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COMPENDIO DE INGLÉS III Tercer Semestre

Ranulfo Sántiz López

San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México.


El contenido académico de este texto es exclusiva responsabilidad del Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) y su índice pertenece al programa correspondiente al Plan de estudios del nivel medio superior, para la materia de:

INGLÉS III Autora: María del Rosario Ortega Argüelles. Revisión y Corrección: Frank Hermanus.

Compendio elaborado por: Ranulfo Sántiz López. e-mail: keremranu@gmail.com

La decisión de hacer este compendio fue motivada por un gran deseo de ofrecer ayuda a todas aquellas personas que se lanzan a la aventura de estudiar sin maestro. Además, como parte de mi experiencia docente como asesor académico en esta asignatura, he visto la necesidad de contar con materiales didácticos prácticos y sencillos, aunque no menos rigorista.

Sinceramente, espero contribuir para que el alumnado del sistema abierto, pueda concluir satisfactoriamente sus estudios de nivel medio superior, porque estoy consciente de la importancia que tiene la educación en la vida de cada una de las personas. Así entonces, busco facilitar el proceso de aprendizaje en esta materia que forma parte del plan de estudios del sistema abierto, esperando que le sea de utilidad y lo lleve a cumplir sus metas educativas.

San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas; México; Mayo de 2012.


ÍNDICE

Páginas Tipos de sujeto

1

Uso de pronombres

4

Uso y omisión del artículo “the”

9

Uso y omisión del articulo “the”

12

Tiempos compuestos

17

Verbos que denotan Hechos Verbales

25

Pronombres reflexivos

29

Verbos que indican percepción o circunstancia

31

Adverbios intensificadores y confirmatorios

33

Funciones sintácticas del adjetivo

36

Grado de adjetivos y adverbios

39

Verbos regulares e irregulares

42

Referencia Bibliográfica

47


Módulo 1

TIPOS DE SUJETO 1.1. Para expresar acciones como sujeto. Dancing is fun. Doing exercises makes me hungry. Cleaning his room took me one hour. 1.2. Para expresar acciones como sujeto diferido. It is fun to dance. It makes me hungry to do exercise. It is necessary to paint this table. 1.3. Para expresar acciones en que no hay un sujeto real al cual atribuirle lo que dice el predicado. It is raining. It snowed last night. It was Monday. It was spring. It is midnight. It is Christmas Eve. 1.4. Para expresar acciones con el verbo “haber”. There is an ash tray on that table. There are two people in front of the door. There were many guests at the party yesterday. There will be many guests at the Julie’s wedding. Weren’t there two oranges on the kitchen table? Yes, there were.

There isn’t any milk in this bottle. There was a car in the garage. There weren’t many people in the park. There won’t be anything to do. Is there an English book on the desk? No, there isn’t.

OBSERVE Punto 1.1.: Para expresar una acción como sujeto de una oración se cambia el verbo que la nombra a la forma de gerundio (Ving). Como conserva su valor verbal, admite complementos aunque éstos, por razones de estilo pueden hacer que la construcción resulte forzada, especialmente si son de más de una o dos palabras. El verbo que sigue a V-ing como sujeto SIEMPRE va en tercera persona singular. Punto 1.2.: Aunque se puede utilizar el infinitivo de un verbo, en la posición normal del sujeto, generalmente se prefiere usarlo como sujeto diferido, en cuyo caso se utiliza IT como forma vacía de significado, en el lugar y con la función de sujeto para los fines de concordancia con el verbo que constituye el núcleo del predicado. Punto 1.3.: Cuando se habla de fenómenos meteorológicos, del tiempo en sí mismo, de la distancia a un lugar; se utiliza IT como sujeto formal, ya que no hay sujeto real. Punto 1.4.: Para expresar el hecho de hallarse uno o varios objetos en un lugar determinado, se utiliza el verbo “haber”, es decir; la palabra there como sujeto formal para todos los fines de estructuración y concordancia con el verbo to be, con el que forma una unidad de significación. There funciona sintácticamente como it con objetos singulares u objetos que no tienen unidad, es decir, toma las formas is o was; y they con objetos plurales, es decir, toma las formas are o were. También sucede lo mismo en las respuestas cortas.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

1


REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 1.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Studying is necessary. (study) _______________ chess is interesting. (play) _______________ is his special ability. (draw) _______________ is a wonderful sport. (swim) _______________ is a natural activity for children. (play) _______________ is his favorite activity. (eat) _______________ the truth all the time requires great courage. (tell) _______________ this woolen dress with hot water was a mistake. (wash) _______________ and _______________ are essential activities to keep alive. (eat / sleep) _______________ these spots is going to be difficult. (clean) _______________ our heavy coats was a good idea. (take) _______________ English requires a lot of practice. (learn)

Ejercicio 2. Complete las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 1.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

It is necessary to water the plants. (water) _______ is pleasant _______________ to music. (listen) _______ is dangerous not _______________ traffic signs. (obey) _______ makes me happy ______________ you. (see) _______ is his duty _______________. (cook) Was ________ your job ______________? (teach) Is ________ our obligation ______________ to church? (go) _______ amuses children _____________ television. (watch) _______ is hard ______________ a mountain. (climb) _______ is convenient ______________ the windows. The room is stuffy. (open) _______ is important ______________ these words correctly. (copy) _______ requires a great effort _______________ upstream. (swim)

Ejercicio 3. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando el infinitivo correspondiente al sujeto diferido. Véase punto 1.2. 1.

Visiting friends is pleasant.

2.

Learning foreign languages is interesting.

______________________________________________________

3.

Criticizing others is easy.

______________________________________________________

4.

Explaining the situation was not easy.

______________________________________________________

5.

Not protesting against injustice is wrong.

______________________________________________________

6.

Not being punctual is a bad habit.

______________________________________________________

7.

Reading is enjoyable.

______________________________________________________

8.

Doing exercise is good for your health.

______________________________________________________

9.

Ironing that dress is not urgent.

______________________________________________________

10. Understanding philosophy is not easy. Inglés III

It is pleasant to visit friends.

______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

2


Ejercicio 4. Con la información esquemática que se le da, complete las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 1.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

It is windy today. (windy) ___________________ yesterday. (cold) ___________________ p.m. (9) ___________________. I am sleepy. (late) ___________________. Take your umbrella. (raining)

Ejercicio 5. Cambia a la forma negativa, use las contracciones. Véase punto 1.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

There are many chairs in this room. There is a radio in each room. There was a police officer on the corner. There were many offices in that building. There are many children in the park. There is a typewriter in each room. There was a window in the room There are two doors in the room. There will be a letter here for you. There were two telephones in the office.

There aren’t many chairs in this room. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 6. Subraye la repuesta correcta de las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 1.4. 1. 3. 5. 7. 9. 11. 13. 15.

There (is, are) a magazine on the chair. There (was, were) many children in the park. There (was, were) a man at the door. There (is, are) twelve months in a years. There (was, were) many students in our class. There (is, are) only one cloud in the sky. There (was, were) two dishes on the table. There (is, are) a letter for you.

2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 12. 14. 16.

There (is, are) two men in the office. There (is, are) many people on the bus. There (is, are) seven days in a week. There (was, were) two windows in this room. There (is, are) only one chair in this room. There (was, were) several pictures on the wall. There (is, are) many churches in this city. There (is, are) some students in the library.

Ejercicio 7. Cambie a la forma interrogativa las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 1.4. 1. There is a police officer on the corner.

Is there a police officer on the corner?

2. There is a window in each room.

______________________________________________________

3. There was a mouse in the room.

______________________________________________________

4. There were many birds in the tree.

______________________________________________________

5. There is a radio in every room.

______________________________________________________

6. There are twelve months in a year.

______________________________________________________

7. There was only one person on the bus.

______________________________________________________

8. There will be several pictures on the wall.

______________________________________________________

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

3


Módulo 2

USO DE PRONOMBRES 2.1. Uso de pronombres posesivos. Her books are nice and clean, but his are a disgrace. This is Alice’s book. I left mine at home. The prize is yours. You and your wife won the contest. No, that’s John’s car. Ours is near the pole. They finished paying for their little house. It is all theirs now. Whose dress is this? Whose is this? This is yours, hers is on the bed. 2.2. Uso de formas pronominales. Which apple do you want? Which one do you want? I want the big one. Are you going to buy this piñata? Are you going to buy this one? Yes, I am going to buy this one.

Whose car is that? Whose is that? It’s his.

Which apples do you want? Which ones do you want? I want the big ones. I can’t use that ball. I need a small ball. I can’t use that one. I need a small one.

2.3. Uso de pronombres indefinidos. Everybody (everyone) is having fun. There’s somebody (someone) behind the curtain.

Nobody (no one) is having fun. Anybody (anyone) might win the race.

Everything is in its place. Something is missing. There are flowers everywhere. You can go anywhere in a jeep.

Nothing is in its place. A hungry mouse eats anything. I have my keys somewhere in my handbag. Sometime in the future I’ll be rich.

I can find that ring nowhere. I can’t find that ring anywhere.

There isn’t anybody (anyone) at the desk. There is nobody (no one) at the desk.

There is nothing on the table. There isn’t anything on the table.

OBSERVE Punto 2.1.: Para denotar posesión cuando queda sobreentendido el nombre del objeto que se posee, o cuando no se desea repetirlo se utilizan los pronombres posesivos mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs en concordancia con el poseedor. El pronombre posesivo no diferencia entre género y número, por ejemplo el pronombre his significa el mío, la mía, los míos y las mías. Para preguntar por el poseedor de un objeto, mencionado o sobreentendido, se usa Whose y éste precede al nombre del objeto. Observe la siguiente estructura: Whose + obj + is/are + this/that/these/those? Punto 2.2.: Cuando no se desea repetir un sustantivo porque se ha mencionado inmediatamente antes, o porque de cualquier otra manera resulta claro en el diálogo, se utiliza las formas pronominales; se sustituye por la palabra ONE si dicho sustantivo es singular, o por la palabra ONES, si es plural. Esto puede hacerse cuando se pregunta especificación con la palabra WHICH, o cuando se da especificación con un adjetivo descriptivo. Se usa la forma ONE con las palabras: which, the, another, other, this y that, etc. No se usa ONES con las palabras: several, five, these, those, etc.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

4


Punto 2.3.: Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro de pronombres indefinidos, su significado y su función gramatical. PRONOMBRE INDEFINIDO

SIGNIFICADO

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Se usa para denotar todas las personas o individuos del mundo (si se trata de una generalización), o de un grupo determinado. Se usa para denotar todos los objetos del mundo (si se trata de una generalización), o de un grupo determinado. Se usa para denotar la totalidad del espacio en una generalización, o la del espacio que se está abarcando convencionalmente.

Everybody (everyone)

Todos

Everything

Todo

Everywhere

En todas partes

Nobody (no one)

Nadie

Indica ausencia de alguna persona.

Nothing

Nada

Indica carencia de algo.

Nowhere

En ningún lugar

Anybody (anyone)

Nadie / alguien

Anything

Algo / nada

Anywhere

En ningún lugar / en algún lugar

Indica cualquier lugar.

Somebody (someone)

Alguien

Denotan alguna persona de un grupo no determinado.

Something

Algo

Indica algo de un conjunto no determinado.

Somewhere

En algún lugar

Se refiere a algún lugar dentro de un espacio determinado o indeterminado.

Sometime

Algún día

Señala algún tiempo no preciso.

Se refiere a algún lugar dentro de un espacio determinando o indeterminado pero indicando negación. Indican cualquier persona o individuo de un grupo, determinado o no. Se usa con negativas e interrogativas. Señala cualquier cosa en general, o dentro de un cierto grupo no precisado. Se usa con negativas e interrogativas.

Las palabras everybody, everyone, everything, no one, no body, somebody, someone, anybody, any one, nothing, something, anything; se pueden usar como sujetos o como complementos directos o indirectos y se estructuran como tales. Como sujetos SIEMPRE concuerdan con el verbo en 3º persona en SINGULAR. Las palabras everywhere, nowhere, somewhere y anywhere cumplen la función de complementos circunstanciales de lugar. Sometime cumple la función de circunstancial de tiempo. Estas últimas cinco palabras ocupan normalmente las últimas posiciones en la oración. Las palabras nobody, no one, nothing y nowhere; NO pueden usarse en frases negativas. Las palabras anybody, anyone, anything y anywhere, en frase negativa equivalen a nobody, no one, nothing y nowhere.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

5


REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las oraciones con uno de los pronombres posesivos; según lo pida el texto. Véase punto 2.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

This is yours; I left mine at home. Helen brought ____________, but we didn’t bring ___________. I have my ring in this box; where is _____________, Helen? Mary found ___________ in her dresser, but Sylvia couldn’t find ___________. I have mine and hers, but ___________ are missing. Where did you leave them? __________ is the small read car in front of the house. We bought it last week. We have new radios. Mark bought _________ downtown, Ted and I bought __________ in a store near school. __________ is a beautiful race car. He bought it last September. She made ___________ yesterday. They brought ___________ on time, but Carla and Liz didn’t bring __________.

Ejercicio 2. Conteste las preguntas guiándose por la información dada entre paréntesis. Véase punto 2.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Whose car is this? Whose books are these? Whose money is this? Whose candy is this? Whose radio is this? Whose records are those? Whose coat is that? Whose papers are these? Whose handkerchief is that? Whose earrings are these? Whose socks are those? Whose tickets are those? Whose pen is that? Whose chocolate bars are those? Whose typewriter is this? Whose watch is this? Whose documents are these? Whose flowers are these? Whose sweater is that? Whose house is this?

It is mine ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

(I’m the owner) (John is the owner) (She is the owner) (You are the owner) (We are the owners) (They are the owners) (Bill is the owner) (I’m the owner) (He is the owner) (Mrs. Herbert is the owner) (I am the owner) (We are the owners) (You are the owner) (You and Mark are the owners) (We are the owners) (Jane is the possessor) (We are the possessor) (She is the possessor) (Bob’s the possessor) (The Clarks are the possessors)

Ejercicio 3. Complete con ONE o ONES según convenga. Si no es posible usar ninguna de las dos palabras, cruce el espacio con una línea. Véase punto 2.2. 1. 2.

I need another one , please bring it to me. Laura is going to buy several _____________.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

6


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Which __________ did Helen choose, number one or number two? I can’t buy the blue __________. They are not my size. Who brought these __________? The __________ in the middle and the __________ at the end, are Mexican. Both belong to Mary. Can you give me those ___________? I need them for school. Five __________ are for John, the other __________ are for Peter. This __________ is Louise’s, that __________ is mine. You may take the small __________, the other ___________ are for the church bazaar. (There are three in all). Those ___________ aren’t ours, Please don’t touch them. Which boy is Peter? Isn’t he the ___________ near the door? Please open the __________ in the refrigerator. It is for dinner tonight. My new flat is much bigger than my old ___________. I like the green shirt best. Which ___________ do you prefer? I like these brown shoes more than those black ___________. Which picture do you prefer, this __________ or that __________? I’m looking for a tie. I want a blue ___________. Would you like a drink? Oh yes, please, I’d love ___________.

Ejercicio 4. Complete guiándose por el contexto. Utilice las palabras everybody (everyone), everything y everywhere. Véase punto 2.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Everybody (everyone) shouted happily at the wonderful news. I saw smiling faces ______________________. ____________________ was the way it should be. There were children ______________________. You cannot please ______________________. They placed guards ______________________. ____________________ looks perfect. John is going to be pleased. Was _______________________ at the school auditorium listening to the famous lecturer? I answered ______________________ on the exam. I hope to get a good grade. Not ____________________ came punctually this morning. Some students were late.

Ejercicio 5. Complete guiándose por el contexto. Utilice las palabras somebody (someone), something, somewhere o sometime. Véase punto 2.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

That letter will arrive sometime today. Don’t be impatient. Did __________________ call the doctor? The prize is hidden __________________ in this room. The party was __________________ before Christmas. ___________________ in my shoe is bothering me. ___________________ will finally find the answer to the problem. Did you take ____________________ out of the refrigerator? ___________________ opened the main door downstairs. It might be a thief.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

7


9. One of her contact lenses fell ____________________ near the dresser. 10. There’s _____________________ knocking at the door, please open it. Ejercicio 6. Complete guiándose por el contexto. Utilice las palabras anybody (anyone), anything o anywhere. Véase punto 2.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

You can put the packages anywhere ___________________ attracts the attention of a small child: a little insect, a flower, an old candy wrapper. ___________________ can learn English. The only thing required is practice and more practice. With this ticket, I may go ______________________ within three hundred miles of Monterrey. Did Mary add ______________________ unusual to the meat? It has a different taste. ___________________ from Little town could identify John Gilford. ___________________ might ruin the project at this step: a failure in power control. A helicopter can land practically _____________________. ___________________ can win the prize. The tickets are free. Did you smell ______________________ strange when you opened the box?

Ejercicio 7. Complete guiándose por el contexto. Utilice las palabras nobody (no one), nothing, nowhere, anybody (anyone), anything, anywhere, con el mismo sentido negativo. Véase punto 2.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

I didn’t find anything inside the envelope. _____________________ arrived on the 8:00 o’clock train. Please don’t say ______________________. I’ll do it anyway. Don’t put ___________________ on the table. I painted it five minutes ago. We can’t go ____________________. We have no money. They talked to ____________________ at the station. She saw it ____________________ in the room. We didn’t buy ___________________ for Christy and her birthday is tomorrow. Alice is _____________________ in the school. Charles isn’t imitating ______________________. That is his own personality. Unfortunately, there isn’t _______________________ we can talk to. They discovered _________________________ new. _____________________ could see the reason for his attitude. _____________________ will convince him: money, presents or advice. The bus didn’t stop _______________________ until it reached its final destination. I could see the books ______________________. Don’t say _____________________. It is not necessary. We didn’t hear _____________________ discussing the problem. They discovered _____________________ of archeological value in the old house. ____________________ answered the phone.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

8


Módulo 3

USO Y OMISIÓN DEL ARTÍCULO “THE” 3.1. Para expresar generalización o particularización. A. En el caso de objetos incontables. ORACIONES CON O SIN ―THE‖

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

Fire is sometimes useful and sometimes harmful. Snow is white.

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando en una oración se está generalizando el nombre de un objeto y, además, es incontable.

He put out the fire before leaving. The snow in my hand feels very cold.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando en una oración no se está generalizando el nombre de un objeto, únicamente se está refiriendo a una porción determinada. El artículo THE va antepuesto al nombre del objeto.

B. En el caso de objetos contables. ORACIONES CON O SIN ―THE‖

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

Trees provide shade for us. Flowers are beautiful. Doctors are usually specialized nowadays.

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se quiere englobar a todos los individuos de una especie. El sustantivo va en plural.

The trees in our garden are full of blossoms. The orange tree is especially beautiful. The flower is an important element of Japanese life. The flowers he has in his hand are for Mary. Did you see the doctor today? The Clarks, Dr. Clark and his family, live beside this church.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de un individuo o de un grupo de individuos determinados, dentro de una especie. El sustantivo puede estar en singular o en plural.

3.2. Casos especiales. A. Objetos únicos en la cultura. ORACIONES CON ―THE‖

The sun is going to melt the snow soon. The moon is full tonight. The wind is blowing hard. They exhibit some beautiful Greek vases at the museum. They are going to the zoo.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de objetos únicos o considerados únicos en la cultura. Casos especiales: the air, the earth, the moon, the museum, the sun, the weather, the wind, the world, the zoo. Excepciones: heaven, hell, paradise, society, civilization, town (con el significado de centro de la ciudad).

B. Ramas del conocimiento humano. ORACIONES CON O SIN ―THE‖

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

English and Spanish have different vowel sounds. Mike is studying law.

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de ramas del conocimiento humano tomadas en general.

The new English books arrived today. She lives near the Law School.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando las ramas del conocimiento humano funcionan como adjetivos. En los ejemplos anteriores, los sustantivos que funcionan como adjetivos son: books y school.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

9


C. Actividades. ORACIONES CON O SIN ―THE‖

I’m going to bed now. Good night. The policeman are taking the thief to jail. We are going to class now.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando el sustantivo deja de referirse a un objeto, para nombrar en general la actividad con la que se conecta dicho objeto. Otros sustantivos con el mismo caso: breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper, tea, church, school, college, prison, work, war. Caso especial: La actividad de tocar un instrumento musical, con the. He plays the guitar, I play the piano, etc.

She’s sweeping under the bed. They are cleaning the jail. The class was long today. He plays the guitar; I play the piano.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando el sustantivo se refiere a un objeto.

D. Los días de la semana y las horas. ORACIONES CON O SIN ―THE‖

We have a special class on Saturdays. It’s five now, I’ll be there at seven. Mother’s day in the United States is the second Sunday of may.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de las horas y de los días de la semana, siempre y cuando no se usen números ordinales. Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de los días de la semana, siempre y cuando se usen números ordinales.

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Guiándose por el contexto, complete con la forma correcta del sustantivo que aparece entre paréntesis, utilizando el artículo THE. Véase punto 3.1. 1.

The coat

near my blue suit belongs to my sister. (coat).

2.

Vegetables

are necessary in our diet. (vegetables).

3.

________________ on the stove is boiling. (water).

4.

________________ need love and protection. (children).

5.

I love _________________. (fruit).

6.

________________ was an invention that revolutionized culture. (printing press).

7.

Did you talk to ___________________? He wanted to see you. (teacher).

8.

________________ are seldom worn in our country. (winter clothes).

9.

________________ are expensive pieces of equipment. (computers).

10. ________________ are ready for Mrs. Helen signature. (documents). 11. ________________ isn’t everything in life. (money). 12. ________________ usually feels proud of his nationality. (Mexican). Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

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13. ________________ spoke on television to all parents. (president). 14. ________________ was a contribution of America to the world. (turkey). 15. I placed ___________________ on the table, please take it. (money). 16. ________________ is a wonderful invention. (computer) 17. ________________ are not good friends of mice. (cats) 18. ________________ symbolizes freedom. (quetzal) 19. ________________ are in the top cabinet. (glass) 20. Somebody is knocking at __________________, please open it. (door) Ejercicio 2. Utilice THE en los casos en que lo pida el contexto, en los demás casos deje el espacio en blanco. Véase punto 3.2. 1.

Did you visit _______________ old church near ________________ river?

2.

______________ sun was out early today.

3.

Is the concert going to be at ____________ 8 or at ______________ 9?

4.

We are not taking ______________ chemistry this semester.

5.

_____________ jail is in poor condition, they are going to rebuild it.

6.

At what time do you usually have _______________ breakfast?

7.

_____________ Psychology is my favorite subject.

8.

I want to go to _______________ heaven.

9.

_____________ Earth is the third planet in our Solar System.

10. I’m taking this report to ______________ class. 11. Mr. Benson is showing ______________ museum to my students. 12. Mrs. Clark will send all her children to _______________ college. 13. Our next program will be presented on _______________ Thursday. 14. They go to ________________ work at ________________ seven every day. 15. ______________ zoo will get a new elephant soon. 16. All ______________ Spanish teachers in our community are having a meeting. 17. We are going to ________________ town early tomorrow morning. 18. ______________ weather improved in the last two hours. 19. Can you see _______________ moon from there? 20. I am sure ________________ paradise is similar to this. 21. We never watch ________________ television in the afternoon. 22. ______________ world has to find adequate solutions for the problems of hunger and poverty. 23. ______________ air is polluted in most cities, specially industrial cities. 24. We could see the force of ______________ wind. 25. ______________ society has to provide education for all children.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

11


Módulo 4

USO Y OMISIÓN DEL ARTÍCULO “THE” 4.1. Uso y omisión de THE con indicadores de posesión o pertenencia. ORACIONES CON O SIN ―THE‖

The king’s daughter’s hat is funny. The bank’s headquarters is in this big building.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se denota posesión por medio de: ‗S o S‘.

New York City is not the capital of New York State.

Tampoco se usa THE antes de las palabras university, college, city y state, cuando los nombres con los que se establece la relación de posesión o correspondencia van antepuestos a ellas.

The hat of the king’s daughter is funny. The headquarters of the bank is in that big building. The City of New York is not the capital of the State of New York.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se usa la partícula “of” para denotar posesión, pertenencia o correspondencia de un objeto con otro.

4.2. Uso y omisión de THE en relación con nombres geográficos. ORACIONES CON O SIN ―THE‖

Hudson Bay is a vast bay in the north of Canada. Samuel de Chaplain explored Lake Ontario in 1615.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de nombres de bahías; de igual forma, no lleva THE cuando se particulariza el nombre de un lago.

Vasco Nuñez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513. The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea form the east earn border of the Republic of Mexico. The Colorado River is very dangerous. The Great Lakes partially divide Canada from the United States.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de nombres de océanos, mares, golfos y ríos.

Peru is in South America. Bilbao is in Vizcaya. Cortés departed from Cuba for Yucatán.

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de nombres de continentes, países, provincias, estados, ciudades e islas.

Vizcaya is one of the Basque Provinces. Cuba is part of the Antilles.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se trata de nombres de continentes, países, estados, etc. expresados en un conjunto. Otros ejemplos: The Americans, The United States, The Soviet Union, The Netherlands, The Carolinas.

Mount Ararat has biblical importance.

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se menciona el nombre de una montaña.

The Alps extend through southern central Europe.

Sí se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se menciona el nombre de una cordillera.

John lives on Main St. Carlos lives on Insurgents Av.

No se utiliza el artículo THE cuando se menciona el nombre de calles, avenidas, bulevares, etc.

Inglés III

Cuando se habla de lagos pero en conjunto, sí lleva el artículo THE.

Preparatoria Abierta

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4.3. El uso de a/an para indicar medida base. ORACIONES CON ―A/AN‖

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

Sí se utiliza el artículo A/AN cuando antecede a la palabra que se toma como medida base para indicar una proporción, en este sentido equivale a la palabra “per”. Otros ejemplos: a dozen, a gallon, a week, an ounce, a day, a pair, a head, a piece, an hour.

She goes home once a year, at Christmas time. John and I have literature four times a week. They cost two dollars a pound. That perfume costs twenty dollars an ounce.

4.4. Casos especiales en el uso y omisión de “a”.

A little

Un poco

They have a little money, so they are not poor. Algo, pero no mucho. (es suficiente para algo). I have a little money. I’m going to deposit it in my savings Indica idea positiva y se usa para cosas account. incontables.

Little

Poco

They have little money, so they are very poor. I have little money, I cannot buy expensive clothes.

A few

Un poco

I am not sad and lonely because I have got a few friends. There are few chairs in this room.

Few

Poco

I am sad and lonely, I have got few friends. We painted a few chairs. (4 de 8)

Casi no, casi nada. (es insuficiente para algo). Indica idea negativa y se usa para cosas incontables. Algo, pero no mucho. (es suficiente para algo). Indica idea positiva y se usa para cosas contables. Casi no, casi nada. (es insuficiente para algo). Indica idea negativa y se usa para cosas contables.

4.5. Con el sustantivo “time” y otros abstractos. ORACIONES CON ―A/AN‖

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

Aunque el sustantivo TIME es abstracto, puede particularizarse para indicar una porción definida de tiempo en el que se tiene una experiencia agradable, desagradable, difícil, etc. Otros sustantivos abstractos: beauty, pity, shame, etc.

They are having a wonderful time. She is having a miserable time.

4.6. Algunas expresiones fijas en que aparece el artículo a/an. EXPRESIONES FIJAS CON ―A/AN‖

POSIBLE SIGNIFICADO

EJEMPLOS

All of a sudden

De repente

An average of

Un promedio de

As a matter of fact

De hecho.

At a loss

Indeciso, dudoso, confuso.

I know John very well, as a matter of fact, we were neighbors for twenty years. My friends were not there and I felt at a loss.

In a hurry

Rápidamente, apurado.

John is in a hurry to finish his work. He has to finish his work quickly.

In a position

Adecuado, posición.

Mary is not in a position to help her friend.

In a while

En un rato, en un momento. They will be here in a while.

Put an end to

Terminar.

Inglés III

I was walking peacefully along the road; all of a sudden, a big dog attacked me. An average of twenty students came every week.

Let’s put an end to the confusion. Preparatoria Abierta

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4.7. Algunas combinaciones fijas con los verbos “do” y “make”. Do a favor Do a job Do business with Do one's assignment Do one's best Do one's duty Do one's homework Do research Do the dishes Do the exercise Do the laundry Do the lesson Do the work Do without

Will you do us a favor? He did a splendid job. Susan never does business with that company. We didn't do our assignment. Helen did her assignment immediately. I'll do my best to solve her problem. Alice did her best not to damage the wall. Do your duty that's the important thing. I did my homework carefully, you didn't do yours. Those scientists are doing important research. Margaret's going to do the dishes after breakfast, but she won't do them after lunch. Please do the first two exercises. We do the laundry on Monday. Marge did the lessons in hurry. Please do the work immediately. I can't do without his help at present.

Make an attempt, a try Make an appointment Make a date Make the bed Make a comparison Make a deal Make a decision Make an effort Make an error, a mistake Make a face Make fun of Make improvement Make money Make a noise Make a reservation Make peace / war Make a plan Make a progress Make a promise Make sense Make a speech Make a statement Make sure Make a turn Make the best of Make up one's mind Make believe Make clear

He made an attempt (a try) to score another point. I made an appointment with my lawyer to discuss my will. Martha made a date with some friends to go dancing. I have to make my bed before I leave for school. Don't make comparisons between you and others, only try to do your best. Let's make a deal: You give me your 1965 station wagon and I give you my 1972 car. Mother made a decision and she is going to carry it out. Henry made a tremendous effort to carry out the assignment. I made a mistake and I admit it. The man made a terrible face when he heard the news. You should avoid making fun of others, especially on account of physical defects. It’s usually cruel. You are making wonderful in your work. Congratulations! They made a lot of money by selling their product. The explosion made a big noise, but fortunately nothing happened. Our secretary is going to make a plane reservation for you and Ted. Let's made peace. I don't like to make war against anybody. Renaldo’s making a plan to obtain more money for the orphanage. We are making slow progress on account of the bad road. I made a promise to them and I will keep it. His words make sense, I believe he is right. Mr. Flaviano will make an interesting speech. You didn't make any statement about the money situation. You'll have to make sure all the lights are out before you leave. We cannot make a turn to the right at the next corner. She'll try to make the best of the situation. Helen always has difficulty in making up her mind. She cannot decide easily. Let's make believe you are an actress. Let's pretend you are an actress. He made his intentions clear to everybody.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

14


REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Escriba el artículo THE donde convenga. Véase punto 4.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The University of Wisconsin is in Madison. Quebec City is the capital of __________ Province of Quebec. We never do business with __________ Mr. King’s company. Did you see __________ John’s sister yesterday? _________ Laval University is an important university in Quebec. _________ voices of the children were loud and clear. _________ State of Alaska is the forty-ninth state of the United States. _________ Mexico City was established in 1521. _________ Vassar College is a women’s college. _________ legs of the table.

Ejercicio 2. Escriba THE donde corresponda. Véase punto 4.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The Amazon River is approximately four thousand miles long. My friends, the Sántiz, live in _________ Argentina. _________ Soviet Union and __________ United States won many gold medals in the last Olympic Games. Where is __________ Red Sea? It’s between __________ Egypt and __________ Saudi Arabia. ________ Burgos is an old and beautiful city in ________ north-central Spain. It’s the capital of _______ Province of Burgos. _________ Persian Gulf is an arm of __________ Indian Ocean. They established a new branch store on __________ Fifth Avenue. We are going to visit __________ Bahamas next summer. _________ capital of __________ Madagascar is _________ Tannarive. _________ Mount Everest has an altitude of 29.141 feet.

Ejercicio 3. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando: little, a little, few o a few. Véase punto 4.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

There was little food in the fridge. It was nearly empty. “When did you see Sarah?” “________________ days ago”. He’s very lazy. He does __________________ work. They’re not rich but they’ve got _______________ money enough to live. He’s not well-known. ______________ people have heard of him. She didn’t eat anything but she drank ______________ water. I speak ______________ Spanish. I have _____________ time; I can’t stay here for more two hours. She is very thin because she eats very ______________. They have _______________ money so they’re not poor. They have _________________ money. They’re very poor. There were ___________ people in the park. It was nearly empty. I’ve got ________________friends, so I’m not lonely. I’m sad and lonely. I’ve got _______________ friends. Yesterday evening I wrote _______________ letters to my family and friends. Can I have _________________ milk in my coffee, please? When did John go away? _______________ days ago.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

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18. Do you speak any foreign languages? Yes, Italian and ________ Russian. 19. Are you going out alone? No, I’m going with __________ friends. 20. I live in a very small village. There is a church, a shop and ______________ houses –that’s all. Ejercicio 4. Complete utilizando a/an donde sea necesario. Véase punto 4.5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Artists are interested in x beauty. The Johnsons are coming and we have ________ little milk, please buy two quarts. We had to wait for ________ long time. What _______ pity! She broke aunt Louise’s old vase. He doesn’t pay his debts. It’s ________ shame. It’s five and the plane doesn’t leave until five-thirty. We have ________ little time to talk. ________ few of this friends are giving him a surprise party. Pity is ________ noble feeling. What ________ waste of ________ time and ________ effort! The boys lost the game. That was _________ pity.

Ejercicio 5. Utilice la forma correcta de “do” o “make” según el contexto. Véase punto 4.7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Make sure you see the right kind of batteries. The president __________________ an important statement last night. Are you _________________ your homework? Will you __________________ a favor for Mrs. Brown? That doesn’t ___________________ sense. We’ll __________________ two lessons this week. I cannot _________________ any promises to you. Are you _________________ your best to help them? She offered to ___________________ the dishes after dinner today. The refrigerator is __________________ a strange noise. He ___________________ the job splendidly and received many congratulations. Our company didn’t ____________________ any money yesterday. Please don’t ___________________ fun of me. His firm __________________ business with ours. Helen always _________________ her bed before she takes her bath. That boy never __________________ his class assignment carelessly. We have to ___________________ an effort to finish on time. He __________________ a long speech over the radio yesterday evening. Could they __________________ room for the Clarks? The little boy was __________________ a face at the little girl. At what time do you usually __________________ the laundry? Let’s _________________ a plan for our excursion next week. We have to _________________ five exercises today. Zapatistas didn’t __________________ peace with the government. _________________ your duty and don’t worry about us, we’ll be all right. We can __________________ an attempt to correct the mistake. Are you __________________ comparisons? I don’t like it. I can __________________ without the car today, you may take it.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

16


Módulos 5 – 8

TIEMPOS COMPUESTOS 5.1. Presente perfecto simple. I have read this novel many times. It’s my favorite one. She has ridden on the roller coaster only one. Has she worked in London for six months? Kate and Ken have been married for 20 years. The taxi hasn’t arrived yet. I have never seen a ghost.

I haven’t been to Africa and India. You haven’t sharpened ten pencils. How long have you lived in San Cristobal? Has someone broken the window? I’ve written six letters this morning. They have just finished.

Has she found a new job? Yes, she has.

Have the children cleaned the windows? No, they haven’t.

What has broken? A glass. She’s broken a glass.

How many suitcases have you brought? I have brought three suitcases. I’ve brought three suitcases.

6.1. Presente perfecto continuo. He has been working on that report all morning. I’ve been working all day. Have you been painting? How long have you been living in Manchester? Ann hasn’t been working very hard recently. She has been waiting for an hour.

They have been playing for a long time. How long have you been sitting there? She hasn’t been doing her homework. They haven’t been walking all morning. He’s been living in Paris for nine months. Has Robert been doing his homework?

What have you been cleaning since morning? My bedroom

Where has Helen been studying Spanish recently? In Mexico

Have the children been playing in the rain? Yes, they have.

Has her fever been going down? Yes, it has.

7.1. Pasado perfecto simple. We had finished making the two quarts of orange juice just before he brought the electric juicer. Romeo had died when Juliet regained consciousness. I had been here as a child, when Peter was living with us. The rain had not stopped when we left for the concert. They hadn’t gone to bed by 12 midnight. Had answers been correct before he changed them? Had the baby thrown his bottle on the floor? Where had John played the guitar? In his bedroom

What had Ann written? A letter

Had Mrs. Lee baked a cake before her children returned from school? Yes, she had. 8.1

Pasado perfecto continuo. The beautiful princess had been sleeping for one hundred years when the prince woke her up. The children hadn’t been doing their homework; they had been playing tick-tack-toe until I came. They had been fighting for two hours. Had the students been working in the laboratory all week from 8 to 10 p.m.? Had they been drinking water? Yes, they had.

Had Mrs. Smith been writing letters to her family? No, she hadn’t.

What had John been playing? The guitar.

Who had been playing the guitar in his room? John.

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

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OBSERVE Punto 5.1.: El presente perfecto simple se forma con el auxiliar have (haber) y un participio. Al igual que el pasado de un verbo regular, los participios de los verbos regulares se forman al añadir la terminación “-ed” a la raíz del verbo. (play – played, visit – visited, copy – copied, study – studied, close – closed) Sin embargo, hay muchos verbos irregulares que varían su forma cuando se convierten en participios. (Véase lista de verbos irregulares) En la negación añadimos “not” después del auxiliar “have”, y en la interrogación el auxiliar “have” se sitúa al principio de la frase. Observe el siguiente cuadro: FORMA AFIRMATIVA I have played. You have played. He has played. She has played. It has played. We have played. You have played. They have played.

FORMA NEGATIVA I have not played. You have not played. He has not played. She has not played. It has not played. We have not played. You have not played. They have not played.

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Have I played? Have you played? Has he played? Has she played? Has it played? Have we played? Have you played? Have they played?

Es posible contraer tanto la forma afirmativa (‗ve, ‗s) como la forma negativa (haven‘t, hasn‘t) Punto 6.1.: Se forma el presente perfecto continuo mediante have/has been y el verbo en la forma –ing. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I have been playing. You have been playing. He has been playing. She has been playing. It has been playing. We have been playing. You have been playing. They have been playing.

FORMA NEGATIVA I have not been playing. You have not been playing. He has not been playing. She has not been playing. It has not been playing. We have not been playing. You have not been playing. They have not been playing.

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Have I been playing? Have you been playing? Has he been playing? Has she been playing? Has it been playing? Have we been playing? Have you been playing? Have they been playing?

Es posible contraer tanto la forma afirmativa (‗ve been, ‗s been) como la forma negativa (haven‘t been, hasn‘t been) Expresiones de tiempo que concuerdan en presente perfecto simple y presente perfecto continuo. Since (desde) So far (hasta ahora) Up to now hasta ahora) Up to the present (hast ahoy en día) For (por, alrededor de) All (todo, toda) Repeatedly (repetidas veces) Many times (muchas veces) Just (apenas)

The plant has been here since February. It has been blooming since May. She has written five letters so far. She has written five letters up to now. She has written five letters up to the present. It has been raining for six hours. It has been raining all afternoon. He has repeatedly won the championship. He has obtained first place many times. I have just finished making a cake.

Always (siempre), usually (usualmente), ordinarily (comúnmente), continually (continuamente), customarily (de costumbre), regularly (regularmente), occasionally (ocasionalmente), recently (recientemente), lately (ultimately) (últimamente), finally (at last) (finalmente, por fin), already (ya), yet (todavía)

Inglés III

Preparatoria Abierta

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Punto 7.1.: El pasado perfecto simple se forma con el auxiliar had y un participio pasado. Al igual que el pasado de un verbo regular, se construye los participios de los verbos regulares añadiendo –ed a la raíz del verbo. (play – played, visit – visited, copy – copied, study – studied, close – closed) Sin embargo, hay muchos verbos irregulares que varían su forma cuando se convierten en participios. (Véase lista de verbos irregulares) En la negación añadimos not después del auxiliar had, y en la interrogación situamos el auxiliar had al principio de la frase. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I had played. You had played. He had played. She had played. It had played. We had played. You had played. They had played.

FORMA NEGATIVA I had not played. You had not played. He had not played. She had not played. It had not played. We had not played. You had not played. They had not played.

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Had I played? Had you played? Had he played? Had she played? Had it played? Had we played? Had you played? Had they played?

Es posible contraer tanto la forma afirmativa (‗d) como la forma negativa (hadn‘t) Punto 8.1.: Se forma el pasado perfecto continuo con had been y un verbo terminado en –ing. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I had been playing. You had been playing. He had been playing. She had been playing. It had been playing. We had been playing. You had been playing. They had been playing.

FORMA NEGATIVA I had not been playing. You had not been playing. He had not been playing. She had not been playing. It had not been playing. We had not been playing. You had not been playing. They had not been playing.

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Had I been playing? Had you been playing? Had he been playing? Had she been playing? Had it been playing? Had we been playing? Had you been playing? Had they been playing?

Es posible contraer tanto la forma afirmativa (‗d been) como la forma negativa (hadn‘t been)

Sección de vocabulario Get in line (alinearse, formarse) Get out (salir) Get across (cruzar) Get here (llegar) Get to (llegar a) Get in (entrar en un carro chico) Get out of (salir en un carro chico) Get on (entrar en un carro grande) Get off (salir en un carro grande) Get ahead (avanzar) Get along (dirigir, progresar) Get away (escaparse) Get back (regresar en un lugar) Get in the way (obstruir, molestar) Get in touch with (comunicarse con) Get over (recuperarse de) Get through (with) (terminar) Get together (reunir, juntar) Get up (levantarse) Get x over with (terminar) Get x back (devolver, regresar (algo) Get x up (despertarse, organizarse)

Inglés III

Please get in line. Bobby opened the cage and the bird got out. Can you help me get across the street? I always get here at seven. Will the plane get to New York on time? Bob is getting in his car. Bill is getting out of his car. Jack is getting on the bus. Joe is getting off the bus. He is getting ahead in the business world. They are getting along splendidly at their new job. The prisoner got away. We got back from Europe last month. That foolish man is always getting in my way. Please get in touch with our office in New York. Mr. Brown got over his illness. We got through with the work exactly at 8 o’clock. They finally got together after three years of separation. My mother always gets up at dawn. We had a lot of work. We got it over with at midnight. I got my photo back today. They always get the boys up before 5 a.m.

Preparatoria Abierta

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Escribe las siguientes oraciones con el presente perfecto simple. Véase punto 5.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

He (speak) to me about it many times. They (finish) their dinner. I (be) in Washington several times. I (hear) her sing once or twice. They (be) good friends for years. We (learn) many new words. I (lose) my umbrella. She (study) that same exercises many times. They (clean) the house very well. They (give) up their home in the country. He (make) and lost several fortunes. She (be) late for class many times. We (drive) to New York form Miami. I (see) that same movie three times. He (lend) me money several times.

He has spoken to me about it many times. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 2. Complete con la forma del presente perfecto simple, use los verbos entre paréntesis. Véase punto 5.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

John has copied the words many times. (copy) We __________ finally _______________ the situation. (understand) We __________________ sandwiches for everybody. (prepare) Ted __________________ his book again. (forget) You __________________ an opportunity. (lose) They __________________ all the meat already. (freeze) I ________ just _____________ Mary. (see) We _________________ New Orleans five times. (visit) The Clarks __________ recently _____________ from Paris. (return) The children _________________ all afternoon. (sing) You _________ always ___________ punctual. (be) The baby __________________ since eight o’clock. (sleep) I _______________ all the songs. (record)

Ejercicio 3. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a la forma negativa. Véase punto 5.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

They have been good friends for years. She has felt well recently. He has worked here for many years. I have read that story. He has studied English for many years. He has left for Chicago.

Inglés III

They haven’t been good friends for years. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

20


7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

The lesson has begun. I have found my pen. I have spoken to him about it. He has mentioned it to me. The students have copied the words. Our company has signed the contract. We have sold all the problems so far. I have told you that many times. You have had that suit in your closet.

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 4. Cambie a la forma interrogativa las siguientes oraciones. VĂŠase punto 5.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

He has studied English for many years. Has he studied English for many years? They have known each other for a long time. ______________________________________________________ They have seen that movie for several times. ______________________________________________________ Her father has been in three times in Mexico. ______________________________________________________ They have been in Asia before. ______________________________________________________ Ann has bought many bottles of pure water. ______________________________________________________ The school bell has rung several times. ______________________________________________________ He has worked as a mechanic since 1980. ______________________________________________________ We have studied in Open Preparatory School. ______________________________________________________ All the girls have gone to school very early. ______________________________________________________ The child has lost a shoe. ______________________________________________________ You have drunk your milk. ______________________________________________________ Mrs. Robert has eaten an apple. ______________________________________________________ They have painted all the chairs. ______________________________________________________ She has combed her hair. ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 5. Escribe las siguientes oraciones en presente perfecto continuo. VĂŠase punto 6.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

She (study) English for two years. We (live) in this house since last March. I (try) to reach you by phone for the last hour. He (drive) that same car for at least ten years. She (feel) much better recently. He (sit) on that bench for several hours. Rose (work) on that same problem for days. The students (speak) English since 1999. He (work) in that same office since 1990. Ms. Russo (teach) school for many years. They (go) together for almost a year. I (wait) here for you for almost an hour. It (rain) all day long.

InglĂŠs III

She has been studying English for two years. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

21


14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

You (study) music since she was a child. She (wear) that same hat for more than a year. They (work) three for a long time. We (plan) this trip for many months. You (do) that exercises for four hours. We (answer) that test for many hours. Mary (practice) football since morning.

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 6. Escribe la forma negativa de las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 6.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Annie copies those words. She prepares them. We eat well. Marge plays tennis. I read the letters. You walk to school. It produces noise. We work there. They talk for two hours. I work all afternoon.

Annie has not been copying those words. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 7. Complete las respuestas breves. Véase punto 6.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Have they bought a new car? Has Vivian understood the questions? Have the boys been running? Have the girls made a mistake? Has the meat frozen? Have you and Ted been absent? Have they been sleeping? Has it been raining for a long time? Have the documents arrived? Have your parents given your permission?

Yes, Yes, No, No, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, Yes,

they have _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Ejercicio 8. Complete las siguientes oraciones con what, where, whose, who, how, how much, whom, how many, which. Observe la respuesta. Véase punto 5.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What have you bought for Helen? _______________ has the dog hidden its bone? _______________ car has just arrived? _______________ have you made for dessert? _______________ has escorted Louise? _______________ have I left my keys? _______________ have you come?

Inglés III

A record player. In the garden. Mary’s A lemon pie. Bob Smith. On the top of the dresser. By plane. Preparatoria Abierta

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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

_______________ money have we lost this year? _______________ have they convinced of the plan? _______________ has Bill ordered the flowers? _______________ has she broken? _______________ has caused the interference? _______________ have they studied French? _______________ drawings have you finished? _______________ house have they rented?

Two thousand pesos. Nobody. At May’s Florists. An old vase. A radio signal. In Paris. Five. The big one.

Ejercicio 9. Escriba en pasado perfecto simple las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 7.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

He told me that he (visit) Miami several times. The stranger (steal) the money. I saw that we (take) the wrong road. She said that she (have) her lunch. I thought he (find) his keys. I told him that I (see) the movie. When we arrived, they already (leave). I visited the places where I (play) as a boy. We got there just ten minutes after he (leave) She (live) there two years when the war began. He said that he (look) everywhere for it. She already (take) the money to the bank. I was sure he (have) the same trouble before. He (receive) similar reports in the evening. What did he say he (do) with the money? I was there in 1974. John visited the museum before. The boys studied all night before. We saw the actor before. Alice and Peter won a contest.

He told me that he had visited Miami several times. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 10. Cambie a la forma negativa las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 7.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Alice had looked for him several times. The boys had played tennis. The history course had ended. You had understood all the questions. The perfume had evaporated. The violinist had arrived on time. They had studied Spanish in Mexico. Martha had danced all night. Mr. Kent had signed the contract.

Inglés III

Alice hadn’t looked for him several times. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

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Ejercicio 11. Escribe el pasado perfecto continuo de las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 8.1. 1. They (fight) for two hours. 2. Mrs. Lee (wash) clothes all morning. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

They had been fighting for two hours ______________________________________________________

The students (work) in the laboratory all week. ______________________________________________________ It (rain) steadily all evening. ______________________________________________________ They (cry) for a long time. ______________________________________________________ Sylvia and Ann (swim) when it started to rain.______________________________________________________ I (call) long distance when he interrupted. ______________________________________________________ They (study) English all the morning. ______________________________________________________ She (read) a magazine for two hours. ______________________________________________________ I (study) when you called me. ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 12. Complete las respuestas breves. Véase punto 7.1. y 8.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Had the rain damaged her curtains? Had Louise and you been here before? Had the light been flashing all night? Had Martha served dinner before eight? Had Mr. Johnson won the prize? Had I told you the news? Had the procedure become obsolete? Had the child repeated it correctly? Had she informed everybody? Had the boys been playing all afternoon?

No, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, No, No, Yes, No, Yes,

it hadn’t ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Ejercicio 13. Complete las siguientes oraciones con whom, where, who, when, how, what, how much. Observe la respuesta. Véase puntos 7.1. y 8.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Whom had they been visiting? ________________ had we had lunch on that occasion? ________________ had answered our questions first? ________________ had he established his first company? ________________ had Mary come to the meeting? ________________ had been causing the difficulty? ________________ milk had the baby drunk? ________________ color had you chosen for your walls? ________________ had you gone before? ________________ had Ann been doing that night?

Inglés III

The Smiths. In the restaurant by Kent’s road. John. Before 1973. By plane. A mechanical failure. Five ounces. White. In Mexico City. Her homework.

Preparatoria Abierta

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Módulos 9 – 10

VERBOS QUE DENOTAN HECHOS VERBALES 9.1. Para indicar con qué actitud o en qué momento de su desarrollo se considera la realización del hecho verbal. Formas afirmativas: A. Con verbos que admiten forma en infinitivo. Margaret loves to eat chocolates. The stream started to dry up two years ago. She expects to finish a sweater in three days. Give him the coat. He might need to wear it in Chicago. B. Con verbos que admiten forma en gerundio. Margaret loves eating chocolates. The stream started drying up two years ago. People avoid walking under a ladder. You must quit smoking. Your lungs are congested.

My baby dislikes to eat vegetables. Mrs. Brown began to knit a sweater this morning. You need to be firm with Bobby.

My baby dislikes eating vegetables. Mr. Brown began knitting a sweater this morning. We risked falling into the water.

C. Con verbos que admiten formas en infinitivo y gerundio. Margaret loves to eat chocolates. Margaret loves eating chocolates. The stream started to dry up two years ago. The stream started drying up two years ago. You should continue to study English. You should continue studying English. Formas negativas: A. Con verbos que admiten formas en infinitivo o gerundio. He is trying not to drop the dishes. She preferred not to answer him. Mr. Peters hates not to receive his newspaper early. She preferred not answering him. Mr. Peters hates not receiving his newspaper early. I enjoy not hurrying to work. You should try not to forget to mail the letters. Remember! You must try not to use all your strength at the beginning. Save some energy for the final turn. B. Con verbos que admiten formas en infinitivo o gerundio. She didn’t finish addressing the envelopes. We don’t need to wear coats today. They don’t enjoy attending concerts. They don’t expect to play football today. They aren’t helping to fight contamination. Mrs. Brown never neglects watering her plants. You shouldn’t continue eating candy. It makes you fat. She can’t learn to swim. She is afraid of the water. Formas interrogativas: A. Con verbos que admiten formas en infinitivo o gerundio. Do you want to dance with me? Yes, I do. Yes, I want to. Does he enjoy riding on the merry-go-round? No, he doesn’t. Did they begin painting the doors? Yes, they did. Yes, they began to. Did they begin to paint the doors? Yes, they did. Yes, they began to. Are they attempting to get free? Yes, they are. Yes, they are attempting to. Are we going to need to make an umbrella? No, we aren’t. No, we aren’t going to need to. Will we need to take an umbrella? No, we won’t. No, we won’t need to. Were you expecting to receive a check? Yes, I was. Yes, I was expecting to. Can’t they stop making a noise? No, they can’t Have they got to start working at 8:30? Yes, they have. Yes, they’ve got to. Does he have to delay painting because of the rain? Yes, he does. Yes, he has to. Should the administration forbid touching the objects? Yes, it should. Could you finish making the dress last night? No, I couldn’t Would they rather continue playing? Yes, they would. Inglés III

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B. Con verbos que admiten formas en infinitivo o gerundio. Where do I have to start opening the can? At the corner. In what manner did they decide to walk? Quietly. When can she try to read? After her baby is asleep. What shouldn’t they like to eat? Candy. What could fail to operate? The flash. Who likes to drink milk? The baby. OBSERVE Forma Afirmativa, Inciso A.: Para indicar con qué actitud o en qué forma se considera la realización del hecho verbal, se expresa primero el sujeto, luego el verbo conjugado que señala tal actitud o hecho verbal, y por último, un verbo en infinitivo precedido por “to”. Si hay complementos, ocuparán su lugar de costumbre. Hay más de setenta de estos verbos para indicar actitud o forma de considerar la realización del hecho verbal. A continuación algunos de los más comunes: afford, agree, attempt, begin, cease, consent, continue, decide, demand, dislike, expect, fail, fear, forget, happen, hate, help, hope, intend, learn, like, love, mean, need, neglect, offer, omit, plan, prefer, proceed, promise, propose, refuse, regret, remember, stand, start, try, want, wish. Forma Afirmativa, Inciso B.: Para indicar con qué actitud o en qué forma se considera la realización del hecho verbal, con ciertos verbos se utiliza el gerundio “V-ing”. Los verbos más comunes que se usan para esta estructura, son los siguientes: admit, advise, appreciate, avoid, complete, consider, delay, deny, enjoy, finish, forbid, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit, quit, recall, risk, stop, suggest. Forma Afirmativa, Inciso C.: Existen algunos verbos que admiten doble terminación, es decir, pueden estar en gerundio o en infinitivo. Cuando lleva la preposición “to” indica hecho verbal en futuro y cuando lleva la terminación V-ing, indica hecho verbal en pasado. Los verbos más comunes que se usan para esta estructura, son los siguientes: attempt, begin, cease, continue, dislike, fear, forget, hate, intend, like, love, neglect, omit, prefer, propose, regret, remember, stand, start, try. Forma Negativa, Inciso A.: Para indicar con qué actitud o en qué forma se enfrenta la NO realización del hecho verbal, se expresa primero el sujeto, luego el verbo conjugado que señala tal actitud o hecho verbal, luego la partícula NOT y al final un verbo en infinitivo o gerundio exigida o permitida por el verbo de actitud o de forma de enfrentamiento. Forma Negativa, Inciso B.: Una segunda forma para indicar con qué actitud o en qué forma se enfrenta la NO realización del hecho verbal, se expresa primero el sujeto, seguido del auxiliar correspondiente en forma negativa, luego el verbo conjugado que señala tal actitud o hecho verbal, y al final un verbo en infinitivo o gerundio exigida o permitida por el verbo de actitud o de forma de enfrentamiento. Forma Interrogativa, Inciso A.: Para preguntar si se toma o no una determinada actitud o si se enfrenta o no en cierto momento de su desarrollo la realización del hecho verbal, se hace la interrogativa en forma ordinaria para el verbo que denota la actitud o momento de enfrentamiento como se ve en los ejemplos anteriores, es decir: do/does para presente, did para pasado, will para futuro; can, could, should, would; etc. Después de todo lo anterior va el hecho verbal de que se trate, en su forma de infinitivo o gerundio según lo exija el verbo de actitud. Cuando el verbo de actitud exige que el verbo que le sigue lleve la forma de infinitivo con to, hay una segunda respuesta breve después de Yes o No: (sujeto + verbo de actitud conjugado + to) Forma Interrogativa, Inciso B.: Para pedir datos específicos relacionados con la actitud o forma de enfrentamiento al hecho verbal, o con la potencialidad, obligación, permiso, etc., de tomar dichas actitudes o formas de enfrentamiento se da en primer término la pronombre interrogativo que pide el dato que se desea, y luego se estructura la pregunta según se ha descrito en los puntos anteriores. Cuando el dato pedido es el sujeto de la oración se utiliza en primer término, en la posición del sujeto, la palabra interrogativa WHO (si el sujeto pedido es persona o ser personificado) o WHAT (si el sujeto pedido es cualquier otro ser).

Inglés III

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10.1. Las palabras about, around, against, down, into, off, through, toward, up y upon se usan para indicar posición. Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro. VOCABULARIO

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

POSIBLE SIGNIFICADO Casi, acerca de

EJEMPLOS

About/around

On all sides of, encircling.

There are always four or five cats about. It’s about six a.m. The sun is coming out. It’s around six a.m. The sun is coming out. We are moving against the wind. He placed the picture up against the wall. Don Quixote fought against a windmill. They are coming down the hill.

Against

In opposite direction to/adjoining/ in collision with.

Contra, contrario

Down

In a descending direction.

Hacia abajo

Into

To the interior of/inside the nature of.

Dentro de, en

Off

Not on, separated from.

Lejos

Through

Por, a través de

Toward (s)

From one side to the opposite, from one extreme to the other/by means of. In a course leading to, in the direction of.

Hacia

Many cars pass through this giant tree. He received the package through the mail. She was running toward the empty chair.

Up

In an ascending direction.

Arriba

The bride is going up the staircase.

Upon

On, sometimes with an upward motion.

Sobre, encima de otro.

You have to place one block upon the other. They found Bob seated upon the top of the pole.

The elephant fell into the trap. Boling water turn into stream. The telephone is off the hook.

10.2. Algunos adjetivos y verbos de los más comunes, con las preposiciones que los acompañan normalmente. VOCABULARIO (Be) angry about (Be) enthusiastic about Complain about (Be) angry at Arrive at Look at (Be) homesick for Blame for (Be) tired from Borrow from Stop from (Be) interested in Arrive in (Be) look into Translate from—into (Be) kind of—to Think of (Be) tired of Agree on / agree upon Depend on / depend upon (Be) in tears over (Be) married to (Be) accustomed to (Be) used to Agree with—on Supply with

Inglés III

POSIBLE SIGNIFICADO Enojado de (algo) Entusiasmado de Quejarse de Enojado de (alguien) Llegar en Ver a alguien Nostálgico de Culpar de / a Cansarse físicamente de Dar prestado algo a Detenerse Interesado en / de Llegar a Investigar, examinar Traducir de… a… Amable de Pensar en alguien Cansarse emocionalmente Acuerdo con Depender de Llorar de Casado (a) con Acostumbrado de Acostumbrado de De acuerdo con—en / a Proveer de / con

EJEMPLOS He is angry about the new company rules. They were enthusiastic about the idea of their trip. Stop complaining about the situation. He is angry at the thought of losing his job. Ann arrived at the office before all others. Please look at me. I am homesick for my family and friends. They will blame Mr. Brown for their failure. Henry’s tired from working in the garden all day yesterday. Mrs. Lee never wants to borrow money from us. The policeman stopped the man from causing a disturbance. Are you interested in the project? Did it arrive in Monterrey on time? Please look into this matter at once. We are going to translate the poem from English into Spanish. It was kind of Helen to telephone us the news. I’m constantly thinking of you. Are you tired of the situation? They couldn’t agree on the price. I am going to depend on you for doing the job. She’s in tears over her school grades. They were low. Susan is married to my husband’s brother. We are accustomed to seeing her in a bikini. We are used to seeing her in bikini. He agreed with us on the solution to Mark’s problem. I always supply them with candy for the children.

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando en el orden y forma adecuados de los verbos que aparecen entre paréntesis. Véase Forma Afirmativa, Inciso A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Ferry attempted to steal base. (attempt – steal) After his speech, the President __________________________ the ribbon. (cut – proceed) They __________________________ their country and honor their flag. (defend – promise) We _________________________ cold coffee. (dislike – drink) She urgently _________________________ shoes. (buy – need) Ted and Penny _________________________ together all night last Saturday. (continue – dance) Liz ________________________ presents. (get – love) My brother _________________________ gasoline in his car. (forget – put) I _________________________ ice-cream. (prefer – eat) He _________________________ only ten more minutes for his girl friend. (decide – wait)

Ejercicio 2. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando en el orden y forma adecuados de los verbos que aparecen entre paréntesis. Véase Forma Afirmativa, Inciso B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The man admits stealing the camera. (steal – admit) The experts _______________________ tress in this area. (advise – plant) We ________________________ from you. (hear – appreciate) They _________________________ the houses last year. (complete – build) Mary _________________________ an answer until John came. (delay –gave) I __________________________ to the park. (go – suggest) Babies _________________________ their arms and legs. (enjoy – move) Ted will _________________________ his homework in ten minutes. (finish – do) The government ________________________ the border last summer. (cross – forbid) Please ________________________ that terrible noise. (make – stop)

Ejercicio 3. Vuelva a escribir las oraciones que admiten el uso del gerundio (V-ing). En lugar del infinitivo que nombra el hecho verbal. Véase Forma Afirmativa, Inciso C. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Mr. Livingston hates to go to parties. He refused to come here. We hope to visit Europe. Ann often forgets to close the box. The women proposed to have a meeting. The mailman failed to come today. They are offering to lend to money. Bobby fears to be alone. The man omitted to sign his name. We meant to answer his questions.

Inglés III

Mr. Livingston hates going to parties. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

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Módulo 11

PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS 11.1. Para indicar que la acción recae en el mismo que la ejecuta. The little girl is dressing herself. Mary and Ted are looking at themselves in the mirror. Bob made himself a sandwich. I cut myself. The cat is cleaning itself. You are harming yourself by eating so many chocolates. 11.2. Para indicar que se ejecuta una acción sin ayuda o sin compañía. She painted the house by herself. The baby is walking by himself for first time. Those two children are traveling by themselves. I prefer to study English by myself. I live by myself. Sheila did all the dishes by herself. I think he went by himself. You can’t go there by yourself. They completed the work by themselves. You are supposed to do it by yourselves. OBSERVE Punto 11.1.: Para indicar que la acción recae sobre el mismo que la ejecuta, se utiliza un pronombre reflexivo (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) en concordancia con el sujeto. Los pronombres reflexivos van después del verbo. Punto 11.2.: Para expresar la idea de que el sujeto realiza algo sin ayuda o sin compañía, se utiliza el pronombre reflexivo precedido por la preposición “by”, siempre después del verbo y los complementos directo indirecto, y a veces también después del complemento circunstancial de lugar.

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las siguientes oraciones con los pronombres reflexivos correspondientes. Véase punto 11.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Matt shaves himself every morning. Sheila hurt ___________________ when she fell. Sam looked at ____________________ in the mirror. We enjoyed _____________________ at the party last night. She says that she ______________________ will return the book to you. Be careful! You will cut ___________________with that knife. The dog hurt ______________________ when it jumped over the fence. The child burned _______________________ on the hot stove. My young son can dress ______________________ very well. Can your little daughter dress ______________________ yet? I cut ______________________ yesterday on a piece of glass. The president ______________________ will deliver the principal address. That horse will hurt ____________________ if it falls in that hole. We ____________________ heard Anne shout at the teacher. Helen fell and hurt _______________________. I want to buy _______________________ a new hat.

Inglés III

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Mr. Oguri __________________ will give the principal speech. We ______________________ will serve the meal. They all enjoyed _________________ very much at the party. I also enjoyed ____________________ very much. Monique cut ___________________ with the knife. We need to look at ___________________ in the mirror. Most children like to look at _________________ in the mirror. The president ____________________ speak to the members of Congress. Mr. Roth arranged the flowers _____________________.

Ejercicio 2. En lugar de la palabra “alone”, escribe la preposición “by” y el pronombre reflexivo correspondiente. Véase punto 11.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

She went for a walk in the park alone. She went for a walk in the park by herself I don’t like to study alone. ______________________________________________________ He eats lunch every day in the cafeteria alone.______________________________________________________ Do you like to eat alone? ______________________________________________________ The two boys will study alone. ______________________________________________________ Eva and I will also study alone. ______________________________________________________ The woman lives alone in a furnished room. ______________________________________________________ The dog found its way home alone. ______________________________________________________ He works alone in a small office. ______________________________________________________ He often goes for a walk in the park alone. ______________________________________________________ Do you like to go to the movies alone? ______________________________________________________ She did all the work alone. ______________________________________________________ She plans to go to Europe next month alone. ______________________________________________________ The boys study alone in one group. ______________________________________________________ The girls study alone in another group. ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 3. Vuelva a escribir cada oración utilizando un pronombre reflexivo e indicando que la acción se realiza sólo o sin compañía. Véase punto 11.2. 1.

Sylvia finished the work without help.

2.

Alice went to Europe without a companion.

_______________________________________________

3.

Mark discovered it alone.

_______________________________________________

4.

He climbed the mountain alone.

_______________________________________________

5.

I solved the puzzle without help.

_______________________________________________

6.

Tommy got dressed alone for the first time.

_______________________________________________

7.

I discovered the truth without any help.

_______________________________________________

8.

Did you build this without help?

_______________________________________________

9.

I can’t do the work without help.

_______________________________________________

10. We believe he went alone. Inglés III

She finished the work by herself.

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Módulo 12

VERBOS QUE INDICAN PERCEPCIÓN O CIRCUNSTANCIA 12.1. Para afirmar, negar o preguntar la percepción, conocimiento de una circunstancia del ser o de la acción. She knows whom to ask. They haven’t learned how to walk by themselves. I don’t know where to go. I don’t know which animal to buy. I don’t know at what time to leave. They haven’t considered how far to travel. They haven’t considered how much to use. They didn’t explain where to take it. 12.2. Para afirmar, negar o preguntar si se da o se pide información sobre una circunstancia de la acción. The man told the children which path to follow. The man told them which path to follow Is the instructor teaching Bobby how to swim? Is the instructor teaching him how to swim? I told her where to fly. He asked her when to leave. She showed us how to dance. We will teach you how to polish the furniture. OBSERVE Punto 12.1.: Para afirmar, negar o preguntar la percepción, conocimiento o memoria de una circunstancia del ser o de la acción, se usan los siguientes verbos: ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, figure out, find out, forget, guess, hear, imagine, know, learn, observe, perceive, remember, see, tell, understand, wonder, que de alguna manera señalan percepción, conocimiento o memoria. En seguida, inmediatamente después del verbo, el pronombre interrogativo que se refiere a la circunstancia de la cual se trate y al final el infinitivo del verbo que nombra la acción con la que se relaciona dicha circunstancia. Punto 12.2.: Para afirmar, negar o preguntar si se da o se pide información a alguien distinto del sujeto sobre una circunstancia de la acción, se usan los siguientes verbos: advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell; en seguida, inmediatamente después del verbo el nombre de la persona o personas a quienes se da o pide información o el pronombre correspondiente (me, you, him, her, us, you, them). Al final, como en el punto anterior, el pronombre interrogativo que se refiere a la circunstancia de la cual se trate, y el infinitivo del verbo que nombra la acción con la cual se relaciona dicha circunstancia.

12.3. Sección de vocabulario. Back On Up Over

Indicate that the action originally done is reserved. With He came back to his desk at 10:20. verbs of movement it means to return to a place. They’re going back to Acapulco now. The politician talked on for hours. Indicates that the action is prolonged or continued. O.K. Drive on to the next inspection post. Indicates that the actions referred to by the verbs are Fine, you’re drinking up your milk. Remember I don’t want done to their completion. any left. Please type this letter over. Indicates that the action is repeated. He’s going tossing the last song over.

Special cases: Go over (examine completely), Look over (examine, review), Talk over (discuss, consult with) y Think over (ponder, reflect) SPECIAL OBSERVATION: Object pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them), when used in verb combinations with back, over and up, always go between these words and the corresponding verb. In the case of verb combinations with over, this is the only position for the noun. But the noun may follow back and up in verb combinations with these two words.

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Guiándose por la respuesta, escriba el pronombre interrogativo correspondiente para completar la pregunta. Use: which, where, when, how, whom, what. Véase punto 12.1. 1. 2.

Have they decided which to buy? Yes, the blue one. Do you know ___________________ to go? Yes, to the corner store.

Inglés III

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Will you and Tim consider __________________ to return? Yes, next year. Did they figure out _________________ to solve it? Yes, by applying Rule 3. Could you find out __________________ to claim it? Yes, in the Lost and Found Department. Has your cat forgotten _________________ to catch mice? No, it still does. Has she found out ___________________ to reduce? Yes, by not eating so much. Could Martha guess ___________________ to find it? Yes, in the garden. Could you find out __________________ to simplify the production? Yes, with a new machine. Do we know ___________________ to ask? Yes, Mr. Brown. Were they able to perceive ____________________ button to press? Yes, the red one. Has Ann remembered _________________ to look for the answer? Yes, in her chemistry book. Can you see _________________ word to take out? Yes, the third word in the first line. Did he tell them _________________ to get there? Yes, by following his map. Are they going to dance or to sing? They haven´t considered ____________ to do.

Ejercicio 2. Complete las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 12.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

How do you know he’s going to the right place? I told him where to go. How do you know she’s coming at the right time? I told _____________________ to come. How do you know they will bring the right number of glasses? I told _____________________ to bring. How do know I will do the right thing? I told ________________________ to do. How do you know we will use the right amount of sugar? I told _____________________ to use. How do you know Helen’s taking the right bus? I told _______________________ to take. Does she think you’ll do it right? Yes, she taught _______________________ to do it. Does she think I’ll do the right exercise? Yes, she taught _______________________ exercises to do. Does she think Ann will plant tulips in the right place? Yes, she taught __________________ to plant them. Does she think John will do the right thing? Yes, she taught ______________________ to do. Will Henry choose the right color? Yes, Mr. Brown advised ______________________ color to choose. Will you talk to the right people? (one person) Yes, Mr. Brown advised __________________ to talk to.

Ejercicio 3. Complete con back, on, over, up según lo pida el texto. Véase punto 12.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

You only have a little milk. Drink it up This composition is full of mistakes, please do it ______________. David borrowed two books from Peter yesterday. Peter needs them today. David is taking them _______ to Peter. How are you going to return to your office today, are you walking _____________. They stopped to take on passengers in Houston and then flew ______________ to New York? I love that record, please play it _________________. Eat ____________ your food. Don’t leave any of it. This toy is not yours; give it ______________ to its owner. We arrived this morning, and we’ll drive ______________ home this evening. Let’s move ______________, we’re blocking the passage way.

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Módulo 13

ADVERBIOS INTENSIFICADORES Y CONFIRMATORIOS 13.1. Para indicar gradaciones en las cualidades o características de un ser. His grandmother is very thin. The frame on the left is perfectly round, the other one is slightly oval. Those two blouses are almost identical. Their differences are barely noticeable. This box is too small for Debbie’s doll. John is exactly eighteen years old. He’s old enough to vote. Ann is seventeen and a half years old. She can’t vote. She’s too young to vote. 13.2. Para indicar gradaciones en la forma de realización de una acción. This line is moving very slowly. We have hardly advanced a yard in the past hour. I have almost completely finished icing the cake. You certainly arranged the flowers beautifully. Ted didn’t run rapidly enough so Bob was safe at second base. She’s expressing her ideas quite forcefully. Obviously, he shut the door took hard. 13.3. Para indicar matices de grado o características utilizando formas compuestas. A. Construcciones de adjetivo o adverbio más participio activo (V-ing) o pasivo (V-ed/en) o pseudo participios (N-ed) This lane is for show-moving. Chance to the other one. They’re exhibiting the much-celebrated Mona Lisa in our local museum. We’re using the heavy-sprinkling system now. Their main attraction is a two-headed cobra. B. Construcciones de sustantivos más participio activo (V-ing) o pasivo (V-ed/en). Picking cotton by hand is a back-breaking job. Helen is heart-broke. Her boy friend married another girl. That’s an ear-piercing sound. Please stop it. C. Construcciones cuantitativas de adjetivo numeral más sustantivo, y de adjetivo numeral, más sustantivo, más adjetivo de descripción. 1. Con adjetivo Numeral más sustantivo. He report covered a two-year period. They bought a three-story house. 2. Con adjetivo numeral más sustantivo más adjetivo calificativo. I need a two-inch-wide ribbon. We have a three-year-old girl. Today is her birthday.

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OBSERVE Punto 13.1.: Para indicar gradaciones en las cualidades o características de un ser se utilizan adverbios intensificadores o modificadores especiales como very, about, almost, just, quite, well, too o adverbios intensificadores o modificadores formados de adjetivos, como perfectly, slightly, barely, etc. Estos adverbios indican la cualidad o característica en muy alto grado: very, absolutely, highly, quite, too, con gran certeza: certainly, definitely, obviously, con alguna incertidumbre: possibly, probably, en un grado razonable: fairly, rather; al punto deseado, o casi: about, enough, just, almost, en un grado escaso, barely, hardly, scarcely. Con excepción de enough, todos los adverbios anteriores se anteponen al adjetivo al cual modifican. Enough siempre va después del adjetivo al cual modifica: He’s old enough to vote. El adverbio too, que indica un grado mayor del deseable, y el adverbio enough, que indica el grado deseado, normalmente exigen que se señale con relación a qué se establecen dichos grados. Punto 13.2.: Los adverbios que indican grados o matices de intensidad pueden usarse para modificar a otro adverbio. Pueden ocupar, junto con el adverbio al que modifican, la posición normal del adverbio, después del verbo al que ambos se refieren, pero también pueden ambos anteponerse al verbo. Cuando hay un auxiliar, como en I have almost completely finished icing the cake, el auxiliar va antes de los adverbios y el verbo principal después. Los adverbios que más comúnmente acompañan a otro adverbio son almost, enough, quite, rather, very y too. También pueden usarse algunos otros terminados en –ly como certainly, decidedly, definitely, evidently, exceedingly, fairly, obviously, positively, really, truly, etc., que tienen un valor de confirmación o refuerzo además de ser intensificadores. Como puede resultar desagradable al oído la proximidad de dos adverbios terminados en –ly, es común que cuando un adverbio intensificador termina en –ly y afecta a uno de modo terminado también en –ly, el primero vaya al principio de toda la frase, separado por una coma: Evidently, they finished their work quickly, o va sólo antes del verbo, mientras que el segundo adverbio, el modificado, va después del verbo y de sus complementos, como en You certainly arranged the flowers beautifully. En estos casos el adverbio intensificador no sólo modifica al segundo adverbio, sino a toda la oración. El adverbio enough siempre sigue al adverbio de modo al cual se refiere: Ted didn’t run rapidly enough and Bob got safe to the second base. Punto 13.3. Inciso A: Las construcciones de adjetivo más participio activo o pasivo actúan como una unidad para describir matices de grado o características de un sustantivo o pueden anteponerse a él o ir enlazados con él por un copulativo. Hay siempre un guión entre el adjetivo o el adverbio y el participio para indicar tal unidad. Hay una serie de sustantivos que admiten la terminación –ed para convertirse en pseudo-participios y formar construcciones descriptivas con adjetivos o adverbios como los participios verbales. Otros ejemplos son: green-eyed, able-bodied, oldfashioned, feeble-minded, kind-hearted, sure-footed, etc. Punto 13.3. Inciso B: Las construcciones de sustantivo más participio activo o pasivo también actúan como una unidad para describir características de un sustantivo, y también van enlazadas por un guión, e igualmente pueden anteponerse al sustantivo al que se refieren o unirse a él, por un copulativo. Punto 13.3. Inciso C: Las expresiones de cantidad o medida, compuestas de un numeral y un sustantivo, o un numeral, un sustantivo y un adjetivo, pueden anteponerse al sustantivo al que miden o cuantifican. En este caso el sustantivo que integra la construcción cuantitativa o de medida no lleva forma plural aunque le corresponda sentido plural, como en His report covered a period of two years; I need a ribbon two inches wide. La inclusión del adjetivo en estas construcciones se hace por conveniencia de claridad: A two-inch-wide ribbon es distinto de A two-inch-long ribbon; o simplemente por razón de estilo: We have a three-year girl o we have three-year-old girl.

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Guiándose por el contexto, elija entre las palabras very, too y enough. Véase punto 13.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

There are very high peaks in the Alps. I can’t wear this dress, it is ______________ short. We think Terry is ________________ young to marry. She’s only fifteen. Those two boys are old _________________ to go on the trip by themselves. Mr. Kent earned two million dollars last year. He’s wealthy _______________ to stop working. Canada is ______________ cold in the winter. She’s expert _______________ to make a good purchase. Leonardo da Vinci was a _______________gifted man. Please excuse me. I’m ________________ busy to talk to you now. Helen couldn’t give any details to the police. She was ______________ nervous.

Ejercicio 2. Vuelva a escribir cada oración colocando, en el lugar más adecuado, los modificadores que se dan entre paréntesis. Véase punto 13.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

They disappeared rapidly. (too) He acts unfriendly. (certainly) Ann entered the room quietly. (very) You didn’t react fast. (enough) Her dress is definitely ruined. (almost) They drove back slowly. (rather)

They disappeared too rapidly. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

7. 8. 9. 10.

His men quickly controlled the situation. (very) They left the city suddenly. (quite) Crazily, he will attempt it again. (enough) She used all the words correctly. (really)

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 3. Complete cada oración utilizando en su debido orden los elementos que se le dan entre paréntesis. Véase punto 13.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

She spoke too rapidly , I couldn’t understand her. (rapidly – too) You’re working ______________________. Please hurry up. (very – slowly) We _______________________ forgot his request. (entirely – almost) Bobby is moving _______________________. He won’t disturb the baby. (quietly – enough) ________________, they carried it ________________. Three pieces are broken. (obviously – carelessly) He acted ________________________ to get their help. (enough – intelligently) Vivian is ________________________ in class at this time. (almost – certainly) She usually express herself _________________________ and clearly. (firmly – quite) Will they type _________________________ to complete the work by eight? (enough – quickly) Bob spoke _________________________. They won’t pay any attention to his request. (timidly – too)

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Módulo 14

FUNCIONES SINTÁCTICAS DEL ADJETIVO 14.1. Para expresar gradaciones y matices de color. My dress is light-gray. His coat is dark-gray. They painted the chair solid-black. I bought a Mexican pink skirt for myself and a Baltic blue dress for Helen. The uniforms of our soldiers are olive-green. The uniforms of our sailors are navy-blue. 14.2. Para señalar que parte de un todo se considera en una determinada situación. NONE OF THE SNOW has melted. NOT ANY OF THE SNOW has melted. NOT MUCH OF THE SNOW has melted. MUCH OF THE SNOW has melted. MOST OF THE SNOW has melted. ALL OF THE SNOW has melted. ALL OF THE GIRLS are holding a flower. NONE OF THE BOYS are holding flowers. NOT ANY OF THE BOYS are holding flowers. MANY OF THE WINDOWS are open. NOT MANY OF THE DOORS are open. NOT ALL OF THE DOORS are open. NOT ALL OF THE CHILDREN are playing, but MOST OF THEM are playing. She ate ALL OF THE ORANGE, but she left SOME OF THE BANANA. THREE OF THE KEYS are big. HALF OF THE CHAIRS are empty. ONE THIRD OF THE JAR is full of fruit. You may use HALF OF THAT FRUIT for the sherbet. OBSERVE Punto 14.1.: La tonalidad o el matiz de un color puedes expresarse con un adjetivo como light, dark, pale, deep, soft, solid, con adjetivos que indican color (blue, red, yellow, etc) a los cuales se les agrega el sufijo –ish (a la manera de, similar a), con formas especiales que indican el lugar en donde se originó ciento color, como Mexican pink, Prussian blue, Baltic blue, Ultramarine blue, French Gray, o con el nombre de un objeto del cual se toma el color, como almond greed, apple green bottle green, emerald green, olive green, pea green, sea green, sky blue, cobalt blue, pearl gray, steel gray, etc. Las dos primeras combinaciones llevan guión intermedio, pero también se escriben sin él. De cualquier manera, estas construcciones son inseparables y se pueden usar antepuestas al nombre del sustantivo al que se refieren o después de él, enlazadas a él con un verbo copulativo. Punto 14.2.: All of, most of, some of, none of, not any of, not all of se anteponen a sustantivos en singular y en plural y sustantivos que no admiten el numeral uno, como snow, para indicar la porción de un todo que se está considerando en una situación dada. Much of y not much of y a little of solamente se anteponen a sustantivos que no admiten el numeral uno, o a singulares, mientras que many of, not many of, a few of y several of solamente lo hacen con sustantivos plurales. Los numerales cardinales seguidos de of solamente se pueden usar con sustantivos en plural, los partitivos pueden usarse con sustantivos que no admiten el numeral 1 y con sustantivos en singular y en plural. Hay otras expresiones como part of, a fraction of, a bit of, a pound of, a yard of, y todas las que se emplean como medida, que también pueden usarse para indicar una porción del todo. Los partitivos, excepto half, se forman con números cardinales cono numeradores y números ordinales (pluralizados cuando el numerador es dos o más) como denominadores. Cuando el numerador es one, normalmente se sustituye por el artículo a/an. El ordinal pluralizado puede usarse sólo para indicar la forma de partición. Ej. I’m going to divide it into fourths.

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14.3. Sección de vocabulario. A. Algunas formas conocidas comúnmente como adverbios, que se usan como adjetivos antepuestos a sustantivos. VOCABULARIO

SIGNIFICADO

EJEMPLOS

Very/Just

Exactly

Just

Only/no more.

Almost

Approximately the amount.

Enough

Sufficient

More

Additional amount or number.

Less1

Reduced amount.

Fewer2

Reduced number.

This is the very thing I wanted. This is just the thing I wanted. I have just two dollars. I have only two dollars. She chopped almost a cup. We don’t have enough lollipops for all the children. We don’t have lollipops enough for all the children. You need more material for a long skirt. Next time carry fewer things; you’ll waste less effort, time and money.

B. Algunos adjetivos que por su forma pueden confundirse con adverbios de modo. VOCABULARIO Cowardly Deadly Fatherly Friendly Heavenly Kindly Lively Lonely Lovely Manly Masterly

SIGNIFICADO COMO Adjetivo Adverbio Cobarde Cobardemente Mortal Terriblemente Paternal Paternalmente Amable *** Celestial *** Amable Amablemente Vivo, activo *** Solo (a) *** Encantador *** Varonil *** Genial ***

EJEMPLO Their cowardly act caused indignation in the people. Matches are sometimes deadly weapons in the hands of children. Mr. Kent gave me some fatherly advice. Her friendly voice attracted the child. Angels are heavenly creatures. My kindly old grandfather is vividly present in my mind. It was a lively party. Everybody had a wonderful time. She feels very lonely since her husband died. Martha looked lovely in her pink velvet dress. I congratulate you on your manly position in this matter. His was a masterly performance. He’s a magnificent pianist.

C. Algunos adjetivos que tienen la misma forma que el adverbio correspondiente. VOCABULARIO Hourly Daily Nightly Weekly Monthly Yearly Early Fast Hard Late Straight

1 2

SIGNIFICADO COMO Adjetivo Adverbio Cada hora Cada hora Diario Diariamente Nocturno Cada noche Semanal Semanalmente Mensual Mensualmente Anual Anualmente Temprano Temprano Rápido Rápidamente Duro, difícil Fuerte Tarde Tarde Recto, derecho Recto, derecho

EJEMPLO

John makes a weekly visit to his family. He sees his family weekly. We’ll have to make an early departure. We’ll depart early. He made a fast turn to the right. He turned fast to the right. Margaret is a hard worker. She works hard. Did you see the late show? Did you stay up late to see the show? I drew a straight line. I drew the line straight.

Less is used with non-count nouns: water, bread, effort, time, etc. Fewer is used with count nouns: things, houses, books, etc.

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete cada oración con las palabras que se encuentran al final de la oración en su orden debido. Véase punto 14.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Both girls’ hair is reddish-brown . (is-brown-reddish-hair) I like ____________________________________. (green-walls-almond-those) Shouldn’t ______________________________________. (uniforms-blue-be-their-navy) Is ______________________________________ its original color? (red-that-greenish) I love _______________________________________. (blue-his-deep-eyes) _____________________________________ impresses me. (skin-write-lily-her) I don’t think _____________________________ is adequate for their purposes. (gray-that-tone-light) We need _______________________________ to complete out flower arrangement. (dozen-pink-a-roses-pale) I’m not sure ______________________________ will look well with my new skirt. (green-blouse-this-bottle) Mother ordered ______________________________ for the studio curtains. (material-red-Indian-white)

Ejercicio 2. Complete indicando la porción del todo que corresponde según el contexto. Véase punto 14.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

All of the people in the world will die some day. ________________________ the air pollution is produced by automobiles. ________________________ the countries of the world are rich countries. Only a few are. ________________________ the surface of the Earth is covered with water. We spend ____________________ our time sleeping. ________________________ the inhabitants of Mexico speak Spanish. ________________________ the people in my school write with their right hand. Many are left-handed. All of my friends are coming to my party. ________________________ them will be absent. ________________________ the countries on the American Continent have seacoasts. ________________________ of the astronauts have visited the Moon.

Ejercicio 3. Guiándose por el contexto, complete con: very, just, only, almost, enough, more, less o fewer. Véase punto 14.3. Inciso A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Is it exactly what he proposed before? Yes, it is the very thing he proposed before. It costs ninety-nine cents. It costs _________________ a dollar. Hey! The recipe calls for _____________ milk, and fewer eggs you’re using too much milk and too many eggs. There’s only _____________ oil in the world to last a few years. Did all your children come? No, ______________ Jack and Theresa did. We need ___________ time to finish the work, it is very difficult and time consuming. I’m afraid I don’t have _______________ food for all those people. Are you sure that’s exactly what he said? Yes, those were his _____________ words. He’s _____________ a friend. There’s nothing special between us. Buying on installments costs ______________money.

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Módulos 15 – 16

GRADO DE ADJETIVOS Y ADVERBIOS 15.1. Grado comparativo de inferioridad y superioridad de adjetivos cortos y largos. Mr. David is shorter than his wife. The small house is prettier than the big house. The window on the right is less wide than the window on the left. The white dress is more expensive than the black blouse. Andrea is less beautiful than Kristel. 15.2. Grado superlativo de adjetivos cortos y largos. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. She was declared the most beautiful girl among the contestants. You are the laziest person I know. This is the worst food I have eaten. The third problem is the least difficult of the three. 15.3. Grado comparativo de igualdad. Her eyes are as bright as stars. John ran as fast as Peter. He’s moving as carefully as she. Mrs. Brown eats as much food as her sister. 15.4. Para indicar similitud entre dos seres que se comparan. The square on the right is the same as the square on the left. Sylvia is like her father. They both love football. (Sylvia and her father are alike) My coat is the same as yours. The square on the left is the same size as the square on the right. The oranges are the same price as the grapes. 15.5. Para indicar diferencia entre dos seres que se comparan. The second and third triangles are different from the other three. The tree by the door is different from the tree in front of the window. The square on the left is a different color from the square on the right. John has a different style from Peter’s.

OBSERVE Punto 15.1.: Para entender mejor el grado de los adjetivos o de los adverbios; es necesario dividirlos en dos grupos: adjetivos cortos y adjetivos largos. Son adjetivos cortos los que constan de una sola sílaba como: tall, short, quick, etc.; o bien aquellos de dos sílabas terminados en y, w, de, como easy, narrow, y wide, etc. Observe los siguientes grados de un adjetivo y/o adverbio: Comparativo de igualdad: Juan is as tall as Pedro. Comparativo de inferioridad: Juan is less tall than Pedro. Comparativo de superioridad: Juan is taller than Pedro. Superlativo: Juan is the tallest of his family. Juan is the least tall of his family.

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Punto 15.2.: Son adjetivos largos los que constan de dos o más sílabas como: important, interesting, intelligent, useful, etc. Observe los siguientes grados de un adjetivo y/o adverbio: Comparativo de igualdad: An English book is as interesting as a Spanish book. Comparativo de inferioridad: An English book is less interesting than a Spanish book. Comparativo de superioridad: An English book is more interesting than a Spanish book. Superlativo: An English book is the most interesting of all the books. An English book is the least interesting of all the books. Punto 15.3.: Cuando se quiere indicar que dos seres poseen una cualidad en el mismo grado, realizan una acción del mismo modo o poseen la misma cantidad de algo, se utiliza la expresión as seguida de la palabra que indica la cualidad y luego otra vez as, (as…as) todo ello antepuesto al segundo término de la comparación. Punto 15.4.: Para señalar el mayor grado de similitud entre dos seres se emplea la expresión “the same as” antecediendo al segundo término de la comparación. Esta similitud puede referirse a su modo de ser o a su modo de actuar. La palabra “like”, antepuesta también al segundo término de la comparación, señalan alto grado de similitud, casi de igualdad, y a veces se emplea con sentido de igualdad total. Si a “like” le sigue un pronombre debe ser en su forma de complemento: me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them. “Alike” es un adjetivo que expresa similitud y se emplea en la posición de un adjetivo, después de “be” u otro copulativo. Para indicar la idea de que no hay similitud entre dos seres se hace negativa la forma verbal empleada en la comparación: am not, is not, do not, etc. Punto 15.5.: Para expresar que dos objetos son diferentes al comparar uno con otro se anteponen las palabras different from al segundo término de la comparación. Por supuesto se pueden usar para el mismo fin las expresiones the same as y like en estructuras negativas.

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Escriba la forma comparativa de los adjetivos o adverbios entre paréntesis. Véase punto 15.1. 1. Helen is (young) Rob. 2. This book is (interesting) that one. 3. Oranges are (sweet) lemons. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

The weather today is (warm) it was yesterday. This exercise is (easy) the last one. Lisa is (intelligent) her sister. I am (tired) I was last night. Our classroom is (large) your classroom. This lesson is (long) the next one. You seem to be (busy) George. Your grandfather is (old) mine. My father is (tall) my mother. We will get there (soon) you. She answered me (quickly) I expected. She plays the piano (well) her sister.

Inglés III

Helen is younger than Rob. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

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Ejercicio 2. Complete las siguientes oraciones agregando el comparativo de los adjetivos entre paréntesis. Véase punto 15.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

My house is bigger than her house. (big – superioridad) Peter is ________________________ John. (intelligent – superioridad) The boys in our class are _________________________ the boys in their class. (noisy – inferioridad) The big dog is _________________________ the small dog. (lazy – inferioridad) He swims _______________________ she. (rapidly – inferioridad) Tom is _____________________ Lizzie. (old – superioridad) This computer is ______________________ this other. (cheap – superioridad) Her coat is ______________________ her dress. (short – superioridad) The old man moves ______________________ the child. (rapidly – inferioridad) The apples are ________________________ the bananas. (heavy – superioridad)

Ejercicio 3. Escribe la forma superlativa de los siguientes adjetivos. Esté seguro de usar la palabra “the”. Véase punto 15.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Joy is (tall) girl in our class. She is (athletic) student in the school. New York is (large) city in the United States. Alice is (intelligent) girl in our class. Carlo is (good) student in our class. Mr. Gilbert is (busy) teacher in our school. Grace is (friendly) girl in our group. He is (bad) student in our class. John is (tall) person in our class. They are (bad) singers in our group. Mother bought (small) watch in the store. William has (beautiful) voice in the choir. I need (big) box for this shirt. Please give me (expensive) doll. Ann’s dress is (beautiful).

Joy is the tallest girl in our class. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 4. Agregue la expresión “as…as” con los siguientes adjetivos o adverbios. Véase punto 15.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Tomiko is (tall) her brother. This book was (expensive) that one. Mario is not (old) I. Amanda can’t swim (fast) I. I will be there (soon) possible. He came to the office (quick) he could. She can do the work (easy) I. She doesn’t work (hard) the other students. We go to the movies (often) we can.

Inglés III

Tomiko is as tall as her brother. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

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VERBOS REGULARES INFINITIVE To add To administrate To agree To answer To appreciate To arrive To ask To attend To attract To beg To believe To belong To board To boil To bother To broil To call To carry To change To charge To chat To claim To clean To climb To close To collect To compete To complete To confirm To consider To constitute To continue To contradict To cook To copy To cross To decide To declare To decorate To demand To die To discuss To dream To dress To elect To eliminate To employ To enjoy To enter To entertain To examine To exchange To excuse To expect To extend InglĂŠs III

PRESENT SIMPLE Adds Administrates Agrees Answers Appreciates Arrives Asks Attends Attracts Begs Believes Belongs Boards Boils Bothers Broils Calls Carries Changes Charges Chats Claims Cleans Climbs Closes Collects Competes Completes Confirms Considers Constitutes Continues Contradicts Cooks Copies Crosses Decides Declares Decorates Demands Dies Discusses Dreams Dresses Elects Eliminates Employs Enjoys Enters Entertains Examines Exchanges Excuses Expects Extends

PAST Added Administrated Agreed Answered Appreciated Arrived Asked Attended Attracted Begged Believed Belonged Boarded Boiled Bothered Broiled Called Carried Changed Charged Chatted Claimed Cleaned Climbed Closed Collected Competed Completed Confirmed Considered Constituted Continued Contradicted Cooked Copied Crossed Decided Declared Decorated Demanded Died Discussed Dreamed Dressed Elected Eliminated Employed Enjoyed Entered Entertained Examined Exchanged Excused Expected Extended

PAST PARTICIPLE Added Administrated Agreed Answered Appreciated Arrived Asked Attended Attracted Begged Believed Belonged Boarded Boiled Bothered Broiled Called Carried Changed Charged Chatted Claimed Cleaned Climbed Closed Collected Competed Completed Confirmed Considered Constituted Continued Contradicted Cooked Copied Crossed Decided Declared Decorated Demanded Died Discussed Dreamed Dressed Elected Eliminated Employed Enjoyed Entered Entertained Examined Exchanged Excused Expected Extended

GERUND Adding Administrating Agreeing Answering Appreciating Arriving Asking Attending Attracting Begging Believing Belonging Boarding Boiling Bothering Broiling Calling Carrying Changing Charging Chatting Claiming Cleaning Climbing Closing Collecting Competing Completing Confirming Considering Constituting Continuing Contradicting Cooking Copying Crossing Deciding Declaring Decorating Demanding Dieing Discussing Dreaming Dressing Electing Eliminating Employing Enjoying Entering Entertaining Examining Exchanging Excusing Expecting Extending

MEANING Sumar Administrar Estar de acuerdo Contestar Apreciar Llegar Pedir, preguntar Asistir Atraer Rogar Creer Pertenecer Abordar Hervir Molestarse Asar Llamar Llevar Cambiar Cobrar Charlar Reclamar, afirmar Limpiar Subir Cerrar Coleccionar Competir Completar Confirmar Considerar Constituir Continuar Contradecir Cocinar Copiar Atravesar, cruzar Decidir Declarar Decorar Exigir Morir Discutir SoĂąar Vestirse Elegir Eliminar Dar empleo Gozar de Entrar en Divertir Examinar Intercambiar Perdonar, disculpar Esperar Extender

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To fasten To fill To finish To freshen To fry To furnish To greet To guess To happen To help To hope To hurry To import To inspect To introduce To invite To join To land To learn To like To list To live To look To love To mail To manufacture To mark To mention To miss To move To note To obtain To open To order To owe To pack To paint To park To perform To pick To plan To play To prefer To prepare To present To print To process To produce To promise To prove To provide To reach To receive To recommend To reduce To register To regulate To relax InglĂŠs III

Fastens Fills Finishes Freshens Fries Furnishes Greets Guesses Happens Helps Hopes Hurries Imports Inspects Introduces Invites Joins Lands Learns Likes Lists Lives Looks Loves Mails Manufactures Marks Mentions Misses Moves Notes Obtains Opens Orders Owes Packs Paints Parks Performs Picks Plains Plays Prefers Prepares Presents Prints Processes Produces Promises Proves Provides Reaches Receives Recommends Reduces Registers Regulates Relaxes

Fastened Filled Finished Freshened Fried Furnished Greeted Guessed Happened Helped Hoped Hurried Imported Inspected Introduced Invited Joined Landed Learned Liked Listed Lived Looked Loved Mailed Manufactured Marked Mentioned Missed Moved Noted Obtained Opened Ordered Owed Packed Painted Parked Performed Picked Planed Played Preferred Prepared Presented Printed Processed Produced Promised Proved Provided Reached Received Recommended Reduced Registered Regulated Relaxed

Fastened Filled Finished Freshened Fried Furnished Greeted Guessed Happened Helped Hoped Hurried Imported Inspected Introduced Invited Joined Landed Learned Liked Listed Lived Looked Loved Mailed Manufactured Marked Mentioned Missed Moved Noted Obtained Opened Ordered Owed Packed Painted Parked Performed Picked Planed Played Preferred Prepared Presented Printed Processed Produced Promised Proved Provided Reached Received Recommended Reduced Registered Regulated Relaxed

Fastening Filling Finishing Freshening Frying Furnishing Greeting Guessing Happening Helping Hoping Hurrying Importing Inspecting Introducing Inviting Joining Landing Learning Liking Listing Living Looking Loving Mailing Manufacturing Marking Mentioning Missing Moving Noting Obtaining Opening Ordering Owing Packing Painting Parking Performing Picking Planning Playing Preferring Preparing Presenting Printing Processing Producing Promising Proving Providing Reaching Receiving Recommending Reducing Registering Regulating Relaxing

Fijar, apretar Llenar Terminar Refrescarse FreĂ­r Suministrar Saludar Adivinar Ocurrir Ayudar Esperar Apresurarse Importar Inspeccionar Presentar Invitar Unirse a Aterrizar Aprender Gustar Poner en lista Vivir Mirar, parecer Amar Enviar por correo Fabricar Marcar Mencionar Perder, echar de menos Mudarse, moverse Notar Obtener Abrir Ordenar Deber Empacar Pintar Estacionar Ejecutar Coger Idear, hacer planes Jugar, tocar Preferir Preparar Presentar Imprimir Elaborar, procesar Producir Prometer Comprobar Proveer Llegar a Recibir Recomendar Reducir Registrar, matricularse Regular Calmarse

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To remember To rent To represent To require To reserve To return To roast To roll To sail To save To separate To serve To share To shave To show To sign To smell To smoke To snow To start To stay To stop To study To suggest To supply To suppose To surprise To talk To telephone To thank To touch To treat To try To turn To use To visit To vote To wait To walk To want To waste To watch To welcome To wish To work To worry To wrap

InglĂŠs III

Remembers Rents Represents Requires Reserves Returns Roasts Rolls Sails Saves Separates Serves Shares Shaves Shows Signs Smells Smokes Snows Starts Stays Stops Studies Suggests Supplies Supposes Surprises Talks Telephones Thanks Touches Treats Tries Turns Uses Visits Votes Waits Walks Wants Wastes Watches Welcomes Wishes Works Worries Wraps

Remembered Rented Represented Required Reserved Returned Roasted Rolled Sailed Saved Separated Served Shared Shaved Showed Signed Smelled Smoked Snowed Started Stayed Stopped Studied Suggested Supplied Supposed Surprised Talked Telephoned Thanked Touched Treated Tried Turned Used Visited Voted Waited Walked Wanted Wasted Watched Welcomed Wished Worked Worried Wrapped

Remembered Rented Represented Required Reserved Returned Roasted Rolled Sailed Saved Separated Served Shared Shaved Showed Signed Smelled Smoked Snowed Started Stayed Stopped Studied Suggested Supplied Supposed Surprised Talked Telephoned Thanked Touched Treated Tried Turned Used Visited Voted Waited Walked Wanted Wasted Watched Welcomed Wished Worked Worried Wrapped

Remembering Renting Representing Requiring Reserving Returning Roasting Rolling Sailing Saving Separating Serving Sharing Shaving Showing Signing Smelling Smoking Snowing Starting Staying Stopping Studying Suggesting Supplying Supposing Surprising Talking Telephoning Thanking Touching Treating Trying Turning Using Visiting Voting Waiting Walking Wanting Wasting Watching Welcoming Wishing Working Worrying Wrapping

Recordar Alquilar Representar Requerir Reservar Volver, devolver Asar Enrollar Navegar Salvar, ahorrar Separar Servir Compartir Afeitarse Mostrar Firmar Oler Fumar Nevar Comenzar Permanecer Detenerse Estudiar Sugerir Suministrar Suponer Sorprender Hablar Telefonear Agradecer Tocar Tratar, convenir Probar, intentar Girar, voltear Usar Visitar Votar Esperar Caminar Querer Desperdiciar Observar Dar la bienvenida Desear Trabajar Preocuparse Envolver

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VERBOS IRREGULARES INFINITIVE To arise To awake To beat To become To begin To bleed To blow To break To bring To build To buy To catch To choose To come To cost To cut To deal To do To drink To drive To eat To fall To feed To feel To fight To find To fly To forget To forgive To freeze To get To give To go To grow To hang To have To hear To hide To hit To hold To hurt To keep To know To lay To leave To lend To let To lose To make To mean To meet To pay To put To read Inglés III

PRESENT SIMPLE Arises Awakes Beats Becomes Begins Bleeds Blows Breaks Brings Builds Buys Catches Chooses Comes Costs Cuts Deals Does Drinks Drives Eats Falls Feeds Feels Fights Finds Flies Forgets Forgives Freezes Gets Gives Goes Grows Hangs Has Hears Hides Hits Holds Hurts Keeps Knows Lays Leaves Lends Lets Loses Make Means Meets Pays Puts Reads

PAST Arose Awoke Beat Became Began Bled Blew Broke Brought Built Bought Caught Chose Came Cost Cut Dealt Did Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Flew Forgot Forgave Froze Got Gave Went Grew Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knew Laid Left Lent Let Lost Made Meant Met Paid Put Read

PAST PARTICIPLE Arisen Awaked Beaten Become Begun Bled Blown Broken Brought Built Bought Caught Chosen Come Cost Cut Dealt Done Drunk Driven Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Flown Forgotten Forgiven Frozen Gotten Given Gone Grown Hung Had Heard Hidden Hit Held Hurt Kept Known Laid Left Lent Let Lost Made Meant Met Paid Put Read

GERUND Arising Awaking Beating Becoming Beginning Bleeding Blowing Breaking Bringing Building Buying Catching Choosing Coming Costing Cutting Dealing Doing Drinking Driving Eating Falling Feeding Feeling Fighting Finding Flying Forgetting Forgiving Freezing Getting Giving Going Growing Hanging Having Hearing Hiding Hitting Holding Hurting Keeping Knowing Laying Leaving Lending Letting Losing Making Meaning Meeting Paying Putting Reading

MEANING Levantar Despertar Golpear, latir Llegar a ser Empezar Sangrar Soplar Romper, quebrar Traer Construir Comprar Agarrar, atrapar Escoger Venir Costar Cortar Tratar Hacer Beber Conducir Comer Caer Alimentar Sentir, palpar Pelear Encontrar Volar Olvidar Perdonar Congelar Conseguir, volverse Dar Ir Crecer, madurar Colgar Tener Oír Esconder Golpear Sostener Lastimar Guardar Saber, conocer Colocar Dejar, abandonar Prestar Permitir Perder Hacer Significar Conocer, encontrar Pagar Poner Leer Preparatoria Abierta

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To ride To ring To rise To run To say To see To sell To send To shake To shine To shoot To show To sing To sink To sit To sleep To slide To slit To speak To spend To spin To spread To spring To stand To steal To stick To strike To swear To sweep To swim To take To teach To tear To tell To think To throw To understand To wake To wear To wet To win To withdraw To write

Inglés III

Rides Rings Rises Runs Says Sees Sells Sends Shakes Shines Shoots Shows Sings Sinks Sits Sleeps Slides Slits Speaks Spends Spins Spreads Springs Stands Steals Sticks Strikes Swears Sweeps Swims Takes Teaches Tears Tells Thinks Throws Understands Wakes Wears Wets Wins Withdraws Writes

Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw Sold Sent Shook Shone Shot Showed Sang Sank Sat Slept Slid Slit Spoke Spent Spun Spread Sprang Stood Stole Stuck Struck Swore Swept Swam Took Taught Tore Told Thought Threw Understood Woke Wore Wet Won Withdrew Wrote

Ridden Rung Rosen Run Said Seen Sold Sent Shaken Shone Shot Shown Sung Sunk Sat Slept Slid Slit Spoken Spent Spun Spread Sprung Stood Stolen Stuck Struck Sworn Swept Swum Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown Understood Woken Worn Wet Won Withdrawn Written

Riding Ringing Rising Running Saying Seeing Selling Sending Shaking Shining Shooting Showing Singing Sinking Sitting Sleeping Sliding Slitting Speaking Spending Spinning Spreading Springing Standing Stealing Sticking Striking Swearing Sweeping Swimming Taking Teaching Tearing Telling Thinking Throwing Understanding Waking Wearing Wetting Winning Withdrawing Writing

Montar Sonar Levantar (se) Correr Decir Ver Vender Enviar Sacudir Brillar Disparar Mostrar Cantar Hundir Sentarse Dormir Deslizar Rajar, cortar Hablar Gastar, pasar el tiempo Girar Esparcir Saltar Parar (se) Robar Pegar, meter Golpear Jurar Barrer Nadar Tomar Enseñar Rasgar Decir Pensar Echar, tirar, arrojar Entender, comprender Despertar Usar Mojar Ganar Depositar Escribir

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REFERENCIA BIBLIOGRÁFICA

Ortega Argüelles, María del Rosario. Inglés III -Libro-, SEP Preparatoria Abierta, Editorial MIG, S.A. de C.V. 1996. 525 pp.

García Bores, Jaime. Diviértase aprendiendo Inglés Editorial Diana S.A. México D.F. 1990. 222 pp.

Pelayo-Pelayo Ramón y Gross. Diccionario Moderno Larousse, Ediciones Larousse. 1998. 513 pp.

Inglés III

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Este material fue elaborado por Ranulfo Sántiz López. Es Maestro en Docencia por el Instituto de Estudios de Postgrado (IEP), Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas y actualmente trabaja en la Escuela Normal de Licenciatura en Educación Primaria Intercultural Bilingüe “Lic. Manuel Larraínzar” en San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas; México. Comentarios al e-mail: keremranu@gmail.com


SEP


Inglés 3