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COMPENDIO DE INGLÉS II Segundo Semestre

Ranulfo Sántiz López

San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México.


El contenido académico de este texto es exclusiva responsabilidad del Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) y su índice pertenece al programa correspondiente al Plan de estudios del nivel medio superior, para la materia de:

INGLÉS II Autor: Enrique Díaz Garza. Revisó: Andrés Estrada Jasso. Adaptó: Elsa Contreras R.

Compendio elaborado por: Ranulfo Sántiz López. e-mail: keremranu@gmail.com

La decisión de hacer este compendio fue motivada por un gran deseo de ofrecer ayuda a todas aquellas personas que se lanzan a la aventura de estudiar sin maestro. Además, como parte de mi experiencia docente como asesor académico en esta asignatura, he visto la necesidad de contar con materiales didácticos prácticos y sencillos, aunque no menos rigorista.

Sinceramente, espero contribuir para que el alumnado del sistema abierto, pueda concluir satisfactoriamente sus estudios de nivel medio superior, porque estoy consciente de la importancia que tiene la educación en la vida de cada una de las personas. Así entonces, busco facilitar el proceso de aprendizaje en esta materia que forma parte del plan de estudios del sistema abierto, esperando que le sea de utilidad y lo lleve a cumplir sus metas educativas.

San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas; México; Mayo de 2012.


ÍNDICE

Página Pasado del verbo “To be”

1

Pasado Continuo

4

Pasado Simple

7

Futuro Simple

11

Futuro Idiomático

14

Verbos Modales

17

Preposiciones “to” y “for”

24

Adverbios y Preposiciones

27

Adverbios y Preposiciones

31

Otros Adverbios y Adjetivos

36

Adjetivos Calificativos y Determinativos

38

Verbos Regulares/Irregulares

42

Bibliografía Consultada

47


Módulo 1

PASADO DEL VERBO “TO BE” 1.1. Para señalar identificación, descripción o ubicación en el pasado. You were sick at 7 this morning. I was fat ten months ago. The box was on the bookcase yesterday. They were tiny and weak babies at birth. 1.2. Para señalar la no identificación, descripción o ubicación en el pasado. You weren’t well at 7 this morning. I wasn’t slender ten months ago. The box wasn’t on the table yesterday. They weren’t tall and strong at birth. 1.3. Para preguntar si corresponde al sujeto una identificación, descripción o ubicación en el pasado. Was Cortez in Tenochtitlan? Yes, he was. Were they nurses? No, they weren’t. Were you in Mexico in May 1972? No, I wasn’t. Was she an artist? Yes, she was.

OBSERVE Punto 1.1.: Cuando hay que señalar identificación, descripción o ubicación en el pasado, se utiliza el pasado del verbo to be was o were en concordancia con el sujeto. En el complemento de la oración es posible utilizar las palabras yesterday, last, past, ago como indicadores de una acción pasada. Punto 1.2.: Para negar que una determinada identificación, descripción o ubicación corresponda al sujeto en el pasado se inserta la forma negativa not inmediatamente después de las formas verbales was o were. Punto 1.3.: Para preguntar si una identificación, descripción o ubicación corresponde a un sujeto en el pasado, se antepone la forma was a los sujetos de primera y tercera personas del singular, y la forma were a todos los demás. La respuesta afirmativa breve se inicia con la palabra Yes más la estructura correspondiente y la respuesta negativa breve, se inicia con la palabra No más la estructura correspondiente. EN RESUMEN: Tenemos que: 1) La forma de pasado del verbo to be es was/were. 2) La contracción de was not es wasn‟t y la contracción de were not es weren‟t. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I was happy You were happy He was happy She was happy It was happy We were happy You were happy They were happy

Inglés II

FORMA NEGATIVA I was not happy You were not happy He was not happy She was not happy It was not happy We were not happy You were not happy They were not happy

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Was I happy? Were you happy? Was he happy? Was she happy? Was it happy? Were we happy? Were you happy? Were they happy?

Preparatoria Abierta

1


REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete con la forma was o were según corresponda. Véase punto 1.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

The house was empty yesterday. The Taylors were in Kansas in 1969. My grandparents _______________ happy at my wedding last June. Mary _________________ on television this afternoon. (It is 9 p.m. now) Mrs. Lane _______________ extremely beautiful ten years ago. Her children ______________ happy at the park this morning. (It is 3 p.m. now) The man ________________ tired this evening, after work. (It is 11 p.m. now) Charles and Peter ________________ sick last week. My sister ________________ hungry at 11 this morning. (It is 1 p.m. now) The cat ________________ there ten minutes ago. Her father _______________ present at her birth. We _______________ nurses in that hospital last year. You and I _______________ on top of the mountain one hour ago. Millie’s dog _______________ here yesterday morning. The weather _______________ cold last month. Mr. Kent _______________ a beautiful baby. I ________________ in China last year. You and your family ________________ enthusiastic over the idea yesterday. The sky _________________ gold and pink at sunset. (It is 10 p.m. now) She ________________ an actress in 1910. He ________________ president of our company three years ago. Carlos _______________ absent from school last week. I _______________ in the same class as Pedro last year. The windows of the car _______________ open. Both doors ________________ closed. Mike _______________ not at work yesterday. You ________________ not home last night when I called. There _______________ many students absent yesterday. She ________________ present at the lesson, but I ______________ not. The weather yesterday _______________ very warm. He ______________ at his aunt’s house all day. The teacher ______________ satisfied with my composition. The exercises in the last lesson ______________ easy. We ______________ sorry to see her leave. The wind last night _________________very strong. When I saw her, she _________________ very happy. Her face ________________ full of happiness. We ate the apples and thought they _______________ delicious. The book ________________ on the table. Mary and Jennifer ________________ students.

Inglés II

Preparatoria Abierta

2


Ejercicio 2. Cambie a la forma negativa, use las contracciones wasn’t o weren’t. Véase punto 1.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

John was in my class. We were very good friends. The door was open. The lesson was easy. You and George were at the meeting. We were in the same class. The doors were closed. I was very hungry. Ms. Rosas was our teacher. The weather was very good.

John wasn’t in my class. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 3. Con las siguientes oraciones; cambie a la forma interrogativa. Véase punto 1.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

He was an old friend. They were busy all day long. He was a very intelligent person. There were many students absent yesterday. The windows were opened. The door was closed. They were in Europe all summer. There was a book on the table. We were in the army together. The lesson was very easily.

Was he an old friend? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 4. Complete las respuestas breves. Véase punto 1.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Were you sleepy this morning? (One person) Was Henry in Boston two years ago? Were the visitors happy during the tour? Was your tea cold? Were the children nervous yesterday morning? Were your parents in Acapulco in the summer? Was Cynthia in class at 9 this morning? Was the dining room empty this morning? Was your record player out of order? Was her dress blue? Were Mr. Brown and Mr. Peters at the bank? Was he a good student? Was John in your class? Were Helen and Roger in the same class?

Inglés II

No, Yes, Yes, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, Yes, Yes, No, Yes,

I wasn’t ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Preparatoria Abierta

3


Módulo 2

PASADO CONTINUO 2.1.

Para indicar que una acción se estaba desarrollando en un momento dado en el pasado. Mary was playing with her doll an hour ago. Our dogs were running in the park at 10. You were driving too fast at the time of the accident last week. Caroline was studying in Open Preparatory School.

2.2.

Para indicar que una acción no se estaba desarrollando en un momento dado en el pasado. Mary wasn’t playing with her doll an hour ago. I was not sleeping when you telephoned. They weren’t watching television during two hours. We were not sleeping when the fire started.

2.3.

Para preguntar si una acción se estaba desarrollando en un momento dado en el pasado. Were you singing at a theater? No, I wasn’t. Were they dancing with boys? Yes, they were. Was Mike cutting flowers to her? Yes, he was. Was the man driving a taxi? No, he wasn’t.

2.4.

Para preguntar datos específicos sobre identificación, descripción, o actividad en el pasado. How was he walking? Carefully. He was walking carefully. Where were your parents? In the house. My parents were in the house. When were they at school? In the evening. They were at school in the evening. What was on the table? The book. The book was on the table. Who was listening? The students. The students were listening.

OBSERVE Punto 2.1.: Para señalar una acción en pasado, se da el sujeto, luego se utiliza la forma was o were en concordancia con el sujeto, y por último el verbo indicador de la acción en su terminación –ing. Los complementos ocupan su lugar acostumbrado. Punto 2.2.: Para negar que una acción se estaba desarrollando en un momento dado en el pasado se inserta la forma negativa not inmediatamente después de las formas verbales was o were. Punto 2.3.: Para preguntar sobre la actividad en desarrollo en el pasado con relación a un sujeto, se emplean las formas was o were (según el sujeto) y a continuación el verbo indicador de la acción, dándole la terminación –ing. El resto de los elementos de la oración ocupa su posición normal. Las respuestas cortas, se estructuran de igual manera como se vio en el módulo 1. Punto 2.4.: Cuando se pide un dato específico de: tiempo, lugar, modo, objeto directo, u objeto indirecto, de clasificación o de descripción de un sujeto, la pregunta se estructura con la palabra interrogativa que pide el dato en cuestión, luego la forma was o were que concuerde con el sujeto seguido de un verbo con terminación –ing. EN RESUMEN: El pasado continuo es el resultado de combinar el pasado del verbo to be y un verbo en la forma –ing. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I was running You were running He was running She was running It was running We were running You were running They were running

Inglés II

FORMA NEGATIVA I was not running You were not running He was not running She was not running It was not running We were not running You were not running They were not running

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Was I running? Were you running? Was he running? Was she running? Was it running? Were we running? Were you running? Were they running?

Preparatoria Abierta

4


REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las siguientes oraciones en pasado continuo. Véase punto 2.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

I was sleeping when you telephoned. (sleep) We ___________________________ in the park when it began to rain. (sit) The sun ______________________________ brightly when I got up this morning. (shine) I _____________________________ down Broadway when I met him. (walk) We ___________________________ lunch when she called. (have) Bruce ____________________________ when I went to see him last night. (study) He fell while he ___________________________ in the park. (play) They ______________________________ to Chicago when the accident happened. (drive) She fell while she ____________________________ off the bus. (get) My mother _______________________________ dinner when I got home. (prepare) The teacher _____________________________ on the board when we entered the classroom. (write) I ___________________________ lunch when I first felt sick. (have) It ______________________________ hard when I left home. (rain) But when I arrived at school, the sun ______________________________. (shine) Molly ______________________________ with Jack when I passed them in the hall. (talk) They _____________________________ television when we called them. (watch) I ______________________________ lunch when you telephoned. (have) Both children _______________________________ when I went into the room. (sleep) The man ______________________________ greatly when the ambulance arrived. (suffer) He _______________________________ a shower when she arrived in his home. (take) The children _______________________________ together ten minutes ago. (return) I __________________________________ the situation to them yesterday. (explain) They ________________________________ their room yesterday. (paint) Shirley __________________________________ a bath an hour ago. (take) The planes ________________________________ high last Sunday. (fly) Mary __________________________________ in the park with her boyfriend yesterday evening. (walk) I _____________________________________ for the contest last summer. (practice) You ___________________________________French in Paris last semester. (study) A deer _________________________________ water in that stream minutes ago. (drink) Helen _________________________________ dinner yesterday at night. (cook) We ___________________________________ cartoons before the football game yesterday. (watch) It was beautiful, the wind ________________________ softly and the moon _________________ (blow) (shine) The woods ________________________________ for three days last week. (burn) The potatoes ___________________________ five minutes ago. (boil) Janice ____________________________ tennis at five yesterday afternoon (play) Mr. Curtis ____________________________ his car yesterday evening. (wash) They ________________________ the floral centerpieces for the tables yesterday. (make) You _________________________ happily two minutes ago. (sing) The river ____________________________ its volume every minute during the storm last night. (increase) We _______________________________ the house at seven this morning. (clean)

Inglés II

Preparatoria Abierta

5


Ejercicio 2. Cambia a la forma negativa las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 2.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

She was playing the piano. We were attending the concert. I was eating apple pie. It was working properly. Mr. Harper was running to school. We were telling jokes. He was living in Mexico. Mick was watching television. The children were cutting papers. Your brother was speaking French.

She wasn’t playing the piano ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 3. Cambia a la forma interrogativa las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 2.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

A wire was causing the short circuit. I was causing you trouble. They were examining the trees. You were mopping the floor. Mr. Kent was explaining it clearly. They were showing a film. You were analyzing his poem. The baby was crying. The doctors were examining John. We were performing adequately.

Was a wire causing the short circuit? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 4. Complete las siguientes respuestas cortas. Véase punto 2.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Was Peter eating breakfast? Were they talking to Mary? Were you dancing? Was Helen typing? Was your mother writing letters? Was I interrupting them? Were they selling coffee? Were the children playing? Was your dog barking? Was Theresa making a dress? Were we answering correctly? Were the doctors visiting their patients? Were you opening a new bank account? Were the plants growing rapidly?

Inglés II

Yes, he was No, ________________ No, ________________ No, ________________ Yes, ________________ No, ________________ Yes, ________________ No, ________________ Yes, ________________ No, ________________ Yes, ________________ No, ________________ Yes, ________________ Yes, ________________ Preparatoria Abierta

6


Módulos 3 – 4

PASADO SIMPLE 3.1.

Para indicar que la acción, actitud, carencia, etc., se ha dado y ha concluido en el pasado. I danced with Patrick last Saturday. They closed the store at 6 yesterday. You needed help this morning. We stopped at the red light 5 minutes ago. She studied in the evening yesterday. I cut six flowers five minutes ago. You broke the vase. We swept the hall but not his room.

3.2.

Para indicar que la acción, actitud, carencia, etc., no se ha dado y ha concluido en el pasado. He did not catch the ball. They did not drink coffee this morning. He didn’t catch the ball. They didn’t drink coffee this morning. You did not clean the room. He did not go with Mary to the movies. You didn’t clean the room. He didn’t go with Mary to the movies.

3.3.

Para preguntar si una acción, actitud, carencia, etc., se ha dado y ha concluido en el pasado. Did he play soccer yesterday morning? Yes, he did. Did you study your lesson yesterday afternoon? No, I didn’t Did she sleep late yesterday? Yes, she did. Did they run at the beach last Sunday? No, they didn’t.

3.4.

Para preguntar datos específicos sobre una acción, inclinación, etc., dada y concluida en el pasado. What did we break? The window. Where did you go? To church. How did they talk? Loudly. When did you arrive in Monterrey? In 1972. Whom did he escort? Mary. Who cleaned the tables? The waitress.

OBSERVE Punto 3.1.: Para indicar que se ha dado una acción, actitud, etc. en el pasado simple; éste se forma añadiendo la terminación –ed a la raíz del verbo, siempre que éste sea regular: play / played, visit / visited, copy / copied, study / studied, close / closed ORTOGRAFÍA:  Cuando la raíz termina en –e solo se añade la letra –d: Love / loved dance / danced live / lived close / closed  Cundo la raíz tiene una vocal seguida de una sola consonante, ésta se duplica: Rob / robbed fit / fitted stop / stopped  Si el verbo termina en “y”, precedida de consonante, la”y” se cambia a ”i” antes de agregar la terminación –ed. study / studied Hay numerosos verbos de uso muy frecuente que se forman de manera irregular. (Véase Lista de verbos irregulares) Punto 3.2.: Para indicar que no se ha dado una acción, actitud, etc., se usa la expresión did not (didn‟t). El resto de la frase sigue el orden normal ya señalado. La forma did es la que lleva la idea de pasado; en este sentido, cuando se usa el auxiliar did not o Did; el verbo tiene que ir en presente simple. Punto 3.3.: Para preguntar si una acción, actitud, etc., se ha dado y concluido en el pasado se utiliza la forma Did, luego el sujeto y enseguida el verbo de que se trate y siempre va en presente simple. El resto de la frase sigue el orden normal. Punto 3.4.: Para preguntar por el objeto, persona o cosa en que se completó o recayó la acción, inclinación, etc., o las circunstancias de modo, lugar o tiempo que la acompañaron en el pasado, se utiliza en primer término el pronombre interrogativo que pide el dato que se desea, luego la forma did indicadora de pasado, enseguida el sujeto y a continuación el verbo de que se trate. Si hay complementos, éstos ocuparán su lugar ordinario en la oración.

Inglés II

Preparatoria Abierta

7


EN RESUMEN: En la forma negativa e interrogativa de todos los verbos en pasado, ya sean regulares o irregulares, utilizamos el auxiliar did. La formación de la afirmación, negación e interrogación es igual para todas las personas, tanto en singular como en plural. Recuerde que la contracción de did not es didn‟t. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I played You played He played She played It played We played You played They played

FORMA NEGATIVA I did not play You did not play He did not play She did not play It did not play We did not play You did not play They did not play

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Did I play? Did you play? Did he play? Did she play? Did it play? Did we play? Did you play? Did they play?

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las siguientes oraciones con el pasado simple de los verbos que se dan entre paréntesis. Véase punto 3.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

We worked in our garden yesterday. (work) She wrote many letters. (write) Yoshiko and I ___________________ by telephone. (talk) He always ___________________ to learn English. (want) They ___________________ for France for many years. (live) We __________________ to go to Europe in June. (expect) We both ___________________ the movie last night very much. (like) I __________________ almost two hours for Tom and Lynn. (wait) Daniel ___________________ late for class. (arrive) She ___________________ in our class last semester. (study) We both ___________________ how to swim many years ago. (learn) Carol ___________________ all the way to the store. (walk) John _______________________ in the lake yesterday. (swim) The planes ______________________ very high yesterday afternoon. (fly) The sun _______________________ brightly yesterday. (shine) Susan _______________________ Jim’s letters up an hour ago. (tire) You _______________________ the bell three times five seconds ago. (ring) They _______________________ the kitchen an hour ago. (sweep) Mother ___________________ a wonderful dinner last night. (cook) Josh ___________________ his final examination. (pass) He ___________________ the radio and went to sleep. (turn off) Mr. Hertz _________________ many dollars in a bank. (change) She _______________________ her book ten minutes ago. (close) They __________________________ for a Japanese company last year. (work) I ________________________ my chair differently today. (comb)

Inglés II

Preparatoria Abierta

8


Ejercicio 2. Vuelva a escribir cada frase de manera que corresponda a la nueva expresión de tiempo que se da para ella. Véase punto 3.1. 1.

John kicks the ball.

John kicked the ball

yesterday.

2.

Mary laughs loudly.

Mary laughed loudly

last night.

3.

They talk to Helen.

______________________________________ an hour ago.

4.

We open the doors.

______________________________________ early this morning.

5.

Sally looks at them carefully.

______________________________________ ten minutes ago.

6.

I like ice cream.

______________________________________ in the past.

7.

She stops her lesson at 3 every day. ______________________________________ 3:30 yesterday afternoon.

8.

I walk to school.

______________________________________ yesterday morning.

9.

You iron your clothes well.

______________________________________ last Monday.

10. We visit them every winter.

______________________________________ last winter.

Ejercicio 3. Cambie a la forma negativa las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 3.2. 1. He spoke to me about it yesterday.

He didn’t speak to me about it yesterday

2. She came to the lesson on time.

______________________________________________________

3. We ate lunch in the cafeteria.

______________________________________________________

4. I bought all my books in the bookstore.

______________________________________________________

5. The children drank all the milk.

______________________________________________________

6. She wanted new glasses.

______________________________________________________

7. He needed more lessons.

______________________________________________________

8. I waited for you on the corner.

______________________________________________________

9. He read the newspaper this morning.

______________________________________________________

10. We watched television last night.

______________________________________________________

11. He had many friends in the class.

______________________________________________________

12. He liked French movies.

______________________________________________________

13. She put all her books on the table.

______________________________________________________

14. I got up early this morning.

______________________________________________________

15. John came with me to the lesson.

______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 4. Cambie a la forma interrogativa las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 3.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

He spoke to me about it yesterday. He waited for us on the corner. They wrote him several letters. The bus stopped on this corner. They had dinner with us last night. She wanted to go with us. He preferred to stay at home.

Inglés II

Did he speak to me about it yesterday? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Preparatoria Abierta

9


8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Monica knew him very well. You got up very early this morning. They came to school by bus. They lived near us. She spoke to them in Spanish. We talked together for a long time. He bought his car in Europe. She put on her hat and coat.

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 5. Dé las respuestas cortas de las siguientes oraciones en forma interrogativa. Véase punto 3.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Did Mary work in the kitchen? Did they ride on a horse? Did the children play in the park? Did they watch television last night? Did the birds fly above the clouds? Did she type her letter? Did he wear a hat? Did she prepare coffee? Did he lose his sweater? Did her sister speak to the children?

No, she didn’t. . No, ________________________ Yes, ________________________ Yes, ________________________ No, ________________________ Yes, ________________________ Yes, ________________________ No, ________________________ No, ________________________ Yes, ________________________

Ejercicio 6. Lo que se afirma como presente pregúntelo en pasado utilizando yesterday y el pronombre correspondiente al sujeto. Utilice las formas did, was o were según corresponda. Véase puntos 1.3. y 3.3. 1.

John sleeps well every day.

Did he sleep well yesterday?

2.

The man is here now.

Was he here yesterday?

3.

You visit her every afternoon.

______________________________________________________

4.

He closes the circuits every noon.

______________________________________________________

5.

The boys study on Monday.

______________________________________________________

6.

The children are happy.

______________________________________________________

7.

We watch TV every morning.

______________________________________________________

8.

The baby cries every day.

______________________________________________________

9.

The players are at the stadium.

______________________________________________________

10. Marie telephones Peter every noon.

______________________________________________________

11. Jack is in class this morning.

______________________________________________________

12. Mr. Smith answers the questions.

______________________________________________________

13. He lost his watch this evening.

______________________________________________________

14. We wrote to the governor this morning.

______________________________________________________

15. You studied your lesson this afternoon.

______________________________________________________

Inglés II

Preparatoria Abierta

10


Módulo 5

FUTURO SIMPLE 5.1.

Para señalar que un evento ocurrirá en el futuro con determinadas circunstancias. His birthday party will be tomorrow. She will be a teacher. We will be in San Cristobal in two hours. She will clean the table. We’ll go to the beach tomorrow. The roses will open tomorrow morning.

5.2.

Para señalar que un evento no ocurrirá en el futuro con determinadas circunstancias. The branch will not break. She will not clean the table. We won’t go to the beach tomorrow. The roses will not open tomorrow morning. The branch won’t break. I won’t study English this week.

5.3.

Para preguntar si un evento ocurrirá en el futuro con determinadas circunstancias. Will she clean the table? Yes, she will. Will we go to the beach tomorrow? No, we won’t. Will the roses open tomorrow morning? Yes, they will. Will the branch break? No, it won’t.

5.4.

Para pedir información sobre un complemento o circunstancia de una acción o hecho o situación futuros. Where will she prepare dinner? She will prepare dinner in the kitchen. When will it be ready? It will be ready in twenty minutes. How will he carry the dishes? He will carry the dishes carefully. What will you study? I will study mathematics.

OBSERVE Punto 5.1.: Si se quiere indicar que un evento ocurrirá en el futuro, se nombra en primer lugar el sujeto, luego la palabra will seguida de un verbo en la forma simple y al último la expresión que señale el tiempo futuro de que se trate. Punto 5.2.: Si se quiere indicar que un evento no ocurrirá en el futuro, se nombra en primer lugar el sujeto, luego la palabra won‟t (contracción de will not) seguida de un verbo en la forma simple y al último la expresión que señale el tiempo futuro. Punto 5.3.: Si se quiere preguntar si un evento ocurrirá en el futuro, se nombra en primer lugar la palabra will luego el sujeto, seguida de un verbo en la forma simple y al último la expresión que señale el tiempo futuro de que se trate. Punto 5.4.: Para pedir información sobre un complemento o circunstancia de una acción, hecho o situación futuros se da primero el pronombre interrogativo que pida el dato en cuestión: (Where, What, When, etc.) seguida de will, después el sujeto, para terminar con el verbo y los complementos o circunstancias ya conocidos que tuviere. EN RESUMEN: El futuro simple se forma con el auxiliar will más un verbo en la forma simple. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I will play You will play He will play She will play It will play We will play You will play They will play

FORMA NEGATIVA I will not play You will not play He will not play She will not play It will not play We will not play You will not play They will not play

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Will I play? Will you play? Will he play? Will she play? Will it play? Will we play? Will you play? Will they play?

En la negación, will not se puede contraer en won‟t, y en la forma afirmativa la contracción de will es –„ll:

Inglés II

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Usando los verbos entre paréntesis, complete las siguientes frases indicando realización futura. Véase punto 5.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

He will bring the books in a month. (bring) She _____________________ carefully. She promised. (drive) I _______________________ you the one hundred pesos tomorrow. (pay) They _____________________ passes from now on. (request) We _______________________ the job on time. (complete) The children ________________________ their homework before dinner. (do) They ________________________ the accident to the police. (report) I __________________________ her the medicine in the morning. (give) My father __________________________ a new car tomorrow at night. (buy) Henry _______________________ out of place at that meeting. (feel) His restaurant ___________________________ open to the public next week. (be) Copies of the document __________________________ distributed to the members. (be) John and his wife and daughter ___________________________ at one p.m. tomorrow. (arrive) We __________________________ our decision to the committee. (explain) Paul and Louise _________________________________ to Oaxaca on their honeymoon. (go)

Ejercicio 2. Cambie las siguientes oraciones al futuro simple. Escriba la forma completa del verbo. Véase punto 5.1. 1. He studies in this class.

He will study in this class.

2. She works in this office. 3. They walk to their work. 4. He brings his friends to the lesson. 5. He studies at the library. 6. She brings all her books to the lesson. 7. She plays the violin well. 8. We carry all the small packages. 9. I bring you many presents. 10. She arrives at the lesson on time. Ejercicio 3. Cambie a la forma negativa. Use las contracciones. Véase punto 5.2. 1. He will see us at three o’clock.

He won’t see us at three o’clock.

2. She will be back in an hour.

______________________________________________________

3. They’ll arrive on the two o’clock train.

______________________________________________________

4. She will meet us here.

______________________________________________________

5. I will bring the medicine with me.

______________________________________________________

6. He will wait for us on the corner.

______________________________________________________

7. They will return next month.

______________________________________________________

8. She will help us with the work.

______________________________________________________

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9. I will leave at three o’clock.

______________________________________________________

10. She will sign her name to the letter.

______________________________________________________

11. The students will arrive at 7:00. 12. I’ll find several answers. 13. My sisters will clean the room.

______________________________________________________

14. Mr. Robert will buy flowers.

______________________________________________________

15. Some students will finish early.

______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 4. Cambie a la forma interrogativa las siguientes oraciones y dé la respuesta breve. Véase punto 5.3. 1. He will return next week.

Will he return next week? Yes, he will

2. She will write a novel.

______________________________________________________ No, _________________

3. They will leave for California on Wednesday.

______________________________________________________ Yes, _________________

4. He will study at the University of Chiapas.

______________________________________________________ No, _________________

5. Rita will be here in an hour.

______________________________________________________ Yes, _________________

6. They will wait for us on the corner.

______________________________________________________ No, _________________

7. The lesson will begin at ten o’clock.

______________________________________________________ No, _________________

8. She will speak English well someday.

______________________________________________________ Yes, _________________

9. The meeting will last for more than an hour. ______________________________________________________ No, _________________ 10. They will turn out to be good friends.

______________________________________________________ Yes, _________________

Inglés II

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Módulo 6

FUTURO IDIOMÁTICO 6.1.

Para señalar que un evento ocurrirá en el futuro con determinadas circunstancias. His birthday party is going to be tomorrow. She’s going to be a teacher. We are going to be in San Cristobal in two hours. She is going to clean the table. We’re going to go to the beach tomorrow. The roses are going to open tomorrow morning.

6.2.

Para señalar que un evento no ocurrirá en el futuro con determinadas circunstancias. The branch is not going to break. She’s not going to clean the table. We’re not going to go to the beach tomorrow. The branch isn’t going to break. The roses aren’t going to open tomorrow morning. She is not going to be married next week.

6.3.

Para preguntar si un evento ocurrirá en el futuro con determinadas circunstancias. Is she going to clean the table? Yes, she is. Are we going to go to the beach tomorrow? No, we aren’t. Are the roses going to open tomorrow morning? Yes, they are.

6.4.

Para pedir información sobre un complemento o circunstancia de una acción o hecho o situación futuros. Where is Mary going to prepare dinner? She is going to prepare dinner in the kitchen. When is the bake going to be ready? It is going to be ready in twenty minutes. How is he going to carry the dishes? He’s going to carry the dishes carefully. What are you going to study? I am going to study mathematics.

OBSERVE Punto 6.1.: Si se quiere indicar que un evento ocurrirá en el futuro, se nombra en primer lugar el sujeto, luego se da la forma “is, are, am” que le corresponda y en seguida, como fórmula fija, las palabras going to + un verbo en la forma simple y al último la expresión que señale el tiempo futuro de que se trate. Punto 6.2.: Si se quiere indicar que un evento no ocurrirá en el futuro, se nombra en primer lugar el sujeto, luego se da la forma “isn‟t, aren‟t, am not” que le corresponda y en seguida, como fórmula fija, las palabras going to + un verbo en la forma simple y al último la expresión que señale el tiempo futuro de que se trate. Punto 6.3.: Si se quiere preguntar si un evento ocurrirá en el futuro, se nombra en primer lugar la palabra “is, are, am” luego el sujeto, y en seguida, como fórmula fija, las palabras going to + un verbo en la forma simple y al último la expresión que señale el tiempo futuro de que se trate. Punto 6.4.: Para pedir información sobre un complemento o circunstancia de una acción, hecho o situación futuros se da primero el pronombre interrogativo que pida el dato en cuestión: (Where, What, When, etc.) seguida de am, is o are según corresponda el sujeto, después éste, y a continuación, las palabras going to, para terminar con el verbo y los complementos o circunstancias ya conocidos que tuviere. EN RESUMEN: El futuro con idiomático o continuo, responde a la siguiente estructura: verbo to be + going to + infinitivo. FORMA AFIRMATIVA I am going to play You are going to play He is going to play She is going to play It is going to play We are going to play You are going to play They are going to play

Inglés II

FORMA NEGATIVA I am not going to play You are not going to play He is not going to play She is not going to play It is not going to play We are not going to play You are not going to play They are not going to play

FORMA INTERROGATIVA Am I going to play? Are you going to play? Is he going to play? Is she going to play? Is it going to play? Are we going to play? Are you going to play? Are they going to play?

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Escribe las siguientes oraciones en futuro idiomático. Véase punto 6.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

He (wait) for us after the lesson. Michel (teach) me how to swim. Hurry! We (be) late for the lesson. She (meet) us after the theater. We (stay) home and watch television tonight. He (go) to Mexico on his vacation. She (take) engineering in college. We (go) to the beach this afternoon. The paper says that it (rain) tomorrow. We (eat) out tonight. Martin (have) dinner with us. After dinner we (go) to the theater. She (get) married in June. They (spend) their honeymoon in Chiapas. Tom (ask) Juanita for a date. You (be) late for class if you don’t hurry. We (go) to the movies tonight. They (fly) to Tuxtla Gutierrez. He (study) English by himself. Karla (bake) a cake tonight. Alice (come) home tomorrow. We (live) in Guadalajara soon. They (listen to) our records this evenings. I (leave) for Europe next month. John (tell) them the truth.

He is going to wait for us after the lesson. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Ejercicio 2. Escribe la forma negativa de las siguientes oraciones en futuro idiomático. Véase punto 6.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

We are not going to play baseball. (play) Helen _______________________________ to New York. (go) I __________________________________ the door. (open) They _________________________________. (sing) My parents _________________________________ in the afternoon. (arrive) They ___________________________________ a car. (buy) You ___________________________________ the words. (practice) Laura and I __________________________________ tomorrow. (work) The prize _________________________________ for Helen. (be) Your suits ___________________________________ ready today. (be) He ___________________________________ on TV tonight. (sing)

Inglés II

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12. 13. 14. 15.

Your father ____________________________________ you to Europe with him next time. (take) Mrs. Lane _____________________________________ clothes by hand. (wash) You ______________________________________ during the morning? (swim) The program __________________________________ at quarter to nine? (begin)

Ejercicio 3. Utilizando la forma going to complete las siguientes preguntas, de manera que expresen futuro, utilice los verbos que aparecen entre paréntesis. Véase punto 6.3. 1.

Are

you

going to come__________ to class tomorrow? (come)

2.

_________ they __________________________ the concert this evening? (listen to)

3.

_________ we ___________________________ the lesson today? (finish)

4.

_________ John __________________________ the records tomorrow evening? (bring)

5.

_________ You and I ______________________ classmates next semester? (be)

6.

_________ her sister _______________________ algebra in our school? (teach)

7.

_________ the factory ______________________ its work in the fall? (begin)

8.

_________ the program _____________________ short? (be)

9.

_________ I ______________________________ a bonus for my work? (receive)

10. _________ your friends _________________________ English next semester? (take) Ejercicio 4. Responda de las siguientes oraciones en futuro idiomático. Véase punto 6.3. 1. Is he going to be ready for work at 7:00 a.m.?

Yes,

he is

2. Is his mother going to brush his teeth before breakfast?

No, _______________________

3. Are the children going to take a shower at 6:45 a.m.?

Yes, _______________________

4. Are you going to talk with his friends during breakfast?

No, _______________________

5. Is your friend going to work for eight hours?

Yes, _______________________

6. Is her father going to leave the workshop before 6:00 p.m.?

Yes, _______________________

7. Is Mike going to telephone his girl friend before dinner?

No, _______________________

8. Are they going to listen to the radio during the breakfast?

No, _______________________

9. Is Caroline going to arrive at the workshop in fifteen minutes? Yes, _______________________ 10. Is your dog going to be tired this afternoon?

Yes, _______________________

Ejercicio 5. Complete las siguientes oraciones con uno de los siguientes pronombres interrogativos. Véase punto 6.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Who is planning his activities for the day? John. _________________ is he going to do before he takes a shower? He’s going to shave. _________________ is he going to brush? His teeth. _________________ is he going to dress? Rapidly. _________________ is he going to comb his hair? In the bathroom. _________________ is he going to have at 7:35? Breakfast. _________________ is he going to listen to during breakfast? To the radio. _________________ is he going to arrive at 8:25 a.m.? To the workshop.

Inglés II

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Módulos 7 – 10

VERBOS MODALES Los verbos modales incluyen lo que podríamos llamar modales puros, es decir, can, could, may, might, must, should, would, would rather y los semi-modales be able to y used to. Utilizamos los verbos modales para juzgar una situación basándonos en creencias, opiniones o actitudes. Los empleamos para indicar posibilidad, necesidad, habilidad, obligación y certeza; para hacer peticiones, ofertas y sugerencias; para dar permiso o instrucciones. Son, en definitiva, verbos muy útiles y de uso muy frecuente. Todos ellos tienen ciertas características comunes que consisten en:  Las terceras personas del singular (he, she, it) no llevan una –s final, tal como ocurre con otros verbos en presente simple.  Formamos la negación añadiendo not después del verbo modal.  Construimos la interrogación situando el verbo modal al principio de la pregunta.  No añadimos to después del verbo modal. Por ejemplo, se dice I can swim; es incorrecto decir I can to swim. A continuación, se enlistan los verbos modales más comunes para este nivel. Trate de aprender de memoria su significado, las formas en que se usan, etc. VERBO MODAL/EJEMPLOS CAN I can translate her letter for you. You can swim very fast in a swimming pool. Thomas can play the piano beautifully. He can visit the museum next Sunday. He can not visit the museum next Sunday. Can he visit the museum next Sunday? Yes, he can. / No, he can’t. At what time can he visit the museum next Sunday? At 10:30.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL El verbo modal CAN significa “PODER” y tiene la misma forma para todas las personas, no usa los auxiliares “do, does / don���t, doesn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple. Se usa CAN para expresar habilidad general en presente, algo que se puede hacer en la mayoría de las ocasiones.

COULD I could solve the puzzle after two hours of work yesterday. They helped us and we could build the house rapidly. We could have our meeting next Tuesday.

El verbo modal COULD significa “PODER” y tiene la misma forma para todas las personas, no usa los auxiliares “do, does, did / don’t, doesn’t, didn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple.

Ted could learn all the words. Ted couldn’t learn all the words. Could Ted learn all the words? Yes, he could. / No, he couldn’t. When could Ted learn all the words? Last night.

Se usa COULD para expresar habilidad general en pasado, algo que se podía hacer en la mayoría de las ocasiones.

MIGHT / MAY The medicine is two years old. It might be bad now. John is driving very fast. He might have an accident. Alice writes slowly. She might not finish her work on time.

Los verbos modales MIGHT y MAY significan “PODER”, indicando siempre posibilidad o probabilidad. Tienen la misma forma para todas las personas; no usa los auxiliares “do, does / don’t, doesn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple. Se usa MIGHT o MAY para hablar de posibles sucesos en el futuro. MAY es un poco más seguro que MIGHT.

They may open the window. They may not open the window. May they open the window? Yes, they may. / No, they may not. How may they open the window? Fast.

Inglés II

NOTA: También COULD puede indicar potencialidad en un tiempo futuro, siempre y cuando se le agregue una expresión que señale tiempo futuro en el complemento.

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MUST I must not forget my appointment, it’s very important. She must not go there alone. It’s dangerous. You must be patient with him. His illness makes him irritable. She must read the novel right now. She must not read the novel right now. Must she read the novel right now? Yes, she must. / No, she mustn’t. How must she read the novel right now? Fast. SHOULD We should not make noise. Her baby is sleeping. Helen doesn’t feel well. She should see a doctor. We should tell her the truth. It’s preferable. We should listen to her advice. We should not listen to her advice. Should we listen to her advice? Yes, we should. / No, we shouldn’t. Why should she listen to her advice? Because sound good. WOULD We would listen to the news in the evening because we didn’t use to listen to it at noon. The ladies would watch TV all afternoon because they didn’t use to watch it in the mornings. Mary would dance with Peter because she didn’t use to dance with Peter.

El verbo modal MUST significa “DEBER” y tiene la misma forma para todas las personas; no usa los auxiliares “do, does / don’t, doesn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple. Se usa MUST para dar un consejo de mayor grado de obligatoriedad en presente en relación a un futuro cercano.

El verbo modal SHOULD significa “DEBERÍA” y tiene la misma forma para todas las personas; no usa los auxiliares “do, does / don’t, doesn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple. Se usa SHOULD para dar consejos de menor grado de obligatoriedad en presente con resultado a un futuro cercano.

El verbo modal WOULD le da la terminación al verbo en potencial simple (–aría, -arías, -aríamos, -arían); y tiene la misma forma para todas las personas; no usa los auxiliares “do, does / don’t, doesn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple. Se usa WOULD para hablar de la consecuencia de una situación imaginaria en presente con resultado a un futuro cercano. Frecuentemente se usa la forma contraída 'd o wouldn't.

Mary would go to Mexico city next week. Mary would not go to Mexico city next week. Would Mary go to Mexico city next week? Yes, she would. / No, she wouldn’t. How would Mary go to Mexico city next week? By plane. WOULD RATHER Would you rather play ping-pong or tennis? She would rather study at night. They would rather not go to Europe next year.

La expresión WOULD RATHER significa “PREFERIRÍA” y tiene la misma forma para todas las personas, no usa los auxiliares “do, does / don’t, doesn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple.

She would rather play ping-pong. She would rather not play ping-pong. Would she rather play ping-pong? Yes, she would. / No, she wouldn’t. When would she rather play ping-pong? Tomorrow morning.

Se usa WOULD RATHER para indicar preferencia de realizar o no determinada acción o de tomar una determinada actitud en el futuro.

Inglés II

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BE ABLE TO The mice are able to run into the hole. I was able to wear this dress ten years ago. You will be able to go to the office tomorrow.

La expresión BE ABLE TO significa “SER CAPAZ DE” y presenta tres diferentes formas: presente, pasado y futuro1. No usa los auxiliares “do, does, did / don’t, doesn’t, didn’t”; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple.

Her baby is able to walk. Her baby isn’t able to walk. Is her baby able to walk? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t. Where is her baby able to walk? In the garden.

Se usa BE ABLE TO para expresar habilidad o capacidad general tanto en presente, pasado o futuro. BE ABLE TO es más formal que CAN y generalmente es más usado en el futuro o en el pasado.

USED TO / WOULD John would eat lunch at noon every day. I used to speak French at school. We wouldn’t drive very fast.

Las expresiones USED TO y WOULD significan “SOLÍA o ACOSTUMBRABA”, tienen la misma forma para todas las personas; además, se usa con un verbo en la forma simple. Sirven para indicar que una acción solía o que se acostumbraba tomar una determinada actitud en pasado.

John used to eat lunch at noon every day. John didn’t use to eat lunch at noon every day. Did John use to eat lunch at noon every day? Yes, he did. / No, he didn’t. Where did John use to eat lunch at noon every day? At restaurant’s Smith.

Se puede usar también las formas negativas DIDN‟T USE TO o WOULDN‟T para indicar que no se acostumbraba realizar algo.

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Exprese potencialidad de realización de las acciones indicadas por los verbos entre paréntesis. Use can o could. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1

John can speak English. (speak) They _________________ to the movies tomorrow. (go) Mary _________________ the work on time for the convention next summer. (finish) Ted __________________ all the words last night. (learn) I __________________ her letter for you. (translate) You ___________________ the museum next Sunday. (visit) We ___________________ only five hundred invitations yesterday. (address) Mr. Simpson ____________________ to you now. (talk) You and Mary ____________________ the records for the party tomorrow night. (bring) He ran fast and he ___________________ in ten minutes. (arrive)

Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro: Presente I am able to speak. You are able to speak. He is able to speak. She is able to speak. It is able to speak. We are able to speak. You are able to speak. They are able to speak.

Inglés II

Pasado I was able to speak. You were able to speak. He was able to speak. She was able to speak. It was able to speak. We were able to speak. You were able to speak. They were able to speak.

Futuro I will be able to speak. You will be able to speak. He will be able to speak. She will be able to speak. It will be able to speak. We will be able to speak. You will be able to speak. They will be able to speak.

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Martha ____________________ in French, Spanish and German. (sing) They helped us and we _____________________ the houses rapidly. (build) Eagles ___________________ high. (fly) Our provisions ____________________ only two months. (last) I ___________________ the puzzle after two hours of work yesterday. (solve) Thomas ____________________ the piano beautifully. (play) She ___________________ French. (speak) The boy _____________________ well. He’s an excellent diver. (dive) You and Sylvia ____________________ tennis or ping-pong before lunch, it is 8 a.m. now. (play) They _____________________ baseball yesterday. It didn’t rain. (play)

Ejercicio 2. Guiándose por la primera oración, estructure una segunda oración. Use may o might. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I have a permission to go there. You have permission to visit them. You have permission to eat two apples. We don’t have permission to bring our dogs. She has permission to be absent. They don’t have permission to sell beer. Our company has permission to import works of art. You have permission to leave the table. I have permission to use the library. John doesn’t have permission to take the car today.

I may go there.

Ejercicio 3. Complete utilizando must o must not según lo pida el contexto. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

We mustn’t disturb him. He had a hard day and he is resting now. You ___________________ be here before 8:00. The program will begin exactly at 8:00. We ____________________ pay our income tax every year. We ____________________ exceed the speed limit. I _____________________ watch my weight. I gained three pounds last month. You ____________________ neglect your health. This road is dangerous. We _____________________ drive carefully. You _____________________ be patient with him. His illness makes him irritable and unreasonable. They _____________________ leave him alone even for a short time. He needs constant care. I ______________________ forget my appointment, it’s very important. She ______________________ go there alone. It’s dangerous. They ______________________ board their train immediately. It leaves in three minutes. I _______________________ prepare a report for the stockholder’s meeting today. I’ll begin it at once. You ______________________ give your children a well-balanced diet. I ______________________ pay him today. He’s going on his vocation this evening, and he needs his money.

Inglés II

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Ejercicio 4. Complete utilizando should o should not según corresponda. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

You should wear a coat, it’s cold outside. They ___________________ give him the prize. He deserves it. We ___________________ listen to her advice, it seems good. Mark ___________________ go to work today. He is sick. We ____________________ make noise. Her baby is sleeping. You ____________________ send flowers to your mother-in-law. Today is her birthday. Helen doesn’t feel well. She _____________________ see a doctor. We _____________________ tell her the truth. It’s preferable. Mary ____________________ talk to him frankly and settle the matter definitely. Parents _____________________ always correct their children lovingly and firmly. Liz __________________ help her uncle and aunt. She has the time and money to do it. He __________________ discuss the matter so openly. It is confidential. Henry ___________________ consult about his problem with a lawyer. He needs legal advice. Your handwriting is terrible. You _________________ always type your class reports. They ___________________ interfere with his decision. They ought to respect it.

Ejercicio 5. Estructure una oración con los elementos dados utilizando would rather. Vuelva a estructurar la misma oración pero en forma negativa con las nuevas circunstancias dadas. 1.

study for the exam / he / tomorrow. today 2. dance with Peter / she / at the party. with Charles 3. eat ham and eggs / for breakfast / I. for lunch 4. study algebra / Tom and I / tonight. chemistry 5. play records / Mary / for them the piano 6. visit Chicago / my parents / next fall next winter 7. prepare dinner / for the children / you for the adults 8. buy a sweater / for / my niece / I a blouse 9. bring wine / for the celebration / the boys. whiskey 10. wear / contact lenses / Debbie. eyeglasses

Inglés II

He would rather study for the exam tomorrow. He would rather not study for the exam today.

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Ejercicio 6. Guiándose por la primera oración, estructure una segunda y tercera oración en forma afirmativa y negativa. Use used to.

1.

Mr. Brown would come on weekends.

2.

We would listen to the news in the evening.

He used to come on weekends. He didn’t use to come on weekends. .

3.

John would be tired on Monday mornings. .

4.

The boys would help Mrs. Brown every summer. .

5.

My father would be enthusiastic about baseball. .

6.

The ladies would watch TV all afternoon. .

7.

Mary would dance with Path. .

8.

His car would start easily in hot weather.

9.

I would be here every Monday and Wednesday.

. . 10. They would enjoy Ted’s conversation. . Ejercicio 7. Complete la pregunta con las palabras entre paréntesis en su orden y forma debidos. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Should John study French? (study – John – should) ___________________________ class early? (we – leave – should) ___________________________ Mary? (they – may – visit) ___________________________ those three pairs? (she – can – buy) ___________________________ a plan? (could – prepare – we) ___________________________ on our idea? (should – insist – we) ___________________________ in that company? (would – they – invest)

Ejercicio 8. Estructure una pregunta con cada grupo de palabras. 1.

(they / her complains / must / listen to / ?)

2.

(hide / must / the truth / them / Dr. Kent / from / ?)

3.

(prepare / must / immediately / I / the report / ?)

4.

(clean / the stove / I / today / must / ?)

5.

(John / there / be / next Monday / must / ?)

6.

(use / did / her brothers / her / help / to / ?)

7.

(he / use to / flowers / bring / did / to us / ?)

Inglés II

Must they listen to her complaints?

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Ejercicio 9. Guiándose por la respuesta, subraye el pronombre interrogativo que le falta a cada pregunta. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

(Who / When) can play the piano? My sister can play the piano. (Whom / When) was he able to win the contest? He was able to win the contest last spring. (Who / What) should they buy? They should buy a new car. (What / Whom) might break with the impact? The fence might break with the impact. (Where / Whom) must you visit today? I must visit Mr. Brown, a customer. (Where / Whom) would Ann and you rather sing? Ann and I would rather sing at the Metropolitan Opera House. (Who / How) ought they to open the boxes? They ought to open the boxes carefully. (How / Who) do you have to carve the wood? I have to carve the wood slowly. (Who / What) could you see with the binoculars? I could see two ships with the binoculars. (Who / What) may go to the party? John may go to the party. (Whom / Whose) is he able to imitate? He is able to imitate his brother. (What / Where) am I going to copy? You are going to copy the words. (When / Where) should Helen and I leave? You and Helen should leave at noon. (Where / When) may they put the boxes? They may put the boxes in the closet. (Where / When) had she better stay? She had better stay in her apartment.

Ejercicio 10. Repaso. Cambie a la forma negativa las siguientes oraciones. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

He should sit near the window. We must tell John about it. He can go with us to the movies. You might sit here beside John. We must do that again. They will study English Grammar. She spoke to me in English. She can speak English well. They went with us to the movies last night. Henry was in class yesterday.

He shouldn’t sit near the window.

Ejercicio 11. Repaso. Cambie a la forma interrogativa las siguientes oraciones. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

You were sick last week. She could run very fast. We must practice these exercises. You used to run an hour in the morning. Joe will study in our group. You must tell him about it. They were here yesterday. She should spend more time here. She can speak French well. We are going to the movies tonight.

Inglés II

Were you sick last week?

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Módulo 11

PREPOSICIONES “TO” Y “FOR” 11.1. Para indicar en qué y en quién se completa una acción, cuando se dan ambos elementos juntos. John is giving a book to Mary. He is giving it to her. S V CD CI The policeman is pointing out the way to the tourists. He is pointing out it to them. S V CD CI Mrs. Clark made a dress for my niece. She made it for her. S V CD CI 11.2. Verbos que admiten alteración estructural en los complementos. John is giving Mary a book. He is giving her a book. S V CI CD Mrs. Clark made my niece a dress. She made her a dress. S V CI CD Mark is asking Louise an important question. He is asking her an important question. S V CI CD 11.3. Para preguntar en qué o en quién se completa la acción cuando ambos elementos se conjuntan. What did his secretary translate for him? She translated a letter for him. To whom did she teach the symbols? She taught the symbols to the students. Whom did she teach the symbols to? She taught the students the symbols. For whom is he cashing the check? He is cashing the check for the boy. Whom is he cashing the check for? He is cashing the check for the boy. OBSERVE Punto 11.1.: En el orden natural de estructuración de las oraciones, el complemento de la acción que responde a la pregunta WHAT (complemento directo) antecedida al que responde a la pregunta TO WHOM o FOR WHOM (complemento indirecto). Se pueden sustituir por pronombres tanto el complemento directo así como el complemento indirecto, en el mismo orden en que aparecen los sustantivos a los cuales sustituyen. Antes de agregar el complemento indirecto debe escribirse la preposición TO o FOR según sea el verbo. No hay ninguna regla para determinar cuáles verbos exigen TO y cuáles FOR, es preciso aprenderlo por el uso. A continuación se da una lista de verbos más comunes que exigen las preposiciones anteriores. Exigen TO los siguientes verbos: announce, bring, confess, declare, describe, explain, give, indicate, introduce, lend, mention, pass, propose, prove, quote, read, recommend, repeat, report, return, reveal, say, sell, show, sing, speak, teach, tell, throw, write. Exigen FOR los siguientes verbos: answer, buy, cash, change, do, get, make, open, prescribe, translate. Punto 11.2.: Cuando se altera el orden natural de estructuración de las oraciones y se antepone el complemento indirecto y después el complemento directo, se omite las palabras TO y FOR. No todos los verbos admiten tal estructuración. De los dados en las dos listas anteriores, los siguientes admiten inversión de complementos: bring, buy, get, give, make, pass, read, sell, show, sing, send, teach, tell, throw, write. Punto 11.3.: Cuando se quiere preguntar el complemento directo de un verbo se usa la palabra what antepuesta al resto de los elementos de la oración en la forma usual de pregunta cuando se pide un complemento. En algunos casos el complemento directo puede ser de persona y responde a la pregunta whom, entonces no lleva ni to ni for. Cuando se quiere preguntar el complemento indirecto de un verbo se usa la palabra whom precedida por to o for según corresponda a dicho verbo, y seguida por el resto de los elementos de la oración en la forma usual de pregunta cuando se pide un complemento. También se pueden dejar las preposiciones to o for para el final de la oración. Esta última construcción es informal. A veces cuando el verbo admite la forma alterada de construcción, puede suprimirse to o for.

Inglés II

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete el siguiente ejercicio con to o for. Véase punto 11.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

He never refuses to do a favor for me. He is going to make an exception _______________ Mrs., Kent. Alice didn’t explain the situation________________ us. Who will announce the news ________________ the people? You have to tell the truth ________________ your associates. Will they lend the money ________________ our country? She’s going to get the contract ______________ our company. Are they going to introduce Mr. Brown ________________ you? He proved his theory ________________ the group of scientists. Please bring those dishes _______________ me. Does he recommend that procedure ___________________ the executive secretary? Are they going to change the shoes ___________________ Mary? We don’t want to repeat our request ___________________ them. Who is going to translate the poem ___________________ Helen? Did he quote my exact word ___________________ you? My father got a new opportunity _________________ Billy. I will buy a beautiful present _________________ Linda. When did you propose the plan __________________ them? Who’s going to make a dress __________________ you? Helen didn’t return the books __________________ me. He had to confess the truth __________________ his friends. Please open this package __________________ me. Is Helen going to indicate a solution __________________ the club members? Can you do the work _________________ Mrs. Peters? He won’t say anything ________________ the other boys.

Ejercicio 2. Complete, estructurando en su debido orden los elementos que se le dan entre paréntesis y agregando to o for según convenga. Véase punto 11.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Margie confessed her mistakes to us. Will you open Who revealed Don’t mention Please answer He proposed Mrs. Stock taught Debbie translated He’s going to report Dr. Graham indicated

Inglés II

? ?

(us – her mistake) (him – the safe) (the formula – them) (it – Mary) (Billy – the questions) (them – a new contract) (Billy – Algebra) (her boss – the letters) (the police – the accident) (us – the solution) Preparatoria Abierta

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Ejercicio 3. Vuelva a escribir las siguientes frases, invirtiendo el orden de los dos últimos complementos y sustituyendo por pronombres donde sea posible. Véase punto 11.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Please give the chocolates to Mrs. Lee. Mother sent a letter to my sister and me. You didn’t pass the sugar to Jimmy. They sold that car to my cousin Ruth. Did you bring the documents to Brother Silas? We made a few sandwiches for the children. Louise bought a gift for her father. Patrick always tells interesting stories to us. Peter threw a ball to Marie. Did you lend your jacket to your sister? Will you get a taxicab for Mr. and Mrs. Brown? I’m showing the report to the stockholders. Bill read a love poem to his girl friend. We have to teach good manners to those children. Would you please buy some flowers for me?

Please give her the chocolates. She sent us a letter. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

Ejercicio 4. Guiándose por la información que aparece entre paréntesis, dé la respuesta correspondiente a la pregunta. Véase punto 11.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

What did he describe to John? (the house) To whom did they propose the plan? (the policeman) For whom is Alice answering the question? (the children) What was she reading to them? (a novel) To whom are you giving the information? (the detective) Whom did Mary introduce to her parents? (him) For whom did Mr. Brown get a visa? (them) What is she going to buy for you? (a car) To whom did she say “Goodbye”? (me) Whom did the teacher ask a question? (her)

Inglés II

He described the house to John. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

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Módulo 12

ADVERBIOS Y PREPOSICIONES 12.1. Para estructurar oraciones en que se expresa el tiempo y el lugar de realización de un acto. We arrived at church at 9:00 a.m. They danced at a nightclub from 11 to 1 last night. I usually listen to the radio at home in the evening. We won’t arrive in Madrid by nine. The dog stood by the baby all afternoon. He stayed in Canada for six months in 1973. I spoke English to the teacher in class yesterday. 12.2. Algunas preposiciones que introducen elementos de lugar, tiempo, etc. A. Preposiciones en expresiones de lugar. PREPOSICIÓN In (en)

EJEMPLOS She lives in north America. She lives in Mexico. She lives in Monterrey. She lives in San Cristobal.

On (en)

She lives on Insurgents St.

At (en)

She lives at 178 Insurgents St.

By (a lo largo) By (junto a) For (por, hacia)

From … to (de/desde…a)

He is walking by the bank. There’s a tree by the window.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Cuando se trata de ubicación en continente, país, estado o ciudad, se utiliza la preposición “in” antes del nombre geográfico correspondiente. Cuando se trata de ubicación en una calle, avenida, etc., se utiliza la preposición “on” antes del nombre correspondiente. Cuando se trata de ubicación exacta con el número de una casa o edificio o con el nombre del edificio o lugar: church, bus station, park, etc., se usa la preposición “at” antepuesta a ellas. Con verbo dinámico “by” significa “a lo largo” del lugar cuyo nombre precede. Con verbo estático “by” significa “junto a” dicho lugar.

Después de los verbos que señalan dirección: head, o acto de partida: leave, set out, start, cuando se quiere denotar lugar de He is leaving for Europe. destino, se usa la preposición “for” antepuesta al nombre de dicho He is sailing for Europe. lugar de destino. También se puede usar “for” con los verbos sail, fly, cuando indica lugar de destino. “From” indica en general origen o procedencia, “to” indica en Bobby dragged the chair from the corner to general destino o dirección. Ambas, combinadas con expresiones de the closet. He left the marks on the rug. lugar, denotan respectivamente el punto de iniciación y el de terminación de un movimiento.

B. Preposiciones en expresiones de distancia. PREPOSICIÓN For (por)

EJEMPLOS Every man has to run for a mile.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Cuando se quiere cuantificar la distancia recorrida ejecutando un determinado movimiento: walk, run, swim, drive, etc., la preposición “for” precede a las palabras que indican el número y la unidad de medida empleada: Ej. 2 miles, 1 block, etc.

C. Preposiciones en expresiones de tiempo. PREPOSICIÓN In (en)

Inglés II

EJEMPLOS Man stepped on the moon for the first time in the twentieth century. Helen arrived in 1975. Helen arrived in the winter. Helen arrived in January.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Cuando se sitúa un suceso o una acción en un siglo, año, estación o mes, la preposición “in” antecede a la palabra o palabras que los nombran. TAMBIÉN SE DICE: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in the past, in the present, in the future.

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On (el, en)

Helen arrived on Sunday. Helen arrived on January 5th.

At (en, a las)

Helen arrived at 6:00 a.m. Helen arrived at dawn.

From ... to/from (until/till) He works from morning to (until/till) night. (desde…hasta) For (durante)

I worked in the garden for two hours.

By (alrededor de)

I’ll finish my book by nine.

Cuando se sitúa la acción o suceso en un día preciso de la semana, o en una fecha precisa, la preposición “on” antecede a la palabra o expresión que los señala; aunque es posible emplearlos también sin la preposición. También se usa “on” en otras construcciones en que aparece la palabra day como: on a cold day, on a windy day, etc. Cuando se sitúa la acción o suceso en una hora o un momento preciso del día, la preposición “at” antecede a la palabra o expresión que los señala. También las siguientes palabras señalan momentos de desarrollo del día y por eso también van precedidas por “at”: dawn, daybreak, sunrise, noon, dusk, twilight, sunset, night. Cuando se quiere indicar el punto de iniciación y el de terminación de una actividad o de un hecho se utiliza la preposición “from” ante las palabras que indican la hora o el momento de iniciación y las preposiciones “to”, “until” o “till” ante las que indican la hora o momento de terminación. Cuando se quiere indicar la duración de un hecho o actividad, se antepone la preposición “for” ala expresión numérica de tiempo que la engloba. Cuando se quiere indicar el tiempo límite para que se realice una actividad, se antepone la preposición “by” a la palabra que lo señala.

12.3. Algunas preposiciones que introducen expresiones de modo. 1. Preposiciones en expresiones de modo. PREPOSICIÓN

EJEMPLOS

By (por)

He arrived by bus. I talked to him by telephone.

By (por)

She hurt him by laughing.

By (por)

They pay him by the hour.

In (en)

He was dressed in rage. She spoke in a loud voice.

With (con) Without (sin)

2.

She is hitting the nail with a stone. Mary is with Paul in this picture. He is riding without using his hands. I want my coffee without sugar.

Las siguientes preposiciones no indican modo, sino otras circunstancias.

PREPOSICIÓN For (para, por) Of (de) About (de, acerca de)

Inglés II

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Par indicar medio o instrumento se utiliza la preposición “by” antepuesto a la palabra que señala dicho medio; by train, by boat, by plane, by telephone, by chance. Cuando el medio es una acción, se usa la forma de gerundio de dicha acción después de by. Para indicar que la acción del verbo está en función de una unidad de medida, a la palabra o palabras que señalan ésta se le antepone la preposición by. Para indicar forma, estado o condición, se puede usar la preposición “in” antepuesta al sustantivo que exprese dicha forma, estado o condición y al adjetivo o los adjetivos que lo acompañan. Para indicar el instrumento que se usa o del que se prescinde o para indicar compañía o falta de dicha compañía; se usa la preposición “with” o “without” respectivamente, antes de la palabra que nombra dicho instrumento.

EJEMPLOS These flowers are for the center table. The lock is for special protection. I bought the clock for ten dollars. It’s made of logs. I painted the door of my room. He is talking about geometrical figures.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL For se usa para indicar destino o razón de algo. For también se usa para indicar compensación o equivalencia. Of indica material base. También Of indica una relación de pertenencia o correspondencia de un objeto con otro. About señala asunto, material o tema.

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12.4. Para estructurar oraciones en que aparece un complemento que indica el modo como se efectúa la acción. He waited for her at the corner patiently yesterday. Are they going to go downtown by car? I walked happily with Pat in the park yesterday. They examined the documents carefully yesterday. She used to sit comfortably in front of the fireplace on winter nights. OBSERVE Punto 12.1.: El elemento que indica lugar de existencia o de desarrollo de la acción, (complemento circunstancial de lugar), siempre precede al que indica tiempo (complemento circunstancial de tiempo). Ambos van después del complemento directo y el indirecto, o del indirecto y el directo en construcción alterada. Este es el orden natural y común en una oración. Por razones de estilo, si la frase es muy larga y hay demasiados complementos, es común desplazar el complemento de tiempo a posición inicial. Posteriormente se verán algunos casos en que se altera este orden natural Si hay dos complementos de la misma clase (at 9:00 yesterday), el orden en que se colocan entre sí es indiferente: I spoke English to the teacher at 9:00 yesterday or I spoke English to the teacher yesterday at 9:00. Punto 12.4.: Los adverbios de modo (-ly) y las construcciones con preposición que suponen también modalidades de la acción como compañía, instrumento, medio, etc., van después de los complementos directo e indirecto, antes o después del de lugar y antes del de tiempo. Si se encuentran dos complementos de modo juntos, el orden en que se coloquen depende del sentido y del estilo, aunque es común anteponer el más breve.

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Guiándose por el contexto, complete con in, on, at, by, for, from. Véase punto 12.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

We visited them in 2001. John is going to be here ________________ three hours, _____________ 8 to 11. My birthday is _______________ September 23rd. She saw a pear tree _______________ the front door. Henry will come _______________ March or _____________ June. The class begins ________________ 9:00 a.m. The girls worked on the problem ________________ two hours. My sister always comes _______________ the summer. Are you going to see him _______________ Saturday. Please be here ________________ noon. Don’t wander alone _______________ night. It is dangerous. How long does it take to go ______________ Montreal _____________ Quebec City? All the documents have to be ready _______________ 12:00 noon. That is the limit. He had to walk _______________ five miles. Columbus discovered America _________________ the XV Century. The new bookstore is ______________ London St. He carried her _____________ three blocks. We have to be there ____________ ten o’clock. They have to walk ____________ their house ___________ their office every day. Mrs. Kent has to pay her taxes ___________ January 31st. That is the final date for paying taxes. He’s never home _____________ the morning. They arrived here _____________ 1972.

Inglés II

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23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

The circus will remain _____________ the city ___________ three weeks. We sometimes go to the movies ______________ Friday. The museum is open ____________ Tuesday ___________ Sunday. Mary’s wedding is going to be ___________ February 16th. We’ll finish our course ____________ May. I’ll be there _____________ two minutes. It’s a short distance. They built a new house _____________ the river. It is beautiful. They will open all the presents ____________ midnight.

Ejercicio 2. Complete con las preposiciones by, in, with, without, for, of, about. Véase punto 12.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Wear this bandage for protection. I wrote the letter __________________ Ted’s pen. He made a living __________________ selling lottery tickets. Lewis is coming __________________ his friends. (They will accompany him) We don’t work __________________ the hour. Her wedding dress was made __________________ silk and lace. She argued __________________ a soft tone. Her little boy came __________________ shoes. He lost them. The brakes _________________ his car failed. Fortunately, he could stop the car. We communicate __________________ letter. I kept asking ___________________ the situation. We need a new shade ___________________ that lamp. He alarmed them ____________________ crying. He painted her portrait _________________ a modernistic style. I finished _________________ his help. He helped me all morning. Did you buy these bedspreads __________________ the children’s beds? She receives his letters ________________ airmail. Please prepare mine _________________ salt. I cannot have salt in my food. They are people _________________ need. Help them, please. You won’t get any results _________________ insisting. He is stubborn. I am worried ______________ his health. It is pleasant here, in the shade ______________ the trees. She came dressed _______________ black and white. Our company pays us _______________ the month. They bought it _______________ the hall. He could do it ______________ joining all the ropes. He is _____________ great pain. He’s seriously ill. We communicated with him ______________ telephone. She is ______________ her baby in that picture. She smiles ______________ a funny way.

Inglés II

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Módulo 13

ADVERBIOS Y PREPOSICIONES 13.1. Para determinar un objeto en función de su proximidad o lejanía con respecto al hablante o a los hablantes. Ann lives in this house.

They live in that house.

These grapes are delicious.

Those grapes are delicious.

13.2. Para determinar un objeto por cantidad o número. They ate all the cookies and drank all the milk. No cookies and no milk were left. He ate the whole fish. No fish was left. Linda took both apples. No apples were left. Not all the oranges are big. Not all are big. They are not both tall, only the girl is. 13.3. Para determinar un objeto por cantidad o número usando every o each. Every child needs a father and a mother. Not every table has chairs. Not every child has a father and a mother. Each table has a rose. She lit every candle. Every table has a rose. 13.4. Para determinar un objeto por cantidad o número usando most, many, much, a lot of, some, any. Most children would rather play than study. Many children play baseball and football. (A lot of children play baseball and football) A lot of children play baseball and football. I don’t see any girls. I don’t want any coffee but I want some milk. This bottle doesn’t contain much perfume. Not much perfume is in the bottle. Do you want some (any) coffee or some (any) milk? 13.5. Para determinar un objeto por cantidad o número usando a little, little, a few, few. A few children play chess. This bottle contains a little perfume. They have a little money, so they are not poor. I have a little money. I’m going to save it. They have little money, so they are very poor. I have little money, I cannot buy expensive clothes. I am not sad and lonely because I have got a few friends. I am sad and lonely, I have got few friends.

OBSERVE Punto 13.1.: Para determinar uno o más objetos en función de su proximidad o lejanía con respecto al hablante, se usan las palabras this, that, these y those según los ejemplos anteriores, más el nombre del objeto por determinar. Punto 13.2.: Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro: ADVERBIOS

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Cuando se trata de objetos en plural o de objetos que no tienen unidad y se quiere indicar totalidad, se All emplea la palabra ALL antepuesta al nombre del objeto. Cuando se trata de periodos de tiempo en (todos) singular, se usa ALL, pero sin THE. ALL DAY, ALL WEEK, ALL YEAR, etc. Both Cuando la totalidad la constituyen dos objetos, se expresa con la palabra BOTH en la misma (ambos) estructuración que ALL. Whole Cuando se trata de objetos singulares para indicar totalidad se emplea la palabra WHOLE antepuesta (todo) al nombre del objeto. Not all Para negar la totalidad se antepone NOT a ALL o a BOTH. También puede anteponerse a WHOLE, (ninguno, no todos) pero no es común usarla así.

Inglés II

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Punto 13.3.: Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro: ADVERBIOS Every (cada)

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Para referirse a cada uno de los miembros que componen un total en una generalización, se emplea la palabra EVERY y en seguida el sustantivo que nombra dicho miembro, siempre en singular. Cuando no se trata de una generalización, se pueden usar casi indistintamente EVERY o EACH para Each referirse a cada uno de los miembros que componen un total, y el sustantivo que nombra dicho (cada) miembro es también siempre singular y va después de EVERY o EACH. Not every Para indicar que no están comprendidos todos los miembros de un total, sea en una generalización, o (ninguno, no todos) en una situación concreta, se antepone la palabra NOT a la palabra EVERY. Punto 13.4.: Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro: ADVERBIOS Most (muchos) Many (muchos) Not many (no muchos) Much (muchos) Not much (no muchos) A lot of (muchos) Some (algunos) Any (ninguno)

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Cuando se quiere indicar que se abarca la casi totalidad de objetos dentro de una categoría general, se antepone la palabra MOST al nombre plural correspondiente. Se usa para cosas contables e incontables. Cuando no se trata de la casi totalidad, sino simplemente de un gran número, al nombre plural de los objetos correspondientes se anteponen las formas many o a lot of. Cuando se trata de un objeto sin unidad, para indicar gran cantidad de él se antepone a su nombre la expresión a lot of. Es posible emplear también la palabra much, pero su uso en frase afirmativa supone limitaciones que solamente la práctica va haciendo conocer. Cuando se quiere indicar una cantidad imprecisa, generalmente mayor de dos, se utiliza la palabra some antepuesta al sustantivo plural correspondiente. La palabra some no puede usarse dentro de una oración con sentido negativo. Cuando se quiere indicar ausencia total de un objeto se utiliza una frase con sentido negativo y la palabra any. Some y any se usa para cosas contables e incontables.

Punto 13.5.: Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro: ADVERBIO

A little (un poco) Little (poco) A few (un poco) Few (poco)

Inglés II

EJEMPLOS

They have a little money, so they are not poor. I have a little money. I’m going to deposit it in my savings account. They have little money, so they are very poor. I have little money, I cannot buy expensive clothes. I am not sad and lonely because I have got a few friends. There are few chairs in this room. I am sad and lonely, I have got few friends. We painted a few chairs. (4 de 8)

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL

Algo, pero no mucho. (es suficiente para algo). Indica idea positiva y se usa para cosas incontables. Casi no, casi nada. (es insuficiente para algo). Indica idea negativa y se usa para cosas incontables. Algo, pero no mucho. (es suficiente para algo). Indica idea positiva y se usa para cosas contables. Casi no, casi nada. (es insuficiente para algo). Indica idea negativa y se usa para cosas contables.

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Guiándose por la información entre paréntesis, complete cada oración con this, that, these o those. Véase punto 13.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

I want this balloon. (cerca) _________________ bottle is beautiful. (lejos) _________________ dresses are for Helen. (cerca) Please give me _________________ boots. (lejos) _________________ flowers are for Betty. (cerca) _________________ collar is tight. (lejos) Please take _________________ books to Mrs. Simpson. (cerca) I broke ________________ vase, I am sorry. (lejos) I need ________________ nails. Please hand them to me. (lejos) _________________ iron isn’t hot. (cerca) Are ________________ letters for Bob? (cerca) _________________ coat is elegant. Aren’t you going to buy it? (cerca) Please don’t touch _______________ cakes. They’re for Pat’s birthday. (lejos) Is __________________ the material for your new dress? (lejos) _________________ pencils are for Louise. Please give them to her. (cerca)

Ejercicio 2. Guiándose por el contexto complete con all, not all, whole y both. Véase punto 13.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Both Jack and Mary are nuclear physicists. ________________ the children left early. Jimmie and Billy stayed until 11 p.m. Please don’t eat the ___________________ cake. ________________ the juice is for Helen and you, two glasses are for me. Mark had five pencils. He lent three to Lois and two to Mary. He has _______________ pencils now. We ate the __________________ box of chocolates that same afternoon. I believe __________________ the guests will arrive soon. Unfortunately I have _______________ time to go to the movies with you and Paul tonight. I have to work. Take _________________ your raincoat and your umbrella. The rain is heavy. _______________ her daughter and my daughter won medals in the competition. We used a _______________ tank of gasoline yesterday. _______________ babies need love and care. We have ________________ communication with the island. A hurricane damaged all the telephone lines. They require _________________ a high school diploma and a medical certificate. _______________ the problems are difficult, five are easy. _______________ the secretaries are working, except Miss Smith and Miss Davis. I read the ________________ book last night. _______________ the children want to play baseball, Teddy and his brother want to play basketball. Please invite ________________ Mary and her cousin. _______________ her cousins live in Mexico, expect one.

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Ejercicio 3. Complete con most, many, much, según corresponda. Véase punto 13.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Most men and women are married, a few remain single. I have to hurry, I don’t have ___________________ time to finish the exercise. _________________ countries are poor, a few are rich. _________________ children in the world die of hunger. Not __________________ people had television sets in 1940. The City of Los Angeles has ____________________ Mexicans and Mexican-Americans. _________________ countries have a lot of illiterates. _________________ parents love their children. We didn’t bring ______________________ food. We cannot waste any of it. __________________ people like comfort.

Ejercicio 4. Complete con a lot of, many y much. Utilice a lot of para las frases afirmativas y many y much para las negativas. Véase punto 13.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

He doesn’t eat much fruit. They invited ___________________ people to Christine’s birthday party. That job didn’t require __________________ effort. We don’t need ____________________ paper. We’re only going to write two letters. They didn’t have ______________________ opportunities to score in the game. That house is big. It has to have _____________________ furniture. I cannot buy ______________________ things. I don’t have ____________________ money. I always give the children ____________________ fruit and vegetables. We cannot spend __________________ time visiting. We have a class in twenty minutes. That insecticide was not effective. It didn’t kill __________________ flies. They brought __________________ flowers for you this morning. This lesson doesn’t present __________________ difficulties. Mrs. Brown has _________________ money. She is going to donate one million pesos to our orphanage. She saw _________________ your friends at the party. We couldn’t do _______________ work last night.

Ejercicio 5. Complete con some o any. Véase punto 13.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Ted has some pencils in that drawer. We couldn’t visit _____________________ museums. Ann and Marge want ___________________ lemonade. I am sorry. I didn’t prepare ___________________ salad. I’ll have ____________________ fruit, please. ____________________ children do not believe in Santa Claus. He took __________________ papers from the desk, but he didn’t take __________________ money. Bill doesn’t have ___________________ winter books, but he will buy a pair tomorrow. ____________________ policeman participated in the investigation.

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

We prefer _________________ ice cream. __________________ friends are going to come today. Marg didn’t prepare __________________ salad for dinner tonight. Alice copied ____________________ words from the blackboard. He is not making __________________ effort to finish on time. I didn’t receive ___________________ letters this week. That book doesn’t contain ________________ biographies. Please give me ___________________ cake. We’re going to request _________________ copies of that magazine. We don’t have __________________ milk in the refrigerator. Ted brought __________________ toys for the children.

Ejercicio 6. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando: little, a little, few o a few. Véase punto 13.5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

There was little food in the fridge. It was nearly empty. “When did you see Sarah?” “_________________ days ago”. He’s very lazy. He does __________________ work. They’re not rich but they’ve got ________________ money enough to live. Last night I went to a restaurant with __________________ friends. The TV service is not very good. There are ________________ good programmers. I can’t decide now, I need _________________ time to think about it. Nearly everybody has a job. There is ________________ unemployment. He’s not well-known. _________________ people have heard of him. She didn’t eat anything but she drank _________________ water. I speak ________________ Spanish. There was _______________ food in the fridge. It was nearly empty. I have ________________ time; I can’t stay here for more two hours. She is very thin because she eats very _________________. They have __________________ money so they’re not poor. They have __________________ money. They’re very poor. Last night I wrote _________________ letters. We’re going a way for ____________________ days. I speak _________________words of Spanish. There were _________________ people in the park. It was nearly empty. Her English is very good. She makes very _______________ mistakes. I’ve got _________________friends, so I’m not lonely. I’m sad and lonely. I’ve got _________________ friends. Yesterday evening I wrote _________________ letters to my family and friends. Can I have _________________ milk in my coffee, please?

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Módulo 14

OTROS ADVERBIOS Y ADJETIVOS 14.1. Para utilizar las expresiones: numerous, several, various, one, two, three, etc., a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, a million, a billion. They have numerous flowers in their garden. I bought two pineapples and several oranges. They have various kinds of bananas. We have ten fingers and ten toes. We need a dozen eggs for the omelet. I have a thousand pesos here. 14.2. Para determinar un objeto por su orden de colocación en el tiempo o en el espacio. This first figure is a triangle; the second, a square; the third, a circle. Jimmie is the last person in the line. The first six persons are boys; the next person, the seventh, is a girl. The present month is May. The preceding month was April; the following, June. Our present life style is bad for the environment. Past generations lived in harmony with nature. 14.3. Para señalar objetos indicando exclusión o alternancia. I have another apple. I have another. Please give me the other shoe. Please give me the other. Don’t cut any other flowers. I have all I need. She loves her old doll. She won’t have those other dolls. I don’t like these shoes. I want to see some others. OBSERVE Punto 14.1.: Estudie cuidadosamente el siguiente cuadro: ADVERBIO Numerous (numeroso) Several (varios) Various (varios) Two, eight, ten, etc. A thousand, etc.

FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Tanto numerous como several indican cantidades imprecisas. La primera señala un gran número, la segunda uno pequeño, que normalmente es más de tres o cuatro. Various apunta a la vez a número y diversidad. En cuanto a número, se acerca más al sentido de several que al de numerous. Numerous, several y various acompañan siempre a un sustantivo en plural. Para indicar número exacto se utilizan los adjetivos numerales cardinales antepuestos al sustantivo. Si se posponen indican orden, como en chapter ten. Excepto one, todos acompañan a sustantivos en plural. Las unidades de medida dozen, hundred, thousand, million, billion; no se pluralizan. Van precedidas del artículo “a” o de una palabra cuantificadora: many, several, two, three, etc.

Punto 14.2.: Para indicar el orden de colocación de los objetos, se utilizan los adjetivos numerales ordinales: first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, etc. Además se pueden utilizar las palabras: last, past, next, present, preceding y following. Punto 14.3.: Para señalar objetos indicando exclusión o alternancia, se usan las siguientes expresiones: VOCABULARIO Another (otro) The other (otros) Other (otros) Others (otros)

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FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL Cuando se trata de indicar un objeto excluyéndolo o diferenciándolo de otro presente o conocido, se usa la palabra another antepuesta al nombre del objeto o sólo si está sobreentendido. Cuando se trata de indicar el segundo elemento de un par conocido o el elemento que se toma aparte de un grupo, se usa the other antepuesto al sustantivo que nombra al objeto del que se trata. Éste puede suprimirse si está sobreentendido. Cuando se trata de indicar varios objetos no precisados, se usa la palabra other antepuesta al nombre en plural del objeto del cual se trata. Si ésta se suprime, por quedar sobreentendido; se debe usar la palabra others, para indicar el plural, puesto que no está el sustantivo para indicarlo. Cuando se usa un número se antepone a other u others según el caso. Las palabras other y others pueden ir determinadas por otras palabras distintas de the como some, any, this, that, these, those, several, my, etc.

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REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando una de las siguientes palabras: the third, the second, the following, the first, first, the fourth, present, the eighth, the sixteenth, the last. Véase puntos 14.1. y 14.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Tuesday is the third day of the week. Monday is the second . The present month is October, ______________________ month is November. __________________ man who walked on the Moon was Neil Armstrong. Columbus made his ____________________ voyage to America in 1492. Thomas Jefferson was _____________ President of the United States ____________ President was John Adams. ____________________ two Units were Units 15 and 18. Wednesday is __________________ day of the week. ____________________ president of Mexico was Guadalupe Victoria. ____________________ emperor of Mexico was Maximilian. ____________________ words are monosyllables: ten, cup, rug. ____________________ boy is Joes, the second is Henry. Our ____________________ difficulties are a result of our past errors. August is _______________________ month of the year. ____________________ triangle is different. ____________________ word is polysyllable, the preceding words are monosyllables or disyllables.

Ejercicio 2. Complete las siguientes oraciones con una de las expresiones dadas entre paréntesis. Véase punto 14.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

This books is torn, I want the other book, please. (the other – others) Please give me __________________ bowl of soup. (another – other) She needs ___________________ two nails. (others – the other) These tomatoes are not good. Please give me two ___________________. (others – another) Some boys are playing football, ___________________ are resting, a few others are studying. (others – other) Do you have five ___________________ stamps? I need to send these five postcards also. (another – other) Please close _____________________ window. (the other – the others) I have to fill these ____________________ four glasses. (another – other) Margaret bought _____________________ car. It’s beautiful. (others – another) These ash-trays are for Mr. Brown and Mr. Smith. I’ll bring __________________ for the boys. (other – others) Please bring me _____________________ piece of cake. One is not enough. (the other – another) Two rings are expensive, the ____________________ are cheap. (other – the others) You may have _____________________ apple. (the other – another) This is not my umbrella. Do you have some ___________________? (other – others) Please give me some ____________________ nails. These are bent. (other – others) This flower is for you, ____________________ flower is for Alice. (another – the other) The house in the middle has three bedrooms, ____________________ houses have two. (the others – the other) You may have a piece of the chocolate cake; ___________________ is for Joy’s birthday. (the others – the other) Please hand me three ____________________ candies. Lillian is going to be thirteen. (others – other) We need a few _____________________ flowers. (others – other)

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Módulos 15 – 16

ADJETIVOS CALIFICATIVOS Y DETERMINATIVOS 15.1. Para agregar un adjetivo calificativo o numeral a un sustantivo indicando cualidad o característica. The square package is mine. A compact car is blocking the traffic. Jane’s back shoes are under the bed. My five white roses are especially for you. The two tall boys are my brothers. My last five white roses are very beautiful. 15.2. Para agregar un sustantivo antes de otro sustantivo indicando cualidad o característica. Your wedding dress is beautiful. That wall clock is unplugged. He bought their last two gas refrigerators. The four pretty gold bracelets are for your sisters. All her heavy winter clothes are in her closet. Your apple pie is on the table. 15.3. Para especificar a un ser anteponiendo a su nombre un gerundio que señala la acción para la que sirve. They are in the dinning room. I have a new pair of riding boots. John forgot his swimming trunks. She is standing at the diving board. I’ll have to open a new bottle of cooking oil. She always uses sleeping pills and I don’t like it. 16.1. Para especificar a un ser señalando más de una cualidad o característica. They sell gas and electric stoves. I have two black and white dresses. Three beautiful, graceful girls danced last night. They built a tall but narrow, door. 16.2. Para indicar características activas o pasivas de un sujeto mediante el uso de participios verbales que actúan como adjetivos. Participio activo V-ing. Participio pasivo V-ed/en. The lecture is interesting. (The lecturer interests the audience.) The audience is interested. (The audience is interested by the lecturer.) The meal was satisfying. The man was satisfied.

(The meal satisfied the man.) (The man was satisfied by the meal.)

The clown is amusing. The children are amused.

(The clown amuses the children.) (The children are amused by the clown.)

16.3. Para expresar cualidades que corresponden a un ser en determinadas fases de su comportamiento. Hmmm! The pie looks good. Hmmm! It smells delicious. It became stale. Ughh! It tastes awful. 16.4. Para especificar a un ser señalando su ubicación, origen, compañía, etc. The boy near the window is Betsy’s brother. John is looking at the girls with the dog in her arms. We visited the house of the small windows. 16.5. Para especificar a un ser por la acción que está desarrollando o cuyo efecto recibe. I talked to the man standing alone. Mexican jumping beans are a tourist attraction. The sleeping pills were for the girl sleeping there. He is talking to the girl portrayed in that painting. The broken dish is on the table. The lighted window attracted the attention of the child. OBSERVE Punto 15.1.: Cualquier adjetivo calificativo debe colocarse antes de cualquier sustantivo (véase ejemplos). Cuando se quiera agregar un adjetivo numeral, éste debe ir antes del adjetivo ya dado; es decir, adjetivo numeral + adjetivo + sustantivo. Punto 15.2.: Cualquier sustantivo que especifique a otro sustantivo, lo preceden inmediatamente y nunca van en su forma plural. (Véase ejemplos). El orden sería: sustantivo especificante + sustantivo especificado. La unidad formada por ambos sustantivos (especificante y especificado) pueden ir modificada por adjetivos calificativos o determinativos, éstos se ubicarán en el orden ya indicado.

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Punto 15.3.: Los gerundios (V-ing), señalan la acción para la que sirve el objeto nombrado por el sustantivo al que preceden y también deben colocarse antes del sustantivo. Al igual que en casos anteriores, la unidad formada por el gerundio especificante y el sustantivo especificado, puede ir modificada por adjetivos calificativos y determinativos en el orden ya indicado. Punto 16.1.: Cuando dos o más palabras descriptivas de la misma categoría (apariencia, forma, color, etc.) especifican a un sustantivo, cada una lo hace independientemente y se enlazan con la conjunción “and” y por comas, o solamente por comas y sin orden fijo, ya que depende del estilo personal de cada quien. Cuando se trata de adjetivos de valor con signo diferente, es decir que uno se considera una cualidad positiva y el otro una cualidad negativa, el enlace se hace con la conjunción adversativa “but”. Punto 16.2.: El participio activo (V-ing) usado como adjetivo indica que el ser nombrado por el sustantivo al que se refiere produce la acción designada por el verbo del cual se forma dicho participio. El participio pasivo (V-ed/en) usado como adjetivo indica que el ser nombrado por el sustantivo al que se refiere recibe el efecto de la acción designada por el verbo del cual se forma dicho participio. Punto 16.3.: Algunos verbos que se refieren a los sentidos como appear, look, seem (vista), feel (tacto), smell (olfato), sound (oído), taste (gusto); otros que denotan cambio como become, get, grow, turn o permanencia como continue, keep, lie, stay, remain, stand, y otros de tipos similares se usan para expresar cualidades que corresponden a un sujeto en determinadas fases de su comportamiento. En la frase “The pie is good”, el adjetivo “good” señala la naturaleza total del “pie”, en la frase “The pie looks good”, el adjetivo “good” señala solamente la forma en que se presenta a la vista el objeto denominado “pie”. Punto 16.4.: Otra forma de especificar a un sustantivo es indicando la ubicación, origen, compañía, etc., del ser nombrado por ese sustantivo, mediante grupos de palabras precedidos por una preposición que indica lugar, procedencia, compañía, etc. Estos grupos SIEMPRE siguen al sustantivo al cual especifican. Punto 16.5.: Para especificar a un sustantivo se puede usar el participio activo del verbo que señala la acción que está desarrollando el ser nombrado por dicho sustantivo. El participio activo se reconoce porque puede sustituirse por una frase de relativo con who, which o that como sujeto. El participio activo especificante puede ir inmediatamente antes o después del sustantivo especificado, según si dicho participio tiene o no complemento. Si lo tiene, va pospuesto al sustantivo. De igual manera, se puede usar el participio pasivo del verbo si la acción del verbo lo recibe el sujeto y se aplica las mismas reglas gramaticales anteriores.

REACTIVOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Ejercicio 1. Complete las siguientes oraciones con el orden adecuado. Véase punto 15.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The tall boy is near the window. (tall – boy) The _______________________ is pretty. (round – table) The _______________________ is wearing a short dress. (woman –fat The _______________________ is on the bed. (sweater black) A _________________________ is depressing for me. (day – cloudy The ________________________ are expensive. (small - earrings) The ________________________ lacks two buttons. (shirt – white) The ________________________ is for the lady, the iced tea is for the child. (hot – tea) Mary is standing near the _______________________. (door – open) Don’t touch that __________________________. (broken – bottle)

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Ejercicio 2. Complete las siguientes oraciones con el orden adecuado. Véase punto 15.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I want a glass of orange juice . (juice – orange) Please have a piece of ___________________________. (cherry – pie) Your _________________________ is beautiful this year. (tree – Christmas) He didn’t turn off his ________________________. (car – lights) Where is her ________________________? It’s on the table. (book – algebra) Children usually love ___________________________. (cakes – birthday) All the ________________________ are loaded with fruit. (apple – trees) She has many photos in her _______________________. (album – photo) I need a pair of __________________________. (tennis – shoes) The __________________________ is unplugged. Please plug it in. (desk – lamp)

Ejercicio 3. Complete las siguientes oraciones agregando la terminación “ing” de los verbos correspondientes. Véase punto 15.3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

They are taking driving lessons _____. (drive – lessons) This _______________________ is out of order. (drink – fountain) Our _______________________ are black. (shoes – dance) His _________________________ is warm and comfortable. (bag – sleep) I need a box of _________________________, I only have the envelopes. (write – paper) Mrs. Brown was always in her ________________________. (rock – chair) Little Marie has a ________________________. (rope – jump) The water is now at the __________________________. (temperature – boil) Their new house has a small __________________________. (swim – pool) Her __________________________ is behind the door. (iron – board)

Ejercicio 4. Complete las siguientes oraciones con el participio activo o con el pasivo. Véase punto 16.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

The results of the contest were frustrating . (frustrating – frustrated) The students were frustrated (frustrating – frustrated) The mother is ________________________ (surprising – surprised) The children are _______________________ (surprising – surprised) The wild cat was _____________________ (frightened – frightening) We were ______________________ (frightened – frightening) The news were ______________________ (shocked – shocking) The people were _______________________ (shocked – shocking) Their irresponsibility is _______________________ (discouraging – discouraged) Their teachers are ________________________ (discouraging – discouraged) Beauty and love are ________________________ (inspiring – inspired) The poet is ________________________ (inspiring – inspired) His attitude is ________________________ (displeased – displeasing) She is __________________________ (displeased – displeasing) The delegate’s speech was __________________________ (astonishing – astonished)

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Ejercicio 5. Vuelva a escribir cada frase sustituyendo con la palabra que aparece entre paréntesis el elemento correspondiente. Véase punto 16.3. The ice-cream looks good. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

(is) (John) (seems) (intelligent) (quiet) (they) (remained) (keep) (silent) (turned)

The ice-cream is good.

Ejercicio 6. Complete las siguientes oraciones guiándose por la información dada entre paréntesis. Véase punto 16.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The man under the car is a mechanic. (the car – under) The car ____________________________ us small. (in – the garage) The telephone ______________________________ is off the hook. (the table – on) The coat _____________________________ is expensive. (in – the closet) The dress ______________________________ is for Helen, the dress without the pockets is for Marcia. (the pockets – with) The panting _________________________________ is abstract. (beside – the door) I need the book ________________________________ and the ashtray. (the door – between) The truck hit the light pole _____________________________. (at – the corner) The dog ________________________________ is happy. (outside – the house) Please take the basket _________________________________. (the flowers – with)

Ejercicio 7. Complete correctamente las siguientes oraciones. Véase punto 16.5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The dancing girls entertained the audience. (girls – dancing) I have to take the ______________________________ out of the refrigerator. (meat – frozen) The ______________________________ illuminated the scene softly. (burning – candle) The _____________________________ yesterday are wet. Don’t touch them. (painted – tables) The ____________________________ on the desk are important. (papers – left) We can see the ___________________________ the school newspaper. (painting – boys) Lizzie has a ________________________________. (doll – talking) The ______________________________ is working effectively on the spots. (liquid – cleaning) The ______________________________ pleased the audience. (singing – trio) Don’t look at the ___________________________ of the sun. (light – blinding)

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VERBOS REGULARES INFINITIVE

PRESENT SIMPLE

PAST

GERUND

MEANING

To add To administrate To agree To answer To appreciate To arrive To ask To attend To attract To beg To believe To belong To board To boil To bother To broil To call To carry To change To charge To chat To claim To clean To climb To close To collect To compete To complete To confirm To consider To constitute To continue To contradict To cook To copy To cross To decide To declare To decorate To demand To die To discuss To dream To dress To elect To eliminate To employ To enjoy To enter To entertain To examine To exchange To excuse To expect

Adds Administrates Agrees Answers Appreciates Arrives Asks Attends Attracts Begs Believes Belongs Boards Boils Bothers Broils Calls Carries Changes Charges Chats Claims Cleans Climbs Closes Collects Competes Completes Confirms Considers Constitutes Continues Contradicts Cooks Copies Crosses Decides Declares Decorates Demands Dies Discusses Dreams Dresses Elects Eliminates Employs Enjoys Enters Entertains Examines Exchanges Excuses Expects

Added Administrated Agreed Answered Appreciated Arrived Asked Attended Attracted Begged Believed Belonged Boarded Boiled Bothered Broiled Called Carried Changed Charged Chatted Claimed Cleaned Climbed Closed Collected Competed Completed Confirmed Considered Constituted Continued Contradicted Cooked Copied Crossed Decided Declared Decorated Demanded Died Discussed Dreamed Dressed Elected Eliminated Employed Enjoyed Entered Entertained Examined Exchanged Excused Expected

Adding Administrating Agreeing Answering Appreciating Arriving Asking Attending Attracting Begging Believing Belonging Boarding Boiling Bothering Broiling Calling Carrying Changing Charging Chatting Claiming Cleaning Climbing Closing Collecting Competing Completing Confirming Considering Constituting Continuing Contradicting Cooking Copying Crossing Deciding Declaring Decorating Demanding Dieing Discussing Dreaming Dressing Electing Eliminating Employing Enjoying Entering Entertaining Examining Exchanging Excusing Expecting

Sumar Administrar Estar de acuerdo Contestar Apreciar Llegar Pedir, preguntar Asistir Atraer Rogar Creer Pertenecer Abordar Hervir Molestarse Asar Llamar Llevar Cambiar Cobrar Charlar Reclamar, afirmar Limpiar Subir Cerrar Coleccionar Competir Completar Confirmar Considerar Constituir Continuar Contradecir Cocinar Copiar Atravesar, cruzar Decidir Declarar Decorar Exigir Morir Discutir SoĂąar Vestirse Elegir Eliminar Dar empleo Gozar de Entrar en Divertir Examinar Intercambiar Perdonar, disculpar Esperar

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To extend To fasten To fill To finish To freshen To fry To furnish To greet To guess To happen To help To hope To hurry To import To inspect To introduce To invite To join To land To learn To like To list To live To look To love To mail To manufacture To mark To mention To miss To move To note To obtain To open To order To owe To pack To paint To park To perform To pick To plan To play To prefer To prepare To present To print To process To produce To promise To prove To provide To reach To receive To recommend To reduce To register To regulate InglĂŠs II

Extends Fastens Fills Finishes Freshens Fries Furnishes Greets Guesses Happens Helps Hopes Hurries Imports Inspects Introduces Invites Joins Lands Learns Likes Lists Lives Looks Loves Mails Manufactures Marks Mentions Misses Moves Notes Obtains Opens Orders Owes Packs Paints Parks Performs Picks Plains Plays Prefers Prepares Presents Prints Processes Produces Promises Proves Provides Reaches Receives Recommends Reduces Registers Regulates

Extended Fastened Filled Finished Freshened Fried Furnished Greeted Guessed Happened Helped Hoped Hurried Imported Inspected Introduced Invited Joined Landed Learned Liked Listed Lived Looked Loved Mailed Manufactured Marked Mentioned Missed Moved Noted Obtained Opened Ordered Owed Packed Painted Parked Performed Picked Planed Played Preferred Prepared Presented Printed Processed Produced Promised Proved Provided Reached Received Recommended Reduced Registered Regulated

Extending Fastening Filling Finishing Freshening Frying Furnishing Greeting Guessing Happening Helping Hoping Hurrying Importing Inspecting Introducing Inviting Joining Landing Learning Liking Listing Living Looking Loving Mailing Manufacturing Marking Mentioning Missing Moving Noting Obtaining Opening Ordering Owing Packing Painting Parking Performing Picking Planning Playing Preferring Preparing Presenting Printing Processing Producing Promising Proving Providing Reaching Receiving Recommending Reducing Registering Regulating

Extender Fijar, apretar Llenar Terminar Refrescarse FreĂ­r Suministrar Saludar Adivinar Ocurrir Ayudar Esperar Apresurarse Importar Inspeccionar Presentar Invitar Unirse a Aterrizar Aprender Gustar Poner en lista Vivir Mirar, parecer Amar Enviar por correo Fabricar Marcar Mencionar Perder, echar de menos Mudarse, moverse Notar Obtener Abrir Ordenar Deber Empacar Pintar Estacionar Ejecutar Coger Idear, hacer planes Jugar, tocar Preferir Preparar Presentar Imprimir Elaborar, procesar Producir Prometer Comprobar Proveer Llegar a Recibir Recomendar Reducir Registrar, matricularse Regular Preparatoria Abierta

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To relax To remember To rent To represent To require To reserve To return To roast To roll To sail To save To separate To serve To share To shave To show To sign To smell To smoke To snow To start To stay To stop To study To suggest To supply To suppose To surprise To talk To telephone To thank To touch To treat To try To turn To use To visit To vote To wait To walk To want To waste To watch To welcome To wish To work To worry To wrap

InglĂŠs II

Relaxes Remembers Rents Represents Requires Reserves Returns Roasts Rolls Sails Saves Separates Serves Shares Shaves Shows Signs Smells Smokes Snows Starts Stays Stops Studies Suggests Supplies Supposes Surprises Talks Telephones Thanks Touches Treats Tries Turns Uses Visits Votes Waits Walks Wants Wastes Watches Welcomes Wishes Works Worries Wraps

Relaxed Remembered Rented Represented Required Reserved Returned Roasted Rolled Sailed Saved Separated Served Shared Shaved Showed Signed Smelled Smoked Snowed Started Stayed Stopped Studied Suggested Supplied Supposed Surprised Talked Telephoned Thanked Touched Treated Tried Turned Used Visited Voted Waited Walked Wanted Wasted Watched Welcomed Wished Worked Worried Wrapped

Relaxing Remembering Renting Representing Requiring Reserving Returning Roasting Rolling Sailing Saving Separating Serving Sharing Shaving Showing Signing Smelling Smoking Snowing Starting Staying Stopping Studying Suggesting Supplying Supposing Surprising Talking Telephoning Thanking Touching Treating Trying Turning Using Visiting Voting Waiting Walking Wanting Wasting Watching Welcoming Wishing Working Worrying Wrapping

Calmarse Recordar Alquilar Representar Requerir Reservar Volver, devolver Asar Enrollar Navegar Salvar, ahorrar Separar Servir Compartir Afeitarse Mostrar Firmar Oler Fumar Nevar Comenzar Permanecer Detenerse Estudiar Sugerir Suministrar Suponer Sorprender Hablar Telefonear Agradecer Tocar Tratar, convenir Probar, intentar Girar, voltear Usar Visitar Votar Esperar Caminar Querer Desperdiciar Observar Dar la bienvenida Desear Trabajar Preocuparse Envolver

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VERBOS IRREGULARES INFINITIVE

PRESENT SIMPLE

PAST

GERUND

MEANING

To arise To awake To beat To become To begin To bleed To blow To break To bring To build To buy To catch To choose To come To cost To cut To deal To do To drink To drive To eat To fall To feed To feel To fight To find To fly To forget To forgive To freeze To get To give To go To grow To hang To have To hear To hide To hit To hold To hurt To keep To know To lay To leave To lend To let To lose To make To mean To meet To pay To put To read

Arises Awakes Beats Becomes Begins Bleeds Blows Breaks Brings Builds Buys Catches Chooses Comes Costs Cuts Deals Does Drinks Drives Eats Falls Feeds Feels Fights Finds Flies Forgets Forgives Freezes Gets Gives Goes Grows Hangs Has Hears Hides Hits Holds Hurts Keeps Knows Lays Leaves Lends Lets Loses Make Means Meets Pays Puts Reads

Arose Awoke Beat Became Began Bled Blew Broke Brought Built Bought Caught Chose Came Cost Cut Dealt Did Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Flew Forgot Forgave Froze Got Gave Went Grew Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knew Laid Left Lent Let Lost Made Meant Met Paid Put Read

Arising Awaking Beating Becoming Beginning Bleeding Blowing Breaking Bringing Building Buying Catching Choosing Coming Costing Cutting Dealing Doing Drinking Driving Eating Falling Feeding Feeling Fighting Finding Flying Forgetting Forgiving Freezing Getting Giving Going Growing Hanging Having Hearing Hiding Hitting Holding Hurting Keeping Knowing Laying Leaving Lending Letting Losing Making Meaning Meeting Paying Putting Reading

Levantar Despertar Golpear, latir Llegar a ser Empezar Sangrar Soplar Romper, quebrar Traer Construir Comprar Agarrar, atrapar Escoger Venir Costar Cortar Tratar Hacer Beber Conducir Comer Caer Alimentar Sentir, palpar Pelear Encontrar Volar Olvidar Perdonar Congelar Conseguir, volverse Dar Ir Crecer, madurar Colgar Tener Oír Esconder Golpear Sostener Lastimar Guardar Saber, conocer Colocar Dejar, abandonar Prestar Permitir Perder Hacer Significar Conocer, encontrar Pagar Poner Leer

Inglés II

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To ride To ring To rise To run To say To see To sell To send To shake To shine To shoot To show To sing To sink To sit To sleep To slide To slit To speak To spend To spin To spread To spring To stand To steal To stick To strike To swear To sweep To swim To take To teach To tear To tell To think To throw To understand To wake To wear To wet To win To withdraw To write

InglĂŠs II

Rides Rings Rises Runs Says Sees Sells Sends Shakes Shines Shoots Shows Sings Sinks Sits Sleeps Slides Slits Speaks Spends Spins Spreads Springs Stands Steals Sticks Strikes Swears Sweeps Swims Takes Teaches Tears Tells Thinks Throws Understands Wakes Wears Wets Wins Withdraws Writes

Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw Sold Sent Shook Shone Shot Showed Sang Sank Sat Slept Slid Slit Spoke Spent Spun Spread Sprang Stood Stole Stuck Struck Swore Swept Swam Took Taught Tore Told Thought Threw Understood Woke Wore Wet Won Withdrew Wrote

Riding Ringing Rising Running Saying Seeing Selling Sending Shaking Shining Shooting Showing Singing Sinking Sitting Sleeping Sliding Slitting Speaking Spending Spinning Spreading Springing Standing Stealing Sticking Striking Swearing Sweeping Swimming Taking Teaching Tearing Telling Thinking Throwing Understanding Waking Wearing Wetting Winning Withdrawing Writing

Montar Sonar Levantar (se) Correr Decir Ver Vender Enviar Sacudir Brillar Disparar Mostrar Cantar Hundir Sentarse Dormir Deslizar Rajar, cortar Hablar Gastar, pasar el tiempo Girar Esparcir Saltar Parar (se) Robar Pegar, meter Golpear Jurar Barrer Nadar Tomar EnseĂąar Rasgar Decir Pensar Echar, tirar, arrojar Entender, comprender Despertar Usar Mojar Ganar Depositar Escribir

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BIBLIOGRAFÍA CONSULTADA 

Ortega Argüelles, María del Rosario. Inglés II. –Libro-. SEP Preparatoria Abierta. Ed. Talleres Gráficos de México. 2000. 434 pp.

J. Dixson, Robert. Regents English Workbook. Intermediate. Ed. Prentice Hall Regents, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1986. 151 pp.

Forget, Gilles. Gramática Inglesa Comunicativa. Ed. Larousse S.A. de C.V. 2001. 206 pp.

García Bores, Jaime. Diviértase aprendiendo Inglés. Editorial Diana S.A. México D.F. 1990. 222 pp.

Greenall, Simon. Move up. Intermediate Student’s Book. Ed. Heinemann. Spain. 1995. 139 pp.

Inglés II

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Este material fue elaborado por Ranulfo Sántiz López. Es Maestro en Docencia por el Instituto de Estudios de Postgrado (IEP), Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas y actualmente trabaja en la Escuela Normal de Licenciatura en Educación Primaria Intercultural Bilingüe “Lic. Manuel Larraínzar” en San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas; México. Comentarios al e-mail: keremranu@gmail.com


SEP


Inglés 2