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SLA T E LAND S ELLEN NEISES AND COLIN CURLEY

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN • DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE • UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA


DESIGNERS Mike Biros Jihee Choi Rong Cong Jingshi Diao Nanxi Dong Sneha Easwaran Nyasha Felder Zitong Feng Scott Spencer Jackson Wenqian Jiang Jinah Kim Emily King Boyang LI An Hua Liang Boya Lu Shilei Lu Sean McKay Lesia Mokrycke Nicholas Parisi Karli Scott Yuzhou Shao

Cover Photograph: Jieping Wang This page: Ellen Neises

Emily Tyrer Jieping Wang Xiaoyang Wang Elvis Wong Yiqing Wu Le Xu Liqiu Xu Shuwen Ye Xinyi Ye Jingya Yuan Qinyi Zhai Tianjiao Zhang Zhiqiang Zheng Yuxia Zhou

BOOK DESIGNER Colin Curley

LEHIGH VALLEY GUEST CRITICS Becky Bradley Bryan Cope Sharon Davis

William Deegan Chad Helmer Diane Kripas April Niver Tracy Oscavich Mike Piersa Lance Prator Geoff Reese Andrea Tessier

TEACHING TEAM Ellen Neises Kira Appelhans Molly Bourne Todd Montgomery Colin Curley Jieru Wei Lance Wong Nate Wooten

CHAIR OF THE LANDSCAPE DEPARTMENT Richard Weller


This is a catalog of ideas for the Lehigh Valley Slate Belt, one of the most extraordinary places in the Northeast that no one knows about—yet. The ideas were generated by 36 landscape architecture graduate students at the University of Pennsylvania between September and December 2015, in an energetic dialog with many community leaders, and local and regional planners and thinkers, and teachers and design critics at PennDesign. The ideas presented here are not a set of coordinated recommendations. They represent different takes on the best opportunities for design, and visualize a variety of alternative futures to stimulate discussion in the early stages of a long-term comprehensive planning process. Multiple options are presented for each town and area that attracted the interest of our studio based on exploration and conversation with slate belt leaders. As a body of work (albeit sketches quickly executed), these diverse ideas make a case for largescale landscape design and nature-based place-making as a means of transformation of this dynamic area. The design studio that produced this work was led by Ellen Neises in collaboration with Becky Bradley, and taught by Ellen, Kira Appelhans, Molly Bourne, and Todd Montgomery, and our able teaching assistants Colin Curley, Jieru Wei, Lance Wong, and Nate Wooten. Research led by Nate Wooten in 2014 brought the Slate Lands to our attention, and forged the connection between the university and the Lehigh Valley Planning Commission. The intelligence of the students’ work was shaped by many strong guest critics from the Lehigh Valley. This book was designed by Colin Curley. The Slate Lands project continues with a second studio, underway now as we go to press in 2016, which aims to deepen our study of selected ideas and sites. Email us at ENeises@design.upenn.edu to learn more about these ideas. More drawings and research are available for each than we were able to include here.

ELLEN NEISES


FOREWORD The footprints of the Slate Belt industry - one of the largest contributors to Pennsylvania’s 19th century economy – dot the landscape of one of the most diverse economic, cultural and natural landscapes within the Lehigh Valley. These ‘Slatelands’ were the subject of a thrilling collection of work undertaken by students of the PennDesign School of Landscape Architecture during the fall semesters of 2015 and 2016 and focus on revisioning overlooked and undervalued assets.

The design proposals envision a regional resurrection through the coordination of strategies ranging from economically-driven development within small town cores to subtle, environmentally-driven tactics in the peripheral wetlands and fens. Although the radical re-interpretations of the Slate Belt’s landscapes may allude to fantasy, they are in fact the seeds of very real possibilities for a not-too-distant future. The timing couldn’t be more appropriate as the ten municipalities comprising the Slate Belt Region move towards the development of a multi-municipal plan beginning in 2017. This plan will a develop a common set of goals and implementation priorities on the economy, housing, environment, agricultural and cultural conservation, utilities and community facilities, as these assets are the Slate Belt’s foundation. Synchronizing development and preservation goals and establishing global priorities will bring local values to the forefront and set the stage for welcoming creative new industries while maintaining authenticity and sense of place. Most importantly, the resulting plan will set a precedent for similar regions across the country. The thoughtful and bold ideas captured in the PennDesign work establishes a framework for the Slate Belt’s future and underpins the planning and implementation occurring in the months and years to come. On behalf on the Lehigh Valley Planning Commission, we hope that you enjoy this work and that conversation, partnerships and action result.

BECKY A. BRADLEY

AICP, Executive Director, Lehigh Valley Planning Commission and PennDesign, Master of City Planning, 2003


WATER GAP

N. BANGOR

PORTLAND

E. BANGOR PEN ARGYL

BANGOR

THE SLATE BELT

WIND GAP

MARTINS CREEK

EASTON BETHLEHEM ALLENTOWN


CONTENTS NATURAL + HERITAGE TOURISM

AGRICULTURE

RECREATION

OPEN SPACE + AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION

THE LIVING QUARRYSCAPE

02

FARMING LEFTOVER

30

BREATHING QUARRY

06

FARMLAND [EDIBLE] OPEN SPACE

32

THE GREAT QUARRY LAND

08

THE FARM INTENSIVE

34

EXPERIENCE GENERATOR

10

THE NEW FARM ECONOMY OF THE SLATE BELT

36

TRAVERSING THE RIDGE, BRIDGING THE GAP

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EDUCATION; TRAINING; AGRITOURISM

HIGH TRAIL AND LOW TRAIL: WAKE UP QUARRIES WITH ACCESS

14

INCUBATING NEW FARMING CULTURE

38

THE TRACE

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FOODSCAPE CONFLUENCE

42

MOUNT BETHEL FENS

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Nicky Ye| Bangor Quarries

Shilei Lu | North Bangor Quarry Wenqian Jiang | Bangor/East Bangor Jihee Choi | Bangor

Nicholas Parisi | Appalachian Trail, Wind Gap Shuwen Ye | Wind Gap

Mike Biros | The Slate Belt Karli Scott | Upper Mount Bethel

ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION + REMEDIATION QUARRY CONNECTOR

20

SLATE BELT SPECIALS

22

CALL OF THE WILD

24

Nanxi Dong | Bangor Quarry Tianjiao Zhang | East Bangor Liqiu Xu | Delaware Water Gap

Yiqing Wu| Charles Chrin Interchange Rong Cong | Martins Creek Yuzhou Shao | Gull Farm

Scott Spencer Jackson | Belfast

Boya Lu | Wind Gap

Yuxia Zhou | Martins Creek


GROWTH FRAMEWORKS

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

WATER SUPPLY

GROWING INTERSCAPE

46

REFILL GROUNDWATER

74

BLENDED TOWN AND COUNTRY

50

SEEING WATER: A VISION FOR THE SLATE BELT COMMUNITY

80

SLATE SPINE

52

FLOOD AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

LIFE IN THE FLOW

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SHIFTING LANDSCAPE

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Jinah Kim | Route 33

Sean McKay | Wind Gap, Plainfield Emily Tyrer| Pen Argyl Quarries Emily King | East Bangor Boyang Li | Bangor Quarry

CONNECTIVITY

Jingya Yuan | Bangor, Ackermanville Lesia Mokrycke| Pen Argyl

RURAL BLUE INFRASTRUCTURE

82

FUTURE FLUX

84

AMPHIBIOUS SURFACES

86 88

Jingshi Diao | East Bangor Dam Qinyi Zhai | Bangor Elvis Wong | Bangor

BRIDGING THE GAP

58

FRANKLIN HILL FARMS PARK

STITCHING THE SLATE BELT

60

GREEN AND BLUE SPACE

BACKYARD QUARRYSCAPE

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An Hua Liang | Wind Gap, Route 33 Jieping Wang | Bangor Quarries

Xiaoyang Wang | Pen Argyl Quarries

RENEWABLE ENERGY 66

RENEWABLE ENERGY LANDSCAPE

70

Nyasha Felder | Bangor/Bethel

PORTLAND: RIVERTOWN + GATEWAY OF THE SLATE BELT

92

THE GREEN NET

94

Sneha Easwaran | Portland Zitong Feng | Portland

FUTURE GENERATOR Le Xu | Pen Argyl

Zhiqiang Zheng| Franklin Hill, Martins Creek


Photograph: Ishaan Kumar


NATURAL + HERITAGE TOURISM RECREATION • ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION + REMEDIATION


RECREATION

RECAPTURE: Cultural and recreational node

PRESERVE: Ecological restoration node

PROGRESS: Successional landscape node

THE LIVING QUARRYSCAPE Nicky Ye | Bangor Quarries The Living Quarryscape seeks to realize the possible opportunities of transforming the abandoned quarry sites of the Slate Belt to a new cultural, recreational and ecologically sound park which helps to redefine the important yet forgotten industrial heritage of this region. The project aims to not only provide an interesting local destination but also to help strengthen its connection to a larger system, including the existing trail system and habitats. The Bangor quarries are chosen as a pilot project for this type of intervention for their extremely interesting geological characters and their unique location being close to both the towns and existing natural preservation areas. The master plan is divided into three main areas based on careful site analysis. Although all of them carry some similar characteristics across the site, each of them has their own specific focus. The three main concepts for the three zones are Recapturing, Preserving and Progressing. The North Bangor

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Quarry focuses on recapturing heritage and encouraging people to experience the heritage while providing a setting for flexible activity space for the town. The central quarries act more as a natural preservation zone with limited human interaction. The Capital Quarry (illustrated on the opposite page) is a working landscape that not only aims to bring people to see what damage we have done to the landscape but to view a successional process of how we are recovering it with the modification to existing site structures.


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Junk Cars Existing

Scrub Phase1 Stripped Wet Meadow

Bird Houses

Seed Bank

Recovery

Scrub Phase2

Dry Meadow Visitor Center

Developing Rolling Meadow

Meadow

Scrub

Established

Opposite: Site master plan and view showing the reclaimed quarry activity areas. Left: Site plan showing the Capital Quarry redesign and perspective drawings describing people’s experience through the different types of successional landscape zones. Above: Diagrams showing the junk car reuse strategies and scrubland recovery process over time.

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RECREATION

PHASING

Existing built with limited access and low ecological value

04

Begin ecological restoration

Establish new circulation routes


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GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Establish new cultural, educational, and recreational programming

Over time, the park continues to grow and develop

05


RECREATION

BREATHING QUARRY Shilei Lu | North Bangor Quarry

The slate industry left behind hundreds of quarries. Most of them are fenced off as liabilities and are at risk of being landfilled. However, thousands of people have trespassed into Northampton’s quarries to cliff jump, swim, and fish even though it is illegal and dangerous. Most trespassers are not local, 90% travel to Northampton’s quarries from New Jersey. A profound opportunity exists to open the fences and transform the quarries into recreational areas, attracting tourists and locals alike while stimulating the local economy. The North Bangor Quarry has an interesting history and retains much of its historic industrial fabric and character, including the amazing step-like cliff—characteristics that form the basis for a recreational destination that celebrates and exposes the industrial heritage of the site. This is achieved through a continuation of the historic organization, form, material language, and planting logic. The quarry battery – a new, revised vision of the pumping system used to keep the quarry dry during mining operations – is

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utilized to create a daily fluctuation in water level that celebrates and exposes the quarry’s distinctive stepped cliff and supports a variety of programs at each water level.


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GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: The chart is the police record of people died and trespassed in Northampton’s quarries. The image shows where they come from. Left: The master plan and the phrasing plans when water level change. Above: The view shows what people see at the wall separated two quarries originally when quarry battery works and North Bangor quarry is in low water level.

-30' water level plan

-60' water level plan

-100' water level plan

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RECREATION

THE GREAT QUARRY LAND Wenqian Jiang | Bangor / East Bangor Slate was the reason why people settled the Slate Belt, and it could be the attraction again. Various quarries offer opportunities of a wide array of activities from civic places for culture to adventurous destination program. This project proposes a large park that will unite the North Bangor Quarry Clusters, potential development sites, and a restored stream valley would take locals and visitors to experience the history in an adventurous, immersive, and openended way. Twelve million people live within a 1.5-hour drive from Slate Belt. While many visit the region for its rich recreational resources, few are aware of the Slate Belt and its unique history. The Lehigh Valley made the materials that made America. However, there are few heritage programs today, and many could benefit from a more direct engagement of the relic landscapes of the Slate Belt’s industrial history. While Bethlehem Steel serves as an attraction by celebrating the structure where steel was manufactured, the Slate Belt’s many quarry are bigger and more impressive

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landscapes. Currently, they are abandoned, fenced and invisible to local residents and potential visitors alike. The area between Bangor and East Bangor has the most historically, geologically and ecologically intensive sites. A large quarry land park with four exploration lines traverses this rich territory. The rail line provides a safe and easy walking and cycling path between Bangor and East Bangor. The water line daylights the stream, creates flood storage, and provides recreation along the water’s edge. The quarry line is a major path that takes people to places of interest with a varied experience that both follows topography and cuts through it to open up views. The mountain line follows the original railway on the ridge, taking people to the forest and vineyard to be developed.


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GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

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RECREATION

EXPERIENCE GENERATOR Jihee Choi | Bangor

The natural and industrial history of the Slate Belt region shaped its distinctive features, including dramatic quarries and a series of compact towns. As the slate quarrying has slowed or passed, the post-industrial towns of the Slate Belt seek regeneration strategies that illuminate its distinctive features and ensure their enduring presence while providing opportunities for economic growth. In order to re-generate the city and stimulate local economy, this proposal chose a tourism as a regional activator, with the existing trail system as its physical foundation. This proposal focuses on Bangor for its proximity to New York and Philadelphia and its multiplicity of untapped Slate heritage resources. Experience Generator first reveals existing natural and heritage resources, tying them together with a trail system comprised of both new and renewed trails. Visitors will enjoy a variety of programs, unique materiality and planting in a dynamic trail journey experience. Rather than creating entirely new programming, this project aims to build upon regional programs that are already in

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place and highly valued, including hiking, farmer’s markets, and a wine trail. Through formal and programmatic interventions, Experience Generator intends to create an active platform appealing to both locals and tourists while strengthening the identity of the Slate Belt region by making visitors aware of that which makes the Slate Belt unique, and reconnecting locals to their history.


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GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Master Plan

Highest Poaint

Opposite: Three main views: (1) giant structure and view platform of North Bangor Quarry; (2) contrast between dense forest and artificial installation at the Nature Scenic Zone; (3) active farmer’s market atmosphere of Local Culture Zone. Left: Sequence of four types of trails: (1) Slate Heritage Trail above the North Bangor area; (2) Slate Memorial Park at the middle of the slate heritage zone; (3) Railroad Trail between the 512 and the railroad; (4) Nature Scenic Trail. Above: Main plan which shows scheme of trails, each spot that people can celebrate Slate Heritage elements, various vegetation strategies, program arrangement that makes new regional flow.

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RECREATION

TRAVERSING THE RIDGE, BRIDGING THE GAP Nicholas Parisi | Appalachian Trail, Wind Gap

With Wind Gap town’s recent designation as an Appalachian Trail town, there is potential to make the trail and the Kittattiny Ridge more accessible to local users. Most AT hikers’ views from the mountain ridge are blocked by unmanaged vegetation and local hikers do not attempt to use the AT due to its lack of amenities or shorter trail circuits. Through detailed analysis of existing microclimates and seasonal effects on the mountain, two local, seasonal trails have been proposed. The purpose of the new ‘Slate Belt Trail’ is to provide loops for both day hikes and weekend hikers that intersect the existing Appalachian Trail and use the many varied environmental qualities of the ridge to its advantage. Summer trails seek to bring hikers through areas which respond to topography and forest canopy structure which maintain cool, breezy experiences while winter trails keep users warm and deflect breezes. Each trail also weaves hikers through interesting and varied forest “room” types which allow for varied experiences while being submerged in

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the forest. Their main purpose however is to connect hikers to moments in which they can experience spectacular views back to the Slate Belt towns below. By providing these moments of prospect, hikers of all user groups will have more appreciation for their local land and thru hikers will be more likely to stop and enter the local towns. By incorporating materials such as local slate, sandstone, concrete and steel, as well as selectively revealing the mountain bedrock geology, users will become aware of the geologic past of the area and a sense of nature based place making will be present. These new trails with time can form local connections to each of the Slate Belt towns and the area can re-brand itself as the “Gateway to the North.”


SIS

SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

FOREST ROOM EXPERIENCES

W

LOW CANOPY

GH

HIGH CANOPY

Opposite: View of Wind Gap town and quarries from proposed lookout points along trails. Left: First: When carving out paths for trails, local bedrock can be strategically left to use as trail stopping points, to curate specific views and point hikers in various directions towards slate towns. Second: When the AT intersects the proposed Slate Belt Trail, path material can reflect local slate and sandstone and evoke the geologic history of the ridge as it has eroded away over time. Third: New trail markers can be created for the proposed trail, also incorporating local materials and creating a unifying sense for Slate Belt towns, while leaving room to add the individual character of each borough. Above left: Plan layout of summer and winter trails with marked interesting moments which trails intersect. Right: View of hikers walking towards seasonal camp sites on the ridge.

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RECREATION

HIGH TRAIL & LOW TRAIL: WAKE UP QUARRIES WITH ACCESS

Shuwen Ye | Wind Gap The quarries and slate piles left by the slate industry give the Slate Belt its unique and special identity, yet, they are an undervalued asset. Filling quarries destroys the Slate Belt’s its unique physical identity and uncouples it from its heritage. Upslope, the Appalachian Trail is under stress and needs updating. Current hiker facilities are old and over used and the trail has poor visual and physical connection to Slate Belt towns. Wind Gap is newly designated as a trail town but lacks hiker facilities and a clear connection to the trail. This project proposes a network of high and low trails and attractions within the quarry and slate pile landscape that, when linked to Slate Belt towns and regional trails, serve to create a unified identity for the region while adding interest to the region’s trail network. It also establishes a spine for hiker services in Wind Gap. This spine connects hikers to the network of smaller trails that weave across the slate quarry landscape.

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Quarries are reclaimed for a variety of uses, transforming them from a junk landscape to places that enliven the communities in which they are situated. Slate piles are sculpted to provide a variety of experiences. Piles are stabilized through vegetation and wall building to safely enable trails and other human uses to occur. Along the hiker spine, main elements from the Blue Mountain and quarry zone blend together to create a unique streetscape. Visual connections are established by clearing vegetation from the Appalachian Trail and by painting Wind Gap’s telephone poles a bright color. This connective strategy extends across the Slate Belt resulting in a trail system that relieves the stress of the increasing hikers for the original trail facilities. Quarries become destinations that strengthen and revitalize Slate Belt towns.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Conceptual section of the project and the conceptual bird’s eye view of whole project. Left: View of the slate path and grading model to show the form of sculpted slate pile. Above: View in the quarry water park and quarry theater.

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RECREATION

THE TRACE Mike Biros | Slate Belt

The identity of the Slate Belt is a function of the unique and varied industrial, ecological, and cultural conditions of the region. These conditions are ultimately products of the underlying geology. The location of high quality, easily-mined slate informed the establishment of quarries and the settlement of towns. The wealth and opportunity generated by the extraction of slate attracted immigrants from other slate quarrying regions of the world who brought traditions and customs that contribute to the cultural identities of the Slate Belt towns. The sandstone Kittatinny Ridge and glaciated terrain provide unique conditions for ecologically significant features such as vernal ponds and migratory bird routes. Today, the slate industry is no longer an economic driver inthe region. Its identity is in flux. The towering waste piles and deep water-filled quarries are a remnant of its past.

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A curated trail network acts as a physical narrative to tell the story of the region and as a framework to help write its future. It can strengthen inter-town relationships as well as connect the Slate Belt to regional trail networks. The old Lehigh New England rail bed forms the backbone of the network. From this spine, trails branch out to connect up to the Appalachian Trail, south to the Plainfield Twp Trail, and through the Slate Belt towns. The slate piles can be revegetated with species from the Shale Barren ecosystem. These plants are obligate heliophytes that have adapted to thrive in the harsh conditions present on the rocky slopes.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Section cut through the Slate Belt and Kittatinny Ridge highlighting the complex relationships between geology and heritage. Left: (1) How geology informs ecology, culture, and industry which combine to define identity; (2) Program across trail network; (3) Large regional connections, nested local circuits, and mountain-to-town stitches. Above: Liminal and conflicting identities across time. Exposure/enclosure, heritage, hazard, recreation, and ruderal ecology all construct the identity of the quarries and waste piles.

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RECREATION

MOUNT BETHEL FENS Karli Scott | Upper Mount Bethel The Mount Bethel Fens is a new typology for geological interpretation, ecological conservation, and public amenity. From the 1930s to 2008, this landscape was an active sand and gravel quarry for the cement industry. Today, it is owned by Upper Mount Bethel and the Nature Conservancy without clear plans for its future. Mount Bethel Fens proposes to create a regional park with four types of landscape experiences: quarry, forest, fen, and man-made fen. With an interpretive center on site, the Nature Conservancy can tell the story of the landscape: how the excavation and removal of material exposed the water table, created ponds and streams, and the glacial till that rests above the limestone has fostered growth of rare plants and nutrient rich peat. An extensive network of trails, informed by the topography and historic roads, traverses the site. There are woodland trails set

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on boardwalks, built with timber from trees fallen on site; a series of trails for mountain biking close to residents; both paved and mowed paths through the new man-made fens; and compacted stone paths up onto the tops of large stone piles in the quarry experience. These trails also extend out to the Appalachian Trail, Portland, and the 911 Memorial Trail. The ultimate goal of the quarry experience is to allow people to feel the geology of the site, and then watch it become naturalized over the years without any intervention or maintenance. Residents and lifetime visitors will be able to watch the transformation from quarry to man-made fen, which is what occurred on the Eastern portion of the site over the last 20 years.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: This pond was once an active quarry for sand and aggregate, but is now home to migrating birds, butterflies, and beavers. Now it shall be a public resource for walking and community gatherings. Left: The Mount Bethel Fens will become a community resource and a regional destination to learn about the industrial history of this site and its ecological benefits. Above: The regional connections for Mount Bethel Fens to the Appalachian Trail, Portland, and the 911 Memorial Trail.

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ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION + REMEDIATION

QUARRY CONNECTOR Nanxi Dong | Bangor Quarry The Slate Belt is located close to Eastern Wildlife Line, a globally important wildlife corridor, which means that natural resources in Slate Belt play a crucial role in protecting the connectivity of wildlife habitat. At the same time, population growth in the Slate Belt – projected to be 57% in the coming 20 years – may threaten the wildlife line. This project focuses on strategies to thicken the wildlife line, mitigate fragmentation, and build a better setting to accommodate future growth in the region. At a local scale, there is a special landscape at the interface between core habitat and suburban development, which is the quarryscape in Bangor and East Bangor. This novel ecosystem, a result of the slate industry, contrasted by the glacial till landscape within core habitat, presents a good candidate site to thicken the Wildlife Line and mitigate fragmentation. Quarries are re-imagined as a gateways to enhance connections between the suburban landscape and core habitat. This project not only emphasizes

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rewilding quarries, but also shaping a transitional experience from novel ecosystem towards glacial till landscape. Quarries are grouped into three zones and connected by a successional landscape spine composed of three “connectors”: (1) a cultural connector (important trail nodes), (2) a habitat connector (fragmentation mitigation), and (3) a wildlife connector (enhancement of patches). The design of this site strategy aims to recast the wildlife connector as a regional landmark for wildlife watching, while enhancing habitat connectivity and promoting environmental education.


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Opposite: Bird’s eye view showing connection among Bangor Quarries,Core Habitat, and Appalachian Trail. Above: Regional master plan and wildlife connector quarry site plan. Below: Phasing and section showing successional grassland strategy in wildlife connector quarry design.

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ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION + REMEDIATION

SLATE BELT SPECIALS Tianjiao Zhang | East Bangor

The Slate Belt Specials seek to integrate the unique natural and cultural resources in the Slate Belt, the signature of which are vernal pools, slate quarries, and slate piles. At a regional scale, Slate Belt Specials creates a conservation zone to preserve existing vernal pools, a landscape of novel ecosystems that facilitates the study of restoration and reclamation and activates an eco-link for wildlife and humans. The site for Slate Belt Specials is the East Bangor Dam, which is characterized by a shallow, flat, unhealthy floodplain devoid of activity. Through a series of landform and planting interventions, the site is transformed into a layered landscape incorporating a working field for scientists to study the native seed bank, restored vernal pools, and a new kind of cultural landscape experience for the residents of Bangor and East Bangor. Invited into the site, residents are able to engage with this scientific process through observation and research assistance.

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A deeper reservoir functions as flood control and scoop puddles help to restore vernal pools. Excavated soil is used to conduct a topsoil seed bank experiment. A slate trail guides people through the site, along which slate serves different functions. In the vernal pool field, it acts as a filter to create a no fish zone. In this zone, scoop puddles are sited based on slope, soil, and landcover. In 5-10 years, some will become successful vernal pools but some will not. Failed puddles can be utilized as butterfly roosts or mud playgrounds while communicating the difficulty in restoring vernal pools and placing value on the existing vernal pools in the conservation zone. In topsoil experimental fields, slate serves as a base to study the relationship between slope, aspect and top soil seed germination and create the planting palette for the reclamation and stabilization of slate piles.


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GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Vernal Pool Restoration Field.

200’

Left: Grading Plan.

235’

Above: Topsoil Seed Bank Experimental Field Changing Over Time.

100’

110 215’

0

100 90

150

80

70 60 50 40 30 20

140

80

10

70 60

-10

0 13 0 12 0 11 0 10 90

0

50

175’

40

30

20

10

-20

0

-10

-10

0

-30

190’

120’

120’

150’

N

0FT

200

600

1200

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ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION BEAR +CORRIDOR REMEDIATION 150

300

600ft

N

SECTION

CALL OF THE WILD

200

400

800ft

Liqiu Xu | Delaware Water Gap Call of the Wild seeks to create a regional destination and itinerary for a new trend of wild-experiences – wild life, wild plants, wild scenery, and wildways – which cover all seasons. The site is located at the intersection of two wildlife corridors and confluence of a number of trail systems. There is a strong interest in the Slate Belt region in exploring the wild; wildernessrelated activities are the fastest growing recreational activity in the area. However, current destinations don’t satisfy this new trend toward experiencing the “wild” and the existing trails are nothing more than roads cutting through the forest. In addition, many trails focus on closing gaps and connectivity with other trail systems, and little attention has been paid to the design of features on the trails themselves. Call of the Wild seeks to explore the potential for the design of features along trail corridors for both humans and wildlife to experience different wilds using the bald eagle and black bear as focus species.

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For black bears, a human-proof bear corridor, bear bridge and bear islands are created. For bald eagles, an environment is formed to be more suitable for communal roosts. Through planting interventions, the ecotone is enriched and niches are created. For human beings, small interventions are used to create unique trail experiences, including a smooth path for birders and communal “roosts” for groups of hikers.


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V

HUMAN VIEW

BEAR VIEW

BEARS CATCHINGSection, FISH Opposite: a smooth path for birders goes along the cliff, with small interventions at some points. ADULT BEAR BABY BEAR

3 2

Left: Bear View, bears see the world in a different way, they follow food resource and see the designed bridge which can get them to the river. BEECHNUT TASTY SEASON

CHOKECHERRY TASTY SEASON

90% SUMMER

80% AUTUMN

Above: Bird View, three main corridors are created, one for human beings, one for black bears, the other for interactions between different species.

WILD SARSAPARILLA TASTY SEASON

90% SUMMER

RIVER DOGWOODS TASTY SEASON

BLUEBERRY

90% SUMMER

TASTY SEASON

RASPBERRY TASTY SEASON

EAGLE VIEW

95% SUMMER

WATER FISH COOL ENVIRONMENT

85% SUMMER

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REST

ROCK ANCHORS

ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION + REMEDIATION

GRANITE MOUNTAIN

CONCRETE BASE

SITE DIAGRAM

5

10ft

ROCK ANCHORS

SITE PLAN

WETLANDS

e

d

EAGLE ISLAND

f

c g b

b

c

a

a

BEAR ISLAND

a

APPALACHIAN TRAIL

CURRENT CONDITION SCREE CLIFF MIXED-OAK FOREST PITCH PINE-SCRUB OAK FOREST

PROJECT CORRIDOR FOR BEAR ISLAND FOR EAGLE PATH FOR HUMAN

CHESTNUT OAK FOREST FLOODPLAIN/WETLAND

INTERSECTION FOR ALL SPECIES

a a b c a b c d e f g

EAGLE ISLAND BEAR CORRIDOR BEAR BRIDGE BEAR ISLAND ENCOUNTER WITH BEAR PLATFORM THE ROOST THE NEST WALK ON WATER BRIDGE SCREE PARK

BEAR CORRIDOR

150

SECTION

26 FLOODPLAIN

FLOODWAY

WETLAND

300

600ft

N


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

EXPERIENCE THE ROOST

PEVFORUTED MESH FLOOR

CABLES IN TENSION DRILLED IN BEDROCK

STAINLESS STEEL GRID DECK

10ft

STABILISING CABLE

GET A GLIMPSE OF BEARS IN THE CORRIDOR ON THE SLOPE

BEAR CORRIDOR

10

20

40ft

THE NEST

ROCK ANCHORS

GRANITE MOUNTAIN

CONCRETE BASE

5

10ft

ROCK ANCHORS

SITE PLAN

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Photograph: Ishaan Kumar


AGRICULTURE OPEN SPACE + AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION EDUCATION; TRAINING; AGRITOURISM


OPEN SPACE + AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION

GROCELLS

FARMING LEFTOVER Yiqing Wu | Charles Chrin Interchange

In the past decade alone, the Slate Belt has lost 53% of its farmland as a result of industrial development and suburban sprawl. Such development patterns threaten the Slate Belt’s identity as a rural, pastoral countryside. However, within those developed areas, there are countless leftover spaces that are unattractive for sites for industrial and suburban development, including abandoned quarries, flood zones, and highway buffers. Farming Leftover exhibits the potential of transforming some of these remnant tracts into small farms for the cultivation of highvalue vegetables. A former cement quarry near the Charles Chrin Interchange serves as a pilot project site for demonstrating how leftover places can be both highly productive and beautiful. The quarry itself presents some advantages for transformation into farmland. The south-facing slope gets higher solar energy for longer growing season, while the unique topography will attract tourists and residents to visit and purchase produce. Birds living in

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the quarry and its surrounding landscape will offer natural fertilizer to farmland and aid in the dispersal of seeds. However, the quarry presents some disadvantages, including unstable slopes, poor soil and lack of connectivity. To overcome those disadvantages, this project seeks to open up the view to the quarry in order to attract visitors, and sets up conditions for collecting soil and stabilizing slate piles. Through the transformation of a former cement quarry into farmland, this project not only opens up new land to agricultural production, but also creates an attraction for people to visit and consume fresh food.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Section perspective shows quarry transformation into farming, education, and bird habitat. Left: Perspective of the entrance of the quarry farm and pollinator garden. Above: Plan and phasing diagram shows the process of building quarry farm and its location within the quarry.

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OPEN SPACE + AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION

FARMLAND [EDIBLE] OPEN SPACE Rong Cong | Martins Creek

This project is a reorganization and reformulation of underutilized farmland into edible forests and pollinator meadows, preserving farmland’s open space identity while restoring the land’s ecological and community services. Though farmland is decreasing quickly in Lehigh Valley under intense development pressures, farmland in Slate Belt region remains in relative high quantity and in good condition. The most serious problem facing farmland today is low productivity in terms of economic income, ecological services and community services. Both government officials and the public alike call for the preservation of farmland in the region, but upon examination of the motivations behind this desire to preserve farmland, it was evident that it is valued most for its open space character rather than its agricultural production. When considering farmland as part of a larger, regional open space system, it does not provide the same cultural and ecological services as other forms of open space. Given that much of the farmland in the Slate Belt is low

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in agricultural productivity and threatened by development, this project proposes to transform the open space identity of farmland and to reinterpret the concept of “productivity” to include preserving biodiversity, and water quality, providing an opportunity to experience nature, protecting natural beauty and building up linkages throughout the region.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Collages show the future rural life style after reorganizing underutilized farmland into edible forest and pollinator meadow. Left: Reorganization methods according to the existing farmland condition. Above: Site Plan and planting and trail types, showing various people’s experience in the “farmland” after reorganization.

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OPEN SPACE + AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION

THE FARM INTENSIVE Yuzhou Shao | Gull Farm

Agriculture is an important part of the Slate Belt, but it continues to shrink as it is taken over by suburban and industrial development. Given the fact that only 30% of original farmland has been preserved over the 70 years, Slate Belt residents now are eager to preserve remaining farmland. However, many are not really aware of the current situation about farm operations and the advantages and disadvantages of agriculture in the Lehigh Valley today. The preservation of farmland is mainly concerned with preserving open space. Therefore, the aim of The Farm Intensive is to help folks truly understand how farms can help to improve their lives so that they can realize the importance of farmland preservation. What’s more, developing agritourism by creating special farm experiences will help to increase Slate Belt’s regional identity, which would, in turn, promote farmland. The Slate Belt has some of the best soil in Pennsylvania. However, farmland here is not used to their greatest potential—corn and soybeans are the main crops and have relatively low value. The fertile

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soil provides great conditions for news way of farming here, including organic farming, forest farming and intercropping. Farming practices in the Slate Belt are changing, however, people are not familiar with these new techniques and technologies. The Farm Intensive acts as a center to let people feel new things by providing different kinds of farm experience. Two main programmatic components characterize The Farm Intensive. The first is the rural farm, which provides the chance for people to enjoy great ruralism. The second is create a new kind of food hub that allows people to understand every aspect involved in food processing, from farm to table. With these experiences, visitors will learn about what they eat and how farms are related to their daily lives.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015 Urban Farm Center

Typical Food Hub Aggregation

Restaurant

Community Kitchen

Retail

Processing

Storage

Distribution

Processing

Storage

Community Kitchen

Distribution

Retail

Urban F arm

Pick Your Own

Farming

Marketing

Rur al F arm

Old School Farming

Modern Farm

Opposite: Concept image. The Farm Intensive: a combination of both urban and rural farm. Organic Farming

Forest Farming

Picnic

Scenery

Education

Contact with Animal

Bed and Breakfast

Left: Perspectives for three main zones in the project: (1) urban farm center (2) natural belt, (3) rural farm center. Livestock

Row Intercropping

Above: Site Plan.

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OPEN SPACE + AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION

THE NEW FARM ECONOMY OF THE SLATE BELT Scott Spencer Jackson | Belfast

Despite the 90% of Lehigh Valley voters who mandate the preservation of farmland, the valley is at risk of losing its farm identity. Residential development is rapidly consuming open space at a rate of four acres per year. Additionally, existing farmlands remain greatly underutilized. 40% of its farms make less than less than 5,000 per year. The region is quickly losing its identity and dissolving into a series of disconnected suburban plots. The best chance of redirecting this region’s future lies in promoting both its natural amenities such as the Plainfield Township rail trail and Jacobsburg State Park, as well as in celebrating the character of its farm landscapes. Along these lines, this design proposal consists of a trail network that connects Jacobsburg State Park from across Route 33 to the Easton to Pen Argyl Trail (which currently lacks any notable entrance) as well as to the farmlands beyond. The addition of a hillside farm trail will weave through the edge spaces between farms providing a new experience that celebrates the region’s

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agrarian landscape. These edge spaces are also thickened in order to provide varied grassland habitat zones that help reduce the need for pesticides. The intersection of Bangor and Belfast roads will provide a new center for the region. A Main Street is formed through adding a side street to Bangor road. This main street will provide live-work spaces, and housing for farmers. Another road loops around Main Street with a backside that consists of shared cooling and barn facilities for farmers. The space formed between these roads becomes a park and public farmer’s market space which celebrates the views of the barns tucked into the farmed hillside.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Lehigh Valley’s population is growing at a rate of 10% per decade with a growth pattern that is far too scattered

Route 33

Belfast

section through the industrial section

Forks Township

section through the side road/new main street THE NEW FARM ECONOMY 0’

dot density map showing houses purchased between 1990-2015 population density ranked per county

100’

200’

0’ 200’ 2’ contours

view showing the inside of the park and a barn enclosing the space

new streets are marked in red

Opposite: Perspective view showing the slate amphitheater. Above (left): A manufacturing area with an additional road; with this addition, the town of Belfast can build up the financial infrastructure to support light manufacturing and, in particular, food processing and packaging facilities to help bolster the new farm economy of the Slate Belt.

Belfast

already subdivided farmland

view showing the entryway trellis with a farmer’s market to support the new farm economy of the slate belt

Above (right): A new main street sidesteps the Bangor Road, with residential and live-work structures alongside it; shared farming facilities are shown alongside the new back road to main street.

agricultural security land (semi protected) agricultural easement (very protected)

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EDUCATION; TRAINING;Mowed AGRITOURISM Path

INCUBATING NEW FARMING CULTURE Boya Lu | Wind Gap As the Lehigh Valley has fertile soil and abundant water resources, it comes as no surprise that half of its land area is farmland. Despite this fact, the Lehigh Valley can only feed 24% of its population. While there are farms at a variety of scales throughout the Lehigh Valley, small farms near urban and suburban areas are thriving. They are using sustainable methods to grow high value vegetables and fruits and have strong connection with local communities. Additionally, in recent years there has been an increase in interest among many young people who want to start organic farm businesses in the Lehigh Valley. However, most of them do not know how to grow vegetables and fruits or how to manage their business successfully. This project aims to address young farmers’ education through the creation of a new and novel local food supply system. Incubating New Farming Culture proposes a new farmer training and agricultural business incubator to meet needs of new farmers who lack access to land, training or equipment. It is sited near Wind

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Gap, which is well-connected to regional transportation networks. As a farmer incubator, the main task is to define plots for training. In comparable farmer incubators in other regions, farmers usually spend one year in one acre, three years in two acres and one year in four acres. Vegetable farmers will move from one acre to two acres to four acres each year. Orchard farmers will get more land during years. As the selected site is near a school, the proposal incorporates half-acre plots for children between farm plots. A central building houses classrooms, equipment storage and tasting restaurants. In addition, public “pick-your-own” plots are defined especially for visitors to purchase produce and enjoy rural scenery, providing a source of income for the farmer incubator. Roads and pathways designed for visitors and farmers link farm plots together with gathering spaces that serve as places for farmers to rest and engage with visitors.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

8

6

1 2

10

4

4 5 3

5

11

9

6

7

1

Farmers’ Market

2

Quarry Reservior

3

School Trail

4

Summer Pick Your Own Garden

5

Spring Pick Your Own Garden

6

Autumn Pick Your Own Garden

7

Winter Pick Your Own Garden

8

Pollinator House

9

Mushroom Way

10 Forest Way 11 Farm Education &Faclility & Tasting Center 12 System Swale

1:400

Opposite: mowed path for visitors, private plots, public plots.

Farmers’ Market Farmers’ Market

Left: Site Plan, Plot changing over time. Above: Summer Pick Your Own Garden. Vegetable Plots

Facility Center

Facility Center

School Plots

Orchards

School

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EDUCATION; TRAINING; AGRITOURISM

40


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

41


EDUCATION; TRAINING; AGRITOURISM

FOODSCAPE CONFLUENCE Yuxia Zhou | Martins Creek

Farmland preservation is a very pertinent issue in the Slate Belt. Foodscape Confluence focuses on the possibilities of future agriculture. How might existing farmland transition into a high value incubator for new agricultural entrepreneurs? And how can farmland become attractive destinations for travelers? With a design agenda focused on agricultural productivity and tourism, this project focuses on areas that offer attractions unique to the Slate Belt along with highly valuable farmland. These criteria for site selection lead to the confluence of Route 611 – a pleasant 17-mile route that connects people from large cities with the Slate Belt – with the Delaware River and Martins Creek, where fertile soil lines the banks of the portion of the Delaware River that is designated as a National Scenic River segment. Foodscape Confluence aims to transform existing farmland into a incubator working landscape for new farmers, a public open space for local people, and a regional tourist destination. It will

42

become a rich foodscape of growing, exploring and open-table eating experiences. A loop trail system connects farmland, community and natural attractions with a sequence of varied spatial experiences shaped and defined by planting, platforms and decks.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

43


Photograph: Shilei Lu


GROWTH FRAMEWORKS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY • CONNECTIVITY • RENEWABLE ENERGY


DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

GROWING INTERSCAPE Jinah Kim | Route 33

The Lehigh Valley is geographically positioned to become a major distribution hub. The transportation system within the region plays a significant role in the economy of Lehigh Valley, where the distribution and freight industry is expected double in the next 20 years. Route 33, which connects the Lehigh Valley to I-80 and a third of Canadian consumers, is well positioned to host this distribution growth. Currently, distribution is growing in a scattershot way that places heavy burdens on local infrastructure. It also conflicts with livability and negatively impacts ecosystems in the region. Increased freight presents are a safety hazard, causes traffic congestion, high vehicular emissions, and noise pollution. However, the Townships within the valley are in need of employment opportunities and tend to make it easy for developers to build distribution facilities.

46

Growing Interscape leverages the Slate Belt’s locational advantages and the growing pressures on more coastal industrial regions to establish a mutually beneficial strategy for industrial development. In an intensified band of development that parallels Route 33, this project repositions the distribution landscape as an industrial corridor that contributes to the social, ecological and economic life of the Slate Belt.


ibutes to the social, ecological andin aeconomic lifeburdens of the Slate Belt. Currently distribution is growing scattershot way that local infrastructure. It also conflicts with livability and ecosystems in the region. Increased freight flows are a safety hazard, and cause congestion, gas emissions, and noise pollution. However, the Townships within the valley in need of employment opportunities and make it easy for developers to build without asking much of them.

Growing Interscape leverages the Slate Belt’s locational advantages and the growing pressures on more costal industrial regions to establish a mutually beneficial strategy for industrial development. In an intensified band of development that parallels Route 33, this project a repositions the distribution landscape as an industrial corridor contributes to the social, ecological and economic life of the Slate Belt.

SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

cape Framework structures distribution growth Regional Landscape Framework structures distribution growth Wind Gap

Pen Argyl

PA512

Farmland Residential area Urban area

Blue Mountain

Former quarries

PA512

d Gap

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Wind Gap

Distribution center developers flat land

Slope

Pioneer grass Pioneer tree Grass Tree

Forest

Secondary road

Farmland Residential area Urban area

Former quarries SULLIVAN TRAIL

ROUTE 33

PA191

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Zone 1

Accessibility of high way is a key element of distribution industry

Wind Gap

Former quarries PA512

Wind Gap

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Slate trail

Slope

Jacobs State Park Belfast

Zone 3

Slate Belt Townships

Belfast Interchange

Share truck parking Quarry terrace pool

Infrastructure Primary road Secondary road Street Intersection

Zone 2 ROUTE 33

SULLIVAN TRAIL

Organ

Green roo

Share truck parking

Community SULLIVAN TRAIL Townships

Tatamy ROUTE 33

PA191

Pedestrian, Bike path Entrance

Quarry camping

Industrial Area Warehouses Industrial area Projected industrial area

Stockertown

& Windgap e

33

Pen Argyl

Closer is better

Wind Gap

Blue Mountain

The most valuable land for developing Interchange is farmland. Primary road

Distribution center developers prefer flat land

PA512

Wind Gap

Flat

The most valuable land for developing is farmland.

Pen Argyl

Blue Mountain

Planting plan

Available land

Flat

Wind Gap

Pen Argyl

Plan of Growing interscape

Available land

PA191

Nature features _

Chrin Interchange

Building

Slate pile dam

View

Entrance

Landmark Heritage

Meadow park

1mile

Landscape

Jacobs State Park

Connection

Jacobs State Park

Belfast

Zone 3

Belfast

Pen Argyl

Wind Gap

Waterflow Pen Argyl

Pen Argyl

Share em

Pen Argyl

Wind Gap

Wind Gap

Wind Gap PA512

Blue Mountain

Geological Identity

Blue Mountain

Blue Mountain

PA512

Blue Mountain

PA512

PA512

Entrance

Belfast Interchange

Belfast Interchange

Former quarries

Zone 4

Slate Belt Former quarries Townships

Former quarries

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Wind Gap

Wind Gap

Wind Gap

Wind Gap

Infrastructure Primary road Secondary road Street Intersection

Share apr

Former quarries

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Carpet hill Grassland carpet hill

Loading d

Slate Belt Townships

ROUTE 33

SULLIVAN TRAIL

ROUTE 33

PA191

SULLIVAN TRAIL

SULLIVAN TRAIL

Slate Belt Townships Infrastructure Primary road Secondary road Street Intersection

Chrin Interchange Stockertown

Tatamy

Chrin Interchange

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Chrin Interchange

Industrial Area Warehouses Industrial area

Stockertown

Community Townships

Tatamy

Nature features _

Slate Belt Townships

Tatamy

Belfast Interchange

SULLIVAN TRAIL PA191

Geology Warehouses Industrial area Jacobs State Park Belfast

Belfast

Belfast

Belfast Interchange

ROUTE 33

PA191

Jacobs State Park

Jacobs State Park Belfast

PA191

SULLIVAN TRAIL

Industrial Area Warehouses Industrial area Projected industrial area

Stockertown

Jacobs State Park

Tatamy

ROUTE 33

PA191

Stockertown

Infrastructure Primary road Secondary road Street Intersection

Community Townships

Slate Belt Townships

Nature features _ Belfast Interchange

Belfast Interchange Infrastructure Primary road Secondary road Street Intersection

Nature features _

View Landmark Heritage

1mile

Hydrology Waterflow

Industrial Area Warehouses Industrial area

Community Townships Path_Bike,Walk

Circulatio

Community Townships

Stockertown

Stockertown Topography H.P Slope

View Tatamy

Landmark Heritage

Chrin Interchange

Tatamy

Nature features _ Chrin Interchange

Chrin Interchange View Landmark Heritage

View

View

Landmark Heritage

Landmark Heritage

1mile 1mile

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Legend NHPN_STFIPS_42 <all other values>

Unit

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LITH2 Dolomitic limestone

1 cm = 0 km

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Trucks go over, People go under Types of local road

Belfast

1 in = 0 miles

Dolomite

On the ground Route 33

Sullivan trail

Connection

wk5_sbcities

0

0.275

1 inch = 833 feet

0.55

1.1

Waterflow 1.65

Miles 2.2

47


ROUTE 33

Projected industrial area

SULLIVAN TRAIL

Community Townships

Tatamy

PA191

Nature features _

Chrin Interchange

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

View

ROUTE 33

Landmark Heritage

SULLIVAN TRAIL PA191

1mile

Stockertown

LANDSCAPE Landscape

Jacobs State Park

Conne

Belfast

Available land Flat The most valuable land for developing Distribution center developers prefer DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY is farmland. flat land

Accessibility of high way is a key element of distribution industry

AVAILABLE

ROAD PROXIMITY

FLAT

Farmland Residential area Urban area Tatamy

Belfast Interchange

Closer is betterJacobs State Park

PA512

Blue Mountain

Blue Mountain

Belfast Wind Gap

Former quarries

Former quarries

Interchange Primary road Secondary road

Zone 4 Slope

Pen Argyl

Wind Gap

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Slate Belt Townships

Belfast Interchange

Infrastructure Primary road Secondary road Street Intersection ROUTE 33

SULLIVAN TRAIL PA191

Stockertown Industrial Area Warehouses Industrial area

Stockertown Jacobs State Park

Jacobs State

Belfast Slate Belt Townships

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Tatamy

Slate Belt Townships

Belfast Interchange

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Tatamy

ndustrial Area Warehouses Industrial area Projected industrial area

Primary road Secondary road Street Intersection

Chrin Interchange

Nature features _

Chrin Interchange

Community Townships

Stockertown

Industrial Area Warehouses Industrial area

Nature features _

View

View

Tatamy

Landmark Heritage

Chrin Interchange 1mile

Connection

Waterflow

Geological Identity Pen Argyl

Pen Argyl

Blue Mountain

PA512

Unit

Blue Mountain

Infrastructure PA512

Former quarries

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

View Landmark Heritage

Cluster

Blue Mountain

Wind Gap

Former quarries

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

1mile 1mile

Pen Argyl

Wind Gap

Wind Gap

Wind Gap

Former quarries

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Nature features _

Wind Gap

Wind Gap

Cluster 48

Community Townships

PA512

Trucks go over, People go under


Plainfield & Windgap Interchange

Projected industrial Projected Projectedarea industrial industrial area area

CommunityCommunity Community TownshipsTownships Townships

Nature features Nature Nature features features _ __

View

PA191

SULLIVAN TRAIL

ROUTE 33

1mile 1mile

HYDROLOGY Waterflow Waterflow

SULLIVAN TRAIL

ROUTE 33

GEOLOGYIdentity Geological Geological Identity PA191

Pen Argyl Pen PenArgyl Argyl

PenArgyl Argyl Pen Argyl Pen

SULLIVAN TRAIL

ROUTE 33

Jacobs State Park PA512 PA512

Blue Mountain BlueMountain Mountain Blue

Blue BlueMountain Mountain Blue Mountain

Jacobs State Park

Belfast

PA512

PA512 PA512

PA191

Blue Mountain Blue BlueMountain Mountain

PA512

PA512 PA512

Pen Argyl Pen PenArgyl Argyl

Wind Gap Wind WindGap Gap

Wind Gap Wind WindGap Gap

WindGap Gap Wind Gap Wind

Jacobs State Park

Belfast Wind Gap Wind WindGap Gap

WindGap Gap Wind Gap Wind

SULLIVAN TRAIL

ROUTE 33

PA191

CONNECTIONS Connection ConnectionPA191

PA512

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

SULLIVAN TRAIL

ROUTE 33

PA191 1mile

LLIVAN TRAIL

SLATE LANDS

View View

Landmark Landmark Landmark SULLIVAN TRAIL Heritage Heritage Heritage

Wind Gap Wind WindGap Gap

Belfast

Belfast

Belfast

Plainfield Plainfield&&Windgap Windgap Plainfield & Windgap Interchange InterchangeInterchange

SULLIVAN SULLIVANTRAIL TRAIL SULLIVAN TRAIL ROUTE33 33 ROUTE 33 ROUTE

PA191

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Stockertown Jacobs StatePark Park Jacobs StateJacobs Park State Belfast

Community Townships Path_Bike,Walk Chrin Interchange

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View View

Tatamy

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1mile 1mile

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1mile 1mile

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1mile 1mile

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Tatamy

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PA191

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SULLIVAN TRAIL SULLIVAN SULLIVANTRAIL TRAIL ROUTE 33 ROUTE ROUTE33 33

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ures Nature Naturefeatures features __

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Hydrology Belfast Interchange Waterflow

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Tatamy

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Jacobs State Park

Belfast Interchange Infrastructure Primary Slate Belt road Secondary road Townships Street Intersection

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Former quarries Former Formerquarries quarries

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Slate Belt Townships

st Interchange Slate Belt Townships

Industrial Area Warehouses Industrial area

Jacobs State Park

Former quarries Formerquarries quarries Former

Former Formerquarries quarries Former quarries

View

1mile

Landmark Heritage

1mile Legend

Legend Legend

NHPN_STFIPS_42 NHPN_STFIPS_42 NHPN_STFIPS_42 <all other values>

LITH2

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1 in = 0 miles 11 in in == 00 miles miles

Dolomite Dolomite

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Limestone Limestone

wk5_sbcities

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km 11 cm cm == 00 km km

1mile

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1mile 0

0.27500

0.55 0.275 0.275

0.55 0.55

1.1

1.1 1.1

49 1.65

1.65 1.65

Miles 2.2

Miles Miles 2.2 2.2


DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

BLENDED TOWN AND COUNTRY

Sean McKay | Wind Gap, Plainfield Blended Town and Country seeks ways to increase the connection, productivity, amenity and value of the dominant landscapes of the Slate Belt: town, quarry, woodland and agricultural. The project intervenes on a 200 acre parcel of land at the edge of Wind Gap Borough and Plainfield Township that contains small patches of each of these landscape characters. The project intensifies the use of the site to include new local and regional recreation opportunities, multi-use trails, a retirement community development, camp sites and an agricultural incubator set within what is currently unused quarries, unused woodland and open corn fields. The project distills the unique positive aspects of each landscape character and blends them together in new ways with the program overlaid on this unique setting. By encouraging public access and circulation throughout the site, the project presents an understanding on a small scale of the existing and ambitions for the future landscape character of the Slate Belt.

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The site serves as an experimental ground for exploring new relationships and intensities between these characters and seeks to act as an impetus for more intensified and blended landscape character throughout the region.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: View from overlook mound back toward Wind Gap. Quarry boardwalk visible at bottom right. Left: Overall site plan. Above: Large scale influence and blended intensification potential around Wind Gap.

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DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

SLATE SPINE

Emily Tyrer | Pen Argyl Quarries This project seeks to 1) revitalize the Slate Belt towns by creating a new pedestrian/bike corridor that structures new, dense, residential developments, 2) connect residents to recreation and entertainment, and 3) create a new public image of the town that emphasizes the unique qualities of the slate quarries. This project emerged from the belief that towns can only revitalize by first strengthening themselves internally, rather than merely depending on a tourist economy or outside industry. 1) Revitalize: Increasing the density of the towns would benefit the Slate Belt by boosting the local economy and preventing further destruction of local farmland and forest. This project proposes that new development encircle the quarries and be built into the unique slate piles, creating new communities structured around water and enmeshed with their sites and places. 2) Recreate: Slate Spine encourages a healthy lifestyle by putting recreation at the heart of towns, with paths that enable walking,

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biking, hiking, field sports, and water sports. The project also emphasizes walkability, and not only creates bike and walking paths, but creates work opportunities and entertainment within walking distance from homes, lessening the amount of commuting time. 3) Re-image: The new pedestrian corridor is meant to repaint the Slate Beltâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s public image. The Slate Spine is intimately linked with Slate quarries and piles, revealing to visitors a powerful history and landscape that makes the Slate Belt Towns incredibly unique. The spine interacts with these quarries, climbing up and over and between slate piles, around quarry pools, and weaving in and out of forests.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

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Opposite: of housingofaround quarry (number 15 (number on plan) 15 on plan) Opposite Perspective Page: Perspective housing around quarry Left: keykey Left: Site Siteplan planwith withprogram program Above from top to bottom: Perspective and section at amphitheater (11 on plan), Above from top to bottom: Perspective and section at amphitheater (11 on Perspective and section through undeveloped quarry (13 on plan), Perspective and plan), and section through quarry (13 on plan), sectionPerspective through Live/Work community (05 onundeveloped plan).

Perspective and section through Live/Work community (05 on plan).

13: Enclosed connector quarry 15

14: Water Access 15: Quarry-Centered single family housing 16: Connecting to existing park

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DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

LIFE IN THE FLOW Emily King | East Bangor

Life in the Flow is an alternative form to urban expansion that celebrates and preserves a cultural symbol while reviving the area from ecological damage suffered. By creating living space that harmoniously ties to the landscape, the historic slate piles become more legible and show that the landscape is important and continues to have a life post-industry. After regional and local analyses of hydrological conditions, this area was selected for its potential to create a smart living style which balanced historic preservation with ecological revitalization as the site is the result of mining excavations and situated in a floodplain. Through topographic manipulations of the edges of already compromised slate piles, water flow is introduced to the area; thus bringing sedimentation and vegetation. Housing is situated at the base of the piles as they operate like porous, metabolic bands. Taking the problematic runoff and incorporating it into living, then onto the larger water system, the living areas become necessary interceptors to water runoff issues.

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By designing a living community within a park system, attention is brought to these post-industrial relics and a network established to connect the piles and down to Bangor. This form of living can serve as a prototype for implementation in other post-industrial, flood-prone areas as Pennsylvania has an economic industrial backbone, more miles of streams than any other state, and over ninety percent of municipalities in flood-prone areas.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: An analysis of the area between Bangor and East Bangor was mapped in order to understand where interventions should occur. Left: Life in the Flow incorporates living into a park system that ecologically revives the area while celebrating the post-industrial relics.

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DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

SHIFTING LANDSCAPE Boyang Li | Bangor Quarry In the coming years, the Slate Belt will experience pressures from a number of conflicting land uses including urban development, warehouse expansion and light industrial development, agricultural easements, forest preservation, and increasing needs for recreation and public spaces by an increased population. 70% vacant land in developed areas of the Slate Belt is industrial land; of that, 90% are former quarries. The transformation of quarries into a variety of productive uses has the potential to ease development pressures on other parcels and help the Slate Belt reclaim its identity and incorporate it into its future. This project defines three general frameworks for quarries based on their context and distinguishing characteristics. The frameworks include the Recreational Quarry, the Ecological Quarry, and the Economic Quarry. The North Bangor Quarryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proximity to Bangor and position on the edge of the historic district present an opportunity to reclaim

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the site as a heritage public park combining a heritage walking tour originating from the Bangor heritage center, and a recreational public park. The trail system and planting help to capture views and create opportunities for water programs including kayaking, swimming and fishing. In contrast, Capital Quarry is currently a junkyard and presents less ecological and heritage significance, making it a prime candidate for reclamation as an economic quarry. By introducing a new light industry that transforms waste slate to gravel, the site can be more productive and economically beneficial than its current use. Planting and reclamation of slate piles help to celebrate the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s industrial history and transform Capital Quarry into a welcoming gateway to Bangor.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye view showing Quarry Whirlpool - Capital quarry community in 2050. Upper Left: Master Plan of Capital Quarry Community Park. Above: Regional Master Plan and phasing strategy from 2015 - 2050. Bottom Left: Master Plan of North Bangor Heritage Park in 2030. Left adjacent: Section showing the landscape transection from North Bangor and Capital Quarry.

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CONNECTIVITY

BRIDGING THE GAP An Hua Liang | Wind Gap, Route 33

The Lehigh Valley is a significant part of the regional supply chain and faces a new period of industrial and residential growth. While this growth could occur with little regard for local communities, this project seeks to take a proactive role in this projected development by embracing its inevitability and proposing a new framework in which it could occur to benefit local communities. New industrial development can help enhance and reactivate the former industry of Wind Gap Township. Wind Gap is a perfect pilot site for this new development framework because of its position within the region and adjacencies. Many land uses intersect in Wind Gap, it is situated near the Blue Mountain Appalachian Trail, part of the mountain mixed forest branches into the region, and it has an abandoned quarry and vacant farmland. Bridging the Gap is focused on creating connections: from Wind Gap up to the Appalachian Trail and down to Sullivan Trail,

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and from Wind Gap West to the quarry site and new industrial development. In addition, this project aims to provide a vision for Wind Gapâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s its new identity as a designated trail town and gateway to the north, giving local people a new live-work lifestyle. Route 33 will serve as a green connected buffer rather than a giant fissure. The development framework and connections are focused on concentrated design efforts in three sites with different interfaces linked by a Main Street spine. The first site is the quarry, which is reclaimed as a connection to the Main Street spine and new industry. The second site is the highway buffer zone, and the third serves as a node that connects the Main Street spine to roads leading to the Appalachian Trail and Sullivan Trail.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Design Interfaces Diagram: relationships between quarry, industry, highway, linear park, and downtown. Left: Site plan. Above: Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye view + phasing.

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CONNECTIVITY

STITCHING THE SLATE BELT Jieping Wang | Bangor Quarries

The Slate Belt is projected to experience 57% population growth in the coming 20 years. Those relocating to the Slate Belt are mainly middle-class families, college students, and senior citizens. Meanwhile, the Slate Belt townships are losing their main streets, farmland and natural resources. Stitching Slate Belt seeks to define a strategy for how to accommodate growth in a way that is beneficial to residents and attractive to newcomers. Regionally, this project proposes to connect the townships along 512 as one functional linear town, drawing in natural resources and farmland to create a farm town and forest town to better stitch together the relationship between rural areas, natural areas and agricultural areas. The area between Bangor and East Bangor is a strong candidate for a pilot project site as it is between two existing towns in close proximity to one another, is near the extension of one greenway, and has a lot of brownfields, which mainly consist of quarries.

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In addition to its strategic location within the region, this area has a large amount of latent landscape potential. Given that the site and quarries are already very beautiful and can serve as attractions in and of themselves, the design goal is to utilize landscape to get both young adventurers and senior citizens to quarries, create shared forest/farm yards for communities, and prepare conditions use and development.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Section shows how edible forest prepares settings for housing development. Above: Development framework and aerial rendering

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CONNECTIVITY

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SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

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CONNECTIVITY

BACKYARD QUARRYSCAPE Xiaoyang Wang | Pen Argyl Quarries

Though there are abundant natural and cultural resources in the Slate Belt, they are fragmented. Quarries in this area are potential resources which can capitalize on the Slate Belt’s natural and cultural resources, connecting fragmented communities and natural areas. At a regional scale, this project proposes to transform the chain of quarries through the Slate Belt into a mixed-use green belt. Penn Argyl’s quarries are well-suited for a first-phase design implementation as they are located on the edge of town—between natural and developed areas. Backyard Quarryscape aims to draw people down to the quarries and cultivate the edge between Pen Argyl and surrounding natural areas through three main strategies: first, creating a strong connection from streetscape to quarryscape; second, making circuits at different elevations to enable visitors to fully experience the industrial landscape; third, planting to reforest the slate pile as well as exaggerate the contrast of softscape and hardscape.

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In the park, a new edge between the town and quarry is created near the quarry ponds, along which there are different types of public space: public open quarry space, back quarry yard and recreational quarryscape. Each type has its own planting strategy and intensity of quarry occupation creating a varied experience as one traverses the new edge.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Program 1 Backyard green space extention 2 Small planting garden 3 Rest space 4 Seasonal farming scape 5 Quarry - seeing platform 6 Rest space 7 Rest space

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Opposite: Section shows how the landscape changes from streetscape to quarryscape. Left: Back quarry yard view shows the feeling in the area in between living-scape and industrial-scape as well as how people participate in the space. Above: Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye view shows how the new edge works in the whole site; Detail site plan shows the reconnection in the back quarry yard areas.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

Quarry discharge

Upland reservoir

Biofuel farms

FUTURE GENERATOR Le Xu | Pen Argyl

Energy defines industry in Pennsylvania. However, the energy landscape as it exists today is neither sustainable nor appealing. Low-cost energy drives population growth in the Slate Belt, but this trend wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t last forever; resources are limited and the natural gas supply will eventually run out. Future Generator seeks to leverage the renewable energy landscape as a resource to build a bridge to the future and reclaim the Slate Belt.

quarries as waste landscapes, quarries can generate value even after they are no longer active. In building a bridge from past to present to future, this project proposes to re-form the active quarry into an educational space, adapt two inactive quarries to quarry batteries (water pumped storage), utilize flat areas in an around quarries for experiential biofuel croplands, and turn slate piles into slate a reuse workshop.

After evaluating all the possible renewable energies based on their stock and overall cost, this project concluded that biofuel production and water pumped energy were the most suited to the Slate Belt, as it has hundreds of acres of over-farmed land and discarded quarries.

This powerful landscape lets people enjoy a new, contemporary landscape in the process of renewing, creates a productive energy landscape with active uses, and stimulates demand for slate by engaging local craftspeople and artists in displays of its unique material properties.

Pen Argyl has the greatest potential for water pumped storage as it has dormant quarries and also maintains an active slate quarry. While retired quarries are typically filled with slate piles or trash, Future Generator proposes that rather than writing off retired

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SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

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Treasure the working slate factory and display the slate working process without distuibance.

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Stimulating demand for slate by engaging local craftman and artists Stimulating in displays demand of unique for slate by engaging local craftman and artists in displays of unique material properties. material properties.

Through regriding upland quarry ponds to form valley walk experience. Through Combining regriding wetland upland quarry ponds to form valley walk experience. Combining wetland plants to provide ecological value. plants to provide ecological value.

REGENERATE ENERGY & SLATE REGENERATE GENERATING ENERGY & SLATE GENERATING

distuibance.

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Pocket Garden for local craftman and artist to play with slate

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

RENEWABLE ENERGY LANDSCAPE Nyasha Felder | Bangor/Bethel

The Slate Belt is connected to a region with much growth potential in bioenergy production and distribution through non food based ethanol. The artifacts of old industry provide the cultural backbone of the region and should be celebrated through production and industry redefined according to today’s needs. The biomass industry has about a $100 billion direct and indirect impact on the U.S. economy today, and the fabric of the Slate Belt region can be revitalized and brought to the 21st century through the creation of an energy production multiplex that combines recreation, education, production, and distribution. Bangor provides the perfect test site for a research-based initiative due to its location that connects four major trails, Highway 1017, and the scenic Route 611. Lower Bethel Quarry is connected downstream of Martins and Little Martins Creek that provides the grounds for algae production as another source of biofeed and waste water cleansing. Energy crops, such as perennials, can serve as a means for production as well as create a unique identity,

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connect fragmented habitats, and preserve farmlands through increased economic potential. The design strategy for Bangor takes into consideration the historical industry of slate production through the formal qualities of the landscape “schism” that splits along a lowest point of the site to connect subsequent programs from the main access points through education, recreation and industrial trails. The main trail, is also accessible and maintains a slope between 2 to 8% that begins from Ridge Road through tree energy crop farm, quarry, biorefinery, recreation and learning center. Through this network of industry, recreation, and education, the project seeks to promote the possibility of the Slate Belt, Lehigh valley, the Northeast region, to realize the potential of landscape architecture to provide the means for new economic energy potential.


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Opposite: A possible projection of a future biorefinery plant situated within and above East Bangor Quarry. The museum portion of the building allows viewers to lookout into the surrounding landscape within the building and into the building from afar.

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Left: Site plan of Lower Bethel where various energy crops may be harvested along with other food crops. The site also has a trail that allows visitors to walk through the pastures and within the riparian lowlands. 370ft

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Above: A scene of the entrance into the Bangor Biorefinery Plant Park. It shows possible pile stabilization method of planters made from corten steel and concrete.

Delaware River Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community

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Photograph: Shilei Lu


RESOURCE MANAGEMENT WATER SUPPLY • FLOOD AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT • GREEN AND BLUE SPACE


WATER SUPPLY

REFILL GROUNDWATER Jingya Yuan | Bangor, Ackermanville In the Slate Belt, many townships are experiencing flooding issues while also facing the problem of groundwater overuse. In order to address both issues, this project aims to build up a series of stormwater facilities to facilitate regional groundwater recharge. Potential sites for groundwater recharge were determined first by identifying areas with soil types that have a capacity of no less than 2 inches/hr for the most limiting layer in order to ensure the ability of the ground to transmit water. Within areas, particular sites were prioritized because of their association with existing roads, parks, inactive railways, or future development potential. The specific strategies are calibrated to their context. In urban areas, a series of small side walk stormwater features facilitate recharge and form a unique and special streetscape in Slate Belt townships. In some more rural areas, terraced water ponds are proposed which can function as performance spaces and platforms for viewing the surrounding landscape of quarries and

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nearby towns. In areas with new development, a combination of these strategies will help to shape the community, creating active recreation fields and wetland areas for educational use and hiking. The use of material from slate piles to construct the recharge facilities can also build upon the regional identity and celebrate the Slate Beltâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Section in Ackermanville shows how topographic manipulation will capture water and help with infiltration. Left 1: Diagram shows the best places for recharge groundwater. The darker the better. Left 2: Plan shows the design area for infiltration projects. They all related to the recharge place diagram. Above: A perspective taking from the hillside in Bangor, an outlook attracts visitors to take in a great view of the town and quarry.

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WATER SUPPLY

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Choose the lower point area of the large watersged and the subwatershed

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GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015 Highlight

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Community settlement Martinsburg Formation (Water Gap) Rickenbach Formation, Allentown Formation, Epler Formation (Portland) Undifferentiated sedimentary rock aquifers(Water Gap) Carbonate rock aquifers (Portland)

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WATER SUPPLY

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GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

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WATER SUPPLY

SEEING WATER:

A VISION FOR THE SLATE BELT COMMUNITY

Lesia Mokrycke | Pen Argyl The Slate Belt is the location of the rise and fall of industrial enterprise in North America. Beneath this layered and rich history a unique geological condition defines the edge condition between the Appalachian mountain range and the communities that make up the Slate Belt. The Delaware watershed system includes a subterranean aquifer that is equivalent to the size of two Lake Eries. Water is this region’s most valuable asset. In the next 5-20 years neighboring states that have already run out of water, and pressure from global fluctuations in the availability of water will make the Lehigh Valley a globally significant region for water technology, distribution and resource extraction. This project establishes a framework for a town-park that actively invites economic growth on a global, regional, and town scale, while simultaneously planning for the strategic management of the community’s abundant water resources. The future economic

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success of the cities and towns along the eastern seaboard are intimately tied to the availability and management of surficial and underground water supplies in the communities that are part of the Delaware watershed system. Pen Argyl is perfectly positioned to lead in this new economy by transforming itself into a water town that actively promotes and protects water as its central resource. This project establishes a framework for how this typology of park-town, essentially a “Boulder East”, can be replicated in small towns across the slate belt region. Water is the conduit for these connections to occur.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Material Study 1 (sandstone, birch, running water). Material Study 2 (mulch, red maple, collecting water). Material Study 3 (slate, great white pine, reflecting water). Left: Diagram of system that contributes to sandstone aquifer under the Slate Belt. Above: View of new campus and aquifer recharge site in mountain landscape. This site sits on the aquiferâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural recharge line at the base of Blue Mountain.

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FLOOD AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

RURAL BLUE INFRASTRUCTURE Jingshi Diao | East Bangor Dam At a regional scale, there are three major problems threatening the water resources in the Delaware River Basin: (1) flooding, (2) wetland loss and (3) non-point source contamination. The Slate Belt is located in the central region of the Delaware River Basin at the intersection of these major problems. It can become a model within the entire Delaware River Basin for solving problems and [re] building the a water-based economy, ecology and identity. As contrasted with urban areas, there is more available place in the predominantly rural Slate Belt to contain flood water and recover a high functional ecosystem as is proposed by Rural Blue Infrastructure. Large tracts of farmland in the Slate Belt have low economic and ecological value, but are high in their pastoral aesthetic value. Rural Blue Infrastructure seeks to transform suitable farmland into wetlands for catching runoff in the headwaters of the Delaware River, creating habitat for wildlife and new recreational opportunities.

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The East Bangor Dam is well-suited for a pilot project site. At present, it is characterized by an open water area with poor ecological function as a result of its shallow depth, agricultural contamination from surrounding farmland, and unnatural flooding caused by the dam. Re-forming farmland into a large constructed wetland for runoff purification and flooding control is achieved by increasing the depth of the open water area and expanding the floodplain to create wetlands of various depths and surface areas. Through this transformation, the East Bangor Dam will become a an ecologically functional piece of Rural Blue Infrastructure that will serve as a recreational destination and innovative model for regional watershed management.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: View of constructed wetland in the East Bangor Dam. Left: Regional analysisâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;mapping of flooding, wetland loss and non-point source contamination in Delaware River Basin. Above: Master plan of East Bangor Dam.

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FLOOD AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

FUTURE FLUX Qinyi Zhai | Bangor Bangor was the first town established in the Slate Belt, due to its adjacency to the region’s first quarry. The township’s development as well its the hydrological processes were greatly impacted by the slate industry. Today, a large area in downtown Bangor – including historical, commercial, and public buildings – suffers from frequent flood events. Future Flux seeks to identify strategies to mitigate the impacts of flooding, while also helping the downtown area. The area of Bangor that lines Martins Creek is characterized by historical buildings that overlap the flood zone and a number of parking lots whose high rates of surface runoff exacerbate flooding problems. The abandoned North Bangor Quarry that built the town is currently fallow, hidden in a wooded area and enclosed by fences. Future Flux seeks to utilize Bangor’s abandoned quarry as a reservoir during the flood season. The 100-year flood stage is 6 feet higher than the daily water stage, which has profound impacts on downtown Bangor. The North Bangor Quarry carries enormous capacity to help manage flood water, as it can hold more than 67,000,000 gallons of water.

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In order to utilize the quarry for flood water storage and public space, this project is centered on three main strategies. First, the diversion water into the North Bangor Quarry during flood events. Once water rises to a certain level at a new inlet, it will be guided into the quarry through a pipe. Second, the gradual removal of underutilized buildings in the flood zone. Third, the rerouting of traffic from North Main Street, directing traffic to turn onto 1st Street at the Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge. The combination of these three strategies facilitates the transformation of the North Bangor Quarry and its surrounding waterfront into a large park celebrating the industrial history of slate and the fluctuating water levels and making a them part of daily life.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Perspective of the dropping slate plaza next to the joint point of the old freight station and Martins Creek. It will become a marker of water level during the water season and a public space for people to gather. Left: Organization strategy diagrams: (1) Divert the creek into the quarry in flooding season; (2) Gradually remove the underutilized buildings in the flood zone; (3) Redirect the traffic from N Main Street turning to the 1st St at the Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge. Above left: Site plan of the whole park. Above right: Detail plan of the slate dropping plaza at the freight station.

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FLOOD AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

AMPHIBIOUS SURFACES Elvis Wong | Bangor

Amphibious Surfaces imagines the hybridization of performance and aesthetics as a way to mitigate issues related to flooding and storm water management while providing seasonal recreational amenities and regenerative ecological function for its many diverse users. This large-scale design conveys and stores storm water, establishes new ecological linkages and provides social, ecological, and recreational programming for the Slate Belt region. The modification of existing topography through major landform changes creates storage areas at a variety of scales. A recreational corridor of multi-use pedestrian/bike trails connects these design elements and will be shared by cyclo-sport enthusiasts, locals and tourists. The proposal is organized around two goals: the treatment and storage of water. This is achieved by strengthening and widening the riparian buffer along Martins Creek and by increasing the volume of the floodplain. Simultaneously, storm water runoff from

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agricultural and rural residential properties that flow into the creek is captured through vegetative filter strips (plants that are efficient at evapotranspiration) and terraced water basins. Together, these two strategies alleviate issues of flooding upstream while greatly reducing the impact of flooding in downtown Bangor. Recognizing the many challenges that both the Lehigh Valley and the Slate Belt will face in the near future, Amphibious Surfaces establishes a new regional identity through collaboration and shared natural and economic resources.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015 SITE PLAN

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A’

+

SCALE 0’

A

B

START/FINISH

B’

30’

60’

120’

A’

+

+

FLORY’S DAM BASEBALL FIELD

Opposite: Cyclo-sport terrains are located throughout the site. Many of the landforms mimic those of BMX pump tracks and training courses that cyclo-cross athletes may utilize. Left: The overall site is approximately 120 acres in size and spans along nearly 2 miles of Martins Creek from the base of North Bangor to downtown Bangor, where Martins Creek becomes channelized.

+ NORTH BANGOR QUARRY

Above: Sections of various lengths were cut throughout the site plan to visualize the cut and fill operations, and what kind of design strategies are implemented in those locations.

LEGEND 100-YEAR FLOOD

MAIN PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TRAIL

500-YEAR FLOOD

CYCLO-SPORT TRAILS SCALE

RETENTION BASIN

0’ CYCLO-CROSS COURSE

DETENTION BASIN

CYCLO-SPORT TERRAIN

BANGOR

50’

100’

200’

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STORMWATER BLUEWAYS

+ CHANNELIZED SCALE 0’

150’

300’

600’

CREEK

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FLOOD AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

FRANKLIN HILL FARMS PARK Zhiqiang Zeng | Franklin Hill, Martins Creek

Preserved farmland, while important for the identity of the Slate Belt, negatively impacts waterways through agricultural runoff. Franklin Hill Farms Park proposes a buffer interface is proposed between upland farms and adjacent waterways to mitigate the impacts of agricultural runoff on Martins Creek. The proposed design involves three landscape filtering systems. As water flows into the buffer area from farmland, it first passes through the filter strip, which leads to the managed forest. The excess nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff will be mostly removed by the filter strip, and aid in the development of vegetative growth within the buffer area. Infiltration berms and a check dam within the buffer zone will help to slow down the speed of stormwater runoff, thereby reducing the flood burden on downstream areas. By the time that the runoff passes through the unmanaged forest and into Martins Creek, the water quality will have been greatly improved.

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In addition to its function as stormwater infrastructure, Franklin Hill Farms Park provides wildlife habitat and cultural amenity. Planting supports habitat for pollinators and birds, while an agricultural hub at the center of the park provides a space for farmers, local residents, and tourists to gather and hold events, including a farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market and country music festival. A trail system through the site will create opportunities for people to explore the actual farmland and buffer areas along their edges. High point lookout and viewing platforms along the trail, allow visitors to enjoy the romantic agricultural landscape and the rolling hills of the Slate Belt.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: General section of the riparian buffer zones, agricultural runoff treatment, pollinator attraction and wildlife habitat. Left: Perspective of the proposed buffer area. Above: Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye view of the park.

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FLOOD AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

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SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Five types of farming are proposed to reduce environmental cost, improve profit, and enrich agricultural experience.

Existing riparian buffer area is improved to treat agricultural runoff, control erosion, and create habitat.

A trail system links the park, the town, existing agricultural facilities, and water features into an overall network of rich experience that also serves to delineate the edge between farm and riparian buffer

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GREEN AND BLUE SPACE

PORTLAND: RIVERTOWN + GATEWAY TO THE SLATE BELT Sneha Easwaran | Portland

At the turn of the century, Portland thrived as a commercial enterprise and business district along the Delaware River for the Slate Belt region. Its economic prosperity led many to relocate to Portland to work and to live. Over time, Portland’s economy has transformed along with its fabric. Portland is now a sleepy town with little connection to the Delaware River. The banks of the Delaware are now visibly and psychologically inaccessible to passers-by. Through planting and landform interventions, this project seeks to reshape Portland’s physical relationship to the Delaware River. Selective clearing and new planting within the riparian vegetation reveals masses voids, creating moments of strong visual connection between Portland and the Delaware River. By sculpting landform, this project also seeks to make the riparian zone more functional for both the people and the water. Carving and cutting along the water’s edge helps to move stormwater out of low points that coincide with all the local Main Street businesses. Within the Portland

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town proper, the town’s three benches are also enlarged or reconfigured to bring back the borough’s identity as a cultural landscape. Together, this series of interventions will enhance the overall quality and sense of place, creating an amenity for surrounding communities, and a renewed and reinvigorated relationship with the Delaware River. By developing Portland’s character as a rivertown and gateway to the Slate Belt, Portland will become a celebrated entrance to the region accompanying growth in economy and population.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

Opposite: Collage showing sculpting of vegetation to open up view from Portland to the Delaware River. Above: Photowork of Portlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waterfront Left: Context analysis showing that a revitalized waterfront could both manage stormwater and create a destination in Portland.

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GREEN AND BLUE SPACE

THE GREEN NET Zitong Feng | Portland

The Green Net is centered on the theme, â&#x20AC;&#x153;from risk to resilience.â&#x20AC;? During Hurricane Sandy, the Lehigh Valley served as a critical safety net for the more directly affected coastal areas. However, the Lehigh Valley itself is facing a number of its own risks. The Slate Belt, once a thriving industrial region and now a collection of post-industrial cities and suburban bedroom communities, is seeking strategies to reinvigorate itself and reassert its identity and character. Accordingly, The Green Net envisions a resilient network of reforestation, development, program, and recovery of latent potential in existing features in order to strengthen the connection between towns. Portland has great potential as a pilot community, as it is a waterfront town, the gateway to New Jersey, and connected to both the 911 Memorial Trail and Liberty-Water Gap Trail. In addition, Portland is more isolated from other towns, and has also been impacted by major floods. The design intent is

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not to radically transform Portland into a completely new town, but, rather, to highlight and enhance the experience of its existing features. The design for Portland envisions a large cultural and waterfront zone with an education belt running through it and extending out into the larger fabric of Portland. As Portland is located on a steep hillside, its topography creates a number of isolated patches of land, whose productivity could be enhanced through the introduction of a distributed town nursery that could produce plant material for use in phased interventions throughout the borough. Over time, The Green Net is intended to grow and develop, strengthening the overall fabric of Portland and adding a new chapter to its history.


SLATE LANDS

GREEN STIMULI STUDIO | FALL 2015

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Photograph: Ellen Neises


SLATE L ANDS

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