ 46.0±1.99 mm (n=26; range 50.0 – 62.2 õ 39.6 – 50.0 mm). Broods and Breeding Success Broods as a rule contain 2 chicks. We observed 96 broods and the size of 92.7% of them was 2 chicks or fledglings. We didn’t registered facts of cannibalism amongst chicks of Booted Eagles unlike Buzzards or other species of eagles. We didn’t registered facts of chick deaths too, and all surveyed chicks successfully fledged. As a result of insignificant amount of unsuccessful eggs on the stage of clutch the breeding success raises more than 90% and it is supposed to be normal for the species. Occupancy of breeding territories is sufficient high. We monitored 6 breeding territories during 1999–2006 and only 2 territories weren’t occupied every year. The number of small mammals doesn’t impact on the breeding success of Booted Eagles and during depressions of mammal numbers eagles successfully change them in the diet by birds. Fig. 20 shows the occupancy of breeding territories by Booted Eagles and Saker Falcons and numbers of small mammals that are preys of both species in the Tes-Hem plot in the Ubsunur depression (Tuva) in 1999–2005. Diet Analysis of preys and their remains surveyed in nests (n=233) was shown the mammals to dominate in the diet of Booted Eagles (70%), the portion of birds in the diet is 27.9%, and the portion of amphibians and reptilians is insignificant (fig. 21). However we noted the increasing of mammal portion in the east and south of the range due to the colonial steppe species. Acknowledgments We thank Elvira Nikolenko, Mikhail Kozhevnikov, Sergey Bakka, Tim Barabashin, Alexander Moshkin, Alexey Pazhenkov and other colleagues assisted in data collection and in many other phases of the project.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 äîê èç 2-õ ïòåíöîâ ïðè âçðîñëîé ïòèöå âñòðå÷åí 20 àâãóñòà 2004 ã. íàä ëåñîì íà ïðàâîáåðåæüå ð. Äûìêà íà òåððèòîðèè Áóãóëüìèíñêîãî ð-íà Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí, à 28 èþëÿ 2005 ã. ñàìåö ñ äîáû÷åé íàáëþäàëñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Áàâëèíñêîãî ðíà Òàòàðèè â ëåñíîì ìàññèâå íà ïðàâîáåðåæíîé òåððàñå ð. Äûìêè â 11 êì îò ìåñòà âñòðå÷è âûâîäêà (Êàðÿêèí, 2006).  ïîñëåäíåì ñëó÷àå áûëè ïðåäïðèíÿòû ïîèñêè ãíåçäà, êîòîðîå íàéòè íå óäàëîñü, îäíàêî áûëî íàéäåíî ãíåçäî êàðëèêîâ ñ 2ìÿ ïòåíöàìè â õîäå ïîñåùåíèÿ ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà, âûÿâëåííîãî â 2004 ã. íà ïðàâîáåðåæüå ð. Äûìêà (äàííûå àâòîðà).  òå÷åíèå äíÿ 28 èþëÿ 2005 ã. áûë òàêæå îáñëåäîâàí ó÷àñòîê ëåñà ïî ëåâîìó áåðåãó ð. Ñóëà ìåæäó ñåëàìè Ñóëà è Òàòàðñêàÿ Äûìêà, è â 8 êì îò ïðåäûäóùåãî ãíåçäà óäàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü åù¸ îäíî æèëîå ãíåçäî îðëà-êàðëèêà òàêæå ñ 2-ìÿ ïòåíöàìè (Êàðÿêèí, 2006).  èþëå 2006 ã. äâà ãíåçäî-

Îð¸ë-êàðëèê ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Dark morph of the Booted Eagle. Photo by I. Karyakin

âûõ ó÷àñòêà îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ ñ ãí¸çäàìè îáíàðóæåíû â ïðàâîáåðåæüå ð. Êàìà: ïåðâîå ãíåçäî ñ 2-ìÿ ïòåíöàìè áûëî íàéäåíî 22 èþëÿ â ëåñíîì ìàññèâå âäîëü áåðåãîâîé ïîëîñû Êóéáûøåâñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà âûøå âïàäåíèÿ ð. Áåðñóò, âòîðîå, ïóñòîå â ýòîì ãîäó, – 25 èþëÿ â ó÷àñòêå «Áîëüøîé áîð» íàöïàðêà «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» (Íèêîëåíêî, Áåêìàíñóðîâ, 2006). Ïîçæå åù¸ îäíî ãíåçäî êàðëèêà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî â Áåðñóòñêîì ëåñíîì ìàññèâå (Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî, ëè÷íîå ñîîáùåíèå). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èç ðåäêîãî çàë¸òíîãî èëè ñïîðàäè÷åñêè ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ âèäà â Ïîâîëæüå â íà÷àëå ÕÕ âåêà, êàðëèê ñòàë õàðàêòåðíûì ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ õèùíèêîì ëåñîñòåïíûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ. Ê 2006 ã. çà äåñÿòèëåòíèé ïåðèîä îð¸ë-êàðëèê çàñåëèë ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñþ òåððèòîðèþ Ïîâîëæüÿ è Ïðåäóðàëüÿ, à â Òàòàðèè ðàññåëèëñÿ íà ïðàâûé áåðåã Êàìû.  äàëüíåéøåì ñëåäóåò îæèäàòü ïðî-

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äîëæåíèÿ ðàññåëåíèÿ âèäà íà ñåâåð, íàõîäîê ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð íà þãå Óäìóðòèè è Êèðîâñêîé îáëàñòè è ïðîíèêíîâåíèå âèäà íà ïðàâîáåðåæüå ð. Áåëîé â Áàøêèðèè. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà íà Óðàëå Èìååòñÿ óêàçàíèå íà ãíåçäîâàíèå îðëàêàðëèêà â XIX âåêå íà Þæíîì Óðàëå (Ñàáàíååâ, 1874), êîòîðîå áûëî îòìåòåíî Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâûì (1951) êàê îøèáî÷íîå. Ïîñëå ýòîãî, âïëîòü äî 90-õ ãã. XX ñòîëåòèÿ îð¸ë-êàðëèê íà Þæíîì Óðàëå íå âñòðå÷àëñÿ (Èëüè÷åâ, Ôîìèí, 1988; Êàðÿêèí, 1989), îäíàêî óæå ñî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíû 90-õ ãã. ñòàë ðåãèñòðèðîâàòüñÿ â Áàøêèðèè: 29 èþëÿ 1996 ã. îð¸ë-êàðëèê ñâåòëîé ìîðôû âñòðå÷åí íà ñåâåðíîé ïåðèôåðèè õð. Ìàë. Íàêàñ â íàãîðíîé äóáðàâå, 30 èþíÿ 1998 ã. – íàä ã. Êóïåðëÿ (ð. Óðþê) (Êàðÿêèí, 1998).  èþëå 1999 ã. îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíà íà ð. Çèëàèð; âçðîñëîãî ñàìöà, ãîíÿâøåãî êîðøóíîâ, óäàëîñü íàáëþäàòü 31 èþëÿ 2000 ã. â äîëèíå ð. Áåëàÿ áëèç Ìåëåóçà íà ãðàíèöå Êóþðãàçèíñêîãî è Ìåëåóçîâñêîãî ð-íîâ; â íà÷àëå àâãóñòà 2 ïòèöû íà 2-õ ó÷àñòêàõ íàáëþäàëèñü â äîëèíå Ñàêìàðû áëèç ñåë ßíòûøåâî è Áîëüøåàáèøåâî Õàéáóëëèíñêîãî ð-íà; â àâãóñòå 2002 ã. âûâîäîê êàðëèêîâ èç 2-õ ñë¸òêîâ âñòðå÷åí íà ð. Èê Êóãàð÷èíñêîãî ð-íà (äàííûå àâòîðà). Îïðåäåë¸ííî, îð¸ë-êàðëèê ïðîíèê â Áàøêèðèþ èç Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè, ãäå âïåðâûå áûë âñòðå÷åí â èþëå 1988 ã. â ïîéìå ñðåäíåãî òå÷åíèÿ ð. Èëåê (Àáäóðøèí, â ïå÷àòè, èç: Äàâûãîðà, 1989). Îäíàêî, âïëîòü äî íà÷àëà XXI âåêà âèä ñ÷èòàëñÿ çàë¸òíûì ñ âîçìîæíûì ãíåçäîâàíèåì â îáëàñòè (Äàâûãîðà, 2000). Íà þæíîé îêîíå÷íîñòè Þæíîãî Óðàëà â ïðåäåëàõ Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè îäèíî÷íûõ êàðëèêîâ íàáëþäàë Ë.Â. Êîðøèêîâ (2001) 22, 24 è 28 èþíÿ 2001 ã. áëèç ñ. Ìàë. ×óðàåâî Êóâàíäûêñêîãî ð-íà, â 10–20 êì ê þãó îò íàøèõ ìåñò ðåãèñòðàöèè êàðëèêà â Áàøêèðèè â 2000 ã. Äî íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè âñå ñëó÷àè âñòðå÷ âèäà â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä îãðàíè÷åíû þæíîé îêîíå÷íîñòüþ Þæíîãî Óðàëà (Çèëàèðñêîå ïëàòî, Øàéòàí-Òàó è ïðèëåãàþùèå òåððèòîðèè).  äàëüíåéøåì, âèäèìî, ñëåäóåò îæèäàòü ïðîäâèæåíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà ïî Þæíîìó Óðàëó íà ñåâåð è âíóòðü ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíû ïî äîëèíàì ðåê. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè Äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè ñ÷èòàëîñü, ÷òî òåððèòîðèÿ Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè, êàê ñîáñòâåííî è Ñåâåðíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà, ëåæèò çà ïðåäåëàìè ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà îðëà-êàðëè-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 êà (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951). Ëèøü â ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ â ëèòåðàòóðå ñòàëè ïîÿâëÿòüñÿ ñâåäåíèÿ î âèäå íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè.  ×åëÿáèíñêîé îáëàñòè äî íà÷àëà XXI âåêà äîñòîâåðíûå ðåãèñòðàöèè îðëà-êàðëèêà îòñóòñòâîâàëè (Êàðÿêèí, Êîçëîâ, 1999). Èìååòñÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ Ï.Ñ. Ðåäüêî (1998) î íàõîäêå ãíåçäà ýòîãî îðëà â Åòêóëüñêîì áîðó 28 ìàÿ 1998 ã., êîòîðàÿ áûëà ïîñòàâëåíà ïîä ñîìíåíèå (Êàðÿêèí, Êîçëîâ, 1999) â ñâÿçè ñ îòñóòñòâèåì ôîòîãðàôèè ãíåçäà è åãî îïèñàíèÿ. Òåì íå ìåíåå, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïîÿâëåíèå êàðëèêà â áîðàõ ×åëÿáèíñêîé îáëàñòè âïëîòü äî øèðîòû ×åëÿáèíñêà âïîëíå âîçìîæíî, ò.ê. íà þãå îáëàñòè âèä íà÷àë âñòðå÷àòüñÿ.  ìóçåå-çàïîâåäíèêå «Àðêàèì» êàðëèêà íàáëþäàëà Â.À. Ãàøåê (2002) 24 àâãóñòà 2002 ã. Îäèíî÷íûé êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ 5 àâãóñòà 2003 ã. íàä îïóøêîé áîðà ñ òðàññû ìåæäó ïîñ¸ëêàìè Ðûìíèêñêèé è Êàëèíèíñêèé áëèç ãðàíèöû ñ Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòüþ (äàííûå àâòîðà).  Êóðãàíñêîé îáëàñòè êàðëèê ñ÷èòàëñÿ çàë¸òíûì âèäîì (Ðÿáèöåâ è äð., 2001). À.Â. Ìîøêèí (2006) íàáëþäàë âçðîñëóþ ïòèöó ñ ãíåçäîâûì ïîâåäåíèåì â áîðó íà òåððàñå Òîáîëà áëèç ñ. Ïðîðûâíîå 21 èþíÿ 2003 ã., îäíàêî ïîèñêè ãíåçäà ðåçóëüòàòîâ íå äàëè. Íî â àâãóñòå 2006 ã. íà ýòîì ó÷àñòêå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî è âûâîäîê èç 2-õ ïòåíöîâ. Ïðåæíèìè èññëåäîâàòåëÿìè â äîëèíå Òîáîëà êàðëèê íå íàáëþäàëñÿ (Áëèíîâà, Áëèíîâ, 1997; Ìîðîçîâ, Êîðíåâ, 2002).  Òþìåíñêîé è Îìñêîé îáëàñòÿõ èíôîðìàöèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ îðëà-êàðëèêà îòñóòñòâóåò äî ñèõ ïîð (Ðÿáèöåâ è äð., 2001).  Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè äî íåäàâíåãî âðåìåíè êàðëèê íå îòìå÷àëñÿ. Âïåðâûå â îáëàñòè ýòîò îð¸ë âñòðå÷åí â äîëèíå ð. Áåðäü â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Ñàëàèðà: 28 èþëÿ 2002 ã. â ïîéìå ð. Áåðäü íèæå ñ. Êèíòåðåï îáíàðóæåíî æèëîå ãíåçäî, à 1 àâãóñòà 2002 ã. ïî-âèäèìîìó âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà íàáëþäàëàñü â ïîéìå ð. Áåðäü âûøå ñ. Ñòàðûé Èñêèòèì (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005â). È.Ô. Æèìóëåâ (2005) 21 àâãóñòà 2005 ã. âñòðåòèë âûâîäîê êàðëèêîâ â Áîòàíè÷åñêîì ñàäó ã. Íîâîñèáèðñêà. Âñå ãíåçäîâûå íàõîäêè âèäà èçâåñòíû ëèøü ñ ïðàâîáåðåæüÿ Îáè.  ëåâîáåðåæüå Îáè êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ åäèíñòâåííûé ðàç 20 ìàÿ 2003 ã. áëèç ñ. Ëåáÿæüå Òàòàðñêîãî ð-íà íà êðàéíåì çàïàäå îáëàñòè (äàííûå àâòîðà). Ïî äðóãóþ ñòîðîíó Ñàëàèðà, íà òåððèòîðèè Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè â Êóçíåöêîé êîòëîâèíå, ãíåçäîâàíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà íåèçâåñòíî, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû ëèøü âñòðå÷è îäèíî÷íûõ ïòèö â äîëèíå ð. Òîìü â 1977,

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ 78 è 80 ãã. (Áåëÿíêèí, Èëüÿøåíêî, 1991; Âàñèëü÷åíêî, 2000; 2004).  Êðàñíîé êíèãå Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ (1998) îð¸ë-êàðëèê ïðèâîäèòñÿ â ñòàòóñå ÷ðåçâû÷àéíî ðåäêîãî ïåðèôåðèéíîãî âèäà íà îñíîâàíèè îäíîé âñòðå÷è â áàññåéíå ð. Ìîñòîâàÿ íà Ñàëàèðñêîì êðÿæå.  2004 ã. îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà ñíîâà âñòðå÷åíà â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Ñàëàèðñêîãî êðÿæà â äîëèíå ð. ×óìûø 7 èþëÿ (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005á).  Îáñêîì ëåâîáåðåæüå Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ èçâåñòíû íåñêîëüêî âñòðå÷: 20 èþëÿ 2002 ã. âçðîñëûé êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ â ïîéìå Êàòóíè ïîä ã. Áèéñêîì; 10 èþëÿ 2003 ã. âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà áûëà âñòðå÷åíà íàä îçåðîì, ïðîòÿíóâøèìñÿ âäîëü îïóøêè áîðà â Óãëîâñêîì ðàéîíå (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005ã). Âèäèìî, íà âîñòîêå Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ èä¸ò ïðîöåññ ðàññåëåíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà. Îáëàñòü åãî ðåãóëÿðíîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ëåæèò â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Àëòàÿ è Ñàëàèðà, îòêóäà îí ïðîíèêàåò â ïîéìû Èðòûøà (Ëåâèí è äð., 2006) è Îáè è â áîðû Îáü-Èðòûøñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005ã). Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà â Âîñòî÷íîé Ñèáèðè  40-õ ãã. Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâ (1951) ãðàíèöó ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà îðëà-êàðëèêà â Âîñòî÷íîé Ñèáèðè ïðîâîäèë ÷åðåç Àëòàé, Òóâó, Ïðèáàéêàëüå è Çàáàéêàëüå – îò Òóíêè è Èðêóòñêà äî âåðõíåé Ëåíû (îêîëî 55° ñ.ø.), Ñðåòåíñêà è Àðãóíè íà ñåâåðå.  Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé ïåðâûå ñâåäåíèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè îðëà-êàðëèêà èìåþòñÿ ó Ï.Ï. Ñóøêèíà (1938), êîòîðûé íàø¸ë åãî ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ íà Óëàãàíñêîì ïëàòî. À.Ï. Êó÷èí (1976) â êíèãå «Ïòèöû Àëòàÿ» íå óïîìèíàåò îá îðëå-êàðëèêå âîîáùå, íî ïîçæå (Êó÷èí, 1991) ïðèâîäèò èíôîðìàöèþ î íàõîäêå ãíåçäà â äîëèíå Êàòóíè áëèç óñòüÿ Àê-Êåìà 3 èþíÿ 1961 ã. è âñòðå÷å ïòèöû 6 àïðåëÿ 1983 ã. â Óéìîíñêîé êîòëîâèíå. Âïëîòü äî ñåðåäèíû 90-õ ãã. íîâîé èíôîðìàöèè î âèäå ñ òåððèòîðèè Àëòàÿ íå ïîñòóïàëî (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà…, 1996).  èþëå 2000 ã. îðëû-êàðëèêè ñ ãíåçäîâûì ïîâåäåíèåì íàáëþäàëèñü â äîëèíå ×óè â Êóðàéñêîé ñòåïè, â óñòüå ð. Ìîæîé è áëèç ×èáèòà, ïàðà ïòèö âñòðå÷åíà â óñòüå ×óè; 24 èþíÿ 2003 ã. îäèíî÷íûé êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ â äîëèíå ð. Óðñóë íèæå Îíãóäàÿ, à 27 èþíÿ ïàðà ïòèö, ãîíÿâøàÿ êîðøóíà, â ïîéìå ð. ßáîãàí â Êàíñêîé êîòëîâèíå; ãí¸çäà îðëàêàðëèêà îáíàðóæåíû â äîëèíå ×óè áëèç ×àãàí-Óçóíà è íà Áóãóçóíå ïîä Ñàéëþãåìîì (äàííûå àâòîðà). Ë.È. Êîíîâàëîâ (ëè÷íîå ñîîáùåíèå) â 2000 ã. íàáëþäàë êàð-


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 2. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå. Óñëîâíûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ: 1 – ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè, 2 – ãðàíèöû îáëàñòåé, 3 – ðåêè, 4 – âîäî¸ìû, 5 – ëåñ Fig. 2. Distribution of the Booted Eagle in the AltaiSayan region. Labels: 1 – breeding territory, 2 – district borders, 3 – rivers, 4 – water bodies, 5 – forests

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 ëèêîâ íà Áàð-Áóðãàçû è Óçóíòûãåìå, íî ãí¸çä íå íàø¸ë.  Òóâå îð¸ë-êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ íà ñåâåðíîì áåðåãó îç. Óáñó-Íóð (Òóãàðèíîâ, 1916), áûë íåðåäîê â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Êûçûëà è â Òåñ-Õåìñêîì ðàéîíå (ßíóøåâè÷, 1952).  70–80-õ ãã. ãíåçäîâàíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà óñòàíîâëåíî íà ïîäãîðíûõ ðàâíèíàõ Óáñó-Íóðñêîé, Òóâèíñêîé è Óðýã-Íóðñêîé êîòëîâèí, îáíàðóæåíî 7 ãí¸çä ýòîãî îðëà â ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ ðåê Êàðãû, Òåñ-Õåì, Ýðçèí, Øóóðìàê è Óëóã-Õåì (Áàðàíîâ, Ñåðååâ, 1983; Áàðàíîâ, 1991). Ïî ìíåíèþ À.À. Áàðàíîâà (1991), â 70–80-õ ãã. îð¸ëêàðëèê áûë ðåäîê â Òóâå, è ÷èñëåííîñòü åãî ñîêðàùàëàñü. Îäíàêî, â êîíöå 90-õ ãã. êàðëèê ðåãèñòðèðîâàëñÿ âåçäå, ãäå ïðîâîäèëèñü íàáëþäåíèÿ, ñ óñòîé÷èâîé òåíäåíöèåé óâåëè÷åíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè.  1999–2006 ãã. êàðëèê îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â äîëèíàõ âñåõ êðóïíûõ ðåê ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí (Áèé-Õåì, Êàà-Õåì, Óëóã-Õåì, Òåñ-Õåì, Ýðçèí, Íàðûí, Øóóðìàê, Ìàæàëûê, Äóðãåí, Ýëåãåñò, Õåì÷èê è âñå åãî ïðàâîáåðåæíûå ïðèòîêè, Àëàø, Àê-Ñóã, Äóæåðëèê, Êàðãû, Ìîãåí-Áóðåí, Óþê), â äîëèíàõ ðåê, ñòåêàþùèõ ñ Òàííó-Îëà (Áîðà-Øàé, Óëàòàé, Òîðãàëûã, Èðáèòåé, Øèâèëèã, Òåðåêòèã), à òàêæå â Áàëãàçûíñêîì áîðó; â îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè ëîêàëèçîâàíî 74 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà ó 44 ïàð îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ (äàííûå àâòîðà).  Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè îð¸ë-êàðëèê âïåðâûå áûë íàéäåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â çàïîâåäíèêå «Êóçíåöêèé Àëàòàó» â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Ñðåäíÿÿ Òåðñü (Âàñèëü÷åíêî, 1999).  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ðåãóëÿðíî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ è ãíåçäèòñÿ â Ìàðèèíñêîì, Òÿæèíñêîì, ×åáóëèíñêîì è Òèñóëüñêîì ðàéîíàõ (Âàñèëü÷åíêî, 1999). Çà 14 ëåò èññëåäîâàíèé îáíàðóæåíî âñåãî 5 ãí¸çä, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî

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íà Øåñòàêîâñêèõ áîëîòàõ (Âàñèëü÷åíêî, 2004). Ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íåå Øåñòàêîâñêèõ áîëîò â äîëèíå ð. Ñåðòà êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ 28 ìàÿ 2005 ã. (äàííûå àâòîðà). Âèäèìî, ñîâðåìåííûé ãíåçäîâîé àðåàë êàðëèêà â Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè ëåæèò ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ëåñîñòåïè áàññåéíà ð. ×óëûì è ñîâïàäàåò ñ îáëàñòüþ îáèòàíèÿ äëèííîõâîñòîãî ñóñëèêà. Î êàðëèêå â Õàêàñèè â 70–80-õõ ãã. íè÷åãî íå áûëî èçâåñòíî (Ïðîêîôüåâ, 1987; 1993), îäíàêî óæå â 2000 ã. îí áûë íàéäåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè, ïðè÷¸ì ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû. Íåëüçÿ ñêàçàòü, ÷òî çäåñü îí òàê æå îáû÷åí, êàê â Òóâå, îäíàêî ÿâëÿåòñÿ õàðàêòåðíûì õèùíèêîì ðå÷íûõ äîëèí þæíîé è ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòåé Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû.  öåíòðå êîòëîâèíû óäàëîñü âñòðåòèòü ëèøü îäíó îñîáü, âîçìîæíî, èç ïàðû, ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ íà Áàòåí¸âñêîì êðÿæå áëèç Áîãðàäà.  2000 –2003 ãã. íà òåððèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè áûëî âûÿâëåíî 24 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ, íà 11 èç êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà: â ïîéìå ð. Àáàêàí îò Àáàçû äî ã. Àáàêàíà îáíàðóæåíî 12 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ïðè÷¸ì íà ó÷àñòêàõ ìåæäó ñ¸ëàìè Óñòü-Òàøòûï è Óñòü-Åñü (8 êì) è Áåëüòûðñêèé – Àñêèç (10 êì) ãíåçäèëîñü ïî 2 ïàðû îðëîâ, 3 ïàðû âûÿâëåíî íà ð. Åíèñåé âûøå Àáàêàíà íà ãðàíèöå ñ Êðàñíîÿðñêèì êðàåì, 2 ïàðû – íà ð. Áåëûé Èþñ è 4 ïàðû – íà ð. ׸ðíûé Èþñ, 2 ïàðû íàáëþäàëèñü â äîëèíå ð. ×óëûì âûøå è íèæå ï. Êîïüåâî, òàêæå ãíåçäî ïàðû êàðëèêîâ áûëî îáíàðóæåíî áëèç ï. Êîãóíåêà íà Êîïüåâñêîì êóïîëå (äàííûå àâòîðà).  2004 ã. â ïîéìå ð. Àáàêàí â Òàøòûïñêîì ðàéîíå áûë ëîêàëèçîâàí åù¸ îäèí, ðàíåå íå èçâåñòíûé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005á).  Êðàñíîÿðñêîì êðàå ïåðâàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ êàðëèêà ïîÿâèëàñü â 70-õ ãã.  êîíöå àâãóñòà 1971 ã. îäèíî÷íûå ïòèöû âñòðå÷åíû â Ãàãóëüñêîé êîòëîâèíå (Ñàÿí, áëèç ãðàíèöû ñ Òóâîé), â 3-é äåêàäå ìàÿ 1982 ã. ïàðà ïòèö îáíàðóæåíà â Óñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå â 10 êì íèæå Óñèíñêà, îäèíî÷íóþ ïòèöó â êîíöå ñåíòÿáðÿ 1982 ã. íàáëþäàëè â äîëèíå ð. Óñ â 20 êì íèæå Óñèíñêà (Ñûðîå÷êîâñêèé, Áåçáîðîäîâ, 1987).  2001 ã. â Óñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå áûëî âûÿâëåíî 2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà êàðëèêîâ (äàííûå àâòîðà), à â 2004 ã. – åù¸ 2, íà îäíîì èç êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005á). Îäíàêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà â êðàå íå îãðàíè÷èâàåòñÿ Óñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíîé è äîëèíîé Åíèñåÿ íà ãðàíèöå ñ Õàêàñèåé, îí ãíåçäèò-


38

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 ñÿ â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå íà ïðàâîáåðåæüå Åíèñåÿ è â áàññåéíå ×óëûìà. Íà ïðàâîáåðåæüå Åíèñåÿ ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè êàðëèêà âûÿâëåíû â Øóøåíñêîì (1), Çíàìåíñêîì (1), Ìèíóñèíñêîì (2) áîðàõ è â äîëèíå ð. Òóáà (2 ïàðû). Îïðåä¸ëåíî ãíåçäèòñÿ êàðëèê è â äîëèíàõ ðåê Îÿ è Êåáåæ, ãäå â 2000 è 2001 ãã. ñîîòâåòñòâåííî ìû íàáëþäàëè îäèíî÷íûõ ïòèö.  äîëèíå ×óëûìà âûÿâëåíî 2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, íà îäíîì èç êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî; ïàðó ïòèö íàáëþäàëè â äîëèíå ð. Ñåðåæ è îäèíî÷íûõ ïòèö ó ñ. Îðàêè è áëèç À÷èíñêà â 2002 ã. (äàííûå àâòîðà). Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî ãíåçäîâàíèå êàðëèêà â Êàíñêîé ëåñîñòåïè, ãäå îõîòèâøèéñÿ ñàìåö âñòðå÷åí â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Áîë. Àâäà (ëåâûé ïðèòîê ð. Ðûáíàÿ) 23 èþíÿ 2005 ã. è îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà, òàêæå, âåðîÿòíî, ñàìåö, – â äîëèíå ð. Êàí áëèç Êàíñêà 22 èþëÿ 2005 ã. (äàííûå àâòîðà). Èñòîðèÿ íàáëþäåíèé îðëà-êàðëèêà â Áàéêàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå íàñ÷èòûâàåò ïî÷òè ïîëòîðà ñòîëåòèÿ, îäíàêî âïëîòü äî íà÷àëà XXI âåêà äîñòîâåðíûõ ñâåäåíèé î ãíåçäîâàíèè îðëà-êàðëèêà íà Áàéêàëå íå ïîñòóïàëî (Ïîïîâ, 2003), åñëè íå ó÷èòûâàòü øèðîêî èçâåñòíîå óêàçàíèå íà íàõîäêó îðëà íà Ëåíå, áëèç Æèãàëîâà, õàðàêòåð êîòîðîé íå ñîâñåì ïîíÿòåí (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951).

Îð¸ë-êàðëèê ñâåòëîé ìîðôû. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Pale morph of the Booted Eagle. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ïåðâûå ñâåäåíèÿ î êàðëèêå â Èðêóñòêîé îáëàñòè ïîÿâèëèñü â êîíöå XIX âåêà. Ïî äàííûì Â.Ê. Òà÷àíîâñêîãî (1877), Â. Äûáîâñêèé 24 àïðåëÿ 1876 ã. äîáûë êàðëèêà íà þãî-çàïàäíîì Áàéêàëå áëèç Êóëòóêà. Ñàì Â.Ê. Òà÷àíîâñêèé òàêæå äîáûâàë êàðëèêà ó Êóëòóêà. Â.Í. Ñêàëîí (1936) ïðèâîäèò èíôîðìàöèþ î 2-õ òóøêàõ îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ, õðàíÿùèõñÿ â êîëëåêöèè Èðêóòñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà, îäèí èç êîòîðûõ áûë äîáûò Á. Ãîäëåâñêèì áëèç Èðêóòñêà. Â.È. Áåçáîðîäîâ (1969) äâàæäû íàáëþäàë êàðëèêà â Òóëóíñêîì ð-íå â èþíå 1965 ã.  80–90-õ ãã. âñòðå÷è ñ êàðëèêàìè ñòàëè îáû÷íûì ÿâëåíèåì, îò÷àñòè ïî ïðè÷èíå èíòåíñèôèêàöèè îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé â

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ðåãèîíå, îò÷àñòè ïî ïðè÷èíå ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà â ðåãèîíå. Ïî äàííûì Â.Â. Ðÿáöåâà (1996; 2000) â 1988–95 ãã. êàðëèê âñòðå÷àëñÿ â Áàëàãàíñêîé ëåñîñòåïè, íà âåðõíåé Ëåíå, â äîëèíàõ ëåâîáåðåæíûõ ïðèòîêîâ Àíãàðû (Èÿ, Óíãà, Îêà, Áåëàÿ, Êèòîé), íà ñðåäíåì Áàéêàëå â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè ð. Ñàðìû, â ïîéìå Èðêóòà, íî ÷èñëåííîñòü âåçäå áûëà íèçêîé (êàê ïðàâèëî, åäèíè÷íûå âñòðå÷è çà ñåçîí). Âî âðåìÿ ó÷¸òà õèùíûõ ïòèö íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ ïî ëåñîñòåïíûì ðàéîíàì â 1988 ã. ïðè ïðîáåãå â 2600 êì è â 1999 ã. ïðè ïðîáåãå ñâûøå 6000 êì áûëî âñòðå÷åíî ïî îäíîìó êàðëèêó ñîîòâåòñòâåííî (Ðÿáöåâ, 2000). Íà Íîâî-Ëåíèíñêèõ áîëîòàõ â ïîéìå Èðêóòà êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ áîëåå èëè ìåíåå ðåãóëÿðíî â 1988–93 ãã., ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå âèäà (Ðÿáöåâ, Ôåôåëîâ, 1997; Ðÿáöåâ, 2000). Èìåþòñÿ íàáëþäåíèÿ ýòîãî îðëà â ÷åðòå ã. Èðêóòñêà (Ëèïèí è äð., 1983; Ðÿáöåâ, 2000). Â.Â. Ïîïîâ è Â.Î. Ñàëîâàðîâ (1998) íàáëþäàëè êàðëèêà â 1996 ã. áëèç Àíãàðñêà. Þ.È. Ìåëüíèêîâ (1999à, 1999á) âñòðå÷àë êàðëèêà â Êóéòóí-Çèìèíñêîé ëåñîñòåïè â èþíå 1990 ã. è â ìàå 1996 ã., à â ìàå 1995 ã. îáíàðóæèë òðóï êàðëèêà, äîáûòîãî áðàêîíüåðàìè íà ð. Áèðþñà â Íèæíåóäèíñêîì ð-íå. Ïî åãî æå äàííûì, êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ â ìàå 1997 ã. áëèç Óñòü-Îðäû (Ïîïîâ, 2003).  2005 ã. êàðëèê íàáëþäàëñÿ íà 6 ó÷àñòêàõ, íà 2-õ èç êîòîðûõ áûëî äîêàçàíî åãî ãíåçäîâàíèå (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2006).  ïàäè Êóëóò ó ñ. Õàð÷åâ â Êóéòóí-Çèìèíñêîé ëåñîñòåïè îäèíî÷íûé êàðëèê áûë âñòðå÷åí 25 èþíÿ (âîçìîæíî, êàðëèêà æå íàáëþäàëè 26 èþíÿ â äîëèíå ð. Îêà áëèç Ñàÿíñêà, îäíàêî èç-çà áîëüøîãî ðàññòîÿíèÿ íåò óâåðåííîñòè â ïðàâèëüíîñòè îïðåäåëåíèÿ ïòèöû). Ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè ëåâîáåðåæüÿ çàëèâà Óíãà íà Áðàòñêîì âîäîõðàíèëèùå áûëî âûÿâëåíî 2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà êàðëèêîâ 27 è 29 èþíÿ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî – îäèí áëèç ñ. Õàðåòû, äðóãîé ó ñ. Ïåðâîìàéñêîå. Íà ïîñëåäíåì îáíàðóæåíî 2 ãíåçäà: îäíî ïðîøëîãîäíåå, äðóãîå ýòîãî ãîäà.  8 êì ê ñåâåðî-âîñòîêó îò Óñòü-Îðäûíñêîãî ÿâíî òåððèòîðèàëüíûé êàðëèê, ãîíÿâøèé êîðøóíà, âñòðå÷åí 2 èþëÿ, à 3 èþëÿ ïî êðèêàì ñàìêè è ñàìöà îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî äðóãîé ïàðû, â 3-õ êì ê þãî-çàïàäó îò ñ. Åëàíöû. 22 èþëÿ êàðëèê áûë âñòðå÷åí â äîëèíå ð. Óäà ó Íèæíåóäèíñêà.  Áóðÿòèè êàðëèê ñ 30-õ ãã. íàáëþäàåòñÿ â Òóíêèíñêîé äîëèíå. Çäåñü áëèç ñ. Òóíêà â àâãóñòå 1932 ã. áûëà äîáûòà ïòèöà ó ãíåçäà (Ñêàëîí, 1936), ïîçæå êàðëèêà â Òóíêèíñêîé äîëèíå íàáëþäàëè â 1988 è 1991 ãã.


Raptors Research

Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ îðëàêàðëèêà: íàãîðíûé ñîñíÿê â Áàéêàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå (ââåðõó) è ïîéìåííûé òîïîë¸âíèê â ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Inhabitant places of the Booted Eagle: mountain pine forest in the Baikal region (upper) and flood poplar forest in the AltaiSayan region (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

(Äîðæèåâ, Åëàåâ, 1996; Ðÿáöåâ, 2000).  çîîëîãè÷åñêîé êîëëåêöèè Èðêóòñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà èìååòñÿ òóøêà ñàìöà êàðëèêà, äîáûòîãî 25 àâãóñòà 1936 ã. áëèç ñ. Ìîíäû. Çäåñü æå êàðëèê äîáûâàëñÿ è ïîçæå (Ñóìüÿà, Ñêðÿáèí, 1989). Íà êðàéíåì çàïàäå ðåñïóáëèêè â Âîñòî÷íîì Ñàÿíå (Îêèíèíñêèé ð-í, îêðåñòíîñòè ñ. Ñàÿíû) êàðëèê âñòðå÷åí 7 èþíÿ 1997 ã. (Äîðæèåâ è äð., 1998). Îïðåäåë¸ííî íàèáîëüøåé ÷èñëåííîñòè êàðëèê äîñòèãàåò â þæíîé ÷àñòè ðåñïóáëèêè. Èìåííî îòñþäà ïðîèñõîäèò íàèáîëüøåå êîëè÷åñòâî êîëëåêöèîííûõ ýêçåìïëÿðîâ, õðàíÿùèõñÿ â Çîîëîãè÷åñêîì èíñòèòóòå ÐÀÍ è Çîîìóçåå ÌÃÓ (Èçìàéëîâ, Áîðîâèöêàÿ, 1973).  ìàå 1935 ã. ñàìåö êàðëèêà áûë äîáûò ó ñ. Èðî Ñåëåíãèíñêîãî ð-íà (Ñêàëîí, 1936), â èþëå 1979 ã. – â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Êÿõòû (Ñìèðíîâ è äð., 1983), â àâãóñòå 2002 ã. îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà íàáëþäàëàñü â Òîðñêîé êîòëîâèíå áëèç Çóí-Ìóðè-

Ðèñ. 3. Ñîâðåìåííûé ãíåçäîâîé àðåàë îðëà-êàðëèêà â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå. Óñëîâíûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ: 1 – îáëàñòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â êîíöå XIX – íà÷àëå ÕÕ ñòîëåòèé (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951), 2 – îáëàñòü ðàññåëåíèÿ â êîíöå ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ, 3 – îáëàñòü ðàññåëåíèÿ â íà÷àëå ÕÕI ñòîëåòèÿ, 4 – ðåêè, 5 – ãðàíèöû ãîñóäàðñòâ, 6 – âîäî¸ìû Fig. 3. Modern breeding range of the Booted Eagle in Russia and Kazakhstan. Labels: 1 – breeding range at the end of XIX – beginning of ÕÕ centuries (Dementiev, 1951), 2 – breeding range at the end of ÕÕ century, 3 – breeding range at the beginning of ÕÕI century, 4 – rivers, 5 – state borders, 6 – water bodies

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íî (Ïîïîâ, 2003). Ö.Ç. Äîðæèåâ (1988) ïèøåò, ÷òî ýòîò îð¸ë âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â þæíûõ è öåíòðàëüíûõ ðàéîíàõ ðåñïóáëèêè ïðèìåðíî äî øèðîòû Óëàí-Óäý, îäíàêî íå ó÷èòûâàÿ âñòðå÷è ýòîãî âèäà, ëåæàùèå ñóùåñòâåííî ñåâåðíåå. Åù¸ â 1953 ã. êàðëèêà âèäåëè íà ñåâåðå Áàéêàëà â äåëüòå Âåðõíåé Àíãàðû (Ãàãèíà, 1958), â 1962–63 ãã. êàðëèê ðåãóëÿðíî îòìå÷àëñÿ â óðî÷èùå Äîáý-Åíõîð ê ñåâåðî-âîñòîêó îò Óëàí-Óäý (Èçìàéëîâ, Áîðîâèöêàÿ, 1973).  äåëüòå Ñåëåíãè êàðëèêà íàáëþäàëè äâàæäû â 1990 ã. (Òóïèöûí, Ôåôåëîâ, 1995), à â 1993 ã. – â Áàðãóçèíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå (Àíàíèí, Ôåäîðîâ, 1988).  2005 ã. îäèíî÷íûõ êàðëèêîâ íàáëþäàëè â äåëüòå Ñåëåíãè áëèç Èñòîìèíî 7 èþëÿ, â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè Äæèäû – 15 èþëÿ, áåñïîêîÿùóþñÿ ïòèöó íàáëþäàëè â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Øàðàëäàéêà áëèç ñ. Øàðàëäàé 18 èþëÿ, îäíàêî, ãíåçäî íå èñêàëîñü, îõîòèâøàÿñÿ ïòèöà âñòðå÷åíà â Òóãíóéñêîé êîòëîâèíå áëèç Õîøóí-Óçóðà 19 èþëÿ (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2006).  ×èòèíñêîé îáëàñòè â ñåíòÿáðå 1935 ã. êàðëèê áûë äîáûò â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Àëåêñàíäðîâñêîãî çàâîäà (Ñêàëîí, 1936) è íàáëþäàëñÿ ó Êàéëàñòóÿ (Ãàãèíà, 1960); â ìàå 1939 ã. êàðëèê áûë äîáûò â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. ×èòà è íàáëþäàëñÿ íà ïðîë¸òå â îêòÿáðå íà ð. Ñàíãèêàí (Ïàâëîâ, 1948), à 29 èþíÿ 1960 ã. âñòðå÷åí â äîëèíå ×èêîÿ (Ëåîíòüåâ, Ïàâëîâ, 1963).  1971–73 ãã. îð¸ë-êàðëèê âñòðå÷àëñÿ â ïîéìàõ ðåê Øèëêà, Íåð÷ü è Àëåóð (Øêàòóëîâà, 1974). Ñîâðåìåííûé ãíåçäîâîé àðåàë îðëà-êàðëèêà ìîæíî ðàçáèòü íà òðè ôðàãìåíòà (ðèñ. 3): 1 – îáëàñòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â êîíöå XIX – íà÷àëå ÕÕ ñòîëåòèé (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951), 2 – îáëàñòü ðàññåëåíèÿ â êîíöå ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ, 3 – îáëàñòü ðàññåëåíèÿ â íà÷àëå ÕÕI ñòîëåòèÿ. Òåððèòîðèÿ, îñâîåííàÿ êàðëèêîì çà ïîñëåäíèå


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Òàáë. 1. Ïàðàìåòðû ãíåçäîâûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé îðëà-êàðëèêà (Hieraaetus pennatus) â Ðîññèè Table 1. Parameters of inhabitant places of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) in Russia

20–30 ëåò, ïðåâûøàåò ïî ïëîùàäè ïðåæíþþ îáëàñòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè áîëåå ÷åì â 1,5 ðàçà. Ïîêà íåÿñíî, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ëè ñòîëü ñòðåìèòåëüíîå ðàññåëåíèå êàðëèêà ïî ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíå Óðàëà, Ñèáèðè è Ñåâåðíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ýêñïàíñèåé âèäà íà íîâóþ òåððèòîðèþ, èëè æå ýòî âîññòàíîâëåíèå ïðåæíåãî àðåàëà ïîñëå ãëîáàëüíîé è ãëóáîêîé äåïðåññèè ÷èñëåííîñòè. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, â ñêîðîì âðåìåíè îð¸ë-êàðëèê ìîæåò ñòàòü òàêèì æå õàðàêòåðíûì âèäîì çàïàäíîñèáèðñêîé ëåñîñòåïè, êàê è åâðîïåéñêîé, è åãî ñòàòóñ íåîáõîäèìî áóäåò ïåðåñìàòðèâàòü âî ìíîãèõ îáëàñòÿõ Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà. Ðèñ. 4. Äèàãðàììà ðàññåÿíèÿ êàíîíè÷åñêèõ çíà÷åíèé ìåñòîîáèòàíèé îðëà-êàðëèêà â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè. Óñëîâíûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ: 1 – Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêèé ðåãèîí, 2 – Çàïàäíàÿ Ñèáèðü, 3 – Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí, 4 – Áàéêàëüñêèé ðåãèîí Fig. 4. Scatterplot of canonical scores of the Booted Eagle’s inhabitant places in different natural regions of Russia. Labels: 1 – Volga-Ural region, 2 – Western Siberia, 3 – Altai-Sayan region, 4 – Baikal region

Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ, ãíåçäîâûå áèîòîïû Ïî ñîâîêóïíîñòè âñòðå÷ ê ïîòåíöèàëüíûì ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿì êàðëèêà ìîæíî îòíåñòè âñå ëåñíûå ìàññèâû, îêðóæ¸ííûå îòêðûòûìè ïðîñòðàíñòâàìè â ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíàõ, à â åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà òàêæå íà þãå çîíû õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñîâ. Äèñêðèìèíàíòíûé àíàëèç (DFA) âûäåëåííûõ ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ ïî 5 ïàðàìåòðàì (ïëîùàäü è ïåðèìåòð ëåñíûõ êëàñòåðîâ, ìîçàè÷íîñòü èõ âíóòðåííåé ñòðóêòóðû, ïëîòíîñòü ãèäðîñåòè è ïåðåïàä âûñîò), ïðè î÷åíü áîëüøîì ðàçáðîñå äàííûõ (òàáë. 1), ïîêàçûâàåò ëèøü íåçíà÷èòåëüíûå ðàçëè÷èÿ ìåæäó êðàéíèìè âàðèàíòàìè ëåñíûõ ñîîáùåñòâ Áàéêàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà è Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè.  öåëîì æå íàáëþäàåòñÿ ñõîæåñòü ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé êàðëèêà íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè åãî àðåàëà âíå çàâèñèìîñòè îò ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà è ëàíäøàôòíîé ïðèóðî÷åííîñòè (Wilk’s lambda = 0,985; F6,34 = 42,08; p < 0.000) (ðèñ. 4). Ýòî ïîçâîëÿåò ãîâîðèòü î òîì, ÷òî òåîðåòè÷åñêè âèä ìîæåò îñâîèòü äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ âñå âûäåëåííûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ. Îäíàêî íà ïðàêòèêå â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ ê òèïè÷íûì äëÿ òîé èëè èíîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè âèäà îòíîñÿòñÿ ðàçíûå òèïû ìåñòîîáèòàíèé. Ïîýòîìó â îäíèõ óñëîâèÿõ â êàêîì-ëèáî îäíîì òèïå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ îð¸ë-êàðëèê áóäåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ ñ ìàêñèìàëüíîé ïëîòíîñòüþ, â äðóãèõ â ýòîì æå òèïå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ – ãíåçäèòüñÿ ñ ìèíèìàëüíîé ïëîòíîñòüþ èëè æå âîâñå îòñóòñòâîâàòü. Åñòü è òàêèå òèïû ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, êîòîðûå â ëþáîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà áóäóò èçáè-


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Ðèñ. 5. Ëåñà, ïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îðëà êàðëèêà (ââåðõó) è ñòåïåíü èõ ôðàãìåíòèðîâàííîñòè (âíèçó) Fig. 5. Forests potential for the Booted Eagle’s breeding (upper) and the level of their fragmentation (bottom)

ðàòüñÿ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ëèøü â êðàéíèõ ñëó÷àÿõ, âûçâàííûõ âûòåñíåíèåì â ðåçóëüòàòå êîíêóðåíöèè ñ äðóãèìè âèäàìè èëè æå àäàïòàöèåé ê íîâûì óñëîâèÿì â ðåçóëüòàòå ðàññåëåíèÿ. Ê ïåðâîé ãðóïïå ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ìîæíî îòíåñòè ïîéìåííûå ëåñà è ãîðíûå ëèñòâåííè÷íèêè, êî âòîðîé – áåð¸çîâûå êîëêîâûå ëåñà. Ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûé àíàëèç (SA) (ðèñ. 5) ïîêàçûâàåò ìàêñèìàëüíóþ ôðàãìåíòèðîâàííîñòü ìåñòîîáèòàíèé (0,07 – 0,1 áàëëîâ) â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè, ò.å. èìåííî òàì, ãäå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû áåð¸çîâûå ëåñà, è â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íå ñóùåñòâóåò ïîïóëÿöèè êàðëèêîâ (ðèñ. 6).  ðàñïðåäåëåíèè êàðëèêà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íàáëþäàåòñÿ óñòîé÷èâàÿ îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ ñ áîëüøîé ñòåïåíüþ ôðàãìåíòèðîâàííîñòè ëåñîâ (r = – 0,767; p < 0,001) è àáñîëþòíûì äîìèíèðîâàíèåì â ëåñîíàñàæäåíèÿõ áåð¸çû (r = – 0,657; p < 0,001), ïðè÷¸ì îáà ôàêòîðà õàðàêòåðíû è äëÿ ïîïóëÿöèé Ïðåäóðàëüÿ, ãäå âèä çàñåëÿåò øèðîêèé ñïåêòð ìåñòîîáèòàíèé. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî, ñèëüíî ôðàãìåíòèðîâàííûå áåðåçíÿêè íà Ðèñ. 6. Ïîïóëÿöèîííàÿ ñòðóêòóðà àðåàëà îðëàêàðëèêà Fig. 6. Structure of the Booted Eagle’s populations

ïëîñêèõ è õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ âîäîðàçäåëàõ ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü ñóáîïòèìàëüíûìè ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿìè êàðëèêà è íå ó÷èòûâàòü â ðàñ÷¸òàõ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà îãðîìíóþ òåððèòîðèþ ñîâðåìåííîãî àðåàëà îðëà-êàðëèêà ñ áîëüøèì ðàçíîîáðàçèåì ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, çàíèìàåìûõ âèäîì, îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ïàð òÿãîòååò ê äâóì èõ òèïàì – ïîéìåííûì è òåððàñíûì ëåñàì, îêðóæ¸ííûì ñòåïíûìè ïàñòáèùàìè. Íàáëþäàåòñÿ óñòîé÷èâàÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãí¸çä êàðëèêà ñ ðå÷íûìè äîëèíàìè (r = 0,897; p < 0,005).  ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ (n=193) 60,1% âûÿâëåííûõ ïàð, 87,9% èç êîòîðûõ (ïîëîâèíà âñåõ èçâåñòíûõ òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïàð îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ) íàñåëÿþò ïîéìû ðåê Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà (ðèñ. 7). Íà òåððàñàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ 18,1% ïàð, 77,1% èç êîòîðûõ íàñåëÿþò Ïîâîëæüå (ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî áàññåéí Ñóðû).  öåëîì ïî àðåàëó â êà÷åñòâå ãíåçäîâîãî áèîòîïà êàðëèêà äîìèíèðóþò òîïîë¸âíèêè (35,2%), ñìåøàííûå ëåñà (29,0%) è áîðû (13,5%), ïðè÷¸ì áîðû ïðåèìóùå-


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Ðèñ. 8. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëà-êàðëèêà ïî òèïàì ëåñà Fig. 8. Distribution of the Booted Eagle in different forest types Ðèñ. 7. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëà-êàðëèêà ïî òèïàì ìåñòîáèòàíèé Fig. 7. Distribution of the Booted Eagle in different types of inhabitant places

Ðèñ. 9. Ëàíäøàôòíàÿ ïðèóðî÷åííîñòü ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëà-êàðëèêà â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ Fig. 9. Distribution of the Booted Eagle in different landscape types in different nature regions

ñòâåííî òåððàñíûå (38,5%, n=26) (ðèñ. 8), íî â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðàéîíàõ äîëÿ òîãî èëè èíîãî áèîòîïà, çàíèìàåìîãî îñíîâíîé ìàññîé ïàð, ñóùåñòâåííî èçìåíÿåòñÿ, òàêæå êàê è ëàíäøàôòíàÿ ïðèóðî÷åííîñòü (ðèñ. 9).  áàññåéíå Ñðåäíåé Âîëãè (n=43) â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ âèä íàñåëÿåò ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî áîðîâûå òåððàñû âäîëü êðóïíûõ ðåê (Àëàòûðü, Ñóðà, Âîëãà Êàìà) – 62,8%, ëèáî íàãîðíûå øèðîêîëèñòâåííûå ëåñà íà õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ âîäîðàçäåëàõ (Ñåíãèëååâñêèå ãîðû, Áóãóëüìèíñêî-Áåëåáååâñêàÿ âîçâûøåííîñòü) – 27,9%. Âåçäå ïðîñëåæèâàåòñÿ òÿãîòåíèå âèäà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ê ðåêàì. Íî, â òî æå âðåìÿ, ïîéìåííûå ëåñà â Ïîâîëæüå êàðëèê ÿâíî èçáåãàåò, âñòðå÷àÿñü íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ëèøü â ïîéìå Âîëãè â ñòåïíîé çîíå (Ñàìàðñêàÿ è Ñàðàòîâñêàÿ îáëàñòè). Ãíåçäîâàíèå â ïîéìåííûõ è áàéðà÷íûõ ëåñàõ õàðàêòåðíî äëÿ ïîïóëÿöèé Ñðåäíåãî Äîíà (Áåëèê, 2005) è Âîëãî-Äîíñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ è âûçâàíî, ñêîðåå âñåãî, îòñóòñòâèåì èíûõ ëåñíûõ

ìàññèâîâ. Òèï ëåñà çäåñü îãðîìíîé ðîëè íå èãðàåò, è êàðëèê ñ äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ ãíåçäèòñÿ êàê â ÷èñòûõ øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ (Ùó÷üè ãîðû), òàê â ñìåøàííûõ ëåñàõ íà ìåñòå áîðîâ (Àëàòûðüñêèå çàñåêè) è â ÷èñòûõ áîðàõ (Áóçóëóêñêèé áîð).  áîðàõ êàðëèê ïðåäïî÷èòàåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ íà óñòóïàõ òåððàñ, îáðàù¸ííûõ íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ê ðåêå, èçáåãàÿ îïóøêè áîðîâ, ÷òî, âîçìîæíî, îáóñëîâëåíî êîíêóðåíöèåé ñ ìîãèëüíèêîì (Aquila heliaca).  ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ, â ñâÿçè ñ ðîñòîì ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà, â Ïðåäóðàëüå ïðîèñõîäèò åãî ðàññåëåíèå ïî íåáîëüøèì ëèñòâåííûì è ñìåøàííûì êîëêîâûì ëåñàì ïî êðóòîñêëîíàì ðå÷íûõ äîëèí. Îäíàêî äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè è çäåñü êàðëèê ïðèäåðæèâàëñÿ íàèáîëåå êðóïíûõ ïî ïëîùàäè ó÷àñòêîâ ëåñà, èçáåãàÿ íåáîëüøèõ êîëêîâ. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, ðå÷íûå äîëèíû áîãàòûå ñòåïíûìè èëè ëóãîâûìè (íà ñåâåðå àðåàëà) ïàñòáèùàìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ êîðèäîðàìè äëÿ ðàññåëåíèÿ âèäà ïî ðåãèîíó êàê íà ñåâåð, â çîíó õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñîâ, òàê è íà þã â ñóõîñòåïíóþ çîíó. Íà Þæíîì Óðàëå ïîëîâèíà ó÷àñòêîâ îðëà-êàðëèêà âûÿâëåíà â ðå÷íûõ äîëèíàõ, äðóãàÿ ïîëîâèíà – íà âîäîðàçäåëàõ ñ ãóñòîé ìîçàèêîé ïàñòáèù. Èç-çà íåäîñòàòî÷íîãî ìàòåðèàëà ïî íàõîäêàì ãí¸çä íåâîçìîæíî ñêàçàòü, êàêîé òèï ãíåçäîâàíèÿ äîìèíèðóåò. Âåðîÿòíî â ðàâíîé ñòåïåíè ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû îáà òèïà – â ïðèðóñëîâûõ òîïîë¸âûõ ëåñàõ ëèáî â íàãîðíûõ øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ è õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ. Ñêîðåå âñåãî ïåðâûé òèï ãíåçäîâàíèÿ (â ïîéìàõ) ÿâëÿåòñÿ íîìèíàëüíûì ó òåõ ïàð, êîòîðûå ñòàëè îñâàèâàòü ãîðíóþ ëåñîñòåïü Þæíîãî Óðàëà, ðàññåëÿÿñü ïî ðåêàì èç Ïðåäóðàëüÿ, à âòîðîé òèï (íà âîäîðàçäåëàõ) ÿâëÿåòñÿ óæå âòîðè÷-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 íî ïðèîáð¸òåííûì âíîâü ôîðìèðóþùèìèñÿ ïàðàìè èç ìîëîäûõ ïòèö, ïðè÷¸ì îí áëèçîê ê òèïó ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïòèö â Åâðîïå.  ëåñîñòåïè Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè è Ñåâåðíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ïîêà åù¸ ñëîæíî ãîâîðèòü

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î ñëîæèâøèõñÿ ñòåðåîòèïàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êàðëèêà, òåì íå ìåíåå, âûÿâëåííûå ãí¸çäà ïîçâîëÿþò ñäåëàòü çàêëþ÷åíèå î ïðåäïî÷òåíèè âèäîì äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îïóøå÷íûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ïðèäîëèííûõ áîðîâ è ïîéìåííûõ

Òàáë. 2. ×èñëåííîñòü îðëà-êàðëèêà â ðàçíûõ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè Table 2. Number of the Booted Eagle in different nature regions

* Ïðèìå÷àíèå: îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè â ðåãèîíå ïîëó÷åíà â ðåçóëüòàòå ñóììèðîâàíèÿ îöåíîê ÷èñëåííîñòè ïî îáëàñòÿì * Note: Estimated number of pairs in a region results on summations of estimated number of pairs in districts


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 ëåñîâ.  Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè (n=9) 66,7 % ïàð ãíåçäèòñÿ â òàêèõ áèîòîïàõ.  Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå (n=114) àáñîëþòíî äîìèíèðóåò ñòåðåîòèï ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êàðëèêà â ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ ðåê ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí – 89,5%. Èìåííî ïî ïîéìàì ðåê âèä ïðîíèêàåò äîñòàòî÷íî ãëóáîêî â ãîðíî-ëåñíóþ çîíó, òåì íå ìåíåå, ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå âûõîäÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè çà ïðåäåëû ïîéì. Íåêîòîðûå îòêëîíåíèÿ îò ñòåðåîòèïà íàáëþäàþòñÿ ëèøü íà ñåâåðå Õàêàñèè, ãäå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû 2 âñòðå÷è âèäà âíå ïîéì, îäíàêî â îáîèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè áûëè ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ðå÷íûì äîëèíàì. Çà âåñü ïåðèîä ðàáîòû â ãîðàõ íàìè íå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî íè îäíîãî ãíåçäà îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ â ãîðíûõ ëèñòâåííè÷íèêàõ è â îñòðîâíûõ áåð¸çîâûõ ëåñàõ êîòëîâèí. Åäèíñòâåííîå ãíåçäî, íàéäåííîå â ñìåøàííîì ëåñó íà õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòîì âîäîðàçäåëå, ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà ñêëîíå ðå÷íîé äîëèíû. À.À. Áàðàíîâ (1991) ïðåäïîëàãàë ñòåíîòîïíîñòü âèäà è åãî ãíåçäîâàíèå èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî â ïîéìàõ ðåê. Îäíàêî íàìè ïîìèìî ïîéìåííûõ ëåñîâ êîòëîâèí â ðåãèîíå âûÿâëåí åù¸ îäèí äîñòàòî÷íî õàðàêòåðíûé ãíåçäîâîé áèîòîï – ñòåïíûå áîðû, ãäå âûÿâëåíî 8,8% ó÷àñòêîâ îðëîâ. Îí ìåíåå ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í â ñâÿçè ñî ñâîåé ðåäêîñòüþ, íî êàðëèê â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ ñ äîâîëüíî âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ, îñîáåííî â Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå (Áàëãàçûíñêèé áîð).

Ðèñ. 10. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïëîùàäîê äëÿ ó÷¸òà îðëà-êàðëèêà. Óñëîâíûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ: À – ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè, ðàíæèðîâàííûå ïî êîëè÷åñòâó âûÿâëåííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ,  – ãðàíèöû îáëàñòåé, Ñ – ãðàíèöû ãîñóäàðñòâ Fig. 10. Plot distribution for recording of the Booted Eagle. Labels: A – plots differentiated on a number of surveyed breeding territories, B – district borders, C – state borders

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Ïîéìåííûå ëåñà, êàê îñíîâíîé ãíåçäîâîé áèîòîï îðëà-êàðëèêà, õàðàêòåðíû, ïîâèäèìîìó, íå òîëüêî äëÿ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, íî è äëÿ âñåé Ñåâåðíîé Ìîíãîëèè îäíàêî â Ðîññèè âîñòî÷íåå Ñàÿí, â ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ âèä ïðåäïî÷èòàåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ ëèøü â êðóïíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ þãà Áóðÿòèè. Äëÿ Áàéêàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà (n=6) â öåëîì áîëåå õàðàêòåðíûì ãíåçäîâûì áèîòîïîì êàðëèêà ÿâëÿþòñÿ îïóøêè íàãîðíûõ áîðîâ è ëèñòâåííè÷íèêîâ ïî ïåðèôåðèè ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí (83,3%), ò.å. ôàêòè÷åñêè àíàëîã áèîòîïîâ, êîòîðûå âèä èçáåãàåò ïî äðóãóþ ñòîðîíó Ñàÿí.  ðåçóëüòàòå ïðîâåä¸ííîãî àíàëèçà äëÿ êàæäîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà óäàëîñü âûäåëèòü òèïè÷íûå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå áèîòîïû, äîëÿ êîòîðûõ îò ïëîùàäè ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé â öåëîì ïî àðåàëó ñîñòàâèëà 9,17%. Áûëè îòôèëüòðîâàíû êàê ñóáîïòèìàëüíûå êðóïíûå ïî ïëîùàäè ëåñíûå ó÷àñòêè â ãîðíî-ëåñíûõ ðàéîíàõ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî è Áàéêàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíîâ, à òàêæå êîëêîâûå áåð¸çîâûå ëåñà â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè (òàáë. 2).

×èñëåííîñòü è å¸ äèíàìèêà Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê ïîêàçàíî íà ðèñ. 10. Îíè ìàêñèìàëüíî îõâàòèëè âñå òèïû ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, õàðàêòåðíûõ äëÿ êàæäîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ðàéîíà, â ïðåäåëàõ ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà îðëà-êàðëèêà (ðèñ. 11). Ïëîùàäü ðàçíûõ òèïîâ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ áîëåå èëè ìåíåå ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíà àíàëîãè÷íûì áèîòîïàì â àðåàëå. Ëèøü íà 56,9% ïëîùàäîê êàðëèê áûë îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè. Îêîëî ïîëîâèíû «íóëåâûõ ïëîùàäîê» ëåæèò â çîíå äîìèíèðîâàíèÿ ñóáîïòèìàëüíûõ äëÿ êàðëèêà áèîòîïîâ â ïðåäåëàõ ðåãèîíîâ, ãäå âèä ÿâëÿåòñÿ õàðàêòåðíûì ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ õèùíèêîì (Ïðåäóðàëüå, Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé è Áàéêàëüñêèé ðåãèîíû), ëèáî â ðåãèîíàõ, ãäå âèä òîëüêî íà÷àë ðàññåëÿòüñÿ è â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ êðàéíå ðåäîê (Çàóðàëüå, Çàïàäíàÿ Ñèáèðü). Íà îñòàëüíîé ïîëîâèíå «íóëåâûõ ïëîùàäîê» âèä îïðåäåë¸ííî ãíåçäèòñÿ, ò.ê. ðåãèñòðèðîâàëñÿ â ïðåäûäóùèå ãîäû, îäíàêî èç-çà íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè è ñêðûòíîãî ïîâåäåíèÿ íå îáíàðóæåí. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ìû âñ¸ æå èõ âêëþ÷àåì â îáùèé ðàñ÷¸ò îöåíîê ÷èñëåííîñòè, íåñìîòðÿ íà óâåëè÷åíèå ïîãðåøíîñòè ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè â ñòîðîíó çàíèæåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ðàçíûõ òèïîâ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â 5 ãðóïïàõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê ñ ðàçíîé ïëîòíîñòüþ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

Ðèñ. 11. Äîëÿ ðåãèñòðàöèé îðëà-êàðëèêà â ðàçíûõ òèïàõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ (ââåðõó) è äîëÿ ðàçíûõ òèïîâ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ (âíèçó) Fig. 11. Portion of the Booted Eagle’s registrations in different types of nesting biotopes (upper) and portion of different types of nesting biotopes on plots (bottom)

îðëà-êàðëèêà, íàãëÿäíî ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî ýòîò âèä íå îáðàçóåò êîíöåíòðàöèè íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â êàêîì-ëèáî îòäåëüíîì òèïå ëåñà èëè ëàíäøàôòà, à ñ áîëåå èëè ìåíåå îäèíàêîâîé ïëîòíîñòüþ îñâàèâàåò ëþáûå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå áèîòîïû (ðèñ. 12). Ïëîòíîñòü îðëà-êàðëèêà èçìåíÿåòñÿ îò 5 äî 25 ïàð/ 100 êì2 ëåñíîé ïëîùàäè è çàâèñèò áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ íå îò òèïà ëåñà èëè ãåîëîãè÷åñêèõ îñîáåííîñòåé ìåñòíîñòè, à îò êîðìîâîé áàçû.  Òóâå íàáëþäàåòñÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ óâåëè÷åíèÿ ïëîòíîñòè êàðëèêà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ñ áëèçîñòüþ ïîñåëåíèé äàóðñêîé ïèùóõè (Ochotona daurica) (r = 0,812; p < 0,01), â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè – ñ áëèçîñòüþ ïîñåëå-

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íèé áîëüøèõ ñóñëèêîâ (Spermophilus major) (r = 0,657; p < 0,01). Ìàêñèìàëüíûå ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè (15–25 ïàð/100 êì2 ëåñíîé ïëîùàäè) õàðàêòåðíû ëèøü äëÿ (n=65) 12,1% ïëîùàäîê, íà òåððèòîðèè êîòîðûõ äîìèíèðóþùèì òèïîì ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîãî áèîòîïà ÿâëÿëñÿ ïîéìåííûé ëåñ (n=15; 53,3%), ëèáî ëåñ ïî òåððàñå (40,0%). ×óòü áîëåå ïîëîâèíû ýòèõ ïëîùàäîê (53,3%) ëåæàò â ïðåäåëàõ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â Òóâå (33,3%), îñòàëüíûå – â Ïîâîëæüå è Ïðåäóðàëüå, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ïðåäåëàõ Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè è Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí (26,7%). Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè îðëà-êàðëèêà íà âñåõ ïëîùàäêàõ (n=64) âàðüèðóåò îò 1,19 äî 12,87 êì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 5,52±2,84 êì (Ex = – 0,33). Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå â ïðåäåëàõ àðåàëà â öåëîì áëèçêî ê ëîãîíîðìàëüíîìó (õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíîé àñèììåòðèåé), çà ñ÷¸ò âûñîêîé äîëè â âûáîðêå ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â «ðûõëûõ» ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâêàõ (Òàòàðèÿ, Ñàìàðñêàÿ è Îðåíáóðãñêàÿ îáëàñòè).  ãèñòîãðàììå ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ êàðëèêîâ â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå (ðèñ. 13, Ñ) äîâîëüíî ÷¸òêî ïðîñìàòðèâàåòñÿ îòðèöàòåëüíûé ýêñöåññ (Ex = – 1,43). Ïðè ñðåäíåì ðàññòîÿíèè ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ðàçíûõ ïàð â 7,0±3,44 êì (n=26; lim: 1,49 – 10,51 êì) âûäåëÿþòñÿ äâå ãðóïïû áëèçêî (2–4 êì) è äàëåêî (6–12 êì) ðàñïîëîæåííûõ äðóã îò äðóãà ãí¸çä ðàçíûõ ïàð. Ýòî ìîæåò ñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàòü î òîì, ÷òî íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè îðëà-êàðëèêà íàõîäÿòñÿ â ñòàäèè ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ, ëèáî çàíèìàþò ñóáîïòèìàëüíûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ.  òî æå âðåìÿ, åñëè îòäåëüíî ðàññìàòðèâàòü Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí, ãäå äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ ñóùåñòâóþò ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè âèäà ñî ñëîæèâøåéñÿ ñòðóêòóðîé ïðîñòðàíñòâåííîãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ýòî ðàñïðåäåëåíèå îêàçûâàåòñÿ áëèçêèì ê íîðìàëüíîìó (n=38; 4,52±1,77 êì, lim: 1,19–7,73 êì; Ex = – 0,82). Íàèáîëåå îïòèìàëüíûì äëÿ âèäà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðàñïðåäåëåíèå â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ â 2,5–5 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû.  ïîéìàõ ðåê Àáàêàí (Õàêàñèÿ) è Òåñ-Õåì (Òóâà) êàðëèê ãíåçäèòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ðàâíîìåðíî â îñíîâíîé ñâîåé ìàññå â 4,5–6,5 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû, â ñðåäíåì (n=13) â Ðèñ. 12. Cîîòíîøåíèå ðàçíûõ òèïîâ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ â ãðóïïàõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê ñ ðàçíîé ïëîòíîñòüþ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà Fig. 12. Nesting biotope structure on plots characterized by different breeding densities of the Booted Eagle


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

Ðèñ. 13. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ðàññòîÿíèé ìåæäó ñîñåäíèìè ãí¸çäàìè îðëàêàðëèêà â àðåàëå â öåëîì – À, â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå – B è â ÂîëãîÓðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå – C Fig. 13. Distances between neighbor nests of the Booted Eagle in the range (A), in the AltaiSayan region (B) and in the Volga-Ural region (C)

5,14±1,49 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû (ðèñ. 14, ïëîùàäêè Àáàêàí–2 è Òåñ-Õåì–3). Èñêàæåíèÿ â ðàñïðåäåëåíèè âîçíèêàþò ïðè óõóäøåíèè ëèáî óëó÷øåíèè óñëîâèé êîðìîäîáû÷è, ôðàãìåíòàöèè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, âîçíèêíîâåíèè îñòðîé êîíêóðåíöèè ñ äðóãèìè õèùíèêàìè, ëèáî âëèÿíèÿ ñîâîêóïíîñòè ýòèõ è äðóãèõ ôàêòîðîâ. Âëèÿíèå äâóõ ïåðâûõ ôàêòîðîâ õîðîøî èëëþñòðèðóåò ðàñïðåäåëåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà â ïîéìåííîì ëåñó íà ïëîùàäêå Òåñ-Õåì–1 è â ñòåïíîì áîðó íà ïëîùàäêå Áàëãàçûí â Òóâå (ðèñ. 14).  ïåðâîì ñëó÷àå ñîêðàùåíèå ðàññòîÿíèé ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ðàçíûõ ïàð äî 3-õ êì âûçâàíî êîíöåíòðàöèåé ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ âîêðóã âäàþùåãîñÿ â äîëèíó ìàññèâà áóãðèñòûõ ïåñêîâ ñî ñêàëüíûìè îñòàíöàìè, ãäå îðëû â äîïîëíåíèå ê îñíîâíîìó êîðìîâîìó ðåñóðñó (äàóðñêàÿ ïèùóõà) ïîëó÷àþò âîçìîæíîñòü óñïåøíî îñâàèâàòü äðóãèå – ìîíãîëüñêóþ ïåñ÷àíêó (Meriones unguiculatus) è ìîíãîëüñêóþ ïèùóõó (Ochotona pallasi). Âî âòîðîì ñëó÷àå ñîêðàùåíèå ðàññòîÿíèé ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ðàçíûõ ïàð äî 2,5 êì âûçâàíî ôðàãìåíòè-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ðîâàííîñòüþ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ íà ôîíå îòëè÷íûõ óñëîâèé äëÿ êîðìîäîáû÷è (áîðîâûå êîëêè ðàññðåäîòî÷åíû ñðåäè îïóñòûíåííîé ïåñ÷àíîé ñòåïè, ïëîòíî íàñåë¸ííîé äàóðñêîé ïèùóõîé). Âîçìîæíî ñâîþ ðîëü â óïëîòíåíèè äàííîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ñûãðàëà ñèëüíåéøàÿ òðàíñôîðìàöèÿ öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè áîðà ïîæàðàìè, ñëåäû êîòîðûõ õîðîøî çàìåòíû â þãî-âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè ïëîùàäêè. Ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûé àíàëèç ðàçìåùåíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà â Ðîññèè ñ íîðìàëèçàöèåé äàííûõ ïî ó÷¸òíûì ïëîùàäêàì (ðèñ. 6) ïîêàçûâàåò íàëè÷èå äâóõ ÷¸òêî âûðàæåííûõ ïîïóëÿöèîííûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê, ÿâëÿþùèõñÿ â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ðåãèîíå, ïî ñóòè, ïîïóëÿöèîííûìè ÿäðàìè äâóõ ïîäâèäîâ – íîìèíàëüíîãî (H. pennatus pennatus) è âîñòî÷íîãî (H. pennatus milvoides) (Ñòåïàíÿí, 1990). Ìåæäó ýòèìè ïîïóëÿöèîííûìè ÿäðàìè íà ïðîñòðàíñòâå Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ èä¸ò àêòèâíîå ðàññåëåíèå âèäà, è íå âñå ãíåçäîïèãîäíûå áèîòîïû èì çàíÿòû, ïîýòîìó îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè äëÿ Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè (òàáë. 2) â 106–152 ïàðû ìîæåò áûòü çàâûøåíà â 1,5–2 ðàçà èç-çà òîãî, ÷òî áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ – ýòî ñèëüíî ôðàãìåíòèðîâàííûå áåð¸çîâûå ëåñà. Âåðîÿòíåå âñåãî â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ãíåçäèòñÿ íå áîëåå 65 ïàð îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ, 20–35 ïàð èç êîòîðûõ íàñåëÿþò Íîâîñèáèðñêóþ îáëàñòü è Àëòàéñêèé êðàé (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005â; 2005ã), è íå áîëåå 20–30 ïàð – ×åëÿáèíñêóþ è Êóðãàíñêóþ îáëàñòè.  Áàéêàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå àðåàë êàðëèêà îõâàòûâàåò íå òîëüêî ëåñà ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí â Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè è Áóðÿòèè, íî è â ×èòèíñêîé îáëàñòè. Îäíàêî ñ òåððèòîðèè ×èòèíñêîé îáëàñòè íåò îáúåêòèâíûõ ñîâðåìåííûõ äàííûõ ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà, à íàì â õîäå ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ îðëà-êàðëèêà å¸ ïîñåòèòü íå óäàëîñü. ×èñëåííîñòü êàðëèêà â Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè, âêëþ÷àÿ ÓñòüÁóðÿòñêèé àâòîíîìíûé îêðóã, è â Ðåñïóáëèêå Áóðÿòèÿ ïî äàííûì ó÷¸òà íà 4-õ êðóïíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ è àâòîìàðøðóòàõ â 2005 ã., áûëà îöåíåíà â 62 – 83 ïàðû (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2006). Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ äà¸ò íåñêîëüêî áîëåå âûñîêèå, íî âñå æå áëèçêèå ðåçóëüòàòû – 72–92 ïàðû. Äëÿ ×èòèíñêîé îáëàñòè ÷èñëåííîñòü êàðëèêà îöåíåíà â 83–93 ïàðû, è ìîæíî òîëüêî äîãàäûâàòüñÿ, íàñêîëüêî îíà çàâûøåíà èëè çàíèæåíà. Ñóäÿ ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì, òåððèòîðèÿ êîòëîâèí ×èòèíñêîé îáëàñòè áîëåå ïðèâëåêàòåëüíà äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ âèäà, íî â òî æå


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 14. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàêàðëèêà íà ðàçíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå Fig. 14. Distribution of the Booted Eagle’s breeding territories on different plots in the Altai-Sayan region

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 âðåìÿ íå èçâåñòíî, èìååò ëè êàðëèê çäåñü òå æå ñòåðåîòèïû ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, ÷òî è â ñîñåäíåé Áóðÿòèè. Âòîðûì áåëûì ïÿòíîì â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ðåãèîíå ÿâëÿåòñÿ òåððèòîðèÿ, ëåæàùàÿ ñåâåðíåå Âîñòî÷íîãî Ñàÿíà, òàê æå ïðèãîäíàÿ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êàðëèêà, íà êîòîðîé âèä îäíîçíà÷íî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2006; Ïîïîâ, 2003). Äàííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ, òàê æå êàê è ìåæäóðå÷üå Êàíà è Áèðþñû íà ãðàíèöå Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè è Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ è Êàíñêàÿ ëåñîñòåïü â Êðàñíîÿðñêîì êðàå, íå îáñëåäîâàëàñü, îäíàêî çäåñü ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå íå ìåíåå 20 – 30 ïàð îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ.  Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå ïîïûòêè îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü îðëà-êàðëèêà ïðåäïðèíèìàëèñü â 2000–2003 ãã. äëÿ Ðåñïóáëèê Òûâà è Õàêàñèÿ íà îñíîâàíèè îáèëèÿ ïàð â ïîéìàõ ðåê ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí. Íà îáùóþ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ðåê, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êàðëèêà â ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ, ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü ïîêàçàòåëè îáèëèÿ ïàð íà îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ðåê Òåñ-Õåì, Íàðûí, Åíèñåé (Òûâà), Àáàêàí è Á.Èþñ (Õàêàñèÿ). Îáèëèå âàðüèðîâàëî â ïðåäåëàõ 18,37±10,58 ïàð/100 êì ðåêè ñ ìàêñèìàëüíûìè ïîêàçàòåëÿìè â Óáñóíóðñêîé

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êîòëîâèíå (Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà) è ìèíèìàëüíûìè – íà ñåâåðå Õàêàñèè. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîñòàâèëà 165–195 ïàð äëÿ Õàêàñèè è 705–825 ïàð – äëÿ Òûâû. Îäíàêî ýòè îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè íå ó÷èòûâàëè âîçìîæíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êàðëèêà â ïîéìàõ ðåê ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíû Ñàÿí, ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ (Áàëãàçûíñêèé áîð â Òûâå, áîðû Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíû â Õàêàñèè) è ñìåøàííûõ ëåñàõ íà õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ âîäîðàçäåëàõ (Êîïüåâñêèé êóïîë è Áàòåíåâñêèé êðÿæ â Õàêàñèè), ïîýòîìó áûëè íåñêîëüêî çàíèæåíû.  Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà êîíåö 90-õ ãã. îð¸ë-êàðëèê ñ÷èòàëñÿ ðåäêèì, ñïîðàäè÷íî ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ âèäîì, è â âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà (Áàøêèðèÿ, âîñòî÷íàÿ ïîëîâèíà Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè) íå ãíåçäèëñÿ (Êàðÿêèí, 1998).  ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà Ïòèöû Åâðîïû – II (Ìèùåíêî è äð., 2004) îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè áûëè ñäåëàíû äëÿ êàðëèêà â Ñàðàòîâñêîé (100–150), Ñàìàðñêîé (20–30 ïàð), Óëüÿíîâñêîé (20–30 ïàð), Íèæåãîðîäñêîé (6–10 ïàð) îáëàñòÿõ è Ðåñïóáëèêàõ Òàòàðñòàí (5–25 ïàð) è Áàøêîðòîñòàí (5 ïàð). Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îðëà-êàðëèêà íà Ñðåäíåé Âîëãå áåç ó÷¸òà Ñàðàòîâñêîé


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 îáëàñòè áûëà îöåíåíà íà òîò ïåðèîä â 56– 100 ïàð (6,7–7,0% îò ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè). Íàøà ñîâðåìåííàÿ îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè êàðëèêà ïðåâûøàåò ïðåæíþþ êàê ìèíèìóì â 5 ðàç (òàáë. 2), è â áîëüøåé ñòåïåíè îòðàæàåò ðåàëüíûé ðîñò ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà â ðåãèîíå, à íå óâåëè÷åíèå ñòåïåíè åãî èçó÷åííîñòè. Ñåâåðíûå ïðåäåëû ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà â ðåãèîíå â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ òðåáóþò óòî÷íåíèÿ, è, âèäèìî, â äàëüíåéøåì îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè áóäåò íåñêîëüêî âûøå çà ñ÷¸ò óâåëè÷åíèÿ çîíû (ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ïëîùàäè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ), íà êîòîðóþ ìîæíî ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàòü ó÷¸òíûå äàííûå. Âñ¸ âûøåñêàçàííîå óêàçûâàåò íà òî, ÷òî ñîâðåìåííûå îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå (Ïîâîëæüå, Ïðåäó-

Ò¸ìíàÿ (1), ïðîìåæóòî÷íàÿ (2) è ñâåòëàÿ (3) ìîðôû îðëà-êàðëèêà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Dark (1), intermediate (2) and pale (3) morph of the Booted Eagle. Photos by I. Karyakin

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ðàëüå è Þæíûé Óðàë) – îêîëî 600–1000 ïàð è Þæíîé Ñèáèðè (Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé è Áàéêàëüñêèé ðåãèîíû) – îêîëî 1000–1500 ïàð áîëåå áëèçêè ê ðåàëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè îðëà-êàðëèêà. Ó÷èòûâàÿ äàííûå ïî Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè è ðÿä íåîáñëåäîâàííûõ è íå ïîïàâøèõ â ðàñ÷¸ò òåððèòîðèé, ãäå âûÿâëåíî ïðåáûâàíèå âèäà â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îðëà-êàðëèêà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 1700–2600 ïàð.

Ìîðôû Äëÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà õàðàêòåðíà ïîëèìîðôíîñòü îêðàñêè. Íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àþòñÿ îñîáè ñâåòëîé è ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû, ðåæå îñîáè ïðîìåæóòî÷íîé îêðàñêè ñ îõðèñòîé íèæíåé ñòîðîíîé òåëà, íà êîòîðîé ïðîñìàòðèâàåòñÿ áëåäíûé áóðîâàòûé ðèñóíîê èëè ñ áóðîé îêðàñêîé íèçà ñ îõðèñòûì ïîïåðå÷íûì ðèñóíêîì. Ïî ìíåíèþ Ë.Ñ. Ñòåïàíÿíà (1990) óñòîé÷èâîé ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîé ëîêàëèçàöèè ìîðô îðëà-êàðëèêà íåò. Ïî äàííûì Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâà (1951) íà Êàâêàçå êàðëèêè âñòðå÷àëèñü â ïðîïîðöèè 50% ñâåòëûõ è 50% ò¸ìíûõ, â Òóëüñêîé ãóáåðíèè – 70% ò¸ìíûõ è 30% ñâåòëûõ, â Âîðîíåæñêîé ãóáåðíèè 25% ñâåòëûõ è 75% ò¸ìíûõ, â Òóðêìåíèè 80% ò¸ìíûõ è 20% ñâåòëûõ. Ò.å. íàëèöî ôàêò äîìèíèðîâàíèÿ ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû ïî ìåðå ïðîäâèæåíèÿ íà âîñòîê ïî àðåàëó êàðëèêà.  ðàçðîçíåííûõ ñîâðåìåííûõ ïóáëèêàöèÿõ ïî ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè, îïèñûâàþùèõ âñòðå÷è ñ êàðëèêàìè, ëèøü â ïîëîâèíå ñëó÷àåâ óïîìèíàåòñÿ ìîðôà íàáëþäàåìûõ ïòèö.  Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè èìåþòñÿ ñâåäåíèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ 3-õ ò¸ìíûõ è îäíîé ñâåòëîé ïòèö, ïðè÷¸ì ïîñëåäíÿÿ íàáëþäàëàñü â ñìåøàííîé ïàðå (Áàðàáàøèí, 2000; Áîðîäèí è äð., 2003; Êîðîëüêîâ è äð., 2005).  Ùó÷üèõ ãîðàõ (Òàòàðñòàí) èç 5 íàáëþäàâøèõñÿ â 2004 ã. ñàìöîâ, 3 áûëè ò¸ìíîé è 2 ñâåòëîé ìîðôû (Êîðåïîâ è äð., 2004).  Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ïòèöó ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû íàáëþäàë Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí (2006).  Áàøêèðèè â 1994–98 ãã. èç 4-õ âñòðå÷åííûõ ïòèö ëèøü îäíà ïðèíàäëåæàëà ò¸ìíîé ìîðôå (Êàðÿêèí, 1998), îäíàêî íàáëþäåíèÿ ïîñëåäíèõ ëåò íà Áóãóëüìèíñêî-Áåëåáååâñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè ïîêàçûâàþò äîìèíèðîâàíèå ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû. Èç 10 âçðîñëûõ ïòèö è ñë¸òêîâ, íàáëþäàâøèõñÿ â 2004 – 2006 ãã. 7 ïòèö ïðèíàäëåæàëè ò¸ìíîé ìîðôå è 3 – ñâåòëîé, ïðè÷¸ì äâå ñâåòëûå ïòèöû ñîñòàâëÿëè ïàðó (Êàðÿêèí,


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 15. Äîëÿ ðàçíûõ ìîðô îðëà-êàðëèêà â åãî ïîïóëÿöèÿõ Fig. 15. Portion of different morphs in the Booted Eagle’s populations

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 2006).  Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè â Êóâàíäûêñêîì ðàéîíå (Þæíûé Óðàë) èç 4-õ íàáëþäàâøèõñÿ â 2001 ã. ïòèö 3 áûëè ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû è îäíà ñâåòëîé, ïðè÷¸ì ïîñëåäíÿÿ â ñìåøàííîé ïàðå (Êîðøèêîâ, 2001).  Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå îïèñàííûå â ëèòåðàòóðå ðåãèñòðàöèè îðëà-êàðëèêà îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ò¸ìíîé ìîðôå (Æèìóëåâ, 2005; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005; Ìîøêèí, 2006). À.À. Âàñèëü÷åíêî (2004) ñîîáùàåò î âñòðå÷àõ â Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè îñîáåé ñâåòëîé è ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû, îäíàêî íå ïðèâîäèò èíôîðìàöèþ, â êàêîé ïðîïîðöèè îíè âñòðå÷àþòñÿ. Íà Àëòàå Ï.Ï. Ñóøêèí (1938) äîáûâàë êàðëèêà ñâåòëîé ìîðôû.  Òóâå â 70–80-õ ãã. (Áàðàíîâ, 1991) ñâåòëûå êàðëèêè (3 îñîáè) íàáëþäàëèñü íà 3-õ ó÷àñòêàõ, à ò¸ìíûå (4 îñîáè) – íà 2-õ.  Áàéêàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå ïòèöû ñâåòëîé è ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü ôàêòè÷åñêè â ðàâíûõ ïðîïîðöèÿõ (Ìåëüíèêîâ, 1999; Ïîïîâ, 2003; Ïîïîâ, Ñàëîâàðîâ, 1998; Òóïèöûí, Ôåôåëîâ, 1995). Àíàëèç ëèòåðàòóðíûõ èñòî÷íèêîâ ïîêàçûâàåò äîìèíèðîâàíèå ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû (n=48; 64,6%) â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ, ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûõ ìåæäó Âîëãîé è Àìóðîì. Íàøè äàííûå, îñíîâàííûå íà ðåãèñòðàöèè 298 îñîáåé â ðàçíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè, òàêæå ãîâîðÿò î äîìèíèðîâàíèè ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû (85,2%) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà âèäà (ðèñ. 15). Íàáëþäàåòñÿ óìåíüøåíèå äîëè ñâåòëûõ ïòèö â ïîïóëÿöèè ïî ìåðå ïðîäâèæåíèÿ íà âîñòîê. Åñëè â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå (n=66) ñâåòëûå êàðëèêè âñòðå÷àþòñÿ â 34,8% ñëó÷àåâ, òî âîñòî÷íåå Óðàëà ëèøü â 6,8% ñëó÷àåâ.  ñîâðåìåííîé ëèòåðàòóðå îòñóòñòâóåò èíôîðìàöèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ ïòèö ïðîìåæóòî÷íîé ìîðôû, êîòîðàÿ áîëüøèíñòâîì èññëåäîâàòåëåé â ïîëåâûõ óñëîâèÿõ, ñêîðåå âñåãî, íå èäåíòèôèöèðóåòñÿ. Ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü,

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÷òî ìû ñìîãëè èäåíòèôèöèðîâàòü ïòèö ïðîìåæóòî÷íîé îêðàñêè ëèøü â õîäå äëèòåëüíîãî íàáëþäåíèÿ çà íèìè, ñêîðåå âñåãî ïðè îáû÷íûõ íàáëþäåíèÿõ âåëèêà âåðîÿòíîñòü îøèáî÷íîé èäåíòèôèêàöèè ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îñîáåé, êàê ò¸ìíûõ.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì, äîëÿ ïòèö ïðîìåæóòî÷íîé îêðàñêè ñîñòàâèëà âñåãî ëèøü 2% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà âñòðå÷, ïðè ýòîì îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ïîäîáíûõ ïòèö îòìå÷àëàñü â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà, ãäå çà îðëàìè-êàðëèêàìè âåëèñü ðåãóëÿðíûå íàáëþäåíèÿ ñ 2000 ã.

Îñîáåííîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ Ôåíîëîãèÿ Îð¸ë-êàðëèê ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â Ðîññèè â àïðåëå. Èç-çà ñêðûòíîãî ïîâåäåíèÿ î÷åíü òðóäíî îöåíèòü ñðîêè ìàññîâîãî ïðèë¸òà, îäíàêî, ñóäÿ ïî ñðîêàì îòêëàäêè ÿèö, îíè ïðèõîäÿòñÿ íà 10-å ÷èñëà àïðåëÿ. Âîçìîæíî, íà ñåâåðå Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà âèä ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ íåñêîëüêî ïîçäíåå, â 20-õ ÷èñëàõ àïðåëÿ – ïåðâûõ ÷èñëàõ ìàÿ. Òîê è ïîäíîâëåíèå ãíåçäà çàíèìàþò, âèäèìî, íåïðîäîëæèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ – îêîëî íåäåëè. Çíà÷èòåëüíî áîëüøåå âðåìÿ (îêîëî 2-õ íåäåëü) êàðëèêè çàòðà÷èâàþò íà ñòðîèòåëüñòâî ãíåçäà, åñëè ïðåæíåå ãíåçäî îêàçûâàåòñÿ ðàçðóøåííûì. Ñòðîèò ãíåçäî â îñíîâíîì ñàìêà. Ñàìåö íà ýòàïå ñòðîèòåëüñòâà èëè ïîäíîâëåíèÿ ãíåçäà ïðèíîñèò âåòêè êðàéíå ðåäêî. Íàèáîëåå ðàííèå ñðîêè îòêëàäêè ÿèö â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì è Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíàõ äàòèðóþòñÿ 20 àïðåëÿ. Ìàññîâàÿ îòêëàäêà ÿèö ïðîèñõîäèò 25 àïðåëÿ – 10 ìàÿ íà þãå Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà, 1–15 ìàÿ – íà þãå Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà è 5–20 ìàÿ íà ñåâåðíîé ãðàíèöå àðåàëà è îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ íà÷àëîì ìàññîâîãî ïîÿâëåíèÿ ëèñòâû íà äåðåâüÿõ. Ïîçäíèå êëàäêè ìîãóò ïîÿâëÿòüñÿ, ñóäÿ ïî âûëóïëåíèþ è âûëåòó ïòåíöîâ, âïëîòü äî 5 èþíÿ, à âîçìîæíî è ïîçæå. À.À. Áàðàíîâ (1991) ïðèâîäèò èíôîðìàöèþ î íàõîäêå êëàäêè êàðëèêà èç ñèëüíî íàñèæåííûõ ÿèö â Óáñóíóðñêîé êîòëîâèíå (Òóâà) 11 èþëÿ 1973 ã., ÷òî ïîäðàçóìåâàåò íà÷àëî êëàäêè ïîñëå 7 èþíÿ. Ïðè÷èíû ñäâèãà ñðîêîâ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ íå ñîâñåì ïîíÿòíû. Òàê íà 2-õ ãí¸çäàõ â Òóâå â 2005 ã., õàðàêòåðèçîâàâøåìñÿ ïîçäíåé âåñíîé, ïòåíöû âûëóïèëèñü 8 è 11 èþíÿ, à â 2006 ã. (ïðè áîëåå ðàííèõ ñðîêàõ íàñòóïëåíèÿ âåñíû) íà òåõ æå ãí¸çäàõ – 19 è 21 èþíÿ, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.  ïîñëåäíåì ñëó÷àå îòêëàäêà ÿèö ïðîèñõîäèëà 14–18 ìàÿ. Ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü, ÷òî â


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 2005 ã. â Òóâå ïðè íàëè÷èè ñèëüíî íàñèæåííûõ êëàäîê ó áîëüøèíñòâà ïàð â ïåðâûõ ÷èñëàõ èþíÿ, îäíà ïàðà îòëîæèëà ñâåæåå ÿéöî 2 èþíÿ, äðóãàÿ çàêàí÷èâàëà ñòðîèòåëüñòâî ãíåçäà 3 èþíÿ. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî âñå íàáëþäåíèÿ îòêëàäêè ÿèö ïîñëå 20 ìàÿ îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ïîâòîðíûì êëàäêàì ëèáî ê ïòèöàì, ãí¸çäà êîòîðûõ áûëè ðàçðóøåíû â çèìíèé ïåðèîä, è èì ñðàçó æå ïîñëå ïðèë¸òà ïðèøëîñü ñòðîèòü íîâûå. ßéöà îòêëàäûâàþòñÿ ñ èíòåðâàëîì â ñóòêè – äâîå, õîòÿ ìîãóò áûòü è áîëåå ïðîäîëæèòåëüíûå èíòåðâàëû ìåæäó îòêëàäêîé ïåðâîãî è âòîðîãî ÿéöà. Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâ (1951) ïðèâîäèò èíôîðìàöèþ îá èíòåðâàëå îòêëàäêè ÿèö â 2–4 ñóòîê. Íàñèæèâàíèå äëèòñÿ 31–35 ñóòîê. Íàñèæèâàåò ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ñàìêà ñ ïåðâîãî ÿéöà, õîòÿ âîçìîæíî, ÷òî ïåðâûå ñóòêè îíà ëèøü ñèäèò íà ÿéöå, íå ïðèñòóïàÿ ê åãî íàñèæèâàíèþ, ò.ê. ïòåíöû âûëóïëÿþòñÿ îáû÷íî ñ èíòåðâàëîì íåñêîëüêî ìåíüøèì, ÷åì èíòåðâàë ìåæäó îòêëàäêîé ÿèö. Íàèáîëåå ðàííèå âûâîäêè íà÷èíàþò âñòðå÷àòüñÿ â ãí¸çäàõ îðëà-êàðëèêà ñ 20-õ ÷èñåë ìàÿ. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ïòåíöîâ â ãí¸çäàõ ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ 27 ìàÿ – 22 èþíÿ. Ïîçäíèå âûâîäêè ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ âïëîòü äî êîíöà ïåðâîé äåêàäû èþëÿ. Ïòåíöû íàõîäÿòñÿ â ãíåçäå îò 49 äî 56 äíåé è ñðîêè ýòè ñóùåñòâåííî çàâèñÿò îò èíòåíñèâíîñòè êîðìëåíèÿ ïòåíöîâ, ïîãîäíûõ óñëîâèé è ôàêòîðà áåñïîêîéñòâà. Îáû÷íî ñë¸òêè ïîêèäàþò ãí¸çäà ñ åù¸ íåäîðîñøèìè ìàõîâûìè è îñòàòêàìè ïóõà íà ãîëîâå è îêîëî 1,5–2-õ íåäåëü äîêàðìëèâàþòñÿ ðîäèòåëÿìè íà ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå. Ò.å. îáùèé ñðîê âûêàðìëèâàíèÿ ïòåíöîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 60–70 äíåé. Ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü, ÷òî äàííûå À.À. Âàñèëü÷åíêî (2004) î ôåíîëîãèè êàðëèêà â Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè îøèáî÷íû è, ëèáî îòíîñÿòñÿ íå ê ýòîìó âèäó, ëèáî çäåñü èìååò ìåñòî áûòü ýëåìåíòàðíàÿ îïå÷àòêà, ò.ê. ñðîê âûêàðìëèâàíèÿ ïòåíöîâ 36 äíåé íåðåàëåí äëÿ âèäà. Íàèáîëåå ðàííèå ñðîêè ïîÿâëåíèÿ ñë¸òêîâ, ïîêèíóâøèõ ãí¸çäà, – äåñÿòûå ÷èñëà èþëÿ. Íàì èçâåñòíî ëèøü 2 òàêèõ âûâîäêà (îäèí â Õàêàñèè – â 2001 ã., äðóãîé â Òóâå – â 2004 ã.). Ìàññîâûé âûëåò ìîëîäûõ èç ãí¸çä ïðîèñõîäèò 17 èþëÿ – 15 àâãóñòà (â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå – 17 èþëÿ – 6 àâãóñòà, â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå – 29 èþëÿ – 15 àâãóñòà). Áîëüøèíñòâî ëèòåðàòóðíûõ ñâåäåíèé î íàõîäêàõ òîëüêî ÷òî ïîêèíóâøèõ ãí¸çäà ñë¸òêàõ ëîæèòñÿ òàêæå èìåííî â ýòè ñðîêè: 19 èþëÿ âûëåò ïòåíöîâ íàáëþäàëñÿ â Ñåíãèëååâñêîì ðàéîíå Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè (Áîðîäèí è äð.,

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ 2003), 6 àâãóñòà ìîëîäîé êàðëèê ñ åù¸ íåäîðîñøèìè ìàõîâûìè è îñòàòêàìè ïóõà íà ãîëîâå áûë äîáûò íà Àëòàå (Ñóøêèí, 1938), 5 àâãóñòà 2006 ã. âûâîäîê áëèç ãíåçäà íàáëþäàëñÿ â Êóðãàíñêîé îáëàñòè (Ìîøêèí, 2006), ñë¸òîê áëèç ãíåçäà âñòðå÷åí 10 àâãóñòà 1975 ã. â Òåñ-Õåìñêîì ðàéîíå Òóâû (Áàðàíîâ, 1991), â ýòîì æå ðàéîíå 11 àâãóñòà À.È. ßíóøåâè÷ (1952) äîáûë ëåòàþùåãî ìîëîäîãî, â ýòè æå ñðîêè ìîëîäîé êàðëèê ñ îñòàòêàìè ïóõà áûë äîáûò íà ñåâåðíîì áåðåãó îç. Óáñó-Íóð â Òóâå (Òóãàðèíîâ, 1916). Ïðîë¸ò êàðëèêîâ íà÷èíàåòñÿ â ñåíòÿáðå. Èíôîðìàöèÿ îá àâãóñòîâñêèõ âñòðå÷àõ, èíòåðïðåòèðóþùàÿñÿ àâòîðàìè, êàê âñòðå÷è ïðîë¸òíûõ ïòèö (Ïîïîâ, Ñàëîâàðîâ, 1999) îòíîñÿòñÿ, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ê ìåñòíûì ïòèöàì íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Ïåðâûå ÿâíî ìèãðèðóþùèå ïòèöû, íàáëþäàþòñÿ ñ 10-õ ÷èñåë ñåíòÿáðÿ. Ïî äàííûì Â.Â. Ðÿáöåâà (2000) íà þæíîì Áàéêàëå âäîëü ñêëîíîâ Ïðèìîðñêîãî õðåáòà â 1988 è 1996 ãã. ìèãðèðóþùèå êàðëèêè ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü â ïåðèîä ñ 14 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïî 4 îêòÿáðÿ. Â.Â. Ïîïîâ (2003), ññûëàÿñü íà äàííûå Ì. Êðàñíîøòàíîâîé, ïðèâîäèò èíôîðìàöèþ î ðåãèñòðàöèè ïðîë¸òíûõ êàðëèêîâ â 1996–2000 ãã. â ñðîê ñ 13 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïî 1 îêòÿáðÿ.  ýòè æå ñðîêè íàáëþäàåòñÿ ìèãðàöèÿ êàðëèêà ÷åðåç Ñàÿíû. Ïî-âèäèìîìó, ê äåñÿòûì ÷èñëàì îêòÿáðÿ ïîñëåäíèå êàðëèêè ïîêèäàþò ïðåäåëû ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà â Ðîññèè. Ãí¸çäà Êàê óæå îòìå÷àëîñü âûøå, íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè îð¸ë-êàðëèê ãíåçäèòñÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ.  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ âûñîêîé äîëåé ó÷àñòêîâ, îáíàðóæåííûõ â íàèáîëåå ìíîãî÷èñëåííîé â àðåàëå âèäà Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè, ãäå äàííûé ãíåçäîâîé áèîòîï ÿâëÿåòñÿ äîìèíèðóþùèì. Îòñþäà äîìèíèðîâàíèå òàêèõ äåðåâüåâ äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä (n=102), êàê òîïîëü (38,2%) è ëèñòâåííèöà (31,4%). Ñîñíà, êàê ïîðîäà äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä îðëàìèêàðëèêàìè, íàõîäèòñÿ íà òðåòüåì ìåñòå â íàøåé âûáîðêå, – íà íåé îáíàðóæåíî 20,6% ãí¸çä.  öåëîì ïî àðåàëó 52% ãí¸çä îðëà-êàðëèêà óñòðîåíî íà õâîéíûõ äåðåâüÿõ è 48% – íà ëèñòâåííûõ. Åñëè ðàññìàòðèâàòü ñîáðàííûé ìàòåðèàë îòäåëüíî ïî ðåãèîíàì, òî âûÿâëÿþòñÿ ñëåäóþùèå çàêîíîìåðíîñòè: â ÂîëãîÓðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå (n=21) áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ãí¸çä îáíàðóæåíà íà ñîñíå – 47, 6%, ôàêòè÷åñêè ñòîëüêî æå â ñóììå íà ëèïå


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 16. Äîëÿ äåðåâüåâ ðàçíûõ âèäîâ, èñïîëüçóåìûõ îðëîì-êàðëèêîì äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä â ðàçíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè Fig. 16. Portion of different tree species used by the Booted Eagle as nesting in different regions

Ðèñ. 17. Õàðàêòåð ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä îðëà-êàðëèêà íà ðàçíûõ âèäàõ äåðåâüåâ Fig. 17. Different locations of the Booted Eagle’s nest on different tree species

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

(23,8%) è áåð¸çå (19,0%); â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå (n=76) áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ãí¸çä îáíàðóæåíà íà òîïîëå – 48,7%, íåñêîëüêî ìåíüøå íà ëèñòâåííèöå – 39,5% è âñåãî ëèøü 11,8% – íà ñîñíå (ðèñ. 16). Ïî Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè è Áàéêàëüñêîìó ðåãèîíó ìàòåðèàë ñëèøêîì ñêóäåí, è íåâîçìîæíî ïîêà ñäåëàòü êàêèå-ëèáî âûâîäû, îäíàêî, ñóäÿ ïî âñòðå÷àì ïòèö â òåõ èëè èíûõ áèîòîïàõ, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè ïðåîáëàäàþò ãí¸çäà íà ñîñíå, òîïîëå, è â ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè íà áåð¸çå, à â Áàéêàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå – íà ñîñíå, ëèñòâåííèöå, è â ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè íà òîïîëå.  ëèòåðàòóðå èìåþòñÿ ñâåäåíèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè êàðëèêà íà ñêàëàõ â Òóðêìåíèè (Radde, Walter, 1889), îäíàêî â ïîñëåäóþùåì çà ïðîäîëæèòåëüíûé ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé òàêèå ñëó÷àè íå áûëè âûÿâëåíû. Íàì èçâåñòíî åäèíñòâåííîå ãíåçäî îðëà-êàðëèêà, ðàñïîëàãàâøååñÿ íà ïðèðå÷íîé ñêàëå ð. Ýëåãåñò â Òóâå, îäíàêî ìû ñ÷èòàåì ýòî ÿâëåíèå íåîðäèíàðíûì è íåõàðàêòåðíûì äëÿ âèäà, ïîýòîìó íå ðàññìàòðèâàåì â âûáîðêå.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå îðëû çàíÿëè ïóñ-

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òóþùåå ãíåçäî ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius), ïîñëå òîãî, êàê â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîæàðà èõ ãíåçäî, âåðîÿòíî ñ ïåðâîé êëàäêîé, ðàñïîëàãàâøååñÿ íà òîïîëå â ïîéìå è íàõîäèâøååñÿ ó íàñ ïîä íàáëþäåíèåì â 1999–2000 ãã., áûëî óíè÷òîæåíî.  ïîñëåäóþùèå ãîäû êàðëèêè ñíîâà ïîñòðîèëè ãíåçäî íà òîïîëå è ðàçìíîæàþòñÿ â í¸ì ïîñëåäíèå 5 ëåò. Ãí¸çäà ñòðîÿòñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ, ðàñòóùèõ â ïðèîïóøå÷íîé çîíå ëåñîâ, îäíàêî ãíåçäîâàíèå íåïîñðåäñòâåííî íà îïóøêå, ò.å. äî 10 ì âãëóáü îò êðàÿ ëåñà, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåäêîñòüþ (n=102; 11,8%).  îñíîâíîì âûáèðàþòñÿ äåðåâüÿ (n=90), óäàë¸ííûå îò îïóøêè íà 88,2±65,7 ì (10 – 237 ì), ïðè÷¸ì íàèáîëüøåå óäàëåíèå îò îïóøêè íàáëþäàåòñÿ â ëåñàõ íà òåððàñàõ è õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ âîäîðàçäåëàõ.  40,2% ñëó÷àåâ îïóøêà ïðèìûêàåò ê óðåçó âîäî¸ìà (ðåêå, âîäîõðàíèëèùó), â îñòàëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ – ê ñòåïíîìó ïàñòáèùó. Ì.Â. Êîðåïîâ (2004) äëÿ 3-õ ãí¸çä êàðëèêà, îáíàðóæåííûõ â ëåñíîì ìàññèâå íà áåðåãó Êóéáûøåâñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà (Òàòàðñòàí), ïðèâîäèò àíàëîãè÷íûå äèñòàíöèè îò ãíåçäà äî îïóøêè ëåñà (áåðåãà âîäîõðàíèëèùà) – 70 – 180, â ñðåäíåì 110±60,8 ì. Äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçäà (n=102) âûáèðàþòñÿ íàèáîëåå ñîìêíóòûå ó÷àñòêè äðåâîñòîÿ (71,6%), îñîáåííî â åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè.  Ïîâîëæüå è Ïðåäóðàëüå ÷àñòî âûáèðàåòñÿ ó÷àñòîê ëåñà íå òîëüêî ñ ñîìêíóòûì äðåâîñòîåì ïåðâîãî ÿðóñà, íî è ñ ñîìêíóòûì äðåâîñòîåì, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî øèðîêîëèñòâåííûì, âî âòîðîì ÿðóñå, è â 38,1% ñëó÷àåâ ãí¸çäà (n=21) óñòðàèâàþòñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ âòîðîãî ÿðóñà. Äîñòàòî÷íî õàðàêòåðíî ðàñïîëîæåíèå ãí¸çä îðëà-êàðëèêà íà äåðåâå.  ïîäàâëÿþùåì áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ (n=102) îðëû èñïîëüçóþò äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ðàçâèëêè ñòâîëà – 90,2% (ðèñ. 17). Ðàñïîëîæåíèå ãí¸çä â îñíîâàíèè áîêîâûõ âåòâåé ó ñòâîëà (7,8%), èëè íà ìîùíîé áîêîâîé âåòêå â óäàëåíèè îò ñòâîëà (2%) âûÿâëåíî â ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå.  ïåðâîì ñëó÷àå ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà ëèñòâåííèöàõ, âî âòîðîì – íà ñîñíå è òîïîëå. Íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ â âåðõíåé òðåòè ñòâîëà – 69,6%, îñòàëüíûå â ñåðåäèíå ñòâîëà. Áîëüøèíñòâî ãí¸çä óñòðàèâàåòñÿ òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òîáû ðàñïîëàãàòüñÿ â ñåðåäèíå êðîíû. Ýêñïîçèöèÿ ãíåçäà âî ìíîãèõ ñëó÷àÿõ íåîïðåäåëÿåìàÿ, ò.ê. ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ â ðàçâèëêàõ, ÷àñòî èç 3–4-õ ñòâîëîâ, è, ïî áîëüøîìó ñ÷¸òó, íå èìååò çíà÷åíèÿ, ò.ê. ãí¸çäà íàõîäÿòñÿ â ãëóáèíå ëåñà. Òåì íå


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ðèñ. 18. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãí¸çä îðëà-êàðëèêà ïî ýêñïîçèöèè Fig. 18. Distribution of the Booted Eagle nests according with a tree exposition

ìåíåå, äëÿ 64 ãí¸çä ýêñïîçèöèÿ íàìè áûëà îïðåäåëåíà (ðèñ. 18.). Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ãí¸çä èìåëà îðèåíòàöèþ â îäíîì èç òð¸õ þæíûõ íàïðàâëåíèé (59,4%), â îñíîâíîì þãî-âîñòî÷íóþ (21,9%). Íåêîòîðûå ãí¸çäà, ðàñïîëàãàâøèåñÿ â ðàçâèëêàõ èç 2-õ ñòâîëîâ, áûëè îðèåíòèðîâàíû (à òàêæå èìåëè ïîäë¸ò) íà þãî-âîñòîê è ñåâåðî-çàïàä, ëèáî þãî-çàïàä è ñåâåðî-âîñòîê, îäíàêî áëèæàéøàÿ îïóøêà â ýòèõ ñëó÷àÿõ íàõîäèëàñü âñåãäà â þæíîì íàïðàâëåíèè. Íåñìîòðÿ íà ÷¸òêóþ çàêîíîìåðíîñòü â þæíîé îðèåíòàöèè ãí¸çä, ñêîðåå âñåãî îíà âûçâàíà àðòåôàêòîì íàáëþäåíèé, ò.ê. â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ îñìîòð ãíåçäîâûõ áèîòîïîâ â¸ëñÿ â äíåâíîå âðåìÿ ñ þæíîé ñòîðîíû (ïî ñîëíöó), è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, â îñíîâíîì âûÿâëÿëèñü òå ãí¸çäà, êîòîðûå áûëè îðèåíòèðîâàíû íà þæíûå îïóøêè ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ. Òèïè÷íîå ðàñïîëîæåíèå ãí¸çä îðëà-êàðëèêà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå: 1 – íà áåð¸çå, ðàñòóùåé âíóòðè òåððàñíîãî áîðà, â ðàçâèëêå ñòâîëà; 2 – íà ñîñíå, ðàñòóùåé âíóòðè òåððàñíîãî áîðà, â ðàçâèëêå ñòâîëà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Typical nest locations for the Booted Eagle in the Volga-Ural region: 1 – a fork of the birch tree inside a pine forest on the river terrace; 2 - a fork of the pine tree inside a pine forest on the river terrace. Photos by I. Karyakin

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Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä âàðüèðóåò â øèðîêîì äèàïàçîíå (n=102), îò 4 äî 22 ì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 10,8±4,44 ì.  Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå (n=76) âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä ñîñòàâëÿåò 4–20, â ñðåäíåì 10,0±4,24 ì, â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì (n=21) – 8–22, â ñðåäíåì 14,0±3,73 ì. Ìèíèìàëüíàÿ âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä õàðàêòåðíà äëÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê, íàñåëÿþùèõ áîðû ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ – äëÿ ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ñîñíàõ áîðîâûõ òåððàñ Ïîâîëæüÿ è Ïðåäóðàëüÿ.  ñâÿçè ñ íàèáîëåå ÷àñòûì ðàñïîëîæåíèåì â ðàçâèëêàõ, ãí¸çäà èìåþò îâàëüíóþ ôîðìó. Íà ýòó æå îñîáåííîñòü îáðàòèë âíèìàíèå Î.Â. Áîðîäèí ñ êîëëåãàìè (2003), îáíàðóæèâøèé ãíåçäî êàðëèêà â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Îíî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ðàçâèëêå ñîñíû è èìåëî äèàìåòð 89 õ 73 ñì è âûñîòó 133 ñì. Áëèçêèé ðàçìåð è àíàëîãè÷íóþ ôîðìó ïîñòðîéêè ïðèâîäÿò Å.Â. Ëûñåíêîâ ñ ñîàâòîðàìè (2003) äëÿ ãíåçäà êàðëèêà, îáíàðóæåííîãî â Ìîðäîâñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå: äèàìåòð ãíåçäà – 83 õ 128 ñì, âûñîòà – 45 ñì, äèàìåòð ëîòêà – 22 õ 25 ñì, ãëóáèíà ëîòêà – 7 ñì. Ìû èçìåðÿëè ëèøü ãí¸çäà â ïåðèîä êëàäêè, ÷òîáû èõ óòîïòàííîñòü ïòåíöàìè íå âíîñèëà ñèëüíûå èñêàæåíèÿ â ðåàëüíûå ðàçìåðû ñâåæåé ïîñòðîéêè. Äèàìåòð ãíåçäà (n=9) ñîñòàâèë 55–150 õ 35– 150, â ñðåäíåì 93,4±29,49 õ 80,6±34,17 ñì, âûñîòà ãíåçäà – 60–135, â ñðåäíåì 100,6±27,34 ñì, äèàìåòð ëîòêà – 16–25 õ 15–25, â ñðåäíåì 19,8±3,35 õ 18,3±3,08 ñì, ãëóáèíà ëîòêà – 2–7, â ñðåäíåì 4,2±1,64 ñì. Ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü, ÷òî áîëüøèíñòâî ïðîìåðåííûõ íàìè ïîñòðîåê áûëè ìíîãîëåòíèìè, è ëèøü 2 èç 9-òè áûëè ïîñòðîåíû êàðëèêàìè â ãîä èõ îáíàðóæåíèÿ è ñíÿòèÿ ïðîìåðîâ. Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâ (1951) óêàçûâàåò äèàìåòð 60–70 ñì äëÿ ïîñòðîåê îðëà-êàðëèêà è ïèøåò î òîì, ÷òî ïîñòðîéêè èìåþò ïëîñêèé ëîòîê. Ïîñëåäíåå õàðàêòåðíî äëÿ ìíîãîëåòíèõ ãí¸çä, êîòîðûå ëèøü ïîäíîâëÿþòñÿ ïòèöàìè, ëèáî ãí¸çä â êîíöå ïåðèîä ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, óæå ðàñòîïòàííûõ ïòåíöàìè. Ñâåæåâûñòðîåííûå ïîñòðîéêè êàðëèêà íà ðàííèõ ñòàäèÿõ íàñèæèâàíèÿ èìåþò äîñòàòî÷íî ãëóáîêèé ëîòîê, â êîòîðîì êëàäêà ôàêòè÷åñêè «òîíåò» (ðèñ. 19), îäíàêî ëîòîê âñ¸ æå ìåíåå ãëóáîêèé, ÷åì â ãí¸çäàõ êàíþêà (Buteo buteo) è áîëüøå íàïîìèíàåò ëîòîê òåòåðåâÿòíèêà (Accipiter gentitlis). Îð¸ë-êàðëèê ÷àñòî èñïîëüçóåò ñòàðûå, à èíîãäà è ñâåæèå ïîñòðîéêè äðóãèõ ïòèö, â îñíîâíîì êîðøóíà (Milvus migrans) ðåæå,


Raptors Research Ðàñïîëîæåíèå ãí¸çä îðëà-êàðëèêà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå: 1 – íà ñîñíå, ðàñòóùåé âíóòðè áîðà, íà áîêîâîé âåòêå; 2 – íà ñîñíå, ðàñòóùåé íà îïóøêå áîðà, â îñíîâàíèè áîêîâîé âåòêè ó ñòâîëà; 3 – íà ñîñíå, ðàñòóùåé âíóòðè áîðà, â ðàçâèëêå íà âåðøèíå ñòâîëà; 4 – íà ëèñòâåííèöå, ðàñòóùåé ñðåäè ïîéìåííîãî ëåñà, â ðàçâèëêå ñòâîëà; 5 – íà òîïîëå, ðàñòóùåì ñðåäè ïîéìåííîãî ëåñà, â ðàçâèëêå ñòâîëà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Nest locations of the Booted Eagle in the Altai-Sayan region: 1 - a side-branch of a pine tree inside the pine forest; 2 - the basis of a side-branch of the pine tree in the edge of pine forest; 3 - a fork of the pine tree inside a pine forest; 4 - a fork of the larch tree inside the flood forest; 5 - a fork of the poplar tree inside the flood forest. Photos by I. Karyakin

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êàíþêà, òåòåðåâÿòíèêà, íà âîñòîêå àðåàëà – ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà, èçðåäêà áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga), ñåðîé è ÷¸ðíîé âîðîí (Corvus cornix, C. corone) è ñåðîé öàïëè (Ardea cinerea). Íàì èçâåñòíî 12 òàêèõ ñëó÷àåâ (11,8% ãí¸çä). Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ãí¸çä çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â íàäñòðîéêå êàðëèêîì íà èõ îñíîâå ñâîåãî ãíåçäà, êîòîðîå îòëè÷àåòñÿ îò ãíåçäà ïðåæíåãî õîçÿèíà ñâîåé ñòðóêòóðîé, íî èíîãäà, â îñíîâíîì â ñëó÷àå çàíÿòèÿ ñâåæèõ ãí¸çä, êàðëèêè îòêëàäûâàþò ÿéöà ïðÿìî â ëîòîê õîçÿèíà, ëèøü ñëåãêà ïîäíîâèâ åãî óæå â ïðîöåññå êëàäêè. Ãíåçäî, âûñòðîåííîå êàðëèêîì, èìååò íåñêîëüêî õàðàêòåðíûõ ÷åðò (ñì. èëëþñòðàöèþ íà 3 ñòðàíèöå îáëîæêè). Ïîñòðîéêà ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ óñòðàèâàåòñÿ èç ñâåæèõ âåòîê äåðåâüåâ, ïðåîáëàäàþùèõ â ãíåçäîâîì áèîòîïå. Ïðåèìóùåñòâî îòäà¸òñÿ, êîíå÷íî æå, õâîéíûì ïîðîäàì. Ñòàðûå âåòêè èìåþòñÿ â ìíîãîëåòíèõ ïîñòðîéêàõ, îäíàêî âåðõíÿÿ ÷àñòü ëîòêà çà ðåäêèì èñêëþ÷åíèåì îáèëüíî âûñòëàíà çåë¸íûìè âåòêàìè, õîðîøî âèäèìûìè ñ çåìëè. Äàæå â øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ, êîãäà â ïåðèîä ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ãíåçäà êðóïíîé ëèñòâû íà äåðåâüÿõ íåò, îðëû óõèòðÿþòñÿ íàõîäèòü äëÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà âåòâè ìåëêîëèñòâåííûõ ïîðîä èëè êóñòàðíèêîâ ñ óæå ðàñïóñòèâøèìèñÿ íåáîëüøèìè ëèñòî÷êàìè.  ñîñíîâûõ è ëèñòâåííè÷íûõ ëåñàõ åù¸ äî íà÷àëà êëàäêè êàðëèê íàñòèëàåò íà âåðõíþþ ÷àñòü ãíåçäà òîëñòóþ ïîäóøêó çåë¸íûõ âåòîê, à ëîòîê àêêóðàòíî âûêëàäûâàåò êîíöåâûìè âåòêàìè ñ õâî¸é.  îòëè÷èå îò òåòåðåâÿòíèêà, êàðëèê íèêîãäà íå èñïîëüçóåò â âûñòèëêå ëîòêà êîðó, è, äàæå êîãäà îíà ïàäàåò ñ äåðåâà â ãíåçäî, îí å¸ ñòàðàòåëüíî óáèðàåò.  áèîòîïàõ, ãäå õâîéíûå ïîðîäû ðåäêè, ëîòîê ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ çàñòèëàåòñÿ ñëîåì ñâåæåé çåëåíè, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî òîïîëÿ èëè áåð¸çû. Âî âðåìÿ âûñòèëêè ëîòêà äî íà÷àëà êëàäêè, ñàìêà êàðëèêà àêêóðàòíî ñðûâàåò ëèñòüÿ ñî ñâåæèõ âåòîê è óêëàäûâàåò èìè ëîòîê, à âåòêè áðîñàåò íà êðàé ãíåçäà. Èìåííî íà ýòó îñíîâó èç çåë¸íûõ ëèñòüåâ ñàìêà ïîçæå îòêëàäûâàåò ÿéöà, ïåðèîäè÷åñêè ïîäíîâëÿÿ å¸ â ïðîöåññå íàñèæèâàíèÿ. Ïî îáèëüíîé âûñòèëêå èç ëèñòüåâ ãí¸çäà êàðëèêà î÷åíü ïîõîæè íà ãí¸çäà îñîåäîâ (Pernis apivorus, P. ptilorinchus), ñ êîòîðûìè èõ ìîæíî äîâîëüíî ëåãêî ñïóòàòü äî ïåðèîäà íà÷àëà êëàäêè. Ñêóäíîñòü âûñòèëêè áûâàåò â èñêëþ÷èòåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ è îáóñëàâëèâàåòñÿ ðåäêîñòüþ äðåâåñíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè â ãíåçäîâîì áèîòîïå. Íàìè òàêîå íàáëþäàëîñü îäíàæäû â ïîéìå ïåðåñûõàþùåé


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äåíü, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ñàìêîé. Äàæå ïîñëå âûëåòà ïòåíöîâ, ïîêà îíè íî÷óþò íà ãíåçäå, ñàìêà ïðîäîëæàåò ïðèíîñèòü íà ãíåçäî âåòêè, õîòÿ è çíà÷èòåëüíî ðåæå.

Ðèñ. 19. Ãí¸çäà îðëàêàðëèêà: ñâåæåâûñòðîåííîå, çàíèìàåìîå ïåðâûé ãîä (ââåðõó) è ïîäíîâë¸ííîå, ìíîãîëåòíåå (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 19. Nests of the Booted Eagle: new nest one year old (upper) and old nest several years old (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin

ðåêè, ñòåêàþùåé ñ þæíîãî ìàêðîñêëîíà õð. Òàííó-Îëà â Òóâå. Îäíàêî äàæå â ýòîì ñëó÷àå öåíòð ëîòêà áûë âûñòëàí ëèñòâîé òîïîëÿ.  ñâåòå âûøåñêàçàííîãî íåêîòîðûå íàáëþäåíèÿ ãí¸çä îðëà-êàðëèêà ñ âûñòèëêîé èç ñóõîé òðàâû è êîðíåâèù çëàêîâ (Âàñèëü÷åíêî, 2004; Áàðàíîâ, 1991) íå âûçûâàþò äîâåðèå è, âîçìîæíî, îøèáî÷íû, ëèáî îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ñëó÷àÿì çàíÿòèÿ êàðëèêîì ñâåæèõ ïîñòðîåê äðóãèõ õèùíèêîâ. Îáíîâëåíèå çåëåíè â ãíåçäå ïðîèñõîäèò åæåäíåâíî.  ïåðèîä âûêàðìëèâàíèÿ ïòåíöîâ ñâåæèå âåòêè ïðèíîñÿòñÿ äî 8 ðàç â Êëàäêè îðëà-êàðëèêà â ãíåçäå íà ëèñòâåííèöå (1) è íà ñîñíå (2). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Clutches of the Booted Eagle in nests on a larch tree (1) and a pine tree (2). Photos by I. Karyakin

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Êëàäêè ßéöà îðëà-êàðëèêà áåëîãî öâåòà. Óïîìèíàþùàÿñÿ â ëèòåðàòóðå çåëåíîâàòàÿ îêðàñêà ÿèö (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951) ïåðåäà¸òñÿ ñêîðëóïå îò îáèëüíîé ñâåæåé çåëåíè â âûñòèëêå ëîòêà.  73% ñëó÷àåâ íà ñêîðëóïå èìååòñÿ ðåäêèé êðàï îò îõðèñòîãî, äî êðàñíîâàòîáóðîãî öâåòà, ðåæå ê êðàïó äîáàâëÿþòñÿ ãëóáîêèå îõðèñòûå è áóðûå è ïîâåðõíîñòíûå ò¸ìíî-áóðûå ïÿòíà íåáîëüøîãî ðàçìåðà. Îäíàêî êðóïíàÿ ÿðêàÿ ïÿòíèñòîñòü, õàðàêòåðíàÿ äëÿ ÿèö êàíþêà è ðåæå êîðøóíà, ÷àñòî îáðàçóþùàÿ ñãóùåíèÿ âîêðóã âåí÷èêà, ó ÿèö êàðëèêà íàìè íè ðàçó íå íàáëþäàëàñü.  öåëîì ïî ñâîåé îêðàñêå ÿéöà áîëüøå âñåãî ïîõîäÿò íà ÿéöà òåòåðåâÿòíèêà, íî èõ ôîðìà áîëåå îêðóãëàÿ.  Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå îáû÷íî â ãîðíûõ ëèñòâåííè÷íèêàõ è ðåæå â ïîéìàõ ðåê è ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ ÿïîíñêèé êàíþê (Buteo buteo japonicus), èìåþùèé ñâåòëóþ è ò¸ìíóþ ìîðôû, ñ äîìèíèðîâàíèåì ïîñëåäíåé. Åãî ãí¸çäà î÷åíü ïîõîæè íà ãí¸çäà êàðëèêà è ïòèöà ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû, ñèäÿùàÿ íà ãíåçäå, èçäàëåêà ïðàêòè÷åñêè íåîòëè÷èìà îò îðëà-êàðëèêà. Õàðàêòåðíîé îñîáåííîñòüþ ãí¸çä êàíþêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ âûñòèëêà ëîòêà ñóõîé òðàâîé è êîðíåâèùàìè çëàêîâ ÷àñòî âïåðåìåæêó ñ ñóõèìè ëèñòüÿìè è õâîåé, à õàðàêòåðíîé ÷åðòîé îêðàñêè ÿèö ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàëè÷èå êðóïíûõ êîðè÷íåâûõ ïÿòåí ðàçëè÷íîé ôîðìû, íåðàâíîìåðíî ðàçáðîñàííûõ ïî âñåé ñêîðëóïå, ÷àñòî ñ êîíöåíòðàöèåé íà âåí÷èêå (ñì. èëëþñòðàöèþ íà 3 ñòðàíèöå îáëîæêè). Èìåííî òàêàÿ îêðàñêà ÿèö îïèñàíà À.À. Áàðàíîâûì (1991) äëÿ îäíîé êëàäêè êàðëèêà, è, ÷òî õàðàêòåðíî, íà ïðèâåäåííîé ôîòîãðàôèè ëîòêà ãíåçäà îòñóòñòâóåò çåëåíü, â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì, îñòàþòñÿ ñîìíåíèÿ â ïðàâèëüíîé èäåíòèôèêàöèè ãíåçäà. Âîçìîæíî, ðå÷ü èäåò êàê ðàç î ãíåçäå ÿïîíñêîãî êàíþêà. Òî æå ñàìîå ìîæíî ñêàçàòü è î äàííûõ À.À. Âàñèëü÷åíêî (2004), êîòîðûé ïðèâîäèò õàðàêòåðèñòèêè ãí¸çä, ÿèö è äàæå ñðîêè âûêàðìëèâàíèÿ ïòåíöîâ êàðëèêà (36 äíåé), õàðàêòåðíûå êàê ðàç äëÿ ÿïîíñêîãî êàíþêà. Ïî ëèòåðàòóðíûì äàííûì â êëàäêå êàðëèêà 1–3 ÿéöà (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951), îäíàêî íàì çà âåñü ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé ïðèõîäèëîñü âèäåòü ïîëíûå êëàäêè, ñîñòîÿùèå òîëüêî èç 2-õ ÿèö, – èõ áûëî îñìîòðåíî 30.  2-õ ãíåçäàõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû íå-


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ÿèö â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå (n=17; 54,0–62,2 õ 45,5–50,0 ìì, â ñðåäíåì 56,55±2,33 õ 46,89±1,25 ìì). Ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü ÷òî ÿéöî, ðàçìåðîì 50,0 õ 39,6 ìì, îáíàðóæåííîå â ãíåçäå â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå, îêàçàëîñü áîëòóíîì è, ñêîðåå âñåãî, íåïîëíîöåííî, ò.ê. ñèëüíî âûáèâàåòñÿ èç ìèíèìàëüíûõ ðàçìåðîâ ÿèö îðëàêàðëèêà. Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâ (1951) (ïî: Ãåáåëü, 1879) ïðèâîäèò ñëåäóþùèå ðàçìåðû äëÿ ÿèö îðëà-êàðëèêà (n=97): 52–64 õ 42,5– 48,5, â ñðåäíåì 56,4 õ 45,6 ìì. Å.Â. Ëûñåíêîâ ñ ñîàâòîðàìè (2003) ñîîáùàþò îá îáíàðóæåíèè êëàäêè êàðëèêà èç äâóõ ÿèöáîëòóíîâ, ðàçìåðîì 54,2 õ 45,5 è 57,2 õ 45,6 ìì.  öåëîì ïî àðåàëó ðàçìåð ÿèö îðëà êàðëèêà áëèçîê ê ðàçìåðàì ÿèö êîðøóíà è êàíþêà, ïîýòîìó ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè áðîøåííîãî ãíåçäà ñ êëàäêîé èç 2-õ ÿèö äëÿ äîñòîâåðíîé èäåíòèôèêàöèè åãî âèäîâîé ïðèíàäëåæíîñòè èìåííî ê êàðëèêó, íåîáõîäèìî îáðàùàòü â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü íà ñòðóêòóðó ãíåçäà è îêðàñêó ÿèö, à çàòåì óæå íà ðàçìåðû ÿèö.

Ïòåíöû îðëà-êàðëèêà 2– 3-õ äíåâíîãî âîçðàñòà (ââåðõó) è 6–7 äíåâíîãî âîçðàñòà (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Booted Eagle: 2–3 days old (upper) and 6–8 days old (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin

ïîëíûå êëàäêè èç 1 ÿéöà, ïðè÷¸ì îäíî èç íèõ ïîñåùàëîñü óæå â ïåðèîä âûâåäåíèÿ ïîòîìñòâà è ñîäåðæàëî âûâîäîê èç 2-õ ïòåíöîâ. Ðàçìåð ÿèö (n=26): 50,0–62,2 õ 39,6– 50,0 ìì, â ñðåäíåì 55,8±2,41 õ 46,0±1,99 ìì.  Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå ðàçìåð ÿèö â íàøåé âûáîðêå (n=9; 50,0–56,0 õ 39,6–46,0 ìì, â ñðåäíåì 54,3±1,91 õ 44,3±2,09 ìì) íåñêîëüêî ìåíüøå ðàçìåðà Ïòåíöû îðëà-êàðëèêà 8– 9-òè äíåâíîãî âîçðàñòà (ââåðõó) è 25–27 äíåâíîãî âîçðàñòà (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Booted Eagle: 8–9 days old (upper) and 25–27 days old (bottom). Photos by I. Karyakin

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Âûâîäêè, óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ  âûâîäêàõ êàðëèêà, êàê ïðàâèëî, 2 ïòåíöà. Èç íàáëþäàâøèõñÿ íàìè 96 âûâîäêîâ, 92,7% ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà âûâîäêè èç 2-õ ïòåíöîâ èëè ñë¸òêîâ. Âûâîäêè èç 1 ïòåíöà âñòðå÷àþòñÿ â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà îäíî èç ÿèö â êëàäêå îêàçàëîñü áîëòóíîì. Íàìè óñòàíîâëåíî 5 òàêèõ ñëó÷àåâ èç 7, êîãäà ïðè íàëè÷èè ïòåíöà â ãíåçäå íàõîäèëñÿ áîëòóí.  2-õ ñëó÷àÿõ íàáëþäàëèñü ñë¸òêè ó ãí¸çä, à ãí¸çäà íå ïîñåùàëèñü. Ñëó÷àè êàííèáàëèçìà ó êàðëèêîâ ìàëî âåðîÿòíû, òàê êàê â îòëè÷èå îò êàíþêîâ è ìíîãèõ âèäîâ îðëîâ (áåðêóòà Aquila chrysaetos, ñòåïíîãî Aquila nipalensis), ïòåíöû íå âåäóò ñåáÿ àãðåññèâíî ïî îòíîøåíèþ äðóã ê äðóãó ïðè äëèòåëüíîì îòñóòñòâèè ñàìêè íà ãíåçäå, äàæå êîãäà îíè ãîëîäíû. Ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòåíöîâ â ãíåçäàõ, ïîñåùàâøèõñÿ íàìè íåîäíîêðàòíî, òàêæå íå áûëî âûÿâëåíî è âñå âûëóïèâøèåñÿ ïòåíöû, íàõîäèâøèåñÿ ïîä íàáëþäåíèåì, âñòàâàëè íà êðûëî. Âñëåäñòâèå ìàëîé äîëè îòõîäà ÿèö íà ñòàäèè êëàäêè óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ïðåâûøàåò 90%, è ýòî, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ÿâëÿåòñÿ íîðìîé äëÿ âèäà. Âîçìîæíî, èìåííî âûñîêèé óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ îðëà-êàðëèêà ëåæèò â îñíîâå ïðè÷èí åãî ýêñïàíñèè ïî ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíå â ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ. Çàíÿòîñòü ó÷àñòêîâ îðëà-êàðëèêà òàêæå äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêàÿ. Çà 1999–2006 ãã. â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà íàìè îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ ðåãóëÿðíûé ìîíèòîðèíã 6 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëà êàðëèêà, è ëèøü íà 2-õ èç íèõ


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 îðëû èìåëè ïåðåðûâ â ðàçìíîæåíèè â 1 è 2 ãîäà ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ïðè÷¸ì ïðè÷èíàìè îòñóòñòâèÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ âòîðîé ïàðû â òå÷åíèå 2-õ ëåò ÿâèëñÿ ïîæàð, â ðåçóëüòàòå êîòîðîãî ïîëíîñòüþ âûãîðåë ó÷àñòîê ëåñà âìåñòå ñ ãíåçäîì. Ê òîìó æå, âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî ïàðà íå ðàçìíîæàëàñü âñåãî ãîä, ò.ê. ãíåçäî ýòîé ïàðû íàéäåíî áûëî ñïóñòÿ 2 ãîäà è íå âûãëÿäåëî íîâûì. Íàì òàêæå èçâåñòíû 2 ñëó÷àÿ îòêëàäêè ÿèö ïîñëå óòåðè ïåðâîé êëàäêè â ðåçóëüòàòå ãèáåëè ãí¸çä â õîäå ïîæàðîâ, ïðè÷¸ì â îäíîì ñëó÷àå ïòèöû ïåðåìåñòèëèñü â ãíåçäîâóþ ïîñòðîéêó íà ñêàëå, ÷òî êðàéíå íåòèïè÷íî äëÿ âèäà. Äèíàìèêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ ñóùåñòâåííî íå îòðàæàåòñÿ íà óñïåõå ðàçìíîæåíèÿ êàðëèêîâ, è ïðè äåïðåññèÿõ ÷èñëåííîñòè ïèùóõè, ïåñ÷àíêè è ñóñëèêà, îðëû äîñòàòî÷íî óñïåøíî çàìåíÿþò èõ ïòèöàìè, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ðæàíêîîáðàçíûìè è êóðèíûìè, â îòëè÷èå îò òàêèõ õèùíèêîâ, êàê áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) è ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â òåõ æå ìåñòàõ è êîíêóðèðóþùèõ ñ êàðëèêîì çà îñâîåíèå ðåñóðñîâ ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ. Îäíàêî, âîçìîæíî, ÷òî

Ðèñ. 20. Äèíàìèêà çàíÿòîñòè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) è îðëà-êàðëèêà (ââåðõó) è ÷èñëåííîñòè ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ (âíèçó) íà ïëîùàäêå Òåñ-Õåì (Òóâà) â 1999–2005 ãã. Fig. 20. Occupation of breeding territories by the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) and Booted Eagle (upper) and a number of small mammals (bottom) on the Tes-Hem plot in the Tyva Republic in 1999–2005

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ïòåíöû îðëà-êàðëèêà â âîçðàñòå îêîëî 46–48 äíåé. Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà Chicks of the Booted Eagle 46–48 days old. Photo by R. Bekmansurov

ýòî ëèøü ñïåöèôèêà Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè êàðëèêîâ. Íà ðèñ. 20 íàãëÿäíî îòðàæåíà äèíàìèêà çàíÿòîñòè ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàêàðëèêà è áàëîáàíà è äèíàìèêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ, ÿâëÿþùèõñÿ îñíîâíûìè îáúåêòàìè ïèòàíèÿ îáîèõ âèäîâ, â 1999–2005 ãã. íà ïëîùàäêå Òåñ-Õåì â Óáñóíóðñêîé êîòëîâèíå (Òóâà). Ïî Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîìó ðåãèîíó ìíîãîëåòíèõ íàáëþäåíèé çà äèíàìèêîé çàíÿòîñòè ó÷àñòêîâ è óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ îðëîâêàðëèêîâ ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê ÷èñëåííîñòè èõ æåðòâ íå ïðîâîäèëîñü. Ïîâåäåíèå â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä  îòëè÷èå îò ìíîãèõ äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö ñâîåãî ðàçìåðíîãî êëàññà êàðëèê äîâîëüíî òåðïèìî îòíîñèòñÿ ê áëèçêîìó ñîñåäñòâó äðóãèõ õèùíèêîâ. Êîðøóí ãíåçäèòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè áëèç âñåõ ãí¸çä êàðëèêà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå è â Ïîâîëæüå íà äèñòàíöèè â 20–80 ì. Íà ñòîëü æå áëèçêîé ê ãíåçäó êàðëèêà äèñòàíöèè ãíåçäèëèñü ïåðåïåëÿòíèê (Accipiter nisus), ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) è âîðîí (Corvus corvus).  80– 120 ì îò ãí¸çä êàðëèêà íàáëþäàëîñü ãíåçäîâàíèå êàíþêà, ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà, ÷åãëîêà (Falco subbuteo) è îñîåäà (Pernis apivorus).  120–250 ì îò ãí¸çä êàðëèêà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû æèëûå ãí¸çäà îðëàíà (Haliaeetus albicilla), áîëîòíîãî ëóíÿ (Circus aeruginosus) è áàëîáàíà. Íå îáíàðóæåíû â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò ãí¸çä êàðëèêà òàêèå âèäû, êàê áåðêóò, ìîãèëüíèê è òåòåðåâÿòíèê. Ñ òåòåðåâÿòíèêîì, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ó êàðëèêà ñëîæíûå îòíîøåíèÿ, òàê êàê äâà ýòèõ âèäà âìåñòå íàìè íè ðàçó íå íàáëþäàëèñü. Èíòåðåñíî òî, ÷òî åñëè ê êîðøóíàì, ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ ïîáëèçîñòè îò ãí¸çä êàðëèêà îðëû îòíîñÿòñÿ ëîÿëüíî, äàæå â òîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà êîðøóíû ïàðÿò íàä ãíåçäîì èëè ñèäÿò íà ñîñåäíèõ äåðåâüÿõ ñ ïðèñà-


Raptors Research

Ïòåíöû îðëà-êàðëèêà ñî ñâåæåäîáûòîé äàóðñêîé ïèùóõîé (Ochotona daurica). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Booted Eagle with a dead Daurian Puka (Ochotona daurica). Photo by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 äîé ñàìöà, òî ÷óæèõ êîðøóíîâ è äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö êàðëèê àêòèâíî èçãîíÿåò ñ ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà. Íàñèæèâàåò êëàäêó è ïòåíöîâ ñàìêà î÷åíü ïëîòíî è âçëåòàåò â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ ëèøü ïîñëå óäàðà ïî äåðåâó. Íè ðàçó íàì íå ïðèõîäèëîñü íàáëþäàòü íåçàìåòíûé ñë¸ò ñàìêè ñ ãíåçäà äî ïîäõîäà ê ãíåçäîâîìó äåðåâó. Êàê ðàç íàîáîðîò, íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ïòèöû ñëåòàëè òîëüêî ïîñëå ïîäú¸ìà íàáëþäàòåëÿ ïî ãíåçäîâîìó äåðåâó ïîä ñàìîå ãíåçäî. Ñòðàòåãèÿ ïîâåäåíèÿ ïîáåñïîêîåííûõ ñàìîê äâîÿêà: îäíè áûñòðî ñëåòàþò ñ ãíåçäà è ñêðûâàþòñÿ â ëåñó, ïîÿâëÿÿñü è ïðîÿâëÿÿ áåñïîêîéñòâî ëèøü ÷åðåç íåêîòîðîå âðåìÿ, äðóãèå ñðàçó æå íà÷èíàþò ëåòàòü êðóãàìè è êðè÷àòü. Ñàìöû, ïîáåñïîêîåííûå ó ãí¸çä, âñåãäà àêòèâíî êðè÷àò.  òå÷åíèå âñåãî ïåðèîäà âûâåäåíèÿ ïîòîìñòâà ñàìåö è ñàìêà ïîääåðæèâàþò ãîëîñîâîé êîíòàêò. Îáû÷íî ïîÿâëåíèþ ñàìöà íà ãíåçäå ñ äîáû÷åé èëè âåòî÷êîé, ïðåäøåñòâóåò êîðîòêàÿ ïåðåêëè÷êà ìåæäó ïàðòíåðàìè. Èìåííî ïî ãîëîñîâîé àêòèâíîñòè âçðîñëûõ ïòèö íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî óäàåòñÿ îïðåäåëèòü ìåñòîïîëîæåíèå ãíåçäà è åãî âèäîâóþ ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü. Àêòèâíîñòü êàðëèêîâ â äíåâíîå âðåìÿ íà÷èíàåòñÿ ñ 5.30–6.00 óòðà. Îáû÷íî óæå â 7.00–8.00 ñàìåö ïðèëåòàåò ñ äîáû÷åé ïåðâûé ðàç çà äåíü. Èíòåíñèâíîñòü êîðìëåíèÿ ñàìöîì ñàìêè, íàñèæèâàþùåé êëàäêó, ñîñòàâëÿåò 2–4 îáúåêòà ðàçìåðíîãî êëàññà ñ ïèùóõó. Êðîìå ýòîãî íàáëþäàåòñÿ 1–2 ïðèë¸òà â äåíü ñ âåòî÷êàìè. Ïîñëå âûëóïëåíèÿ ïòåíöîâ èíòåíñèâíîñòü ïðèíîñà êîðìà ñàìöîì ïîñòåïåííî âîçðàñòàåò äî 4–6 ðàç â äåíü â ìåñÿ÷íîì âîçðàñòå ïòåíöîâ. Ïîñëå òîãî, êàê ïòåíöû íà÷èíàþò îïåðÿòüñÿ, ñàìêà ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî îõîòèòñÿ è ïðèíîñèò äîáû÷ó äî 3-õ ðàç â äåíü, ëèáî âåòî÷êè – äî 6 ðàç â äåíü.  ýòîò ïå-

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ðèîä ñàìêà èãðàåò ðîëü îñíîâíîãî ïîñòàâùèêà çåë¸íîé ïîäñòèëêè â ãíåçäî, ïðè ýòîì äî 10% âðåìåíè íà ãíåçäå òðàòèò íà å¸ óêëàäêó. Ñàìåö ïðîâîäèò â ãíåçäå â êàæäûé ïðèë¸ò îò 40 ñåê. äî 3 ìèí., ïðè÷¸ì ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü åãî ïðåáûâàíèÿ âîçðàñòàåò îáû÷íî ê âå÷åðó. Ïðè êîðìëåíèè ïòåíöîâ ñàìêà ðåãóëÿðíî ñîáëþäàåò î÷åðåäíîñòü – ñíà÷àëà êîðìèò ñòàðøåãî, çàòåì ìëàäøåãî. Âî âðåìÿ ïðèíîñà äîáû÷è ñòû÷åê ìåæäó ïòåíöàìè è çàõâàòà êîðìà, òàê õàðàêòåðíîãî äëÿ êàíþêîâ, ó êàðëèêà íå íàáëþäàåòñÿ äàæå â âîçðàñòå 40–50 äíåé. Ïòåíöû, íà÷àâøèåñÿ îïåðÿòüñÿ, çà ñåàíñ êîðìëåíèÿ ñúåäàþò ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ îáúåêò, âåëè÷èíîé ñî ñðåäíþþ ïèùóõó.  òå÷åíèå 1–2-õ íåäåëü ïòåíöàì 20–35 äíåâíîãî âîçðàñòà ðîäèòåëè ñêàðìëèâàþò åæåäíåâíî äîáû÷ó, ôàêòè÷åñêè ðàâíóþ ìàññå ïòåíöîâ. Îäíàêî óæå â âîçðàñòå 40 äíåé èíòåíñèâíîñòü êîðìëåíèÿ íà÷èíàåò ñïàäàòü äî 2-õ ïðèë¸òîâ â äåíü, à îáúåêòû äîáû÷è ñòàíîâÿòñÿ êðóïíåå.

Ïèòàíèå Íà ïðîòÿæåíèè îáøèðíîãî àðåàëà êàðëèêà åãî ïèòàíèå âûãëÿäèò î÷åíü ðàçíîîáðàçíûì. Àíàëèç 5 ïîãàäîê, îáíàðóæåííûõ ïîä ãíåçäîì (1) è ïðèñàäîé ñàìöà (4) â äîëèíå ð. Íàðûí â Òóâå ïîêàçàë àáñîëþòíîå äîìèíèðîâàíèå äàóðñêîé ïèùóõè – âñå 5 ïîãàäîê ñîäåðæàëè øåðñòü ïèùóõ, â îäíîé ïîãàäêå òàêæå áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ïåðüÿ è ëàïà æàâîðîíêà, â äðóãîé – çóáû ïîë¸âêè. Àíàëèç âèäåîìàòåðèàëà, îòñíÿòîãî íà 3õ ãí¸çäàõ â Òóâå (n=46), òàêæå ïîêàçàë àáñîëþòíîå äîìèíèðîâàíèå â ïèòàíèè äàóðñêîé ïèùóõè. Ëèøü â äâóõ ñëó÷àÿõ ñàìöû ïðèíîñèëè íà ãíåçäî âçðîñëîãî ïåðåâîç÷èêà (Tringa hypoleucos) è ïòåíöà ñîðîêè (Pica pica). Àíàëèç îñòàíêîâ äîáû÷è ïîä ãíåçäîì è æåðòâ, îáíàðóæåííûõ â ãí¸çäàõ, ïîêàçûâàåò øèðîêèé ñïåêòð âèäîâ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ (áîëåå 20 âèäîâ), ïòèö (áîëåå 30 âèäîâ), ðåïòèëèé è àìôèáèé.  íàøåé âûáîðêå ïî Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîìó è ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîìó ðåãèîíàì (n=233) íà äîëþ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ â ïèòàíèè êàðëèêà ïðèõîäèòñÿ 70%, íà äîëþ ïòèö – 27,9%, à äîëÿ ðåïòèëèé è àìôèáèé êðàéíå íåçíà÷èòåëüíà (ðèñ. 21). Íàáëþäàåòñÿ çàêîíîìåðíîñòü óâåëè÷åíèÿ äîëè ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ çà ñ÷¸ò êîëîíèàëüíûõ ñòåïíûõ âèäîâ ïî ìåðå ïðîäâèæåíèÿ íà þã è âîñòîê. Ó ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Ïîâîëæüå (ð. Àëàòûðü, ð. Ñåðåæà


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

Ðèñ. 21. Ñîñòàâ äîáû÷è îðëà-êàðëèêà Fig. 21. Diversity of prey species in the Booted Eagle feeding

â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, ð. Ñóðà â ×óâàøèè), â ïèòàíèè äîìèíèðóþò ïòèöû (n=71; 53,52% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà îáúåêòîâ), â îñíîâíîì ðæàíêîîáðàçíûå (n=38; 65,79% îò êîëè÷åñòâà ïòèö), à ñðåäè ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ ïðèñóòñòâóþò 9 âèäîâ, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ ÿâíûå äîìèíàíòû îòñóòñòâóþò (òàáë. 3). Ó ïàð, íàñåëÿþùèõ Ïðåäóðàëüå (Áóçóëóêñêèé áîð â Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè è Òðîèöêèé ëåñ â Áàøêèðèè), ìëåêîïèòàþùèå ïðåîáëàäàþò íàä ïòèöàìè (n=31; 51,61% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà îáúåêòîâ), ïðè÷¸ì ñðåäè ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ ÿâíî äîìèíèðóþò áîëüøèå ñóñëèêè (n=16; 68,75% îò êîëè÷åñòâà ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ). Ó ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå (ð. Òåñ-Õåì, ð. Íàðûí, ð. Ñàéãûí, ð. Áåãðåäà â Òóâå), â ïèòàíèè àáñîëþòíî äîìèíèðóþò ìëåêîïèòàþùèå (n=131; 89,31%), â îñíîâíîì ïèùóõè (n=117; 88,89%), ñðåäè êîòîðûõ îñíîâíîé äîáû÷åé ÿâëÿåòñÿ äàóðñêàÿ ïèùóõà.  Õàêàñèè è Ïðèáàéêàëüå, ñêîðåå âñåãî, îñíîâó ïèòàíèÿ êàðëèêà, ñîñòàâëÿåò äëèííîõâîñòûé ñóñëèê (Spermophilus undulatus), à â Áàéêàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå – äàóðñêàÿ ïèùóõà (â Áóðÿòèè) è, âîçìîæíî, äàóðñêèé ñóñëèê (Spermophilus dauricus) (â ×èòèíñêîé îáëàñòè), îäíàêî ýòî ëèøü ïðåäïîëîæåíèå, à îáúåêòèâíîãî ìàòåðèàëà ïî ïèòàíèþ êàðëèêà èç ýòèõ ðåãèîíîâ íå ñîáðàíî. Ðåïòèëèè è àìôèáèè íàáëþäàëèñü â ðàöèîíå ïàð òîëüêî â åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â Ïîâîëæüå. Èç ïòèö êàðëèê äîáûâàåò êàê âçðîñëûõ, òàê è ìîëîäûõ (ïòåíöîâ åù¸ íå óìåþùèõ ëåòàòü è ñë¸òêîâ), ïðè÷¸ì äîëÿ ìîëîäûõ ñóùåñòâåííà è âàðüèðóåò îò 13,2 äî 42,9% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ïòèö, ñîñòàâëÿÿ ìàêñèìóì ìîëîäûõ â ðàöèîíå ó ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Òóâå. Ïîñëåäíåå ñâÿçàíî, âèäèìî, ñî ñòðàòåãèåé îõîòû, îðèåíòèðîâàííîé íà

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ äîáû÷ó ïèùóõ, îòñþäà è âûñîêàÿ äîëÿ â äîáû÷å ïòåíöîâ òàêèõ âèäîâ, êàê îãàðü (Tadorna ferruginea), áîëüøåêëþâûé çó¸ê (Charadrius leschenaultii), ìîíãîëüñêèé æàâîðîíîê (Melanocorypha yeltoniensis). Äîìèíèðîâàíèå â ïèòàíèè ðæàíêîîáðàçíûõ ó êàðëèêîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Ïîâîëæüå, îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ îòñóòñòâèåì ðåñóðñà êîëîíèàëüíûõ ñòåïíûõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî îðëû òÿãîòåþò ê êîëîíèÿì ÷àéêîâûõ â ïîéìàõ ðåê. Îñîáåííî ÷¸òêî ýòî íàáëþäàåòñÿ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, ãäå ïîéìû ðåê ñ ìíîãî÷èñëåííûìè îç¸ðàìè, áîëîòàìè è ëóãàìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ, ïî ñóòè, åäèíñòâåííûìè îõîòíè÷üèìè áèîòîïàìè âèäà. Çäåñü ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü íàëè÷èå óíèêàëüíîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè êàðëèêîâ, ïàðû êîòîðîé ãíåçäÿòñÿ âíóòðè êðóïíûõ ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ â çíà÷èòåëüíîì óäàëåíèè îò îáøèðíûõ ïàñòáèù, îäíàêî äàííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ íà ïðåäìåò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ýòîãî âèäà ôàêòè÷åñêè íå îáñëåäîâàíà.

Ïàðà îðëîâ-êàðëèêîâ íà ãíåçäå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Pair of the Booted Eagle in the nest. Photo by I. Karyakin

Çàêëþ÷åíèå  ðåçóëüòàòå ñîâðåìåííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé áûëè ïîëó÷åíû íåîïðîâåðæèìûå äîêàçàòåëüñòâà óâåëè÷åíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè è ðàññåëåíèÿ êàðëèêà. Îñòàåòñÿ íåÿñíûì, ÷òî æå ïðîèñõîäèò – âîññòàíîâëåíèå èñòîðè÷åñêîãî àðåàëà èëè æå äåéñòâèòåëüíî ýêñïàíñèÿ âèäà íà íîâûå òåððèòîðèè, îäíàêî óæå ñåé÷àñ ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî â ñêîðîì âðåìåíè êàðëèê ñòàíåò õàðàêòåðíûì âèäîì ìíîãèõ îáëàñòåé Óðàëà è Ñèáèðè, ãäå ðàíåå äàæå íå ðåãèñòðèðîâàëñÿ â êà÷åñòâå çàë¸òíîãî âèäà. Êñòàòè, åñëè ïðåäïîëîæåíèå î âîññòàíîâëåíèè âèäîì ïðåæíåãî àðåàëà âåðíî, òî èíôîðìàöèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè êàðëèêà 1,5 âåêà íàçàä íà Óðàëå (Ñàáàíååâ, 1874) âûãëÿäèò íå òàêîé óæ ôàíòàñòè÷íîé.


Raptors Research Òàáë. 3. Ñîñòàâ äîáû÷è îðëà-êàðëèêà Table 3. Diversity of prey species in the Booted Eagle feeding

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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Íàøè äàííûå ïîêàçûâàþò î÷åíü âûñîêóþ ïëàñòè÷íîñòü îðëà-êàðëèêà êàê â îñâîåíèè ðàçëè÷íûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, òàê è êîðìîâûõ ðåñóðñîâ. Ýòè àäàïòèâíûå ñïîñîáíîñòè âèäà, à òàêæå ñòàáèëüíûé óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ âåðîÿòíî è ïîçâîëÿþò îðëó íàðàùèâàòü ÷èñëåííîñòü, è ðàññåëÿòüñÿ â ñóáîïòèìàëüíûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ, â êîòîðûõ ðàíåå êàðëèê îòñóòñòâîâàë. Íåñìîòðÿ íà îïòèìèñòè÷åñêèé ïðîãíîç â ðàçâèòèè ñèòóàöèè ñ âèäîì, îð¸ë-êàðëèê, íåñîìíåííî, çàñëóæèâàåò îõðàíû, è óæå ñåé÷àñ íåîáõîäèìî ïîäãîòàâëèâàòü ïî÷âó, äëÿ âêëþ÷åíèÿ åãî â ðÿä ðåãèîíàëüíûõ Êðàñíûõ êíèã.

Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîð áëàãîäàðèò âñåõ êîëëåã, ïîìîãàâøèõ ñîáèðàòü ìàòåðèàë ïî îðëó-êàðëèêó, â îñîáåííîñòè Ýëüâèðó Íèêîëåíêî è Ìèõàèëà Êîæåâíèêîâà, ó÷àñòâîâàâøèõ â ðàáîòàõ ïî èçó÷åíèþ ãíåçäîâîé áèîëîãèè âèäà â ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå, Ñåðãåÿ Áàêêà è Òèìîôåÿ Áàðàáàøèíà, ïðåäîñòàâèâøèõ âîçìîæíîñòü èñïîëüçîâàòü â ðàáîòå èõ íåîïóáëèêîâàííûå ìàòåðèàëû ïî îðëó-êàðëèêó â Ïîâîëæüå, à òàêæå Àëåêñàíäðà Ìîøêèíà è Àëåêñåÿ Ïàæåíêîâà, ïîìîãàâøèõ â îðãàíèçàöèè ýêñïåäèöèé è ó÷àñòâîâàâøèõ â íèõ.

Ëèòåðàòóðà Àëüáà Ë.Ä., Ãðèøóòêèí Ã.Ô. Ïòèöû íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà «Ñìîëüíûé». – Òðóäû Îêñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. 2001. Âûï. 21. Ñ. 50–71. Àíàíèí À.À. Ôåäîðîâ À.Â. Ïòèöû. – Ôàóíà Áàðãóçèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Ñåðèÿ: Ôàóíà è ôëîðà çàïîâåäíèêîâ ÑÑÑÐ. Ì., 1988. Ñ. 8–33. Àðòîáîëåâñêèé Â.Ì. Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ïòèö þãî-âîñòîêà Ïåíçåíñêîé ãóáåðíèè. – Áþëëåòåíü Ìîñêîâñêîãî îáùåñòâà èñïûòàòåëåé ïðèðîäû. 1923–1924. Ò. XXXII. Âûï. 1– 2. Ñ. 162–193. Àñüêååâ È.Â., Àñüêååâ Î.Â. Îðíèòîôàóíà Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí (êîíñïåêò ñîâðåìåííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ). Êàçàíü. 1999. 124 ñ. Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Êèñåë¸âà Í.Þ. Îð¸ë-êàðëèê Hieraaetus pennatus Gmel. – Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Òîì. 1. Æèâîòíûå. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, 2003. C. 93–94. Áàðàáàøèí Ò.Î. Íîâûå íàõîäêè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè â äîëèíå ð. Ñûçðàíêè. – Ïðèðîäà Ñèìáèðñêîãî Ïîâîëæüÿ. 2000. Â. 1. Ñ. 136–138. Áàðàáàøèí Ò.Î. Õèùíûå ïòèöû äîëèí ðåê Ñîê è Êèíåëü â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2006. ¹ 6. Ñ. 34–38. Áàðàáàøèí Ò.Î., Êîðåïîâ Ì.Â., Ñàëìèí Â.À. «Ùó÷üè ãîðû» – êëþ÷åâàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ðàíãà. – Ïðèðîäà Ñèìáèðñêîãî Ïîâîëæüÿ. Óëüÿíîâñê. 2002. Ò. 3. Ñ. 165–167. Áàðàíîâ À.À. Ðåäêèå è ìàëîèçó÷åííûå ïòèöû Òóâû. Êðàñíîÿðñê: Èçä-âî Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî óí-òà, 1991. 320 ñ. Áàðàíîâ À.À., Ñåðååâ Â.Ì. Ñâåäåíèÿ ïî ýêîëîãèè íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ îðëîâ Òóâèíñêîé ÀÑÑÐ. – Ýêîëîãèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ìàòåðèàëû I ñîâåùàíèÿ ïî ýêîëîãèè è îõðàíå õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ì.: Íàóêà, 1983. Ñ. 105–108.

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Áåçáîðîäîâ Â.È. Èíòåðåñíûå íàõîäêè ïòèö â Ïðèáàéêàëüå. – Èçâåñòèÿ Âîñòî÷íî-Ñèáèðñêîãî îòäåëåíèÿ Ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîãî îáùåñòâà ÑÑÑÐ. Èðêóòñê, 1969. Ò. 66. Ñ. 149–150. Áåëèê Â.Ï. Ìàòåðèàëû ê îðíèòîôàóíå Ñðåäíåãî Äîíà. – Îðíèòîëîãèÿ, 2005. Â. 32. Ñ. 23–56. Áåëÿíèíà È.Ñ., Áåëÿíèí Â.Í. Ïòèöû Æèãóëåâñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. – Ýêîëîãî-ôàóíèñòè÷åñêèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ â çàïîâåäíèêå. Ì., 1981. Ñ. 103–119. Áåëÿíêèí À.Ô., Èëüÿøåíêî Â.Á. Íîâûå äàííûå ïî îðíèòîôàóíå Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ìàòåðèàëû 10-é Âñåñîþçíîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè:  2-õ ÷àñòÿõ. ×.2. Ñòåíäîâûå ñîîáùåíèÿ, Êí. 1. /ïîä ðåä. Â.Ä. Èëüè÷åâà. Ìí.: Íàâóêà i òýõíiêà. 1991. Ñ. 53–55. Áëèíîâà Ò.Ê., Áëèíîâ Â.Í. Ïòèöû Þæíîãî Çàóðàëüÿ: Ëåñîñòåïü è ñòåïü. Ò.1. Ôàóíèñòè÷åñêèé îáçîð è îõðàíà ïòèö. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1997. 296 ñ. Áîðîäèí Î.Â., Áàðàáàøèí Ò.Î., Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Ðàññåëåíèå îðëà-êàðëèêà â Ñðåäíåì Ïîâîëæüå. – Ìàòåðèàëû IV êîíôåðåíöèè ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Ïåíçà. 2003. Ñ. 153–155. Âàñèëü÷åíêî À.À. Ñïèñîê ïòèö çàïîâåäíèêà (õàðàêòåð ïðåáûâàíèÿ, ÷èñëåííîñòü, ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå). Ðåäêèå æèâîòíûå Êóçíåöêîãî Àëàòàó. Ïòèöû. – Çàïîâåäíèê «Êóçíåöêèé Àëàòàó». Êåìåðîâî: Èçäàòåëüñêèé äîì «Àçèÿ», 1999. Ñ. 145–155, 196–244. Âàñèëü÷åíêî À.À. Îð¸ë-êàðëèê. – Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Êåìåðîâî: Êåìåðîâñêîå êíèæíîå èçäàòåëüñòâî, 2000. Ñ. 82–83. Âàñèëü÷åíêî À.À. Ïòèöû Êåìåðîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Êåìåðîâî: Êóçáàññâóçèçäàò, 2004. 488 ñ. Âîèíñòâåíñêèé Ì.À. Ïòèöû ñòåïíîé ïîëîñû Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè ÑÑÑÐ: Ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå îðíèòîôàóíû è å¸ ïðîèñõîæäåíèå. Êèåâ, 1960. 290 ñ. Ãàãèíà Ò.Í. Ïòèöû Áàéêàëà è Ïðèáàéêàëüÿ (ñïèñîê è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå). – Çàï. Èðêóòñêîãî îáë. êðàåâåä, ìóçåÿ. Èðêóòñê, 1958. Ñ. 173–191. Ãàãèíà Ò.Í. Íîâûå äàííûå î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè ïòèö â Âîñòî÷íîé Ñèáèðè. – Îðíèòîëîãèÿ, 1960. ¹ 3. Ñ. 219–225. Ãàøåê Â.À. Íîâûå äàííûå ê îðíèòîôàóíå þãà ×åëÿáèíñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ìàòåðèàëû ê ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ ïòèö íà Óðàëå, â Ïðèóðàëüå è Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. Ñáîðíèê ñòàòåé è êðàòêèõ ñîîáùåíèé. Åêàòåðèíáóðã: Èçä-âî «Àêàäåìêíèãà», 2002. Ñ. 90–92. Ãðèãîðüåâ Í.Ä., Ïîïîâ Â.À., Ïîïîâ Þ.Ê. Îòðÿä Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû) Falconiformes. – Ïòèöû Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêîãî êðàÿ. Íåâîðîáüèíûå. Ì., «Íàóêà», 1977. 296 ñ. Ãðèøóòêèí Ã.Ô. Ïòèöû Ìîðäîâñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. – Òðóäû Îêñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. 2001. Âûï. 21. Ñ. 72–101. Ãðèøóòêèí Ã.Ô., Àëüáà Ë.Ä. Ðåäêèå ïòèöû íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà «Ñìîëüíûé». – Ðîëü îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèé â ñîõðàíåíèè áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ: ìàòåðèàëû íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè. ×åáîêñàðû, Êàçàíü. 2000. Ñ. 42–44. Äàâûãîðà À.Â. Ìíîãîëåòíèå èçìåíåíèÿ ïîïóëÿöèé õèùíûõ ïòèö ñòåïíîãî Ïðåäóðàëüÿ. – Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ôàóíà ïòèö Óðàëà: Èíôîðìàöèîííûå ìàòåðèàëû. Ñâåðäëîâñê: ÓðÎ ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ, 1989. Ñ. 38–40. Äàâûãîðà À.Â. Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ôàóíà Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè: Ïåðèîäèçàöèÿ è èòîãè èññëåäîâàíèé. Ñîñòàâ è îñîáåííîñòè. Áèáëèîãðàôèÿ. Îðåíáóðã: Èçä-âî ÎÃÏÓ, 2000. 84 ñ. Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï. Îòðÿä õèùíûå ïòèöû. – Ïòèöû Ñîâåòñêîãî Ñîþçà. Ì.: Ñîâåòñêàÿ íàóêà, 1951. Ò.1. Ñ. 70–341.


Raptors Research Äîðæèåâ Ö.Ç. Îð¸ë-êàðëèê Hieraaetus pennatus milvoides Jerdon, 1839 – Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ è ðàñòåíèé Áóðÿòñêîé ÀÑÑÐ. Óëàí-Óäý. 1988. Ñ. 86–87. Äîðæèåâ Ö.Ç., Åëàåâ Ý.Í. Íîâûå ñâåäåíèÿ î ôàóíå ïòèö Òóíêèíñêîãî íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà. – Ñîñòîÿíèå è ïðîáëåìû îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèé Áàéêàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ìàòåðèàëû ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîãî ñîâåùàíèÿ. ÓëàíÓäý, 1996. Ñ. 100–102. Äîðæèåâ Ö.Ç., Åëàåâ Ý.Í., Åøååâ Â.Å., Âàéãëü Ø., Âåãëÿéòåð Ø., Ìóíêóåâà Í.À. Ê ôàóíå ïòèö ð. Îêè (Âîñòî÷íûé Ñàÿí). – Âåñòíèê Áóðÿòñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà. Ñåðèÿ áèîëîãèÿ. 1998. Âûï.1. Ñ. 56–86. Æèìóë¸â È.Ô. Èíòåðåñíûå âñòðå÷è õèùíûõ ïòèö â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Íîâîñèáèðñêà. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹ 3. Ñ. 67–68. Çàðóäíûé Í.À. Äîïîëíåíèÿ ê «Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ôàóíå Îðåíáóðãñêîãî êðàÿ». – Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ôàóíû è ôëîðû Ðîññèéñêîé èìïåðèè, îòä. çîîë. Ì., 1897. Âûï. 3. Ñ. 171–312. Çèìèí Í.È., Ìîëîäîâñêèé À.Â. Îð¸ë-êàðëèê â Ãîðüêîâñêîé îáëàñòè. – Îðíèòîëîãèÿ. 1968. Âûï. 9. Ñ. 349. Çÿáðåâ Ì.È. Ìàòåðèàëû ê îðíèòîôàóíå ïîéìû ð. Âîëãè â ðàéîíå Æèãóëåâñêèõ ãîð. 1944. Òîëüÿòòèíñêèé ôèëèàë Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî àðõèâà, ô. Ж307, îï. 1, ä. 65. Ðóêîïèñü. Èçìàéëîâ È.Â., Áîðîâèöêàÿ Ã.Ê. Ïòèöû þãî-çàïàäíîãî Çàáàéêàëüÿ. Âëàäèìèð, 1973. 316 ñ. Èëüè÷åâ Â.Ä., Ôîìèí Â.Å. Îðíèòîôàóíà è èçìåíåíèå ñðåäû. Ì., 1988. 248 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (Falconiformes), Ñîâîîáðàçíûå (Strigiformes). Ïåðìü: Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé Ñîþçà îõðàíû æèâîòíûõ Óðàëà / Ñîöèàëüíî- ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé ñîþç. 1998. 483 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Íîâûå äàííûå î ãíåçäîâàíèè îðëà-êàðëèêà íà Áóãóëüìèíñêî-Áåëåáååâñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè. – Òðóäû Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ïðèðîäíîãî áèîñôåðíîãî çàïîâåäíèêà «Êåðæåíñêèé». 2006. Ò. 3. C. 102–103. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Êîçëîâ À.À. Ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûé êàäàñòð ïòèö ×åëÿáèíñêîé îáëàñòè. Íîâîñèáèðñê: Èçäàòåëüñêèé äîì «Ìàíóñêðèïò». 1999. 421 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Áàðàáàøèí Ò.Î., Ëåâèí À.Ñ., Êàðïîâ Ô.Ô. Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2005 ã. â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005à. ¹ 4. Ñ. 34–43. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Ãðàáîâñêèé Ì.À., Ìîøêèí À.Â., Ðûáåíêî À.Â., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý. Ðåçóëüòàòû îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ÊÎÒÐ â Ñèáèðè â 2004 ãîäó. – Èíâåíòàðèçàöèÿ, ìîíèòîðèíã è îõðàíà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé Ðîññèè. Ñáîðíèê íàó÷íûõ ñòàòåé. Ì.: Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, 2005á. Âûï. 5. Ñ. 67–71. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Áàðàøêîâà À.Í. Êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí Áàéêàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2006. ¹ 7. Ñ. 21–45. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ðûáåíêî À.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã. Íîâûå äàííûå ïî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ è ÷èñëåííîñòè íåêîòîðûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ â Îáñêîì ïðàâîáåðåæüå Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005â. ¹ 3. Ñ. 54–64. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Ãðàáîâñêèé Ì.À., Ðûáåíêî À.Â., Åãîðîâà À.Â. Êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005ã. ¹ 3. Ñ. 28–51. Êîðåïîâ Ì.Â. Ìàòåðèàëû ïî îðíèòîôàóíå ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ ïòèö «Ùó÷üèõ ãîð» (Òàòàðñòàí). – Áåðêóò. 2004. Ñ. 183–188.

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Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Ñ.À., Ñòðåëüíèêîâ Å.Ã., Òàðàñîâ Â.Â., Öûáóëèí Ñ.Ì., ßêèìåíêî Â.Â. Ôàóíà ïòèö ðåãèîíîâ Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. – Èíâåíòàðèçàöèÿ, ìîíèòîðèíã è îõðàíà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé Ðîññèè. Ñáîðíèê íàó÷íûõ ñòàòåé. Ì.: Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, 2001. Âûï. 3. Ñ. 140–168. Ðÿáöåâ Â.Â. Îðëû Áàéêàëà. Èðêóòñê: ÀÝÌ «Òàëüöû», 2000. 128 ñ. Ðÿáöåâ Â.Â., Ôåôåëîâ È.Â. Ðåäêèå âèäû ïòèö íà ÍîâîËåíèíñêèõ îç¸ðàõ (Èðêóòñê). – Ðóññêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé æóðíàë. Ýêñïðåññ-âûïóñê. 1997. ¹ 25. Ñ. 11–18. Ñàáàíååâ Ë.Ï. Ïîçâîíî÷íûå Ñðåäíåãî Óðàëà è ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå èõ â Ïåðìñêîé è Îðåíáóðãñêîé ãóáåðíèÿõ. Ì., 1874. 207 ñ. Ñåäîâ Â.Ã. Ê ôàóíå ðåäêèõ ïòèö Ìîðäîâèè. – Ôàóíà, ýêîëîãèÿ è îõðàíà ðåäêèõ ïòèö Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ. Ñàðàíñê, 1997. Ñ. 91–92. Ñêàëîí Â.Í. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Âåðõíåãî Ïðèàíãàðüÿ è èõ ðîëü â æèçíè ÷åëîâåêà. – Èçâåñòèÿ Èðêóòñêîãî ïðîòèâî÷óìíîãî èíñòèòóòà Ñèáèðè è Äàëüíåãî Âîñòîêà. 1934. Âûï. 1. Ñ. 55–83. Ñêàëîí Â.Í. Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ôàóíû þæíûõ ãðàíèö Ñèáèðè. – Èçâåñòèÿ Èðêóòñêîãî ïðîòèâî÷óìíîãî èíñòèòóòà Ñèáèðè è Äàëüíåãî Âîñòîêà. 1936. Âûï. 3. Ñ. 135–209. Ñìèðíîâ À.Þ., Äóðíåâ Þ.À., Ìîñêîâñêèõ À.À., Ãîðÿèíîâ Ï.Ï., Ñìèðíîâà Î.Â. Ìàòåðèàëû ïî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ è ýêîëîãèè õèùíûõ ïòèö â þãî-çàïàäíîì Çàáàéêàëüå. – Ýêîëîãèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ìàòåðèàëû I ñîâåùàíèÿ ïî ýêîëîãèè è îõðàíå õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ì.: Íàóêà, 1983. Ñ. 141–143. Ñòåïàíÿí Ë.Ñ. Êîíñïåêò îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ôàóíû ÑÑÑÐ. Ì.: Íàóêà, 1990. 728 ñ. Ñóìúÿà Ä., Ñêðÿáèí Í.Ã. Ïòèöû Ïðèñóáõóíãóëüÿ, ÌÍÐ. Èðêóòñê, 1989. 199 ñ. Ñóøêèí Ï.Ï. Ïòèöû Ñîâåòñêîãî Àëòàÿ è ïðèëåæàùèõ ÷àñòåé Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäíîé Ìîíãîëèè. Ò. 1–2. Ì. – Ë., Èçä. ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ, 1938. 754 ñ. Ñûðîå÷êîâñêèé Å.Å., Áåçáîðîäîâ Â.È. Íîâûå ñâåäåíèÿ ïî îðíèòîôàóíå Çàïàäíîãî Ñàÿíà. – Ôàóíà è ýêîëîãèÿ ïòèö è ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ Ñðåäíåé Ñèáèðè. Ì.: Íàóêà, 1987. Ñ. 172– 181. Òà÷àíîâñêèé Â.Ê. Êðèòè÷åñêèé îáçîð îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ôàóíû Âîñòî÷íîé Ñèáèðè. – Òðóäû 5-ãî ñúåçäà ðóññêèõ åñòåñòâîèñïûòàòåëåé è âðà÷åé â Âàðøàâå. 1877. Âûï. 5. îòä. çîîë. Ñ. 284–386. Òóãàðèíîâ À.ß. Ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ îðíèòîôàóíû Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäíîé Ìîíãîëèè (õð. Òàííó-Îëà, Óáñó-Íóð). – Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé âåñòíèê. 1916. ¹ 2–3. Ñ. 77–90, 140–154. Òóïèöûí È.È., Ôåôåëîâ È.Â. Íîâàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ðåäêèõ ïòèöàõ äåëüòû Ñåëåíãè. – Ýêîëîãî-ãåîãðàôè÷åñêàÿ õàðàêòåðèñòèêà çîîöåíîçîâ Ïðèáàéêàëüÿ. Èðêóòñê, 1995. Ñ. 108–111. Ôðîëîâ Â.Â., Êîðêèíà Ñ.À. Î ñòàòóñå ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö Ïåíçåíñêîé îáëàñòè íà ïðèìåðå íåâîðîáüèíûõ. – Ôàóíà, ýêîëîãèÿ è îõðàíà ðåäêèõ ïòèö Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ / ïîä ðåä. Å.Â. Ëûñåíêîâà è À.Ñ. Ëàïøèíà. Ñàðàíñê, 1997. Ñ. 46–49. Øêàòóëîâà À.Ï. Êîëè÷åñòâåííàÿ õàðàêòåðèñòèêà ïòèö þãîâîñòî÷íîãî ðàéîíà Çàáàéêàëüÿ. – Òðóäû Èðêóòñêîãî ÑÕÈ «Òà¸æíîå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèå». Èðêóòñê, 1974. Ñ. 107–110. ßêîâëåâ Â.À., Áî÷åíêîâ Ñ.À., ßêîâëåâ À.À. Íîâûå äàííûå ïî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ è áèîëîãèè îðëà-êàðëèêà Hieraaetus pennatus â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè. – Ðóññêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé æóðíàë. Ýêñïðåññ-âûïóñê. 2002. ¹ 182. Ñ. 330–332. ßíóøåâè÷ À.È. Ôàóíà ïîçâîíî÷íûõ Òóâèíñêîé îáëàñòè. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1952. 142 ñ. Radde G., Walter A. Die Vogel Transcaspiens. Ornis. 1889. ¹ 5. P. 1–128.


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ShortReports КРАТКИЕ СООБЩЕНИЯ NewRecordoftheMountainHawkEagleNestinginPrimorye,Russia НОВАЯНАХОДКАГНЕЗДАХОХЛАТОГООРЛАВПРИМОРЬЕ, РОССИЯ KaryakinI.V.(CenterforFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) Каря инИ.В.(Центрполевыхисследований,Россия,Н.Новород)

Õîõëàòûé îð¸ë (Spizaetus nipalensis). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Mountain Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus nipalensis). Photo by I. Karyakin

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Õîõëàòûé îð¸ë (Spizaetus The Mountain Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus ninipalensis) ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíèì èç palensis) is a most rare raptor in Russia. It ðåä÷àéøèõ õèùíèêîâ Ðîññèè. was known several pairs of the Mountain Ãíåçäîâàíèå óñòàíîâëåíî Hawk Eagle to nest in southwest of Primorëèøü íà òåððèòîðèè Ïðèìîð- ye in 1985 – 2000 (Gorchakov, 1988; Gorñêîãî êðàÿ. Âèä âíåñ¸í â chakov, Nechaev, 1998; Kurdyukov, 2000). Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ è Êðàñíóþ The new nest of the Mountain Hawk Eaêíèãó Ïðèìîðñêîãî êðàÿ. gle was found on 28 August 2005 (fig. 1– Ñîãëàñíî Êðàñíîé êíèãå êðàÿ 2). The nest was placed in a fir (Abies holo(Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà…, 2005), õîõ- phylla) on height near 30 m. There was the ëàòûé îð¸ë ãíåçäèòñÿ â âîñòî÷íûõ îòðîãàõ fledgling that had been yet fed by adults. Áîðèñîâñêîãî ïëàòî, â çàïîâåäíèêàõ «ÊåäThe total area of inhabitant places of the ðîâàÿ Ïàäü» è «Óññóðèéñêîì», íà ïîëóîñò- Mountain Hawk Eagle in the Borisovskoe ðîâå Ìóðàâüåâà-Àìóðñêîãî (ðèñ. 1–1), à Plateau is 1081.6 km2 (fig. 2). We project òàêæå åãî ãíåçäîâàíèå ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ íà 5–10 pairs of the Mountain Hawk Eagle to Ñðåäíåì Ñèõîòý-Àëèíå â Ñèõîòý-Àëèíñêîì breed in the Borisovskoe Plateau. çàïîâåäíèêå è â ãîðíî-òà¸æíîì ðàéîíå ñåâåðíåå Ëàçîâñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà, ãäå ïòèöû íåîäíîêðàòíî äîáûâàëèñü è ïîïàäàëè â êàïêàíû, â òîì ÷èñëå è ìîëîäûå ñ îñòàòêàìè ïóõà (Åëñóêîâ, 1977). Âïåðâûå õîõëàòûé îð¸ë áûë íàéäåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Ïðèìîðñêîì êðàå íà Áîðèñîâñêîì ïëàòî â 1985 ã. Ã.À. Ãîð÷àêîâûì (1988). Òîãäà, â íîÿáðå-äåêàáðå, íà ó÷àñòêå õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííîãî ëåñà â 50 êì ê çàïàäó îò ñò. Ðàçäîëüíàÿ, íàáëþäàëàñü ðåãóëÿðíî âîêàëèçèðîâàâøàÿ ìîëîäàÿ ïòèöà. Ñóäÿ ïî âñòðå÷àì ìîëîäûõ â ýòîì ðàéîíå, îðëû ãíåçäèëèñü çäåñü óñïåøíî è ïîçæå Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãí¸çä õîõëàòîãî îðëà (Spizaetus nipalensis): 1 – ïî äàííûì èç Êðàñíîé êíèãè Ïðèìîðñêîãî – â 1990 è 1992 ãã. (Ãîð÷àêîâ, 1988). êðàÿ, 2005. 2 – ïî äàííûì èññëåäîâàíèé àâòîðà  àïðåëå 1993 ã. íà äàííîì ó÷àñòêå Fig. 1. Distribution of the Mountain Hawk Eagle’s (Spizaetus áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî õîõëàòînipalensis) nests: 1 – according to the Red Data Book and 2 – ãî îðëà ñ êëàäêîé èç 1 ÿéöà, îäíàêî following the author’s research êëàäêà ïîãèáëà (Ãîð÷àêîâ, Íå÷àåâ, 1994).  1994 ã. ïàðà çàíÿëà ïðåæíèé ó÷à- ëèñòíîé ïèõòå (Abies holophylla), ðàñòóùåé ñòîê íà þæíîì ñêëîíå ãîðíîé ðåêè, ïî- â ñåðåäèíå ñêëîíà ãîðû, íà âûñîòå 35–37 ðîñøåì âûñîêîñòâîëüíûì õâîéíî-øèðîêî- ì. Êëàäêà â ýòîì ãíåçäå áûëà îáíàðóæåíà ëèñòâåííûì ëåñîì. Îðëû âûâåëè ïòåíöà â 19 ìàðòà, ïòåíåö ïîêèíóë ãíåçäî 2 èþëÿ, íîâîì ãíåçäå, óñòðîåííîì â 500-õ ìåòðàõ îäíàêî äî 2 ìàðòà 1995 ã. âêëþ÷èòåëüíî, îò ñòàðîãî, íà 50–55-òè ìåòðîâîé öåëüíî- äåðæàëñÿ ó ãíåçäà è äîêàðìëèâàëñÿ ðîäè-


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Ãíåçäîâîé áèîòîï è ãíåçäî õîõëàòîãî îðëà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Nesting place and nest of the Mountain Hawk Eagle. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ðèñ. 2. Âûÿâëåííûé â 2005 ã. ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê – 1 è ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ – 2 õîõëàòîãî îðëà íà Áîðèñîâñêîì ïëàòî; îáëåñåííûå òåððèòîðèè ïëàòî – 3. Fig. 2. The breeding territory of the Mountain Hawk Eagle found in 2005 – 1, inhabitant places – 2, forests in the Borisovskoe Plateau – 3.

òåëÿìè íå ÷àùå 2-õ ðàç â äåíü (Ãîð÷àêîâ, Íå÷àåâ, 1998). Ïîçæå, äâà ãíåçäà õîõëàòûõ îðëîâ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû À.Á. Êóðäþêîâûì (2000) â çàïîâåäíèêå «Êåäðîâàÿ Ïàäü» è áëèç Âëàäèâîñòîêà, à òàêæå ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü ãíåçäîâàíèå ïàðû íà ð. Áîðèñîâêà.  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè íà Áîðèñîâñêîå ïëàòî â àâãóñòå 2005 ã., îñóùåñòâëÿåìîé íà ñðåäñòâà Äàëüíåâîñòî÷íîãî îòäåëåíèÿ ÂÂÔ, áûë âûÿâëåí ðàíåå íåèçâåñòíûé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê õîõëàòûõ îðëîâ â äîëèíå ð. Íåæèíêà (ðèñ. 1–2). Íà ñêëîíå þæíîé ýêñïîçèöèè ñåâåðíîãî áîðòà äîëèíû ðåêè â ó÷àñòêå õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííîãî ëåñà 28 àâãóñòà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî. Îíî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà öåëüíîëèñòíîé ïèõòå â îñíîâàíèè âåòâåé â âåðõíåé òðåòè ñòâîëà íà âûñîòå îêîëî 30 ì è ïðîñìàòðèâàëîñü ëèøü ñ äâóõ òî÷åê – ñ ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîãî ñêëîíà äîëèíû è íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ñ ðåêè.  ãíåçäå íàõîäèëñÿ ñë¸òîê, äîêàðìëèâàåìûé ðîäèòåëÿìè, êîòîðûé õîðîøî ëåòàë, íî, òåì íå ìåíåå, áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü âðåìåíè ïðîâîäèë â ãíåçäå, ëèáî íà ïðèñàäå ðÿäîì ñ ãíåçäîì. Àíàëèç êîñìîñíèìêîâ Landsat–7 ETM+ ïîçâîëÿåò âûäåëèòü íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè òðè êëàñòåðà ñ ñîõðàíèâøèìè-

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ ñÿ ó÷àñòêàìè õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííîãî ëåñà, îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 1081,6 êì2, êîòîðûå ñïîñîáíû ïîääåðæàòü ñóùåñòâîâàíèå ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè õîõëàòûõ îðëîâ.  ñàìîì êðóïíîì ñåâåðíîì êëàñòåðå Áîðèñîâñêîãî ïëàòî, ïëîùàäüþ 921,8 êì2, ïî àíàëîãèè ñ âûÿâëåííûì ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêîì è õàðàêòåðèñòèêàìè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëîâ, îïèñàííûõ â ëèòåðàòóðå, ìîæíî âûäåëèòü íå ìåíåå 108 ôðàãìåíòîâ ñêëîíîâ þæíîé ýêñïîçèöèè, ïëîùàäüþ 7,2 êì2, ïîðîñøèõ ñòàðûì õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûì ëåñîì, ïðèãîäíûì äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ õîõëàòûõ îðëîâ (ðèñ. 2). Íîâûé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê õîõëàòûõ îðëîâ óäàë¸í áîëåå ÷åì íà 10 êì îò ó÷àñòêîâ, îáíàðóæåííûõ ðàíåå íà Áîðèñîâñêîì ïëàòî, ÷òî ïðåäïîëàãàåò äèñòàíöèþ íå ìåíåå 10 êì ìåæäó ïàðàìè. Ó÷èòûâàÿ êîëè÷åñòâî è ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ âèäà ó÷àñòêîâ ëåñà íà Áîðèñîâñêîì ïëàòî, ê êîòîðûì ìîæíî îòíåñòè ñêëîíû þæíûõ ýêñïîçèöèé, ïîðîñøèå ñòàðûì õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûì ëåñîì, à òàêæå âåðîÿòíóþ äèñòàíöèþ ìåæäó ïàðàìè, çäåñü ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå îò 5 äî 15 ïàð õîõëàòûõ îðëîâ. Íàñêîëüêî ðåàëüíà ýòà îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè, ïîêàæóò äàëüíåéøèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ, îäíàêî å¸ ìèíèìàëüíûé ïîðîã ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü äîñòîâåðíûì, ò.ê. 2–3 ïàðû õîõëàòûõ îðëîâ íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè íàáëþäàëèñü è â ïðåæíèå ãîäû (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà…, 2005). Ëèòåðàòóðà Ãîð÷àêîâ Ã.À. Âñòðå÷à õîõëàòîãî îðëà Spizaetus nipalensis orientalis Temm. Et Schleg. íà çèìîâêå â Þæíîì Ïðèìîðüå. – Ðåäêèå ïòèöû Äàëüíåãî Âîñòîêà è èõ îõðàíà. Âëàäèâîñòîê, 1988. Ñ. 139. Ãîð÷àêîâ Ã.À., Íå÷àåâ Â.À. Õîõëàòûé îð¸ë Spizaetus nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836), (Accipitridae, Aves) – íîâûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä ôàóíû Ðîññèè. – Áþëëåòåíü ÌÎÈÏ, îòä. áèîë.,1994. Ò.99, âûï., 4. Ñ. 15–17. Ãîð÷àêîâ Ã.À., Íå÷àåâ Â.À. Íîâûå ìàòåðèàëû î áèîëîãèè õîõëàòîãî îðëà â Þæíîì Ïðèìîðüå. – Âîïðîñû ñîõðàíåíèÿ ðåñóðñîâ ìàëîèçó÷åííûõ ðåäêèõ æèâîòíûõ ñåâåðà. Ìàòåðèàëû ê Êðàñíîé êíèãå. Ìîñêâà, 1998. ×.1. Ñ. 108–114. Åëñóêîâ Ñ.Â. Î ðåäêèõ ïòèöàõ ñåâåðî-âîñòîêà Ïðèìîðüÿ. – Òåçèñû äîêëàäîâ VII Âñåñîþçíîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè. Êèåâ, 1977. ×.1. Ñ. 58–59. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Ïðèìîðñêîãî êðàÿ. Æèâîòíûå. Ðåäêèå è íàõîäÿùèåñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçàþùèå âèäû æèâîòíûõ. Âëàäèâîñòîê: ÀÂÊ «Àïåëüñèí», 2005. 448 ñ. Êóðäþêîâ À.Á. Äâå íîâûå ãíåçäîâûå íàõîäêè õîõëàòîãî îðëà Spizaetus nipalensis íà çàïàäå Þæíîãî Ïðèìîðüÿ. – Ðóññêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé æóðíàë. Ýêñïðåññ-âûïóñê. 2000. ¹ 91. Ñ. 3–7.


Short Reports

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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SnowOwlintheUpperReachesoftheAngaraRiver БЕЛАЯСОВАВВЕРХНЕМПРИАНГАРЬЕ MaleevV.G.,PopovV.V.(AdministrationoftheUst-OrdinskiyBuryatskiyautonomous district,Russia) МалеевВ.Г.,ПоповВ.В.(АдминистрацияУсть-Ордынс ооБ$рятс оо автономнооо р$а,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Âàëåðèé Ìàëååâ Âèêòîð Ïîïîâ Àäìèíèñòðàöèÿ ÓñòüÎðäûíñêîãî Áóðÿòñêîãî àâòîíîìíîãî îêðóãà Ðîññèÿ 669001 ÓÎÁÀÎ ïîñ. Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé óë. Ëåíèíà, 18 òåë.: +7 (241) 3 12 62 vpopov@irk.ru Contact: Valeriy Maleev Viktor Popov Administration of the Ust-Ordinskiy Buryatskiy autonomous district Lenina str., 18 Ust-Ordynskiy Russia 669001 tel.: +7 (241) 3 12 62 vpopov@irk.ru

 Ïðèáàéêàëüå áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca) ðåäêèé çèìóþùèé âèä.  äàííîì ñîîáùåíèè íà îñíîâàíèè ñîáñòâåííûõ íàáëþäåíèé è ëèòåðàòóðíûõ äàííûõ ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàíî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ýòîãî âèäà â ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ Âåðõíåãî Ïðèàíãàðüÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Óñòü-Îðäûíñêîãî Áóðÿòñêîãî àâòîíîìíîãî îêðóãà è ïðèëåãàþùèõ ðàéîíîâ Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè. Ïåðâîå óïîìèíàíèå î áåëîé ñîâå â Ïðèàíãàðüå îòíîñèòñÿ ê òðèäöàòûì ãîäàì – â êîëëåêöèè áèîëîãî-ïî÷âåííîãî ôàêóëüòåòà ÈÃÓ èìååòñÿ ýêçåìïëÿð ñàìöà áåëîé ñîâû äîáûòîé íà 57-ì êì Êà÷óãñêîãî òðàêòà 17 íîÿáðÿ 1934 ã., à â êàðòîòåêå èìååòñÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î âñòðå÷å áåëîé ñîâû 11 íîÿáðÿ 1933 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ¸ëêà Óñòü-Îðäûíñêèé. Ïîñëå ýòîãî äîâîëüíî äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ, âïëîòü äî 70-õ ãã., óïîìèíàíèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ áåëîé ñîâû â Ïðèáàéêàëüå îòñóòñòâóþò.  íîÿáðå 1976 ã. ñîâà âñòðå÷åíà íà ñêèðäå ñðåäè ñêîøåííîãî ïîëÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Çàäû Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêîãî ðàéîíà.  êàðòîòåêå áèîëîãîïî÷âåííîãî ôàêóëüòåòà ÈÃÓ óêàçàíû âñòðå÷è 12 íîÿáðÿ 1977 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ äåðåâíè Õîãîò (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí) è 12 è 14 íîÿáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ. Áàÿíäàé (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí). Íàèáîëåå ðàííÿÿ âñòðå÷à áåëûõ ñîâ – 5 è 9 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1996 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ¸ëêà Òàãàðõàé (Ýõèðèò-Áóëàãàòñêèé ðàéîí). Ïî âñåé âèäèìîñòè, ýòî áûëî ñâÿçàíî ñ íåáëàãîïðèÿòíîé ñèòóàöèåé íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, òàê êàê â ýòîì ãîäó â ýòî æå âðåìÿ áûëè âñòðå÷åíû è çèìíÿêè. Áåëàÿ ñîâà áûëà âñòðå÷åíà íà 60-ì êì Êà÷óãñêîãî òðàêòà 22 îêòÿáðÿ 1997 ã. (Âîðîíîâà, Ðÿáöåâ, 2006), à 24 ôåâðàëÿ 1999 ã. 1 îñîáü ìû íàáëþäàëè â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ¸ëêà Æåðäîâêà (Èðêóòñêèé ðàéîí). Îñåíüþ 2000 ã. â Íóêóòñêîì ðàéîíå áûë îòìå÷åí ìàññîâûé ïðèë¸ò áåëûõ ñîâ. Íà óáðàííûõ ïîëÿõ ìû èíîãäà íàáëþäàëè îò 2 äî 4 ñîâ îäíîâðåìåííî. Âñåãî íà ìàðøðóòàõ ïî áåðåãó Áðàòñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà è åãî çàëèâîâ çà ïåðèîä ñ 10 ïî 17 íîÿáðÿ áûëî âñòðå÷åíî áîëåå 25 áåëûõ ñîâ. Ïðîë¸ò íàáëþäàëñÿ âäîëü áåðåãà âîäîõðàíèëèùà ñ ñåâåðî-âîñòîêà íà þãî-çàïàä.

The Snow Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) is the rare wintering species of the Baikal Region. The first registrations of it in the Angara region were in 1930s. We don’t have any information about records of the species at the period 1930–1970. The Snow Owl has been registered in the Angara region since 1970s once again. The mass migration of the owl into the Nukutsk region was noted in autumn 2000. During the record routes along the Bratsk reservoir we noted more than 25 birds since 10 to 17 November. Recent years the number of records and the number of noted birds has increased that connected, as we believe, with the climate changing. Also we noted the number of owl records related with the number of micro mammals.

Áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca). Ôîòî È. Ïîñïåëîâà Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca). Photo by I. Pospelov

 ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû ÷àñòîòà âñòðå÷ è ÷èñëåííîñòü áåëûõ ñîâ âîçðîñëà.  äîëèíå Êóäû îíè âñòðå÷åíû 24 ôåâðàëÿ 2002 ã. è 18 ÿíâàðÿ 2003 ã. (Âîðîíîâà, 2003). Çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòü âñòðå÷ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà Êà÷óãñêèé òðàêò – 18 ÿíâàðÿ 2003 ã. íà 57-ì êì, 5 ìàðòà 2003 ã. íà 91-ì êì, 9 ìàðòà 2003 ã. íà 61-ì êì, 3 ÿíâàðÿ 2004 ã. 2 îñîáè íà 80-ì êì è 24 ôåâðàëÿ 2006 ã. íà 55ì êì, (Âîðîíîâà, Ðÿáöåâ, 2006). Íàìè çäåñü æå áåëàÿ ñîâà áûëà âñòðå÷åíà 18 äåêàáðÿ 2005 ã. è 14 ìàðòà 2006 ã. â 5 êì ê çàïàäó îò Óñòü-Îðäû è îäíà ìîëîäàÿ ïòèöà 12 è 27 äåêàáðÿ 2006 ã. è 15 ÿíâàðÿ 2007 ã. íà ó÷àñòêå âîñòî÷íåå Êàïñàëüñêîé ãîðû. Êðîìå ýòîãî áåëûõ ñîâ â 2006 ã. íà-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9 áëþäàëè 20 ìàðòà â óðî÷èùå Äàíèëîâñêîì, 25 ìàðòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñåëêà Áàÿíäàé (Áàÿíäàåâñêèé ðàéîí) è 20 ìàðòà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñåëêà Áóëàê (Áîõàíñêèé ðàéîí). Íà ëåâîáåðåæíîé ÷àñòè Ïðèàíãàðüÿ áåëàÿ ñîâà âñòðå÷åíà 22 íîÿáðÿ 2005 ã. â äîëèíå ðåêè Óíãè ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íåå ãîðû Õàøêàé, à íà ñëåäóþùèé äåíü – íà ïîëå ñåâåðíåå ïîñåëêà Íîâîíóêóòñê (Íóêóòñêèé ðàéîí).  2006 ã. îäíà ñîâà âñòðå÷åíà 8 àïðåëÿ ñåâåðíåå ãîðîäà Óñîëüå-Ñèáèðñêîå (Óñîëüñêèé ðàéîí) è îäíà – 20 äåêàáðÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ïîñ¸ëêà Àïõàéòà â Àëàðñêîì ðàéîíå. Ðåçèí Â.Ñ. (2006) ñîîáùàåò â îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè î 13-òè âñòðå÷àõ áåëîé ñîâû â çèìíèå ñåçîíû 2004–2005 ãã. è 2005–2006 ãã. â äîëèíå ðåêè Êàìåíêè (ïðèòîê Àíãàðû) íà þãå Àëàðñêîãî ðàéîíà. Îñîáåííî ÷àñòî ñîâ âñòðå÷àëè íà äîðîãå îò ïîñ. Êóíäóëóí äî ìîñòà ÷åðåç Êàìåíêó, ò.ê. îíè ïðåäïî÷èòàþò îòêðûòûå ïðîñòðàíñòâà ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ ïîëåé ïðèìûêàþùèõ ê ðåêå.  ïèòàíèè îòìå÷åíà óçêî÷åðåïíàÿ ïîë¸âêà è îáûêíîâåííàÿ ëèñèöà (âåðîÿòíåå âñåãî ïàäàëü). Ó÷àñòèâøèåñÿ âñòðå÷è áåëîé ñîâû â ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ Âåðõíåãî Ïðèàíãàðüÿ ìîæíî ñâÿçàòü ñ íåñêîëüêèìè ôàêòîðàìè.

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ Ïðåæäå âñåãî, ýòî ïðîâåäåíèå áîëåå èíòåíñèâíûõ ñïåöèàëüíûõ ðàáîò ïî îáñëåäîâàíèþ òåððèòîðèè â çèìíåå âðåìÿ. Âòîðîå – â çèìíèå ñåçîíû 2004–2005 ãã. è, îñîáåííî, â 2005–2006 ãã. îòìå÷åíà âûñîêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ. Íî ëåòîì 2006 ã. ÷èñëåííîñòü ãðûçóíîâ ðåçêî ñîêðàòèëàñü è íàñòóïèëà äåïðåññèÿ. Çèìîé 2006–2007 ãã. ÷èñëåííîñòü ãðûçóíîâ áûëà íèçêîé, íî, òåì íå ìåíåå, âñòðå÷è áåëûõ ñîâ áûëè òàêæå îòíîñèòåëüíî ðåãóëÿðíûìè.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì, íå èñêëþ÷åíà âåðîÿòíîñòü ñâÿçè ó÷àñòèâøèõñÿ âñòðå÷ áåëûõ ñîâ ñ êëèìàòè÷åñêèìè ôàêòîðàìè, à èìåííî ñ ïîòåïëåíèåì, êîòîðîå íàáëþäàåòñÿ â Âåðõíåì Ïðèàíãàðüå â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû.

Ëèòåðàòóðà Âîðîíîâà Ñ.Ã. Èññëåäîâàíèå àâèôàóíû Êóäèíñêîé ñòåïè (þæíîå Ïðåäáàéêàëüå). – Ñîâðåìåííûå ïðîáëåìû îðíèòîëîãèè Ñèáèðè è Öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè. II ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ. ×. 1. Óëàí-Óäý. 2003. Ñ. 73–76. Âîðîíîâà Ñ.Ã., Ðÿáöåâ Â.Â. Î çèìíèõ âñòðå÷àõ ñîâ â ëåñîñòåïíîì Ïðåäáàéêàëüå. – Ñîâû Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Ì. 2005. Ñ. 401–402. Ðåçèí Â.Ñ. Ê ýêîëîãèè è ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâîîáðàçíûõ áàññåéíà ð. Êàìåíêà, äîëèíû ð. Àíãàðà. Äèïëîìíàÿ ðàáîòà. Èðêóòñê. 2006.

AutumnMigrationoftheCrestedHoneyBuzzardandtheGreat SpottedEagleintheTashkentVicinities ОСЕННИЙПРОЛЁТХОХЛАТОГООСОЕДАИБОЛЬШОГО ПОДОРЛИКАПОДТАШКЕНТОМ MitropolskiyM.G.(StateInspectionoftheRepublicofUzbekistanonGuards andRationalUseAnimaloftheVegetativeWorldandReserve) Митропольс ийМ.Г.(Госбио онтрольГос омитетапоохранеприроды Респ$бли иУзбе истан) Íàìè, â ïåðèîä ñ 1996 ïî 2006 ãã., ðåãóëÿðíî ïðîâîäèëèñü êðàòêîâðåìåííûå ýêñêóðñèè â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Òàøêåíòà íà ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ óãîäüÿõ âäîëü åäèíñòâåííîãî èñêóññòâåííîãî âîäî¸ìà – êàíàëà Äæàíà-Àðûê íà âîñòî÷íîé îêðàèíå ãîðîäà (N41,38° E69,18°, âûñîòà 373 ì í.ó.ì.). Çäåñü çàëîæåí ìàðøðóòíûé ó÷¸ò, îáùåé ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 4,5 êì è îõâàòûâàþùèé âèçóàëüíî ïðîñìàòðèâàåìóþ ïëîùàäü ïîëåé ëþöåðíû, êóêóðóçû è îâîùåé, à òàêæå íåáîëüøèå òîïîëèíûå ðîùè â 0,919 êì2.  ñðåäíåì âðåìÿ ïðîõîæäåíèÿ ìàðøðóòà ñîñòàâëÿåò 2–2,5 ÷àñà. Õîõëàòûé îñîåä (Pernis ptilorhyncus) Âåñåííèé ïðîë¸ò õîõëàòîãî îñîåäà ïðîõîäèò ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ãîðàìè (Ìèòðî-

We regular spent the short-term excursions into the agricultural area along the DzhanaAryk artificial channel in the eastern outskirts of Tashkent (N 41.38° E 69.18° Elev. 373) during the period from 1996 to 2006. The transect for bird recording was established with the total length of 4.5 km, it was included fields with water Lucerne, corn and vegetables, and small poplar groves in 0.919 km2. The average time of passage of the transect was 2–2.5 hours. Crested Honey Buzzard (Pernis ptilorhyncus) The Crested Honey Buzzard migrates mainly through mountains during springtime (Mitropolskiy, etc., 1987; M. Mitropolskiy, 2002). However, M.R. Meklenburtsev


Short Reports Êîíòàêò: Ìàêñèì Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé Ãîñáèîêîíòðîëü Ãîñêîìèòåòà ïî îõðàíå ïðèðîäû Óçáåêèñòàí òåë.: +7 (998 90) 319 15 91 max_raptors@ronl.ru Contact: Maxim Mitropolskiy State inspection of the Republic of Uzbekistan on guards and rational use animal of the vegetative world and reserves tel.:+7 (998 90) 31915 91 max_raptors@ronl.ru

Raptors Conservation 2007, 9 ïîëüñêèé è äð., 1987; Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé, 2002). Îäíàêî èçðåäêà ïòèöû îòìå÷àëèñü è íà ðàâíèíå, â ÷àñòíîñòè 27 ìàÿ 1948 ã. Ì.Ð. Ìåêëåíáóðöåâûì (1982) â Òàøêåíòå. Íà îñåííåì ïðîë¸òå õîõëàòûõ îñîåäîâ íà ðàâíèíå îòìå÷àþò ãîðàçäî ÷àùå. Èìååòñÿ ðÿä ýêçåìïëÿðîâ, äîáûòûõ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Òàøêåíòà (Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé è äð., 1987) 9 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1970 ã. (À.Í. Àþïîâ, êîëë. ÍÓÓç) è 12 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1966 ã. (Ð.Í. Ìåêëåíáóðöåâ, êîëë. ÍÓÓç). Ì.Ì. Îñòàïåíêî (1960) 18 îêòÿáðÿ 1949 ã. äîáûëà õîõëàòîãî îñîåäà â Äåíäðîïàðêå (Çàïàäíàÿ îêðàèíà ãîðîäà). Äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè ýòà ðåãèñòðàöèÿ ñ÷èòàëàñü îäíîé èç íàèáîëåå ïîçäíèõ. Íàìè õîõëàòûé îñîåä íàáëþäàëñÿ 3 íîÿáðÿ 2005 ã., ÷òî ïðîäëåâàåò ñðîêè ïðîë¸òà îñîåäîâ â Óçáåêèñòàíå äî íîÿáðÿ. Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga)  êîëëåêöèè ÍÓÓç èìååòñÿ öåëûé ðÿä äîáûòûõ Í.À. Çàðóäíûì áîëüøèõ ïîäîðëèêîâ â Òàøêåíòå è åãî îêðåñòíîñòÿõ, êàê íà îñåííåì, òàê è íà âåñåííåì ïðîë¸òå. Îäíàêî Ð.Í. Ìåêëåíáóðöåâ (1982) íå ó÷èòûâàåò èõ è óïîìèíàåò ëèøü î âîçìîæíîñòè âñòðå÷è áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà â Òàøêåíòå âî âðåìÿ îñåííåãî è âåñåííåãî ïðîë¸òà. Âñå îñåííèå âñòðå÷è áûëè äàòèðîâàíû â ïåðèîä ñ 28 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïî 17 îêòÿáðÿ.  ýòîò æå ïåðèîä ïîäîðëèêîâ â Òàøêåíòå äîáûâàë è Ä.Í. Êàøêàðîâ (2 è 19 îêòÿáðÿ 1925 ã). ×óòü ïîçæå (26 íîÿáðÿ 1928 ã.) ïîä Òàøêåíòîì (â òóãàÿõ ïî ð. ×èð÷èê) îòìå÷àëà áîëüøèõ ïîäîðëèêîâ Ç.Ë. Ñàòàåâà (1937).  êîëëåêöèè Çîîëîãè÷åñêîãî ìóçåÿ ÍÍÏÌ ÍÀÍ Óêðàèíû õðàíèòñÿ ýêçåìïëÿð, äîáûòûé Ì. Êðàñîâêèì íåñêîëüêî ðàíåå îáû÷íûõ îñåííèõ âñòðå÷, – 17 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1929 ã. (Ïåêëî, 1997). Íàìè îäèíî÷íûå áîëüøèå ïîäîðëèêè îòìå÷åíû 22 îêòÿáðÿ 2006 ã. è 23 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ãîðîäà, à òàêæå 7 äåêàáðÿ 1998 ã. íàä ãîðîäîì (íàèáîëåå ïîçäíÿÿ âñòðå÷à).

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recorded birds on a valley: in Tashkent on May 27, 1948. The Crested Honey Buzzard is noted much more often on a valley during autumn migration. There are some skins of birds hunted in the Tashkent vicinities (Mitropolskiy et all., 1987): on September 9, 1970 (Aiupov, coll. NUUz), on September 12, 1966 (Meklenburtsev, coll. NUUz). M.M. Ostapenko (1960) hunted the Crested Honey Buzzard in Dendropark (Western outside of the city) on October 18, 1949. That fact was considered being one of the latest registrations. However we observed the Crested Honey Buzzard on November 3, 2005, that prolongs the terms of autumn migration in Uzbekistan until November. Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) R.N. Meklenburtsev (1982) mentioned the possible records of the Great Spotted Eagle in Tashkent during the autumn and spring migrations. However, there are same skins of the Great Spotted Eagles hunted by N.A. Zarudniy in Tashkent and its vicinities in the collection of NUUz, both at autumn, and spring migrations. All autumn registrations were during from September 28 until October 17. At the same time, the Great Spotted Eagle in Tashkent was also hunted by D.N. Kashkarov (on October 2 and 19, 1925). Later Z.L. Sataeva (1937) noted the Great Spotted Eagle near the Tashkent – on November 26, 1928 in a water forest along the Chirchik River (southern outside of the city). However, a skin of the eagle hunted on September 17th of 1929 by M. Krasovskiy is stored in the collection of Zoological museum of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Peklo, 1997). We note a single Great Spotted Eagle outside of the city on October 22, 2006 and on October 23, 2005, and above the city – on December 7, 1998 (the latest record).

Ëèòåðàòóðà Ìåêëåíáóðöåâ Ð.Í. Ïðîë¸òíûå è çèìóþùèå ïòèöû Òàøêåíòà (ïî äàííûì ìíîãîëåòíèõ íàáëþäåíèé). – Áþëë. ÌÎÈÏ. Îòäåë áèîëîãè÷åñêèé. Ìîñêâà, 1982. Ò. 87. Âûï. 6. Ñ. 86–93. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé Ì. Íîâûå è ðåäêèå âèäû ïòèö Çàïàäíîãî Òÿíü-Øàíÿ (Óçáåêèñòàí). – Áèîðàçíîîáðàçèå ÇÒØ: îõðàíà è ðàöèîíàëüíîå èñïîëüçîâàíèå. Òàøêåíò, 2002. Ñ.156–157. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé Î.Â., Ôîòòåëåð Ý.Ð., Òðåòüÿêîâ Ã.Ï. Îòðÿä ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (Falconiformes). – Ïòèöû Óçáåêèñòàíà. Òàøêåíò, 1987. Ò. 1. Ñ. 123–246.

Ïåêëî À.Ì. Êàòàëîã êîëëåêöèé Çîîëîãè÷åñêîãî ìóçåÿ ÍÍÏÌ ÍÀÍ Óêðàèíû. Ïòèöû. –Íåâîðîáüèíûå Non-Passeriformes (Ïèíãâèíîîáðàçíûå Sphenisciformes – Æóðàâëåîáðàçíûå Gruiformes). Êèåâ, 1997. Âûï. 1. Ñ. 99. Îñòàïåíêî Ì.Ì. Î çàë¸òàõ õîõëàòîãî îñîåäà â Óçáåêèñòàíå. – Óçáåêñêèé áèîëîãè÷åñêèé æóðíàë. Òàøêåíò, 1960. ¹ 5. Ñ. 70. Ñàòàåâà Ç.Ë. Ñìåíà ñåçîííûõ àñïåêòîâ àâèàôàóíû ïî Òàøêåíòó è åãî îêðåñòíîñòÿì. – Òðóäû Ñðåäíåàçèàòñêîãî Ãîñ. Óíèâåðñèòåòà. Òàøêåíò, 1937. Âûï. 29. 74 ñ.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

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Âûøåë â ñâåò îïðåäåëèòåëü ïåðüåâ äëÿ îõðàíû ïòèö íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå (M. Cieslak and B. Dul. Feathers identification for bird conservation. Warsaw: Natura Publishing House, 2006. 320 p.). Îïðåäåëåíèå ïòèö ïî èõ ïåðüÿì ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíîé èç ñëàáî ðàçðàáîòàííûõ îáëàñòåé ïðèêëàäíîé îðíèòîëîãèè. Ýòà êíèãà ðåøàåò äàííóþ ïðîáëåìó.  íåé ïðåäñòàâëåíû ïåðüÿ 60 âèäîâ ïòèö, âêëþ÷àÿ ïåðüÿ âñåõ åâðîïåéñêèõ âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ (Falconiformes) è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ (Strigiformes).  êíèãå îñâåùåíû ñëåäóþùèå òåìû: – îïåðåíèå ïòèö, ëèíüêà, ìîðôîëîãèÿ ïåðüåâ è èõ èçìåí÷èâîñòü; – èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïåðüåâ â èçó÷åíèè è îõðàíå ïòèö; – ïðîöåäóðà îïðåäåëåíèÿ ïåðüåâ; – âèäîñïåöèôè÷åñêèå ïåðüÿ. Îïðåäåëèòåëü ïðåäíàçíà÷åí äëÿ ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûõ îðíèòîëîãîâ è ëþáèòåëåé. Êíèãó ìîæíî çàêàçàòü â èíòåðíåò-ìàãàçèíå Lanius Books5 ïî öåíå 25,6. Êîíòàêò (5).

Marian Cieslak and Boleslaw Dul. Feathers identification for bird conservation. Warsaw: Natura Publishing House, 2006. 320 p. (ISBN: 9788392441007) have published in English. The identification of birds from their feathers is one of the rather poorly-developed areas of applied ornithology. This book allows to resolve this problem. This guide presents the feathers of 60 species of bird, including all European species of raptors. This book contains information including: – basic information on feathers: bird plumage, moulting, feather morphology, feather variability, – the use of feathers in the conservation and study of birds: faunistic research, bird conservation, research into avian ecology and education in the service of bird conservation, – the feather identification procedure, – identifying feathers. This guide has been prepared for experts as well as enthusiasts for ornithology. The Book is available in internet-shop Lanius Books5 ( 25.6). Contact (5).

 ìàðòå 2007 ã. âûõîäèò â ñâåò ôîòîîïðåäåëèòåëü ïòèö ßïîíèè è Âîñòî÷íîé Àçèè íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå (Tadao Shimba. Photographic Guide to the Birds of Japan and East Asia. Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, 2007. 512 p.). Ýòà êíèãà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïåðâûì ôîòî-îïðåäåëèòåëåì ïòèö ßïîíèè è ïåðâûì ñïðàâî÷íèêîì ïî ñòðàíå, îïóáëèêîâàííûì íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå.  êíèãå ïðåäñòàâëåíû áîëåå 520 âèäîâ ïòèö, îáèòàþùèõ êàê â ßïîíèè, òàê è íà ïðèëåãàþùèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ Âîñòî÷íîé Àçèè (Êîðåÿ, Êèòàé, Äàëüíèé Âîñòîê Ðîññèè). Òåêñò êîðîòêî îïèñûâàåò êëþ÷åâûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè èäåíòèôèêàöèè êàæäîãî âèäà. Äëÿ êàæäîãî âèäà ïðèâîäèòñÿ êàðòà åãî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ. Êíèãó ìîæíî çàêàçàòü â èíòåðíåò-ìàãàçèíå Amazon6 ïî öåíå 25.

Tadao Shimba. Photographic Guide to the Birds of Japan and East Asia. Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, 2007. 512 p. (ISBN: 9780713674392) have published in English in the March 2007. This new photographic guide will be the first book to cover the Japanese avifauna in English for over 25 years, and the first photo guide to the country in English. It will also include the birds of neighboring mainland regions of Eastern Asia, Korea, NE China and Eastern Siberia. Over 520 species are illustrated with hundreds of stunning color photographs. The text succinctly describes the key identification features and each species has a distribution map. This guide will be an essential companion for anyone visiting Japan or Eastern Asia. The Book is available in internet-shop Amazon6 ( 25).

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Raptors Conservation 2007, 9

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 ìàå 2007 ã. ïëàíèðóåòñÿ âûõîä â ñâåò îïðåäåëèòåëÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö Áåííè Ãåíñáîëà è Âàëüòåðà Òèäý (Benny Gensbol, Walter Thiede. Collins Birds of Prey. Collins, 2007. 416 p.). Ýòî íàèáîëåå ïîëíûé ñïðàâî÷íèê ïî 49 âèäàì äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö Åâðîïû. Äëÿ êàæäîãî âèäà äàí î÷åðê ñ íîâåéøåé èíôîðìàöèåé î ñòàòóñå, ðàñïðåäåëåíèè è ÷èñëåííîñòè, ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ, ïîâåäåíèè, ãîëîñå, ãíåçäîâîé áèîëîãèè, ïèòàíèþ è ìåòîäàì îõîòû. Îòäåëüíûé ðàçäåë ïîñâÿù¸í èäåíòèôèêàöèè âèäà, â êîòîðîì ïðèâîäÿòñÿ îñíîâíûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè îïðåäåëåíèÿ â ïîëåâûõ óñëîâèÿõ, ïðîïîðöèè, ðàçëè÷íûå âàðèàöèè îêðàñêè êàê ïîïóëÿöèîííûå, òàê è âîçðàñòíûå, èäåíòèôèêàöèîííûå ïðèçíàêè ñèäÿùèõ è ëåòÿùèõ ïòèö, îòëè÷èÿ îò äðóãèõ áëèçêèõ âèäîâ, ñ êîòîðûìè äàííûé âèä ìîæåò áûòü ñïóòàí â ïðèðîäå. Êíèãà ñîäåðæèò 55 êàðò, îêîëî 200 ôîòîãðàôèé è ïî÷òè 1000 ðèñóíêîâ. Êíèãó ìîæíî áóäåò çàêàçàòü â èíòåðíåòìàãàçèíå Amazon7 ïî öåíå 20.

Benny Gensbol, Walter Thiede. Collins Birds of Prey. Collins, 2007. 416 p. (ISBN: 9780007248148) will be published in English in the May 2007. The most complete guide to the 49 species of bird of prey (eagles, vultures, hawks, buzzards, osprey and falcons) found in Europe. Every species has a comprehensive descriptive entry, with the most up to date information on population, distribution, status, behaviour, habitat, voice, breeding biology, food and hunting techniques. In addition, a separate section deals in-depth with the identification of the species – Major ID characteristics, proportions, regional variations, young, juvenile and adult variation, ID of perched birds, ID of flying birds and a section on other species that can be confused. Illustrated with 55 maps, nearly 200 photographs and nearly 1000 illustrations, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in the birds of prey of Europe. The Book is available in internet-shop Amazon7 ( 20).

 ìàðòå 2007 ã. ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáýêîöåíòð» âûïóñòèë «Àòëàñ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ è èõ äåðèâàòîâ – îñíîâíûõ îáúåêòîâ íåçàêîííîãî îáîðîòà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì Ýêîðåãèîíå. /Ý. Íèêîëåíêî, È. Ñìåëÿíñêèé. – Íîâîñèáèðñê: Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð, 2007. – 46 ñ. èëë. Àòëàñ âûïóùåí ïðè ôèíàíñîâîé ïîääåðæêå Ïðîåêòà ÏÐÎÎÍ / ÃÝÔ «Ñîõðàíåíèå áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ â ðîññèéñêîé ÷àñòè Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ýêîðåãèîíà – ôàçà 1».  Àòëàñ âêëþ÷åíî 18-òè âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ, âîâëå÷¸ííûõ â íåëåãàëüíûé îáîðîò â Þæíîé Ñèáèðè, âíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ è/èëè Ïðèëîæåíèÿ ÑÈÒÅÑ. Àòëàñ ñîäåðæèò êðàòêîå îïèñàíèå æèâîòíûõ è èõ äåðèâàòîâ, à òàêæå õàðàêòåðà èõ îáîðîòà.  Àòëàñå ïðèâåäåíû ôîòîãðàôèè îñíîâíûõ äåðèâàòîâ. Îäíà ãëàâà Àòëàñà ïîñâÿùåíà òð¸ì âèäàì êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ – êðå÷åòó (Falco rusticolus) áàëîáàíó (F. cherrug) è ñàïñàíó (F. peregrinus). Íàðÿäó ñ êðàòêèì îïèñàíèåì ïòèö, ïðèâîäÿòñÿ îñíîâíûå ìåòîäû èõ áðàêîíüåðñêîãî îòëîâà è òðàíñïîðòèðîâêè. Âî âñòóïëåíèè ê Àòëàñó êðàòêî îïèñàíî íîðìàòèâíîå ðåãóëèðîâàíèå ëåãàëüíîãî îáîðîòà äàííûõ âèäîâ â ÐÔ, à â Ïðèëîæåíèè ïðèâåäåíû ôîðìû îñíîâíûõ ðàçðåøèòåëüíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ. Pdf-âåðñèÿ Àòëàñà äîñòóïíà íà âýá-ñàéòå Ñèáýêîöåíòðà8. Êîíòàêò (6).

NGO Siberian Environmental Center has published «The Atlas of Animal Species and Derivates – Major Objects of Illegal Trade in the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion» in Russian on March 2007. /E. Nikolenko, I, Smelansky. – Novosibirsk: Siberian Environmental Center, 2007. – 46 p. The Atlas has been published within the Project of UNDP / GEF «Biodiversity Conservation in the Russian Part of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion – Phase 1». Atlas is devoted the main species, involved in the illegal traffic and trade in Southern Siberia, listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and/or in CITES Appendixes. The Atlas contents brief descriptions of 18 animal species and its derivates as well as their traffic and trade status. There are many perfect illustrations of animals and photos of derivates. Three species of large falcons – Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), Saker (F. cherrug), and Peregrine (F. peregrinus) are showed in one chapter with descriptions of methods of illegal catching and transportation. The Atlas has the introduction, referred to the legal regulation of traffic and trade in Russia, and the supplement with forms of main permission documents. The on-line version is available in the website of the SEC8. Contact (6).

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Collins-Birds-Prey-Benny-Gensbol/dp/0007248148 http://www.ecoclub.nsu.ru/proects/Atlas_CITES.pdf


70

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2007, 9

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Ñîáûòèÿ ................................................................. 3

Events ...................................................................... 3

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè ....................................... 6

Reviews and Comments ......................................... 6

Ïðàâîâûå èíñòðóìåíòû ïðåñå÷åíèÿ íåçàêîííîãî îòëîâà è îáîðîòà êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ â Ðîññèè. Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Êðåéíäëèí Ì.Ë. ....................... 6

Legal Instruments for Supressing Unlawful Capture and Trade of Large Falcons in Russia. Smelansky I.E., Kreyndlin M.L. .............................. 6

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .......................... 17

Raptors Research .................................................. 17

Áèîëîãèÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñîêîëà áàëîáàíà â Ìîíãîëèè. Ãîìáîáààòàð Ñ., Ñóìúÿà Ä., Ïîòàïîâ Å. Ìóíõçàÿà Á., Îäõóó Á. ..................... 17

Breeding Biology of the Saker Falcon in Mongolia. S. Gombobaatar, D. Sumiya, E. Potapov, B. Munkhzaya, B. Odkhuu ................ 17

Îð¸ë-êàðëèê â Ïîâîëæüå, íà Óðàëå è â Ñèáèðè, Ðîññèÿ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. ......................................... 27

The Booted Eagle in the Volga Region, Ural and Siberia, Russia. Karyakin I.V. ................................ 27

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ ............................................ 63

Short Reports ........................................................ 63

Íîâàÿ íàõîäêà ãíåçäà õîõëàòîãî îðëà â Ïðèìîðüå, Ðîññèÿ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. .................... 63

New Record of the Mountain Hawk Eagle Nesting in Primorye, Russia. Karyakin I.V. ............ 63

Áåëàÿ ñîâà â Âåðõíåì Ïðèàíãàðüå. Â.Ã. Ìàëååâ, Â.Â. Ïîïîâ ..................................... 65

Snow Owl in the Upper Reaches of the Angara River. V.G. Maleev, V.V. Popov ............................. 65

Îñåííèé ïðîë¸ò õîõëàòîãî îñîåäà è áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà ïîä Òàøêåíòîì. Ì.Ã. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé .......................................... 66

Autumn Migration of the Crested Honey Buzzard and the Great Spotted Eagle in the Tashkent Vicinities. M.G. Mitropolskiy ............................... 66

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû ........................... 68

New Publications and Videos .............................. 68

Èëëþñòðàöèè (ôîòî ñïðàâà) ê ñòàòüå Êàðÿêèíà È.Â. «Îð¸ë-êàðëèê â Ïîâîëæüå, íà Óðàëå è â Ñèáèðè, Ðîññèÿ» íà ñòð. 27–62:

Photos (right) illustrate the report «The Booted Eagle in the Volga Region, Ural and Siberia, Russia» by I.V. Karyakin on pp. 27–62:

À. Ïòèöû: 1. – Ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê (Buteo hemilasius) ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû 2. – Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus) ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû 3. – ×åðíîóõèé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans lineatus)

A. Birds: 1. – Dark morph of the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) 2. – Dark morph of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) 3. – Black Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus)

B. Ãí¸çäà ñ êëàäêàìè: 1 – 2. – ßïîíñêèé êàíþê (Buteo buteo japonicus) 3 – 4. – Îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus) 5. – Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis) 6. – ×åðíîóõèé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans lineatus) Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà

B. Nests with clutches: 1 – 2. – Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo japonicus) 3 – 4. – Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) 5. – Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) 6. – Black Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus) Photos by I. Karyakin

Äèçàéí: Ä. Ñåíîòðóñîâ, À. Êëåù¸â Âåðñòêà: À. Êëåù¸â Êîððåêòóðà: Å. Êëåù¸âà

Design by D. Senotrusov, A. Kleschev Page-proofs by A. Kleschev Proof-reader: E. Klescheva

Îòïå÷àòàíî â òèïîãðàôèè ÎÎÎ «ÀÏÄ» ñ ãîòîâîãî îðèãèíàë-ìàêåòà 603139, ã. Í. Íîâãîðîä, óë. Ãàóãåëÿ, 16–49


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Raptors Conservation 9/2007  

Pernatye khishniki i ikh okhrana / Raptors Conservation is the unique peer-reviewed periodical journal in the countries of the former USSR,...

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