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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE CHANDIGARH THESIS -17

COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

RAMYA KHARE A/2440/2017 FIFTH YEAR, B.ARCH School of Planning & Architecture New Delhi


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

declaration

THESIS 2017

May 26, 2017

The thesis titled Museum of Knowledge: Completing the Capitol has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the Bachelors Program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002, India under the supervision of Prof. M. L. Bahri & Ar. Meena Mani (Design Guides) and Ar. Anamika Bagchi (Research Guide). I hereby submit two hard copies of the report for internal and external evaluation respectively. The undersigned hereby declares that this is her original work and has not been plagiarized, in part or full, from any source. Furthermore, this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other University.

Ramya Khare A/24402012 Fifth Year B.Arch. Section-B School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi


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THESIS 2017

certificate June 02, 2017

We certify that the Thesis titled Museum of Knowledge: Completing the Capitol by Ramya Khare, roll no. A/2440/2017 was guided by us in January – May 2017 and placed in front of the Jury by the candidate on 24-25th May 2017. On completion of the report in all respects including the last chapter by the candidate and based on the declaration by the candidate hereinabove, we forward the report to the Department to be placed in the library of the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

Ar. Anamika Bagchi

Prof. M. L. Bahri

Ar. Meena Mani

(Research Guide)

(Design Guide)

(Design Guide)


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

THESIS 2017


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THESIS 2017

acknowledgements The successful completion of this thesis has been one of the most challenging academic assignments faced by me which could not have been accomplished without the support, patience and guidance of the following people. I begin by thanking our thesis mentors, Ar. Meena Mani & Prof. M. L. Bahri for all the nerve-wrecking crit sessions that helped me shape the project better. I am grateful to my Research Guide, Ar. Anamika Bagchi for always guiding my approach and being there to fish f out a narrative from my varying sources of inspiration and Thesis Coordinator, Prof. Jaya Kumar for guiding me throughout the program. It can be said that I undertake the research standing on the shoulder of giants. It is thus my duty to thank the following researchers for being my guide when I was lost in a sea of information. A special thanks Ravi Kalia & Vikramaditya Prakash whose books on Chandigarh helped in uncovering many narratives of the city and the Chandigarh Capitol Complex. I am deeply indebted to my friend Arushee, who renewed my faith in the project when I most needed it. I found inspiration in trusted friends and mentors, but also in unexpected sources. Thank you everyone, named and unnamed, for keeping me going! Ramya


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

synopsis Museum of Knowledge or the Musee de la connaissance was a project proposed by Le Corbusier in his place of ideation, the Chandigarh Capitol Complex. The previous proposal made by him to build the Governor’s Palace was rejected on grounds of being undemocratic and the due to a lack of funds this second proposal could also never be realized. The thesis project to be selected is to be outside the formal teaching typology and be a repository of Knowledge to all who seek it. Studying in an independent tradition cultivates Individualism which in turn shapes the personality of knowledge seeker. The Museum design aims to ensure that the un-realized intellectual potential of Chandigarh is fulfilled and a Centre of Excellence is set up, which could contribute to national and local decision making. The primary objective of the MoK project was fulfilled by the design by providing a building which can become a comprehensive cultural resource of the highest standard and latest technology. The design effectively solves the security problem by allowing people to become a part of the Capitol Complex once again without posing a danger to the high-security needs of the Goverment buildings around it. The building thus, promotes an environment to facilitate research and exchange knowledge.

THESIS 2017


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THESIS 2017

सारांश Museum of Knowledge या Musee de la connaissance एक ऐसी परियोजना थी, जो ली कोर् ब ु स ीयर द् व ारा अपनी जगह पर विचार कर रही थी, चं ड ीगढ़ कै प िटल कॉम् प ् ल े क ् स गवर् न र के महल का निर् म ाण करने के लिए उनके द् व ारा किए गए पिछले प् र स् त ाव को लोकतां त ् र िक होने के आधार पर खारिज कर दिया गया था और धन की कमी के कारण यह दू स रा प् र स् त ाव कभी भी महसू स नहीं किया जा सकता। चयन की जाने वाली थीसिस परियोजना औपचारिक शिक् ष ण के बाहर होनी चाहिए और उन सभी को ज् ञ ान का एक भण् ड ार होना चाहिए जो इसे ढू ं ढ रहे है ं । एक स् व तं त ् र परं प रा मे ं पढ़ना व् य क् त िवाद की खे त ी करता है जो बदले मे ं ज् ञ ान साधक के व् य क् त ित् व को आकार दे त ा है । सं ग ् र हालय के डिजाइन का उद् द े श ् य यह सु न िश् च ित करना है कि चं ड ीगढ़ की गै र -एहसास बौद् ध िक क् ष मता पू र ी हो गई है और उत् क ृ ष ् ट ता का के ं द ् र स् थ ापित किया गया है , जो राष् ट ् र ीय और स् थ ानीय निर् ण य ले न े मे ं योगदान दे सकता है । MoK परियोजना का प् र ाथमिक उद् द े श ् य डिजाइन प् र दान करके एक इमारत प् र दान कर रहा है जो उच् च तम मानक और नवीनतम प् र ौद् य ोगिकी का एक व् य ापक सां स ् क ृ त िक सं स ाधन बन सकता है । डिज़ ा इन प् र भावी ढं ग से सु र क् ष ा समस् य ा का समाधान करती है ताकि लोगों को इसके आसपास गोवर् म े ं ट भवनों की उच् च सु र क् ष ा जरू र तों के खतरे को खारिज किए बिना कै प िटल कॉम् प ् ल े क ् स का एक हिस् स ा बनने की इजाजत दी जा सके । इस प् र कार भवन, अनु स ं ध ान और विनिमय ज् ञ ान की सु व िधा के लिए एक पर् य ावरण को बढ़ ा वा दे त ा है ै ।


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

THESIS 2017


THESIS 2017

[1] CONNAISSANCE French. (n)

knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction [2] KNOWLEDGE English. (n)

1. facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. 2. awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation.

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THESIS 2017

[Part 0] Declaration Certificate Acknowledgements Sy nopsis सारांश Table of Contents List of Sources List of Abbreviations

02 03 05 06 07 10 14 15

[Part 1: Design Investigation] CHAPTER 1 : THE QUEST (INTRODUCTION) 1.1 THE PROPOSITION 1.2 THE PROJECT 1.3 THE PROJECT TIMELINE 1.3.1 A i m 1.3.2 O b j e c t i v e s 1.4 THE CAPITOL COMPLEX 1.5 NEED FOR THE PROJECT

CHAPTER 2: THE PATH (RESEARCH) 2.0 A r e a s o f R e s e a r c h 2.1 MUSEOLOGICAL NARR ATIVE 2.1.1 N a r r at i v e an d s y n ta c t i c m o d e l s 2.1.2 N a r r at i v e & T e c h nolog y 2.2 UNDERSTANDI NG CORBUSIER: A C ou r s e i n M o d e r n i s m 2.2.1. A b ou t L e C o r b u s i e r 2.2.2. I d e olog i e s o f L e C o r b u s i e r 2.2.3 A nal y s i s o f C a p i tol C o m p l e x 2.2.4. A nal y s i s o f N a r r at i v e i n C o r b u s i e r ’ s D e s i gn

16 17 18 19 19 21 24 25

28 29 30 30 33 34 34 34 36 40

2.3 M USEUM OF KNOWL EDGE: DEVISI NG A NARRATIVE 2.3.1 S t u d y o f E p i s t e m olog y 2.3.2 V i s ual ta x ono m y o f knowl e d g e 2.3.3 S y n t h e s i s o f N a r r at i v e f o r M o K 2.4 BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN CONCRETE 2.4.1 I nno vat i on s i n C on c r e t e : P r e - s t r e s s e d / P o s t T e n s i on e d C on c r e t e 2.4.2 D o m - i no S y s t e m : A r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h ou t W all s 2.4.3 S h e a r W all s : A r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h ou t C olu m n s

47 47 47 47 48 48 49 51


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THESIS 2017

CHAPTER 3: PRECEDENTS 3.1 PRECEDE NTS SELECTION 3.1.1 P a r l i a m e n t L i b r a r y 3.1.2 S e n d a i M e d i at h e q u e 3.1.3 S e at t l e C e n t r al L i b r a r y 3.2 PRECEDE NTS ANALYSIS 3.2.1 P r og r a m 3.2.2 C i r c ulat i on 3.2.3 S p a c e s 3.2.4 R e a d i ng R oo m 3.2.5 C oll e c t i on 3.3 COMPARISON MATRIX

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

CHAPTER 4: READING THE SITE 4.1 CONTEXTUAL STUDY 4.1.1. C h an d i ga r h 4.2. SITE SURROUNDINGS 4.2.0 S i t e D e ta i l s 4.2.1. S i t e C on t e x t 4.2.2 S i t e S e c t i on s 4.2.3 S i t e P h o to s 4.2.4 S i t e M o v e m e n t

67 68 68 73 73 74 75 76 78

CHAPTER 5: READING THE PROGRAM 5.1 PROGRAM COMPONENTS 5.1.1. A u d i to r i u m 5.1.2. D i g i tal L i b r a r y 5.1.3. K nowl e d g e C e n t e r 5.1.4. M u s e u m 5.2 AREA PROGRAM 5.2.1 A r e a A nal y s i s 5.3 THE SECURITY SOLUTION

81 82 91 91 92 92 84 86 87

CHAPTER 6: TECHNOLOGY 6.1 SERVICES 6.1.1. H va c 6.1.2. P lu m b i ng 6.2 STRUCTURE 6.3 SUSTAINABILITY 6.3.1. B u i l t F o r m & O r i e n tat i on 6.3.2. F a c a d e 6.4 TERRACE GARDEN

89 90 90 91 92 93 93 94 95


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[Part 2: Design Translation] CHAPTER 7: SWOT ANALYSIS & DESIGN DETERMINANTS 7.1 S wo t A nal y s i s 7.2 D e s i gn D e t e r m i nan t s

97 98 99

CHAPTER 8: DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

103

CHAPTER 9: DESIGN DR AWINGS 9.1 C on t e x t P lan 9.2 S i t e P lan & S i t e S e c t i on s 9.3 G r oun d F loo r P lan 9.4 P lan s 9.5 S e c t i on s

107 108 109 110 111 112

9.6 E l e vat i on & 3 D 9.7 M o d e l P h o tog r a p h s 9.8 J u r y CO m m e n t s & C on c lu s i on

113 114 122

[Part Z] A. Appendix

124

B. Bibliography

126

128 129

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THESIS 2017

list of figures F ig u re 1 Ar c h ico m i c ab ou t t h e h i s tor y of t he M u se u m of K n owl edge P r o je c t (S o u rce : C handigarh U r b an L a b )

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F ig u re 11 “ Five P oints towar ds a Moder n Ar chitectur e. (S o u rce : P interest . com )

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F ig u re 2 The MoK will be the physical repository of the Digital sources of Information. (S o u rce : A u thor )

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F ig u re 12 The M o dul or (S o u rce : P interest . com )

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F ig u re 3 The two Proposals made by Corbusier regarding the fourth building in the Capitol Complex. (S o u rce : C handigarh U r b an L a b )

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F ig u re 13 Le Corb usier ’s Sketch show ing the C r ossing of t he a xe s. (S o u rce : P ra k ash , 2002)

F ig u re 4 A timeline of the history of the MoK Project. (S o u rce : A u thor )

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Figure 5 Site Plan of Chandigarh Capitol Complex (Source: Corbusier, 1957)

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Figure 6 Diagram showing symmetry in the plan and elevation of High Court. (Source: Pinterest.com

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Figure 7 Archicomic about the Geometry in the layout of the Capitol Complex. (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

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F ig u re 8 “ Bea ds o n a s t ri n g ” arran g e me n t of g a lle rie s. (S o u rce : A dapted from H illier and T z ort z i , 2011.)

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F ig u re 9 “ G r id” a r ran g e me n t of g alle ri e s . (S o u rce : A dapted from H illier and T z ort z i , 2011.)

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F ig u re 1 0 “ I n tegrate d s p i n e ” arran g e me n t. (S o u rce : A dapted from H illier and T z ort z i , 2011.)

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F ig u re 14 Ca pitol Com p l ex (S o u rce : G oogle I mages )

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F ig u re 15 G e ometr ical Anal ysis of C ap itol Com p l ex – P ar t 1 (S o u rce : A u thor )

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F ig u re 16 G e ometr ical Anal ysis of C ap itol Com p l ex – P ar t 2 (S o u rce : A u thor )

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F ig u re 17 Pla n of CCC w ith a l ayer com p ar ing the d e sig ne d a nd a s- b uil t el em ents. (S o u rce : C UL)

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F ig u re 18 G ove rnor ’s P al ace, C handigar h. Le Cor b usier , 1950-1951. (S o u rce : AGA)

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F ig u re 19 The a xis l eading fr om C ity Centr e to the GP. (S o u rce : AGA)

43

F ig u re 20 Dia g ra m of the r el ationship b etween the G ove rnor’s Pa la ce to the l ef t and the Monum ent to the Ope n Ha nd to t he r ight. (S o u rce : AGA)

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F ig u re 2 1 Co n cep t u al d e ri vat i on of t h e g a rd e n pla n from th e pinw h eel fo rm. (S o u rce : AG A )

44

F ig u re 2 2 A s ketc h s h owi n g t h e re lat i on ship of G P a nd Land s ca pe. (S o u rce : P ra k ash , 2 0 0 2)

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Figure 23 Approach to the GP. (Source: Prakash, 2002)

THESIS 2017

F ig u re 31 Ty pe s of Know l edge (S o u rce : A u thor )

47

F ig u re 32 Da t a visual ization of B ook R enting P atter ns in Se a t t le Pu blic Li b rar y. (S o u rce : M an u el L ima )

48

44

F ig u re 33 The Know l edge Wheel S o u rce : A u thor )

49

F ig u re 2 4 S eco n d F loor P lan . M oK . (S o u rce : C or b u sier , 1 9 5 7)

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F ig u re 34 J oine r y detail s for P r e- str essed m em b er s (S o u rce : B u rde , R – S lideshare . com )

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F ig u re 2 5 E x pl o d e d 3 D of t h e MoK . (S o u rce : CU L )

45

F ig u re 35 N ew ways in w hich concr ete is b eing used (S o u rce : S lideshare . com )

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F ig u re 2 6 An a l ys e d P lan s of t h e M oK . (S o u rce : CU L )

45

F ig u re 36 Domin o Constr uction System by Le Cor b usier . (S o u rce : P interest . com )

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F ig u re 2 7 F r o n t & re ar of t h e MoK M od e l. (S o u rce : AG A )

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F ig u re 37 The PUU- B O system by B IG Ar chitects insp ir ed by DOM -I N O. (S o u rce : A rchitecto u r . net )

51

F ig u re 2 8 S ide el evat i on s h owi n g t h e c resce nt in t he elevated wa ter t rou g h . (S o u rce : A rchasm )

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F ig u re 38 The co m b ination of the P UU- B O m odul es (S o u rce A rchitecto u r . net ):

52

F ig u re 2 9 S ectio n al v i ew s h owi n g t h e s t airca se s va r y ing in each pl a n . (S o u rce : C or b u sier , 1 9 5 7)

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Figure 39 Different building typologies that can be achieved by PUUBO. (Source: Architectour.net)

52

F ig u re 3 0 S c r eens i n t h e e levat i on cove ri ng t he st a irs. (S o u rce : A rchasm )

46

F ig u re 40 BI G ’s E2 p r op osal for Kouvol a, Finl and. (S o u rce : A rchitecto u r . net )

52


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THESIS 2017

F ig u re 4 1 Abedian S c h ool of A rc h i te c t u re u nd e r con s tr u ctio n . (S o u rce : A rchdaily . com )

53

Figure 51 Chandigarh Location (Source: Mapsofindia.com)

68

F ig u re 4 2 M a in N av i g at i on al S p i n e i n A b ed ia n Sc hool of A rch itectu r e. (S o u rce : A rchdaily . com )

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Figure 52 Chandigarh Urban Complex Plan (Source: Knowchandigarh.com)

68

F ig u re 53 Languages & Religion in Chandigarh (Source: Wikipedia.org)

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F ig u re 4 3 S tr u ctu re D ef i n i n g Con c re te S coops be come in fo r m a l cr it s pa ce s (S o u rce : A rchdaily . com )

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Figure 54 Population, Chandigarh (Source: Meteoblue.com)

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F ig u re 4 4 S ta ir ca s e s i n A b e d i an S c h ool of A rc hite c t u re . (S o u rce : A rchdaily . com )

54

Figure 55 Wind Rose, Chandigarh (Source: Meteoblue.com)

69

Figure 45 Floor Plan, Parliament Library. (Source: Flickr.com)

57

Figure 56 Chandigarh UT Master Plan (Source: chandigarh.gov.in/cmp2031/mp-area.pdf)

70

Figure 46 Floor Plan, SM (Source: Author)

58

Figure 57 Universal Design (Source: Medium.com)

72

Figure 47 Programmatic Section, SCL (Source: Author)

59

73

Figure 48 Archicomic about the Geometry in the layout of the Capitol Complex. (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

67

Figure 58 Access road, Jan Marg leading up to the Site through the Capitol Complex. (Source: Archasm.com) Figure 59 Site with Context (Source: Snazzymaps.com)

73

Figure 49 Solar Analysis, Chandigarh (Source: Meteoblue.com)

68

Figure 60 Figure Ground of the Site Surroundings (Source: Author)

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Figure 50 Climate & Rainfall, Chandigarh (Source: Wikipedia.org)

68

Figure 61 Site sections cutting throught the Site Surroundings (Source: Author)

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THESIS 2017

Figure 62 Site Analysis showing the Secured & Public Zones (Source: Author)

77

Figure 73 Column Grid used in the Design (Source: Author)

92

Figure 63 Site Analysis showing the Vehicular Movement (Source: Author)

78

Figure 74 Orientation #1 is worst, #3 is good, and #2 is best. (Source: Author)

93

Figure 64 Site Analysis showing the Pedestrian Movement (Source: Author)

79

Figure 75 Cutouts in building’s footprint for daylighting. (Source: greenbuildingstrategies.com)

93

Figure 65 Tag to honor Le COrbusier’s 50 years after his death. (Source: Archdaily.com)

81

Figure 76 Window to wall Ratios (Source: greenbuildingstrategies.com)

93

Figure 66 Components of Knowledge Center. Source: Author)

83

Figure 77 Skylighting Strategies (Source: greenbuildingstrategies.com)

93

Figure 67 Components of Museum. Source: Author)

83

Figure 78 Terrace Garden Layers (Source: greenterraces.com)

95

Figure 68 Analysis of Area Distribution. (Source: Archdaily.com)

86

Figure 79 Form 1 & 2 (Source: Author)

104

Figure 69 Diagrams explaining the Security Solution. (Source: CUL)

87

Figure 80 The Final Form (Source: Author)

105

Figure 70 Components of a VRF Colling System. (Source: buildingenergy.cx-associates.com)

90

Figure 81 Programmatic Zoning (Source: Author)

105

Figure 71 Water Supply Diagram (Source: Slideshare.net)

91

Figure 72 Modified SIngle Stack System (Source: Slideshare.net)

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THESIS 2017

list of photographs Photo 1 Assembly Building. (Source: Author)

26

Photo 12 Photo Montage showing site relationship with the Capitol Complex Plaza. (Source: Author)

76

Photo 2 Parasol Roof at the Assembly Building. (Source: Flickr.com)

26

Photo 13 Site Photos whith the site highlighted in red. (Source: Archasm)

76

Photo 3 Secretaritat Building (Source: Flickr.com)

28

Photo 14 Access Road (Source: Author)

76

Photo 4 High Court Building (Source: Flickr.com)

28

89

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Photo 15 View of the Assembly Building from inside the Tower of Shadows. (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

Photo 5 A timeline of the history of the MoK Project (Source: Flickr.com) P hoto 6 Lis ten in g P os t , N ew Me d i a A rt work (S o u rce : M ar k H ansen & B en R u b in . )

36

Photo 16 Facade of the Secretatiat Building at Chandigarh (Source: Flickr.com)

97

Photo 7 Jawaharlal Nehru, addressing audience at dedication of the new city of Chandigarh. (Source: Getty Images)

57

Photo 17 Lunch time at High Court Terrace (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

103

107

Photo 8 Photo Montage of Parliament Library (Source: Flickr.com)

58

Photo 18 View of the Capitol Complex from Secretariat Terrace (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

Photo 9 Photo Montage of Sendai Mediatheque (Source: Archdaily.com)

59

Photo 10 Photo Montage of Seattle Central Library (Source: Archdaily.com)

60

Photo 11 Site Photos whith the site highlighted in red (Source: Archasm)

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list of tables T a b le 1 Comp ari s on Mat ri x ac ross Pre ce d e nt s ( S o u rce : A u thor ) T a b le 2 Ty p olog y b as e d D eve lop me nt Cont rol ( S o u rce : C handigarh M aster P lan ) T a b le 3 N orm s for B as e me n t Const ru c t ion ( S o u rce : C handigarh M aster P lan ) T a b le 4 A re a P rog ram ( S o u rce : C handigarh U r b an L a b )

THESIS 2017


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THESIS 2017

list of abbreviations BIG

B j ar k e I ngels G ro u p

CCA

C handigarh C ollege

CCC

C handigarh C apitol C omple x

CMP

C handigrah M aster P lan

CUL

C handigarh U r b an L a b

GP

G overnor ’ s P alace

MoK

M u se u m

OMA

O ffice

RIBA

R oyal I nstit u te

SM

S endai M ediathe q u e

SPL

S eattle P u b lic L i b rary

VRF

V aria b le R efrigerant F low

of

for

of

A rchitect u re

K nowledge M etropolitan A rchitect u re of

B ritish A rchitects


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THESIS 2017

Figure 1 Archicomic about the history of the MoK Project (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)


THESIS 2017

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Chapter 1: The Quest for Knowledge “Now I have welcomed very greatly, one experiment... Chandigarh. Many people argue about it, some like it, some dislike it. It is totally immaterial whether you like it or not. It is the biggest thing in India of this kind. That is why I welcome it. It is the biggest thing because it hits you on the head and makes you think. You may squirm at the impact but it makes you think and imbibe new ideas, and the one thing that India requires in so many fields is to be hit on the head so that you may think... I do not like every building in Chandigarh. I like some very much, I like the general conception of the township very much but what I like above all, is this creative approach not being tied down to what has been done by our forefathers and the like but thinking out in new terms, trying to think in terms of light and air and ground and water and human beings, not in terms of rules and regulations laid down by our ancestors.� (Prakash, 2002)

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

THESIS 2017

The Proposition

This thesis search is guided by the goal of all knowledge, that is, Intellectual Independence. The method proposed to achieve this is the method of Independent learning outside the systematic pedagogical traditions of Schools, Colleges and Universities. The thesis project to be selected is to be outside the formal teaching typology and be a repository of Knowledge to all who seek it. Studying in an independent tradition cultivates Individualism which in turn shapes the personality of knowledge seeker. Knowledge and Information are changing as we move from the Information Age to the Networked Age. The book as a traditional source of information is housed in a library and thousands of archived books are beings converted to digital data and digital data is intangible in nature. People have become both consumers and producers of Digital Information which is like a cloud that can be accessed from anywhere. Although the internet enables and connects everyone to the internet, in a third-world country like India, not everyone can access these digital sources of information. This is what is termed as a Digital Divide. This public interface of the Virtual and the Real will be freely accessible to the public and aim to change people’s perception by providing interfaces of the virtual which the visitors can engage in. The building aims to make everyone a participant in the Digital India being envisioned by our current government by narrowing the Digital Divide. The building that will house such information will be different from the traditional repository of information, i.e., Library and has been termed as the Museum of Knowledge. The thesis seeks to provide an immersive experience of knowledge in an exciting world of virtual information.

Figure 2 The MoK will be the physical repository of the Digital sources of Information. (Source: Author) This Museum of Knowledge proposes to narrow the Digital Divide by revisiting the Library typology. The thesis project seeks to redefine the Culture of Use of the Library in the Civic Sense. This building seeks to develop awareness about newer Information Technology so that people are aware how it can benefit them.


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THESIS 2017

1.2

The Project

THE MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE The design of the Capitol Complex was the jewel in the crown worn by Corbusier’s Chandigarh. Being the symbol and identity of the city for many years, the capitol complex is still incomplete, for a fourth building, the Museum of Knowledge was planned to accompany the existing Secretariat, Assembly Hall and High Court. Originally designated as the Governor’s Palace, it did not commensurate with Prime Minister Nehru’s idea of democracy, and therefore the

Figure 3 The two Proposals made by Corbusier regarding the fourth building in the Capitol Complex. (Source: CUL)

THE PROPOSALS

1

Governor ’s Palace The Governor’s Palace, the fourth building of the complex was deemed unnecessary when the Governor refused the building of a new residence.

2

The Museum of Knowledge A subsequent proposal was made for a MoK, a Laboraotry for Decision-making, but that too was never realized.

plan was abandoned. The ‘Musée de la Connaissance’, translated as the ‘Museum of Knowledge’ (MoK) was conceptualized then. Corbusier envisioned the MoK as a Laboratory for Decision-Making with books and research being carried out on Technology, Sociology, Economics and Ethics. These were the areas of human interest that became the focus of Corbusier’s Museum of Knowledge. Today, the MoK needs to be a place where focused deliberations are carried out on subjects which are related to the context of the nation. The four major fields suggested by Le Corbusier for the Museum of Knowledge i.e. technology, sociology, economics and ethics, are relevant in the context of human interaction even today.


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1.3

MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

THESIS 2017

The Project Timeline

In 2015, on the 50th Death Anniversary of Corbusier, News reports announced that the Government was considering completing the Capitol Complex. Now, officials and administration are divided over whether the Governor’s Palace or the Museum of Knowledge should be built at the site. (Chandigarh Administration, 2013) Former principal of Chandigarh College of Architecture, Dr. S S Bhatti, says, “The initial plan made by Corbusier should not have been rejected. The design for Governor’s Palace was made well. The building could have been put to some other use instead of housing the Governor. The design for Museum of Knowledge is a poor one. Over the years no one really knows how to execute the design.” (Sandhu, 2015) The idea that a building designed as a residence be built as a museum generates incredulity. This invites further investigation into the design intent of Corbusier and decoding what is it that the city of Chandigarh needs at the site. Corbusier based his knowledge centre on four postulates of ethics, sociology, economics and technology. He had proposed the use of “round books,” or mainframe computers, as aids to decision-making in the MoK. Today, when the internet is freely accessible, the MoK needs to become a response to the site and its conditions. It could function as a repository of digital information and archival sources that are not available online. It could be a highly personal emotive experience to its visitors that makes them learn something about themselves.

Figure 4 A timeline of the history of the MoK Project. (Source: Author)


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THESIS 2017

1. Defining the purpose of a ‘Museum of Knowledge’ in the Chandigarh of 21st century. The MoK, according to Corbusier was to function as a decision-making or a briefing centre for the government officials, highlighting the importance and applied use of technology and electronics in processing, synthesizing and presenting large bodies of information related to the state matters. Does Corbusier’s original purpose of a knowledge museum still comply with today’s times? Or does knowledge need to be reinterpreted and redefined more realistically, according to the needs of the future. Corbusier based his knowledge centre on four postulates of ethics, sociology, economics and technology. The proposal for the MoK needs to interpret the function of a knowledge museum in a way that is germane and relevant to the present and future and helps in alleviating chaos and disorder, be it economic, political, social, environmental, urban, technological, demographical etc. in nature. The proposal should conceive an extraordinary program for the MoK that would sustain for long in the city and strive to create utopia.

2. Contemplating the relevance of Le Corbusier’s modern architecture today. Considered as Le Corbusier’s most mature plastic creations, each of the ‘edifices’ in the Capitol Complex represented the adaptation of European Modernism, use of 20th century materials like reinforced concrete and brick, and his personal directive principles to local conditions of cost, climate and technology which gave the city a distinctly fresh image and became a symbol for the city.

3. Intensify the democratic principles of the CCC by incorporating the civil society inside the MoK. Corbusier designed the Capitol complex as the supreme decision-making body that worked on a participatory formula with the edifices depicting the major functions of democracy i.e. ‘High court for judiciary’, ‘Secretariat for administrative’ and ‘Legislative Assembly for political’. However, the system lacks the participation of the people of knowledge i.e. researchers, philosophers, academicians, thinker s, innovators, urbanists etc. who would be advisors and equal stakeholders in the decision-making process in order to address the needs of the future. The MoK proposal needs to accommodate and facilitate intellectuals and to provide a conducive live working environment for them, serving as a space for ‘creation’ of knowledge rather than just ‘exhibition’ of knowledge.

1.3.1

AIM

4. Enrich community life by injecting, activating and rejuvenating the public space in CCC.

To design the Museum of Knowledge (MoK) at the original site of the then proposed MoK and Martyr’s memorial in the Capitol complex of Chandigarh as a centre for independent learning where people can view and pursue knowledge.

1.3.2

OBJECTIVES

Yet, with the dawn of the 21st century and advent of new materials and techniques of construction, evolution of new styles and movements of architecture globally, Corbusier-style architecture of Chandigarh is deemed as “matchbox-like and monotonous” by many critics who want the city to grow and rise architecturally. Architectural Historians and critics such as Witold Rybczynski, Lewis Mumford and Jane Jacobs have been among the greatest detractors of Le Corbusier’s Urban Design Theories. (Rybczynski, 1998) (Mumford, 1962) (Jacobs, 1961).

Envisaged as a ‘space for people’ the proposal for the MoK should aim to serve the common people of the city by facilitating them with demonstration and exhibition spaces that promote learning, knowledge and awareness among the civil society. The proposal should also look to provide built and unbuilt spaces both in and around the museum to promote social interaction, communal harmony and recreation that will eventually enrich and activate the public life in the Capitol complex.

Rajneesh Wattas, Ex-Principal of CCA, remarks, “It is fashionable both in the charmed circles of the City’s elite and in academic debates to debunk Chandigarh as a soulless city with a choking monotony of ‘matchbox architecture’ and a chess-board, grid-iron layout of roads - perhaps more suitable for a military cantonment than a city.” The proposal for the MoK should be architecturally relevant and contemporary but also should be historically and contextually responsible, creating a significant landmark for the ‘city of present and future’ while respecting its other parent buildings.


MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

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1.4

THESIS 2017

The Capitol Complex

The Capital Complex which contains the High Court,

5. Tower of Shadows with the Trench of Consideration

Secretariat & Assembly building would always be an

6. Martyr’s Memorial

incomplete masterpiece for Corbusier. The Governor’s

7. The monument of the Open Hand

Palace, the fourth building of the complex was deemed unnecessary when the Governor refused the

The Assembly Building

building of a new residence. A subsequent proposal

The Assembly building was in Corbusier’s mind a

was made to convert the building into a Museum

problem of design of two large auditoriums. He

for Knowledge but that was never realized. Even the

examined various possible auditorium arrangements in

Open Hand, the symbol that has been adopted as

plan and sections with attention to acoustics through

the symbol of Chandigarh by the government, was

various sketches as seen in figure. (Prakash,2002)

not constructed with the capital complex but was added to it in 1985.

In about two weeks, the design had been worked out and the design vocabulary of the Assembly was in

The actual design of the complex underwent many

concordance with the High Court. But then, Le Corbusier

changes and revisions. The Capital itself assumed

reworked the entire design. Prakash attributes this

an enclosed position rather than being the visible

change to the Corbusier’s fascination with the bull in

head of the city. The early sketches show Corbusier

his Taureaux paintings. Many of Corbusier’s sketches in

experimenting with different kinds of positioning in

India include the image of the Bull. (Prakash, 2002)

Photo 1 Assembly Building. (Source: Author)

trying to describe the relationship between the four main buildings of the Complex.

The final design for the Assembly emerged two years after that. It had a tower in the shape of a hyperbolic

The Capital Complex, “Corbusier’s sculpture of the

paraboloid which was the larger auditorium of the two.

intellect” consists of:

The smaller auditorium was topped by a pyramid. The

1. Legislative Assembly

assembly chambers were thought of as ovoids with

2. Secretariat

skylight in their peculiar shape emerging out of the

3. Governor’s Palace/ Museum of Knowledge

building.

4. High Court/ Palace of Justice

Photo 2 Parasol Roof at the Assembly Building. (Source: Flickr.com)


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THESIS 2017

LEGEND 1. Legislative Assembly 2. Secretariat 3. Governor’s Palace/ Museum of Knowledge 4. High Court 5. Tower of Shadows with the Trench of Consideration 6. Martyr’s Memorial 7. Open Hand Monument with the Trench of Contemplation

Figure 5 A timeline of the history of the MoK Project. (Source: Corbusier, 1957)


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

The Secretariat Building

The High Court Building

The Secretariat building too underwent changes but

The High Court employs the concept of parasol, a

due to other regions. Initially, Corbusier thought of the

large overhanging roof cantilevered out of the office

Secretariat Building as a towering skyscraper. But this

block shades the lower roof. The High court was

was scraped by the city bureaucrats. The Secretariat

called the Palace of Justice by Corbusier and was

then became a 254-metre-long, horizontal building

meant to symbolize the majesty, shelter & fear of the

which has eight stories and is 42 meters high and

law through its structure.

THESIS 2017

is the largest of the three completed administrative buildings in the complex. The elevation of the

Also, one can observe a symmetry in the plan & the

building has been carefully constructed to ensure

elevation of the High Court. By removing the arches

natural lighting and ventilation. The building is

from the elevation, one can see that the bays of the

flanked by two ramps which looks like a sculpture

courtroom, with their entrance portal and supporting

in the composition of the building and provides

corridor, are mirrored in the elevation.

Photo 4 High Court Building. (Source: Flickr.com)

a play of projections, recesses, circulation elements

Thus, one discovers that the High Court spins about

and multi-level interior spaces which acts as a sun-

an axis and gives rise to a symmetrical composition.

breaks (brise-soleils) to reduce the solar gain.

Corbusier envisaged the Capitol Complex as a plaza onto which the car could also come and the proportions for the Complex are devised based on that. The roofs of the buildings were imagined as concrete gardens populated by the people working in the building. Corbusier designed for visual interactions between people on ground and on the roof. Corbusier’s narrative for each building and the entire complex seems harmonious in its design. When one building dominates, the other recedes into the background. The complex play of the buildings can

Photo 3 Secretaritat Building. (Source: Flickr.com)

be compared to actors in a drama. They do justice to their part & the drama is staged perfectly.

Figure 6 Diagram showing symmetry in the plan and elevation of High Court. (Source: Pinterest.com

vertical circulation throughout the building. It is thus


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THESIS 2017

1.5

Need for the Project

The Capitol Complex was envisaged as the head of the

Recently, guided tours of the Capitol Complex were

Urban Plan of Chandigarh city by the master planner Le

made a norm. Only 3 times have been finalized by

Corbusier. Today, we see that the complex has become

the Chandigarh Government for visits i.e. 10 am to 12

a decapitated head of sorts. CCC boasts open green

pm, 12 pm to 2 pm and 3 pm to 5 pm. Visitors can

spaces, monumental buildings and a direct view of the

choose a time slot according to their preference. A

Himalaya Mountains. Currently restricted to the public,

group of not more than 25 people is allowed.

the complex is an amenity waiting to be engaged by the community. The Geometric Hill, Tower of Shadows

Each

and Open Hand are abandoned elements that have

personnel,

been over grown by bushes and trees. Politicians who

enlighten the tourists about the architectural design

use the space drive from one building to another. The

of the buildings in Capitol Complex that comprises

park space and plazas remain vacant while any activity

the Secretariat, Punjab and Haryana Vidhan Sabhas,

on the site occurs in the parking lot behind the High

Punjab and Haryana High Court, OHM, and the Tower

Court. A vast urban plaza that should be filled with a

of Shadow, a demonstration of Chandigarh’s founder

multitude of people is dotted by people whose number

architect Le Corbusier’s theories of sun control. Other

is in the double digits. The plaza, is a high-profile security

than the OHM, there are no functions in the Capitol

zone which alienates the public who can be perceived

Complex that invite people from all walks of life. Thus,

as a threat. Thus, the citizen of Chandigarh remains a

the MoK presents a unique opportunity to make the

stranger to the Capitol Complex.

Capitol Complex more inclusive towards public.

The Open Hand Monument (OHM) was designed to

Since the nature of the other buildings in the Capitol

hold discussions among the city’s residents. Corbusier

Complex is of an official government use, the Capitol

envisaged that it would be a place for city residents

Complex Plaza assumes the character of a high-

to exchange ideas. The Contemplation Pit near the

security zone. One must be careful as to not disrupt

monument, was designed with the theme, ‘Open

the smooth functioning of the Assembly, High Court

to give, open to receive;’ but the channels of this

& the Secretariat. It is a fine line that has to be tread

exchange were closed as the public couldn’t access

in providing a solution to the urban issue of exclusive

the monument. Public access has been restored to the

space in a sensitive manner.

OHM and citizens can now visit the space.

Photo 5 Security at the CCC. (Source: Archasm)

group

will

besides

be a

accompanied tourism

by

guide,

security

who

will


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

THESIS 2017

The way forward RESEARCH & CASE STUDIES In the next chapter, we delineate our research topics and look at case studies that inform our design.

PROGRAM GENERATION By studying the Site, Program & Technology, we generate the program for our Museum of Knowledge.

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT By

overlapping

our

design

concept

with

the information acquired in the preceeding chapters, we are ready to translate our design for the MoK.


THESIS 2017

31

Figure 7 Archicomic about the Geometry in the layout of the Capitol Complex. (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

Chapter 2: The Path of Knowledge “India is an ancient land. Over the centuries there have been other new cities like Chandigarh and other prophets like Le Corbusier: Fatehpur-Sikri, Patrick Geddes, Edwin Lutyens, Golconda, Mandu. Today many of them are not perceived as foreign elements but as integral parts of the Indian landscape. India as a blotting paper. Who knows? A hundred years from now, perhaps Chandigarh will also fit seamlessly into the Punjabi ethos; perhaps it will be perceived as a famous old Indian town, and Le Corbusier will be acknowledged ... as the greatest Indian architect of them all?” -CHARLES CORREA “Chandigarh: The View from Benares.”


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2.0

MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

Areas of Research

The key areas of research arising from the theoretical proposition and site-specific nature of the project are as follows:

1. MUSEOLOGICAL NARRATIVE A research on the construction of meaning in the museum setting involving the study of the following: 2.1.1. Narrative and Syntactic Models 2.1.2. Narrative & Technology

2. UNDERSTANDING CORBUSIER: A COURSE IN MODERNISM

The following Ideologies championed by Le Corbusier are studied: 2.2.1 About Le Corbusier 2.2.2 Ideologies of Le Corbusier 2.2.3 Analysis of Capitol Complex 2.2.4 Analysis of Narrative in Corbusier’s Design using Space syntax.

3.

MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: DEVISING A NARRATIVE 2.3.1. Study of Epistemology 2.3.2. Visual Taxonomy of Knowledge 2.3.3. Synthesis of Narrative for MoK

4. BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN CONCRETE

2.5.1 Innovations in Concrete: Pre-stressed Concrete 2.5.2 Domino System: Architecture without Walls 2.5.3 Shear Walls: Architecture without Columns

THESIS 2017


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THESIS 2017

2.1

Museological Narrative

A theoretical as well as practical key issue in the design of art museum and galleries is how the layout of space interacts with the layout of objects to realise a specific effect, express the intended message or create a richer spatial structure. To fully understand this interaction entails answering three critical questions: Does the spatial design makes a difference, and if so, what kind of difference? How does it relate to the curatorial intent? What dimensions of our experience of museums are determined by the way galleries and objects are organized spatially?

Keywords: Narrative, layout, script, meaning, constructivist approach, hybridmuseum script

2.1.1 NARRATIVE AND SYNTACTIC MODELS Narrative or storyline has become a central subject in the vast universe of museum literature. Fiona Romeo, Director of Digital Content & Strategy at MoMA as quoted in an interview described exhibitions as, “more of a dance than a sequential experience” (Cornish, 2013) Narrative can be thought of as the choreography of this dance. This section aims to look at narrative from a visitor-centered perspective to explore what cues can architects designing the space derive out of it by providing insights into how visitors perceive and navigate museum spaces in general. i. ii. iii.

Types of Layouts in conjunction with educational theories: Sequential Layout – Beginning/middle/ end – DIDACTIC model of education Exploratory – allows exploration with possibilities of reverting back and forth between the spaces – DISCOVERY model of learning Constructivist – many entry paths, no specific path and no beginning and no end - the majority tends to create their own exploratory routes, missing out elements, and so 'creating their own constructivist layouts' (Black, 2005)

Tzortzi heralds a shift in the museology with the ‘new museology’ with a constructivist approach developing further in the in the last two decades of the twentieth century. This constructivist approach is in complete contrast with the linear displays and the strong evolutionary narrative. (Tzortzi, 2011). But both models have their significant advantages and disadvantages as we will examine with diagrammatic examples. Stories with a clear beginning, middle, and end may lend themselves to a linear structure. Others might suggest a more organic spiral or possibly a hub-andspoke structure: a theme having several subthemes that could potentially be approached in any order. (Stenglin, 2009).


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

An interesting concept in narrativity is the notion of the script suggested by Duncan and Wallach (1980) positing that the museum, through its architecture, its layout of spaces, and arrangement of displays, provides a programmed experience, resembling a ritual process, which is performed by visitors through movement. The museum's larger narrative structure stands as a frame and gives meaning to individual works' (Duncan, 1995) Duncan's concept of script is forwarded by Noordegraaf in his work where he describes museums as 'the product of both its designers and its users', and that visitors with their viewing habits, have an active role in shaping the museum space and can even cause layout changes, the 'revision of the script'. (Noordegraaf, 2004) The gist of his work is delineating the distinction between 3 types of script in the twentieth century museum:

i. ii. iii.

THESIS 2017

the 'Visitor-Orientated Museum Script' in the early twentieth century, when the museum was seen as instrument for educating the public; the 'Invisible Script', that aimed at making visitors forget the mediating role of museum presentation; and, the 'hybrid museum script' that lacks an overall model, either in terms of spatial and display layout, or is characterized by combination and co-existence of different modes of presentation. Thus, space becomes the common point of reference between museology and architecture, and to show that through the way the museum building organizes space, it constructs a set of relationships among galleries, determining the way they are explored and used, among objects, affecting the way they are perceived and read, and among visitors, creating possibilities for co-presence and encounter -a key dimension of the way we experience museums. For example, galleries placed in different locations in the layout could spatially translate into corner galleries, or galleries at the end of sequences, or galleries that offer route choices. Similarly, the structure of spaces and visual axes should be designed as per design intent to intersect spatial interactivity with the technological interactivity in museums today. One way of characterising different types of exhibition space is through space syntax (Hillier and Tzortzi, 2011), which defines spaces by the way they relate to one another. Intersecting Museological ideas of Space with Space Syntax allows us to analyse the role of movement in the production of meaning and the communication of knowledge, and make the link between sequences and choices in the layout and different forms of learning.


35

THESIS 2017

The two fundamental concepts employed in Space Syntax are i. Integration – a measure examining the number of spaces that must be traversed in order to reach all other spaces, ii. Connectivity – a measure of the number of spaces directly connected to any given space. (Forrest, 2014) Regan Forrest in his article in the Spring ’14 issue of Exhibitionist, “Exhibition Narrative: The Spatial Parameters illustrates the following three arrangements to explain the two concepts. In the diagrams, each circle represents a room, and the lines denote routes of access. BEADS ON A STRING – This arrangement though easy to navigate becomes restrictive in terms of choice of route. i. Low Integration - Inevitability in layout - All spaces must be passed through to travel with no short-cut route; ii. Moderate Connectivity + No Dead Ends - No highly-connected nodes

Figure 8 “Beads on a string” arrangement of galleries. (Source: Adapted from Hillier and Tzortzi, 2011.)

GRID ARRANGEMENT – This arrangement allows flexibility in navigation but might be perceived as confusing by the visitor. High Integration – Rooms with access through either one or two rooms; i. ii. Higher Connectivity +Multiply-connected nodes +Choice given to visitor with alternative routes INTEGRATED SPINE – This arrangement has a highly integrated navigational spine from which other spaces radiate. It involves the Figure 9 “Grid” arrangement of galleries. (Source: Adapted from Hillier and Tzortzi, creation of Integrated Routes which become the museum’s traffic areas in form of the main atrium or corridor. This model effectively employs a 2011.) hierarchy of connectivity with spaces having: i. Low Integration & Low Connectivity – These become the intimate spaces with the possibility of being missed. ii. High Connectivity – These are the Multiply-connected nodes which offer choice and possibility of exploration but can again become confusing in the absence of hierarchical interpretive signage. Research by psychologists analysing visitor movement patterns indicate that visitor movement is neither completely unpredictable not totally chaotic, but rather there are distinct patterns in visitor movement and behaviour which is analogous to the sequential dance analogy presented earlier. (Forrest, 2014)

Figure 10 “Integrated spine” arrangement. (Source: Adapted from Hillier and Tzortzi, 2011.)


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

THESIS 2017

2.1.2 NARRATIVE & TECHNOLOGY Since the program for the Museum of Knowledge is highly influenced by digital technologies and forms of representation it is worth investigating how the quality of the space and the visitor experience is affected when the museum presents artistic installations that use new technology. There is a need to think of new technology as a narrative that changes the social context in the museum. Digital media makes a considerable impact upon discussion about the shifting functions of the museum through its potential to create simulations and virtual representations of objects and artefacts, its ability to create avenues to archived information, and through its capacity to enable links between collections and exterior networks. The artwork exhibited in the Museum would be what is commonly referred to as New Media. The term ‘New media’ most commonly refers to content available on-demand through the Internet, accessible on any digital device, usually containing interactive user feedback and creative participation. Common examples of new media include websites such as online newspapers, blogs, wikis, video games and social media. The development of interactive artwork, as a particular aspect of new media, has focused on the importance of the relationship between the viewer and the work itself. In this context, the emphasis shifts from the notion of the audience as passive receiver

to that of the audience as active participant, user or co-creator. Yet despite some of the extreme complexities of the discussion and analysis of various artists’ work, there is not a strong base of audience studies in new media. Recent museum exhibitions in London have provided several examples of the way that the context of the museum can confront the effect of New Media artworks, and how the artworks can impact upon the experience of the audiences. These exhibitions have ranged from permanent installations to temporary installations in spaces; and from self-contained exhibitions of digital media to works integrated into collections. In 2008 the Science Museum, London, installed as a ‘special exhibition’ the artwork, Listening Post, by artists Mark Hansen and Ben Rubin. Listening Post is based on computer programs that collect, sample, process and analyse thousands of public online conversations in live time. These are then sorted and filtered to become the raw material for the artwork, and are presented within a series of different ‘movements’, and given visual form as words flickering across a wall-sized bank of small screens, and interpreted as sound through a computer-generated voice and a responsive audio soundtrack. Maybe in considering how audiences respond to New Media artworks, the two aspects of play and spectacle, identified in

Photo 6 Listening Post, New Media Artwork (Source: Mark Hansen & Ben Rubin.)

the previous examples, need to be seen in relation to each other. Interactive technologies in museums are often studied for their capacity to facilitate informal learning and because of the way that the involved visitor can experience a number of different forms of engagement which can be speculative, collaborative and investigative. These deliberations point towards the need for varied approaches to surveying the experience of the visitor, and how technology might not only empower the museum but may also invigorate the way the visitor has a role within it. Understanding the conditions that new media creates, what is unique and what complications it evokes, are issues that need to be continually examined – as the use of technology changes.


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THESIS 2017

2.2

Understanding Corbusier: A COURSE IN MODERNISM

2.2.1. ABOUT LE CORBUSIER Trevor Barnes in his book Writing Worlds, while establishing the basic premise for understanding any representation, (in this case, space & built environment) says, “to understand each of the representations fully we must know something about the context of its authors and audience” (Barnes, 1992). Corbusier was born in Switzerland and was of a Swiss/ French nationality. An architect, engineer, urbanist and writer by profession, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. His career spanned five decades with buildings constructed throughout Europe, India and America. Let us few of his most influential ideologies that went on to shape the basic tenets of Modernism.

2.2.2. IDEOLOGIES OF LE CORBUSIER •

FIVE POINTS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE Le Corbusier formulated these five points in 1926; which were: 1. Pilotis Pilotis are a construction method of erecting buildings that elevates the mass off the ground. Le Corbusier had penchant for organizing pilotis in a grid, what added order to the buildings. The architect was under a deep impression of classic architecture, especially Parthenon and Villa Rotonda. The grid was a mean to bring these classic qualities to his modern designs.

2. Free Plan Free plan was the consequence of concrete frame construction. The plan is no longer limited by construction and its design becomes free also. In effect, many important figures of modernism movement came up with idea of ‘open plan’ (Frank Lloyd Wright) or continuity of space (Mies van der Rohe), which assumed that architecture is at its best doesn’t divide space, but rather allows space to flow among different abstract compositions of volumes and planes. Le Corbusier called this idea ‘promenade architecturale,’ and an important feature of this concept was building alongside staircase, a ramp. After all, he claimed that the ramp is something that links the floors, while staircase divides it. 3. Free Facade Free facade was a consequence of construction as well. Because walls were then deprived of their constructional role, their design became free as well.

Figure 11 “Five Points towards a Modern Architecture. (Source: Pinterest.com)


MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

38

4. Strip Windows Horizontal windows or ribbon windows are the effect of free facade. Firstly, they give access to a substantial amount of light, which can evenly light the interior. Secondly, it also effectively frames the view outside, bringing the outside inside;

THESIS 2017

5. Roof Garden They were a means of bringing nature to houses: the roof garden, restoring, supposedly, the area of ground covered by the house.

CIAM PRINCIPLES – Chandigarh was planned by Le Corbusier as a CIAM (Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne) city. The CIAM was a group of architects and urban planners who formulated rules for an ideal city for the modern age in the so-called Athens Charter. In brief, the CIAM city divided human functions into work, living and leisure, and the city in its strict zoning of functions was to reflect this division of human life into cycles. At the time, the CIAM charter was designed to rid cities of the post-Industrial Revolution overcrowding and inhuman conditions which had characterized many European and American cities of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The CIAM city called for ample space, light and green areas, and stressed on the need to lead a dignified human existence. That the modern age also meant a new moral order was implicit in the CIAM charter, as well as the fact that architecture and urbanism could be the tools by which this new order could be brought about. In its egalitarianism, the CIAM city responded well to the needs of a new capital city of modern India and dovetailed neatly with the founding principles liberty and equality of the new republic. Chandigarh answered to two agendas: CIAM on the one hand and the new India on the other, and was supposed to represent the best of both.

MODULOR – Le Corbusier’s fascination with architectural proportion would most immediately be associated with his own concept of the Modular. The Modular is itself partly an evolution of such systems, including the Golden Section. Many of his buildings and paintings are underlain by hidden grids and geometric patterns, betraying the fact that so much of Le Corbusier’s work is rooted in his understanding and appreciation of ancient practices. Figure 12 The Modulor (Source: Pinterest.com)


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2.2.3 ANALYSIS OF CAPITOL COMPLEX Le Corbusier liked to compare the city he planned to biological entity: the head was the capitol; the city center was heart and work areas of the institutional are and university were limbs. The Capitol Complex was designed to have a Monumental Approach through the Jan Marg. It symbolically becomes the head of the city. The ceremonial approach to capitol complex was projected as a wide tree lined boulevard, bounded on one side by parkland and on the other side by multi storey buildings. The Central Plaza of the Complex was to give expression to the expanse of space and was conceived as the crossing of two axes. One leading from High Court to the Assembly. The second one from the city centre to the Governor’s Palace. The axis from the city centre towards the governor’s palace was supposed to terminate in an excavated trench, to conceal it and maintain the continuity of piazza and landscape. Figure

The enormous distance between the buildings is quite astonishing element emphasizing the monumentality of the Capitol Plaza. The vast expanse of space covered in concrete reflects a lot of light leading to a vast amount of glare to the visitors in the Capitol Complex.

Figure 14 Capitol Complex (Source: Google Images)

13

Le

Corbusier's

Sketch

showing the Crossing of the axes. (Source: Prakash, 2002)


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GEOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF CAPITOL COMPLEX

Figure 15 Geometrical Analysis of Capitol Complex – Part 1 (Source: Author)

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Figure 16 Geometrical Analysis of Capitol Complex – Part 2 (Source: Author)


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Thus, the Modulor becomes a vital geometry for the monumental landscape. Conceptually, it weaves the fabric of built and inbuilt together in the complex. It also is a major determinant in the positioning of the buildings superimposing the modular man. The Symbolic overlapping takes place in the following manner:

Upper hand - Secretariat Head - Assembly Waist - Tower of Shadows Knee - High Court

CAPITOL COMPLEX – DESIGNED VS. AS- BUILT UNBUILT ELEMENTS Several Elements of the Capitol Complex remain unbuilt to this date which alters the spatial effects conceptualised and designed by Corbusier The absence of the Governor's Palace/ Museum of Knowledge, deprives the composition of the focus of the cross axis. The Palace, by its placement to the left of the initial approach to the complex, was intended to create a focal point deflecting the line of vision moving past it to the horizontal, standing as a sculptural object against the mountains. The incomplete composition makes the distances appear larger. Several pathways have not yet been constructed which if built may help in unifying the site. A canal was designed to function as an isolating element of the capitol that was never built either. UNPLANNED ADDITIONS The site has seen additions of all scales. From deviations in the Capitol Plaza outline to the design of extensions like the High Court Extension. It is essential for such interventions to respond Figure 17 Plan of CCC with a layer comparing the designed and as-built elements. to the basics of the Le Corbusier’s composition for order. (Source: CUL)


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2.2.4. ANALYSIS OF NARRATIVE IN CORBUSIER’S DESIGN Corbusier’s initial proposal on the site was for the Governor’s Palace. An analysis of the Governor’s Palace is essential to fully understand Corbusier’s narrative for the fourth building in his magnum opus, the Capitol Complex. The narrative of the Governor’s Palace essentially morphed into the narrative for the MoK. The elaborate landscaping, the approach to the complex from the central esplanade remain virtually unchanged. So, the analysis of the narrative for the Governor’s Palace becomes the first step in analysing Corbusier’s vision.

NARRATIVE OF THE GOVERNOR’S PALACE - 1952 The pyramidal mass of the Governor’s Palace was to be placed at the apex of the capital city of Chandigarh, directly against the silhouette of the Himalayas presenting the palace as the “crown of the capital” (Corbusier, 1957) By placing it at the head of the Complex, Corbusier delineated its function as the symbolic head of the city. “Its position at the edge of Chandigarh was intended, like the Egyptian pyramids, to define the boundary between civilization and nature.” (Gorlin, 1980) The ramp of the Monument to the Figure 18 Governor’s Palace, Chandigarh. Le Corbusier, 1950-1951. (Source: AGA) Martyrs is in front. Two levels of gardens and water pools face the palace. Pedestrians enter along the shifting series of squares in the center, automobiles enter along the straight road to the right. The theme of the city as body, the capitol as head, and the palace as crown is further articulated in the actual plan by three pairs of axes, with water mediating between each set (fig. 19). A canal divides the axis linking the city and capitol, pools separate the capitol from the palace, and within the building itself an elevated water trough to catch the monsoon rains detaches the rectilinear base from the hovering curve of the viewing platform (barsati). Figure 19 The axis leading from City Centre to the GP. (Source: AGA)


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The design of the GP and its landscaped garden presents a harmonious interaction between the architecture and the landscape. (Corbusier, 1957) The design exploits the possibility of using reflections from water and rearranging pools at different levels to preserve the relationships between the principal plaza and the Palace. Connected by footbridge to the palace is the plaza and sculpture of the Open Hand. Its path of approach virtually mirrors that of the Governor’s Palace, although in conception they are reversed (see fig. 20); the path to the palace is conceptually solid while the path to the Open Hand is a recessed void.

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Figure 20 Diagram of the relationship

between

the

Governor’s Palace to the left and the Monument to the Open Hand to the right. Note the similarity of form in the locking L’s and the conceptual

The palace is situated at the end of an enclosed precinct of multi-level gardens and pools (see fig. 2). This seemingly ancient forecourt of giant ramps, stairs, and obelisks rising from the water belies its modern articulation. The original sketches show a static, symmetrical approach to the palace, while in the final design the axis is broken, creating a shifting series of plazas before the palace. The garden is framed in plan by two interlocking L’s, a form derived from the rotation of the arms of a spiral (see fig. 21). Figure 21 Conceptual derivation of the

The pedestrian ascends the Martyr’s Ramp to find the distant palace garden plan from the pinwheel form. visually thrust forward. The garden levels fall away in shearing blocks as the reflecting pools double their height, creating a foreground and (Source: AGA) plinth for the palace, which enforces the image of a temple on an acropolis (see fig. 22). Descending the spiral ramp, a counter-spiral activates the procession Figure 22 A sketch showing the to the palace. The collapsed arms of the spiral compress its centripetal force into a dynamic push pull effected by the pressing relationship of GP and Landscape. forward of the pools against their static frames (fig. 23). (S

P k

h 2002)

As the three plazas shift to the left, the palace oscillates between two obelisks, a cylinder, and a pyramid, shifting the eye to the mountains and the Open Hand monument to the right. Finally, the dense symmetrical mass of the palace wrenches the eye to the center, to settle on the curve of the barsati, an elevated valley framing the Himalayas.

Figure 23 Approach to the GP.

Ironically, the mighty design proved its own undoing, as the building was deemed a palace for giants and (Source: Prakash, 2002) the governor chose to live in town and the palace was not built.


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NARRATIVE OF MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE (MUSEE’ DE LA CONNASSAINCE) Le Corbusier’s late interest in electronics and high technology (Gorkin, 1980) led him to to propose the Museum of Knowledge when the plan for the Governor’s Palace was rejected. The design for the MoK did not have the presence that the design for Governor’s Palace did. Vikramaditya Prakash explains; “After 1952, the Assembly with its dominating paraboloid became the center of the Capitol, as assertive as the High Court was subtle (plate 14). This is, I am sure, the reason why Le Corbusier designed the Museum of Knowledge that was to replace the Governor's Palace as an ordinary box, of no special visual significance-it had to be understated so that it did not compete with the new dominance of the Figure 24 Second Floor Plan. MoK. Assembly, which gathered the Capitol all around it. It would (Source: Corbusier, 1957) therefore be a mistake to go back and construct the Governor's Palace in its place now.” (Prakash, 2002) The Museum of Knowledge was proposed as an electronic information center. It housed four distinct laboratories which translated into the four open bays in which continually mobile installations make it possible to carry out the specific programmes of each one ofthe four laboratories. These four laboratories are each devoted to a special field: technical, economic, sociological, ethical. Each one of the four laboratories have its projects materialized (electronic recording) via the general centre which occupies the entire basement level of the palace.

Figure 25 Exploded 3D of the MoK. (Source: CUL)

The building program is divided into two parts - storage of knowledge and access to knowledge. There are two distinct languages within the building. The access to knowledge is represented as an interconnected public space and the knowledge store is a contained box. Figure 26 Analysed Plans of the MoK. (Source: CUL)


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The Museum of Knowledge features the Corbusian Grid and certain main external features such as the two brise- soleil facades and the ramp. This dialogue between traditional deep space and modern-ist shallow space is evident on the facade of the Museum of Knowledge, designed to occupy the site of the Governor’s Palace after the palace was rejected (figs. 28). Here the actual frontal plane; the cube is countered by the arrangement of the stair screens (See fig 30,31) into a triangle of implied depth, while on the rear facade is an inverted triangle. Figure 27 Front & rear of the MoK Model. (Source: AGA)

An elevated water trough to catch the monsoon rains detaches the rectilinear base from the hovering curve of the viewing platform (barsati). (See fig 29) The crescent shaped distinctive element of the GP is retained, albeit rotated. So, the crescent that welcomed the visitors points in the direction opposite to the entrance and the incline suggestive of the flow of knowledge or could be read as their aspiration for growth.

Figure 29 Sectional view showing the staircases varying in each plan. (Source: Corbusier 1957)

Figure 28 Side elevation showing the crescent in the elevated water trough. (Source: Archasm)

Figure 30 Screens in the elevation covering the stairs. (Source: Archasm)


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2.3

Museum of Knowledge: DEVISING A NARRATIVE

2.3.1 STUDY OF EPISTEMOLOGY Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. The study of Knowledge in Philosophy is called Epistemology. The most common definition of knowledge established in Epistemolgy was given by Plato who defined Knowledge as Justified True Belief. But this has since been discarded since Edmund Gettier in 1963 wrote a paper which posed a set of scenarios known as the Gettier Cases where a person can have justified true belief but not Knowledge. Two types of knowledge are usually defined, namely explicit and tacit knowledge. The former, Explicit Knowledge, refers to codified knowledge, such as that found in documents, while the latter, Tacit Knowledge, refers to non-codified and often personal/experiencebased knowledge. In practice, all knowledge is a mixture of tacit and explicit elements rather than being one or the other. However, in order to understand knowledge, it is important to define these theoretical opposites. Spatially, Explicit Knowledge needs to be stored and accessed in defined spaces such as Libraries, Information Centres etc. Whereas to gain Tacit Knowledge, one needs a facility to share knowledge (in the form of Conference Facilities), practice knowledge (Workshops, Research & Development Laboratories etc.) and generate knowledge through experience and practice.

Figure 31 Types of Knowledge (Source: Author)


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2.3.2 VISUAL TAXONOMY OF KNOWLEDGE Since a very long time, there was a belief in the natural ranking of things and a strict order around us. The visual model adopted to convey this hierarchy was of trees. The branching scheme of the tree was, in fact, such a powerful metaphor for conveying information that it became, over time, an important communication tool to map a variety of systems of knowledge. Trees began to be used to map everything from morality to Genalogy (Family Tress.) And trees ultimately became such a powerful visual metaphor because in many ways, they really embody this human desire for order, for balance, for unity, for symmetry. Data Visualization Designer Manuel Lima points out in his TED Talk, A visual history of human knowledge, how the visual language of depicting Knowledge is changing from the top-down model (depicted by trees) to the method of network that embodies the notions of decentralization, of interconnectedness, of interdependence. However, nowadays we are really facing new complex, intricate challenges that cannot be understood by simply employing a simple tree diagram. And a new metaphor is currently emerging, and it's currently replacing the tree in visualizing various systems of knowledge. It's really providing us with a new lens to understand the world around us. And this new metaphor is the metaphor of the network. And we can see this shift from trees into networks in many domains of knowledge. The main reason for this shift can be the Internet and the IT revolution that has changed the way that we gain, share, practice and map knowledge in multi-farious ways. He posits that, “it’s almost becoming a growing visual taxonomy. It's almost becoming the syntax of a new language.” Here’s a representation of knowledge transfer, this time within the Seattle Public Library. The visual shows renting patterns, based on the Dewey Decimal classification system beloved by librarians everywhere. The bigger the circle, the more people borrowing books or media in that category. Information today is best understood and consumed in the form of networks. The design for the MoK should respond to this visual typology of networks.

Figure 32 Data visualization of Book Renting Patterns in Seattle Public Library. (Source: Manuel Lima)

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2.3.3 SYNTHESIS OF NARRATIVE FOR MOK MoK is a place for the citizens of Chandigarh that gives them a space to pursue Knowledge and receive knowledge in return, thus exemplifying the message of the open hand “open to give, open to receive.” The Museum of Knowledge would be an alternative learning center offeringindependent learning facilities towards the goal of Intellectual Independence. The MoK can function as an organisation of its own that offers its facilities to its members and displays the work of artists, researchers and in house talent. Such models exist and function exrelely well, in addition to being a resource center for the community. For example, in Ladakh, The Ladakh Arts and Media Organisation (LAMO) is a public charitable trust established to articulate an alternative vision for the arts and media in Ladakh. The organization set up the LAMO Centre in Leh, the main town of the region, to provide a space for the understanding and development of the arts. The LAMO Centre has spaces like galleries, offices, a library and reading room, screening room, conference room, and open-air performance site. The Centre also conducts outreach programs, lectures, film screenings, research and documentation projects, workshops and exhibitions that showcase Ladakh’s material and visual culture, performing arts and literature. In the MoK, the various activities can be categorized as one of the following: Pursuing Knowledge Gaining Knowledge Displaying Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Practicing Knowledge Together they form a cyclic process that must keep turning for these are the wheels of progress.

Figure 33 The Knowledge Wheel Source: Author)

    


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Building Technologies in Concrete 2.4.1 INNOVATIONS IN CONCRETE: PRE- STRESSED/ POST TENSIONED CONCRETE Pre-stressed Concrete is a method for overcoming concrete’s natural weakness in tension. It can be used to produce beams, floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete. The method involves using high tensile strength steel alloys producing permanent pre-compression in areas subjected to Tension. A portion of tensile stress is counteracted thereby reducing the cross-sectional area of the steel reinforcement. Reinforcing tendons are stretched by jacks whilst keeping them inserted in voids left pre-hand during curing of concrete. These spaces are then pumped full of grout to bond steel tightly to the concrete. For pre-stressed beams, the thumb rule for beam depth is S/21 to S/18, with ‘S’ being the span of the beam. For a large span structure of about 30mts, the beam depth would turn out to be about 1.5 mts, which consumes a lot of space. ADVANTAGES  Post-tensioning allows longer clear spans, thinner slabs, fewer beams and more slender, dramatic elements.  Thinner slabs mean less concrete is required. It means a lower overall building height for the same floor-to-floor height.  Post-tensioning can thus allow a significant reduction in building weight vs. a conventional concrete building with the same number of floors reducing the foundation load and be a major advantage in seismic areas.  A lower building height can also translate to considerable savings in mechanical systems and façade costs.  Another advantage of post-tensioning is that beams and slabs can be continuous, i.e. a single beam can run continuously from one end of the building to the other.  Reduces occurrence of cracks.  Freezing & thawing durability is higher than non-prestressed concrete.

Figure 34 Joinery details for Pre-stressed members (Source: Burde, R – Slideshare.com)

Figure 35 New ways in which concrete is being used (Source: Slideshare.com)


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2.4.2 DOM- INO SYSTEM: ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT WALLS Dom-Ino System is the structural system based on the Dom-Ino House prototype consisting of horizontal slabs and pilotis that reduced the building to its minimum. It is an open floor plan structure designed by noted architect Le Corbusier in 1914–1915. It was a design idea to manufacture in series that combines the order he discovered in classical architecture on which he based the modular. The architecture of the system looks like architecture stripped bare. The system – an acronym that combined domus and innovation – never saw production but became an emblematic project of twentieth-century architecture and a precursor to one of the most widespread building systems: the concrete structural frame. Today, however, Dom-ino looms as a representation of our slum-like megalopolis, illustrating the industrialisation of housing construction and the vernacular appropriation of itself as a generic model. Placed within its contemporary urban condition, this report ponders upon the enduring relevance of Dom-ino.

Figure 36 Domino Construction System by Le Corbusier. (Source: Pinterest.com)

This model proposed an open floor plan consisting of concrete slabs supported by a minimal number of thin, reinforced concrete columns around the edges, with a stairway providing access to each level on one side of the floor plan. The frame was to be completely independent of the floor plans of the houses thus giving freedom to design the interior configuration. The model eliminated load-bearing walls and the supporting beams for the ceiling. This model is still prevalent as a highly customizable repeating module.

BIG’s PUU-BO Danish architects Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) have won a competition to design multistorey, prefabricated wooden housing for Kouvola, Finland. The E2 (Ecology + Economy) Timber Competition aims to prototype and showcase large-scale sustainable wooden construction that can be replicated worldwide.

Figure 37 The PUU-BO system by BIG Architects inspired by DOM-INO. (Source: Architectour.net)


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BIG’s E2 proposal combines a variety of housing typologies – from 8-story apartment buildings to low townhouses with a shared courtyard space. Along both sides of the building a pedestrian path connects the private gardens to parking and park. The path blends with the existing network, integrating the building with the park, river and city. Playgrounds, sports fields, and a community sauna in the river are strategically placed in order to activate the site. All activities are available to both the PUUBO inhabitants as well as the citizens of Kouvola. FROM CONCRETE TO WOOD Corbusier DOMI-NO system was developed to industrialize construction with the new technologies of concrete structures, and bring qualitative space to the masses. The PUU-BO building system aims to build new sustainable structures of wood. and Figure 38 The combination of the PUU-BO modules address the growing demand for energy efficient, low carbon structures. (Source Architectour.net):

BIG won the competition in collaboration with Pirmin Jung Engineers for Wood Constructions, AOA Anttinen Oiva Architects, Vahanen Engineers and Stora Enso. This proves relevance of the DOM-INO system prevails as it is still being adapted directly and indirectly in designs.

Figure 39 Different building typologies that can be achieved by PUU-BO. (Source: Architectour.net)

Figure 40 BIG’s E2 proposal for Kouvola, Finland. (Source: Architectour.net)


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2.4.3 SHEAR WALLS: ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT COLUMNS The columns can also impede free flow of space. It provides a rigid framework but that itself can be limiting when dealing with large spaces. The following building eliminated interior columns by proving shear walls. It is worth looking into the structure of the building. Case Example: ABEDIAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architects: CRAB Studio Location: Queensland, Australia Design Team: Peter Cook and Gavin Robotham Client: Bond University Area: 2500.0 sqm

Figure 41 Abedian School of Architecture under construction. (Source: Archdaily.com)

Year: 2013 The Abedian School of Architecture is located on the campus designed in the 1980s by Arata Isozaki. It forms part of the Faculty of Architecture and Sustainable Design. Winning the competition in January 2011, CRAB was awarded the contract and the building was completed in 2013. The Abedian School of Architecture's building is a long, airy loft on two to three levels articulated by a series of "scoops": defining structureenclosures that can be used for casual meetings. These scoops line the central street that gently rises up the hilltop site. A central avenue cuts through the plan. the internal street is conceived as a social condenser, stimulating encounter and exchange.

Figure 42 Main Navigational Spine in Abedian School of Architecture. (Source: Archdaily.com)


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Huge curving concrete walls create more private spaces off the central corridor. They developed these concrete scoops that run off the [central] street that are the epicentre of the entire building, they form crit space, they're structural elements, they're environmental chimneys, they're basically the core of the building. So, the building is this large shed in one sense, but also has these sorts of cages of character embedded within that. Curving staircases suspended form the walls of two of the scoops lead to an upper storey housing further studios nd offices as well as lecture space, reading room and reception suite. Figure 43 Structure Defining Concrete Scoops become informal crit spaces (Source: Archdaily.com)

Figure 44 Staircases in Abedian School of Architecture. (Source: Archdaily.com)


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Chapter 3: Precedent Study

1952. Chandigarh: Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru while laying the Foundation Stone of the city.

Photo 7 Jawaharlal Nehru, addressing audience at dedication of the new city of Chandigarh. (Source: Getty Images)

“ Let this be a new town, symbolic of freedom of India unfettered by the traditions of the past… an expression of the nation’s faith in the future”.


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Precedents Selection

3.2 Architectural Case Studies 3.1

Parliament Library • • • •

New Delhi, India

Response to a Strong Context Proximity to Parliamentary Functions Security Condition Library Typology with different kinds of users

Sendai Mediatheque

Sendai-shi, Japan

• Public Facility • Media Centre Typology • Programmatically Similar to MoK

Seattle Central Library

Seattle, USA

• Programmatic Clusters • Functions as a Focal Public Space • Library Typology mixed with digital elements

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Parliament Library Photo 8 Photo Montage of Parliament Library. (Source: Flickr.com)

3.1.1

Figure 45 Floor Plan, Parliament Library. (Source: Flickr.com)


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

Sendai Mediatheque

Photo 9 Photo Montage of Sendai Mediatheque. (Source: Archdaily.com)

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Figure 46 Floor Plan, SM (Source: Author)

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3.1.3

Seattle Central Library

Figure 47 Programmatic Section, SCL (Source: Author)

Photo 10 Photo Montage of Seattle Central Library. (Source: Archdaily.com)

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3.2

Precedent Analysis


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3.3

Comparison Matrix

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YEAR COMPLETED

PARLIAMENT LIBRARY NEW DELHI, INDIA 2003

SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE SENDAI-SHI, JAPAN 2001

SEATTLE CENTRAL LIBRARY WASHINGTON, USA 2004

ARCHITECT

Raj Rewal Associates

Toyo Ito & Associates

OMA, LMN Architects

LAND USE

Institutional

Institutional

Institutional

SITE AREA

39,916 sq. m = 9.86 acres

3948.72 sq. m = 0.97 acres

-

GROUND FLOOR AREA

13,380 sq. m = 3.30 acres

2,933.12 sq. m = 0.72 acres

4600 sq. m = 1.13 acres

GROUND COVERAGE

33.5%

74.2

-

TOTAL BUILT-UP AREA

60,460 sq. m = 14.93 acres

21,682 sq. m = 5.35 acres

38,300 sq. m = 9.46 acres

F.A.R.

1.54

5.49

-

BUILDING HEIGHT

G +3

G + 7 (36.49 m)

G + 10 (60 m)

RELEVANCE OF CASE STUDY

• • •

• •

TOPIC

• •

Response to Monumental Context Library Design Similar Security Condition

Public Facility Media Centre Typology Programmatically similar to MoK

Programmatic Clusters Functions as a Focal Public Space Library Typology mixed with digital elements

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Library Digital Library Parliamentary functions Meeting halls

Library Media Library Museum Gallery Theatre Studio/workshops

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

FRC Shells Stainless Steel Domes

Steel-ribbed Flat Slabs Steel Tube Columns

Reading Room Mixing Chamber Library - Spiral Media Library Auditorium Meeting Spaces Living Room Load Bearing System Lattice-like Seismic Structure

MATERIALITY

Exterior Sandstone, Glass

Ribbed Steel, Partial RCC, Glass

Glass & Steel

STYLE OF DESIGN

Critical Regionalism

Conceptual architecture

Post-Modern Architecture


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Inferences Pariament Library • Response to Monumental Context. • Building technologies in red sandstone explored fully. • Different materials like Stainless Steel and Red Sandstone used cohesively. • Building recedes and sinks into the Ground to not visually compete with the Parliament Building.

Sendai Meditheque • Public Nature of Facility apparent in Transparent Exterior Treatment. • Negligible Interior walls. • Flexible Galleries in Museum • Structural Tubes used as Light Wells, Ducts & for Vertical Circulation. • Free circulating Spaces allow us to meander between the tubes.

Seattle Central Library • Programmatic Clusters – 5 Stable & 4 Unstable • Extensively designed but variable vertical Circulation which might create confusion. • Living Room – Public Level for non- formal meeting, reading, and assembly. • Mixing Chamber – Large Information Centre & resources leading to Book Spiral. • Book Spiral – a continuous row of books connected by books leading to the Reading Room.

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Figure 48 Archicomic about the Geometry in the layout of the Capitol Complex. (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

Chapter 4: Reading the Site “There’s always a surprise here, like a theatre stage, it is not static. Architecture is not sterile, but poetry, and here are varied textures, inventions and each building has a story, context and reason. It is for us to cherish it, preserve it, use it and value it. And, I hope the Governor’s Palace is made some day to complete the complex,” summed up Doshi, during a panel discussion on the challenge of connecting citizens of Chandigarh with the Capitol Complex. October 27, 2016. Chandigarh: Balkrishna Doshi describes his association with Le Corbusier in The Indian Express. Parul.


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4.1

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Contextual Study 4.1.1. CHANDIGARH • • •

Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post-independence in 1947 is known internationally for its architecture and urban design. The master plan of the city was prepared by Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier.

AREA = 114 sq. km GEOGRAPHY = Chandigarh is a landlocked city located near the foothills of the Sivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. CLIMATE Chandigarh enjoys an extreme climate with hot summers (March to June) and chilly winters (November to February). The monsoon season, though pleasant in the evenings, is humid during the daytime. The best season to visit Chandigarh is autumn (August to November), when the weather is pleasant, neither too hot, nor too cold.

Figure 49 Solar Analysis, Chandigarh (Source: Meteoblue.com)

Figure 51 Chandigarh Location (Source: Mapsofindia.com)

Figure 50 Climate & Rainfall, Chandigarh (Source: Wikipedia.org)

Figure 52 Chandigarh Urban Complex Plan (Source: Knowchandigarh.com)


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Population During the last 6 decades (1951-2011), Chandigarh has witnessed a population increase of more than forty-four times with the absolute population increasing from 24,261 in 1951 to 10,54,686 in 2011. As per Census 2011, the population of Chandigarh U.T has crossed the one million mark with its population placed very close to that of the state of Mizoram (10,91,014). The Union Territory recorded a population of 10,54,686 in 2011 with much lower decadal rate of increase in population with only 154051 people being added to the Chandigarh UT during the last decade.

Religion Hinduism and Sikhism are the prominent religions of Chandigarh followed by 80.78% and 13.11% people respectively. Minorities are Muslims 4.87%, Christians 0.83%, Jains 0.19%, Buddhists 0.11%, those that didn't state a religion are 0.10%, and others are 0.02%.

WIND DIRECTION

Figure 55 Wind Rose, Chandigarh (Source: Meteoblue.com)

Languages English is the sole official language of Chandigarh. The majority of the population speaks Hindi (67.53%) while Punjabi is spoken by 27.89%

Figure 54 Population, Chandigarh (Source: Meteoblue.com)

DEMOGRAPHICS

The wind blows mostly from the NorthEastern side. Figure 53 Languages & Religion in Chandigarh (Source: Wikipedia.org)


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4.1.1 CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN – LANDUSE The Master Plan of UT Chandigarh covers an area of approximately 114 sq km. This includes the nearly fully developed 70 sq km of the area planned by Le Corbusier and his team of which the site is a part. The Site lies at the head of the Plan of Chandigarh in the Capitol Complex which has government institutional buildings.

Figure 56 Chandigarh UT Master Plan (Source: chandigarh.gov.in/cmp2031/mp-area.pdf)


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4.1.2 TYPES OF DEVELOPMENTAL CONTROLS & REGULATIONS IN CHANDIGARH

4.1.3.a. Architectural Control The Edict of Chandigarh states that certain areas of Chandigarh are of special architectural interest where harmonized and unified composition of buildings is aimed at. In these areas, absolute architectural and zoning controls should remain operative. The planners of the city employed large scale aesthetic controls ranging from urban design measures to extensive architectural controls that prescribe volumes, outlines and skyline, forms, spatial setting, facades, materials, textures, colours, fenestrations and even boundary wall and gates. These architectural controls depict the architect’s interpretation of available technology, climate, social order of the democratic nature placed in the context of modernism. However, the competition brief asks the designer to take a stand and respond to Le Corbusier’s legacy.

4.1.3.b. Controls along major arterial roads The architectural controls for commercial and institutional buildings were evolved for all the major arterial roads of the city - Madhya Marg (V2), Jan Marg (V2) Dakshin Marg (V2) Himalaya Marg (V2b) The chosen site is pierced by the Jan Marg which is V2.

4.1.3.c Parking for all types of buildings: a) Multi level parking above the ground level shall also be allowed which shall be free from FAR. However, the footprint of the separate parking building block shall be counted upto 50% of the ground coverage permissible. In this block, no other use except parking, drivers rest room with toilet, toll centre and any other facility which is essential for parking facility shall be allowed subject to condition that these shall not exceed 150 sq. mtrs. per 100 ECS (Equivalent Car Space) of parking space or in multiple of that. Other parameters such as ground coverage, height etc. for such parking shall be governed by the existing rules for any other multi level building. Multi-level mechanical parking shall also be permissible for which the norms shall be decided on case to case basis. b) Parking along V-4, V-5 and V-6 roads shall be strictly prohibited.

4.1.3.c Typology Based Development Controls Cultural and other non-academic institutional sites:The following volumetric controls are applicable on the project:

The controls whether commercial or institutional can be classified either as brick structures or R.C.C structures or composite built forms.

Maximum Coverage

The institutional buildings of plotted development which are composed of multiple blocks of varying heights placed at angle to the avenues in order to facilitate north lights.

Maximum Height

Ground

30%

18 metres above site level 6 metres below site level


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Basements The following development controls are applicable for the construction of Basements:

Barrier free approach: Barrier free approach shall be compulsory in all non-residential sites in Chandigarh to facilitate differently abled persons. Toilets for especially abled person: Toilets for especially abled person shall be compulsory in all non-residential sites in Chandigarh to facilitate differently abled persons. Courtyard: Where the minimum size of courtyard for providing light and ventilation to the basement is provided

i.e. Minimum width in all directions is 3 meters. Lift: Lift shall be allowed to open in basement of buildings in Chandigarh. Staircase: a. Design of Staircase: - As per new fire safety norms, minimum of two staircases are to be provided in buildings above 15m. height. Fire staircases shall be open to sky and hence, shall not be counted towards FAR. While providing the extra staircase, the uniformity shall be maintained. b. Location of Staircase: - The staircase in any building shall be so located that the travel distance on the floor shall not exceed 30 m.). • Access to Terrace: The terrace of all buildings in Chandigarh shall be allowed to be accessed by staircase except marla houses. • Service zone on terrace: Mumty to be located within the service zone to create refuge area in case of fire.

Figure 57 Universal Design (Source: Medium.com)

Sr. Norms Condition No. 1 i. Optional and it shall It flushes with the ground and is properly landscaped. not be included in F.S.I. ii. Allowed only below the zoned area of the plot. 2 Uses Storage, parking, air conditioning plant lift well etc. in addition, limited use of basement for office space with proper arrangement of light and ventilation, fire safety norms, circulation etc. Fulfilment of other terms and conditions, which may be required for a basement to be used to habitable purpose. If sufficient parking space, as per norms, is available within the site. 3 Toilets, pantry, labs etc. which The area of basement with habitable use shall be require water, are not allowed counted towards maximum permissible FAR of 0.5. in the basement. Ramp: • The clear width of the ramp leading to the basement shall be 4.00 m with an adequate slope not less than 1:10. • Separate entry/exit of ramps in the basement should be provided and the ramp for basement parking shall be allowed outside the zoned area subject to fire tender movement. • The ramp shall be on non-slippery surface.


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4.2.

Site Surroundings The site is located in the Capitol Complex exactly opposite the Geometric hill to the north and is contained between the other edifices of Legislative Assembly and Secretariat on one side and High court on the other.

Figure 59 Site with Context (Source: Snazzymaps.com)

Location: Capitol Complex, Chandigarh Latitude: 30°45’36.66”N Longitude: 76°48’22.24”E Site Level: 3.5 metres above ground level.

4.2.0 CONNECTIVITY & ACCESS It is accessed and bounded by an extension road originating from the Jan Marg that divides the Capitol complex virtually into two halves, and ends in an impasse. The most important aspect of completing the Capitol Complex is to restore civic access to the main plaza while acknowledging the needs for security.

SITE AREA = 1.65 hectares = 4.077 acres F.A.R. ACHIEVED = 1.86 BUILT- UP AREA = 20625 sq. m (area of the basement is not included). SETBACKS = 15 m from major road – Jan Marg (V2)

Figure 58 Access road, Jan Marg leading up to the Site through the Capitol Complex. (Source: Archasm.com)


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4.2.1. SITE CONTEXT The figure-ground discloses the following conditions –  Site is located in a coarse grain, irregular texture surroundings of the Capitol Complex.  At the centre is the extremely low footprint of the Capitol Complex. This figure ground is, however, deceptive in part, because the Secreteriat is a unquestionably the densest object of the city by far.  To the South is the low-density neighbourhood of the planned city.  To the North is the sporadic high density of the old village cores, now much grown, accompanied by the intermediate density of rural-sprawl. Figure 60 Figure Ground of the Site Surroundings (Source: Author)

4.2.2 SITE SECTIONS

Figure 61 Site sections cutting throught the Site Surroundings (Source: Author)


Photo 11 Site Photos whith the site highlighted in red. (Source: Archdasm)

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4.2.3 SITE PHOTOS


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Photo 13 Site Photos whith the site highlighted in red. (Source: Archasm)

Photo 12 Photo Montage showing site relationship with the Capitol Complex Plaza. (Source: Author)

Photo 14 Access Road (Source: Author)


Figure 62 Site Analysis showing the Secured & Public Zones (Source: Author)

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77

4.2.4 SITE MOVEMENT


Figure 63 Site Analysis showing the Vehicular Movement. (Source: Author)

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Figure 64 Site Analysis showing the Pedestrian Movement. (Source: Author)

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Inferences DESTINATION SITE •

Site is at the top edge of the City.

Does not lie on any route, so footfall is to be based on developing site as a Destination Site

SUN & WIND •

Solar Heat Gain is mostly from West & South direction.

Needs to be effectively Controlled.

Wind comes in predominantly from the North East.

ACCESS ROAD •

Level of Road is 15 feet below grade at one edge of the site and slopes up till site level on the other edge of the site.

This needs to be responded to.

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Chapter 5: Reading the Program

Figure 65 Tag to honor Le COrbusier’s 50 years after his death. (Source: Archdaily.com)

During his visit to Chandigarh College of Architecture, Hodder said the administration should look after the city as it was designed by one of the world’s best architects. “Corbusier proposed to make post and telegraph building in Sector 17, which was supposed to be an 11-storey building and could have been one of the beautiful constructions in the world, but unfortunately the project is yet to be planned. As per my information, he also proposed to build a museum of knowledge,” Hodder said.

- STEPHEN HODDER President, RIBA on his visit to CCA in 2015


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Program Components The following would be main features of the Museum: A Library-cum-Research Centre: This would contain of a large number of books and volumes relating to all aspects of human endeavour, with the special focus on settlements. It would be a repository of all information on the subject, wherever available, printed form, or on the internet, or through access to digital libraries across the world. It would also contain modern audio-video aids and DVDs etc. The Library would have facilities for seating of up to 500 people, as also terminals for access to the internet. It would also consist of servers, computers, storage devices and displays and would access Resource Centres and Libraries of the World, thus making it a Centre for Research. Conference Facilities: These would be on the pattern of those available elsewhere and would be available to organizations which would carry out debates/discussions/seminars on relevant areas. They would not be available for commercial/marketing events. These facilities would be state of the art and would be designed for gatherings of 50 to 250 people. Dining Facilities: Simple dining facilities would be provided, to enable discussions in a non-formal, social setting.

5.1.1. AUDITORIUM Auditorium is a highly public, people-intensive component attracting a large no. of people.

5.1.2. DIGITAL LIBRARY Libraries perform a range of function in society. Academic libraries, obtain, collect and store literature for education and research purposes. In academic libraries, reference rooms are provided. There may counters for loans from the closed stacks and free access to the open magazines, books or separately presented educational material in reading rooms. Library should clearly declare building function, and the welcoming lobby should reduce entry of noise/draughts. Provide visual stimulation here. Adequate control needed to prevent high losses of books etc. Through exist some have had to use electronic detectors.

LIBRARY

Book Security

Reading Zones

Reference Section

Library Management

Digital Library

Audio Visual Library

Book Store & Cafe


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5.1.3. KNOWLEDGE CENTER This is a crucial component of the museum of Knowledge. It consists of Research & Development Laboratories, Innovation Centres, Discussion Rooms and Lecture Halls, all programmatic elements associated with the activities involved in pursuit and dissemination of knowledge.

KNOWLEDGE CENTRE

R&D Laboratories

Innovation Centers

Discussion Rooms

Lecture Halls

Seminar Rooms

Workshops

Figure 66 Components of Knowledge Center. Source: Author)

5.1.4. MUSEUM A museum is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artefacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical or scientific importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.

MUSEUM

Exhibition halls

Galleries

Demonstration Kiosks

Archives Season

Ticketing Counter

Information Centre

Storage

Figure 67 Components of Museum. Source: Author)

Purpose: The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve, interpret, and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. The purpose can also depend on one’s point of view. Types of museums:Types of museums vary, from large institutions, covering many of the categories below, to very small institutions focusing on a specific subject, location, or a notable person.

Categories include: Fine arts, applied art, craft, archaeology, anthropology, ethnology, biography, history, cultural history, science, technology, children's museums, Natural history, botanical and zoological gardens.

Areas of Research: A theoretical as well as practical key issue in the design of art museum and galleries is how the layout of space interacts with the layout of objects to realise a specific effect, express the intended message or create a richer spatial structure. To fully understand this interaction entails answering three critical questions: Does the spatial design makes a difference, and if so, what kind of difference? How does it relate to the curatorial intent? What dimensions of our experience of museums are determined by the way galleries and objects are organized spatially


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5.2

THESIS 2017

Area Program Administration

Basement Floor Program Components Museum

Services

Space Museum ticket Entrance foyer Workshop Toilet Archives AHU Staff locker Art gallery Exhibition Open exhibition museum court Demonstration kiosks Café Museum spill over

Area 18 240 166 110 70 16 20 140 310 130 270 290 300

Pump room Emergency fire fighting water storage Chiller plant Air Handling Unit DG set Tarnsfomers Space Electric Panel room Surveillence room Maintanance staff

Space K. center lobby Innovation Center Stepped discussion theatre PFA discussion theatre I.T resource lab Toilet Staff Lockers Info desk A.H.U room Café Pantry Toilet

Convention

Lecture hall 1 Lecture hall 2 Lecture hall 3 Lecture hall 4 lecture hall 5 Toilet Auditorium equipments Storage Audi Balcony Café A.H.U room

Ground Floor Program Components Interpretation center

Space Main Hall

Convention

Entrance foyer Reception Exhibit: Artists on display Library info and book return Kitchen AHU Café Foyer Auditorium pre-function Visitors lobby Toilet Green room Backstage toilet AHU Stage

Area 315 375 30 90 50 70 17 470 160 68 22 54 30 25 15 100

350 36 170 165 40 10 20 36 20

First Floor Program Components Knowledge center

80 80 85 50 85 150 140 110 210

Main seating hall Kitchen Café Stepped up open seating Accounts Reception Conference room Director's Office Toilet

Area 395 280 210 105 45 60 35 16 175 230 24 20 75 75 45 45 50 60 30 30 260 100 20

Second Floor Program Components Knowledge center

Space K. center lobby R&D labs Toilet R&D labs 2 Toilets Protyping Material incharge

Area 390 180 20 250 60 20 20


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Convention

Staff locker AHU room Pantry CafĂŠ Toilet Conference Toilet Storage Pantry Conference room 1 Conference room 2 Multipurpose hall AHU room Equipment room

35 16 25 220 20 120 55 25 25 175 180 605 22 20

Third Floor Program Components Library

Digital library

Audio-visual library

Space Library lobby Reading zone Book stack zone (excluding eading zone) AHU room Toilet Reference section Aqusitions Cataloguing Head Librarian office Assistant librarian Staff lockers Info desk AHU room Book store Pantry Toilet Periodiacals Book CafĂŠ Digtal information zone Information desk Baggage counter Multimedia room 1 Multimedia room 2 Multimedia room 3 AHU room Toilet Library incharge room Issuing desk

Area 390 42 455 17 20 95 52 22 50 45 35 16 17 40 25 25 35 110 180 35 41 60 40 40 17 60 20 25

Viewing zone 1 Viewing zone 2 Viewing zone 3 Viewing zone 4 CD and record store

85 100 65 35 40 13010

TOTAL AREA Program Components

Space Area Circulation (Add @ 40% for walls, toilets, pantries, tea - cofee vending machines , small kiosks (less than 6 sq. m) lobbies and circulation systems, janitor cupboards and stores, emergency exits, server rooms, switch rooms, electrical and mechanical support area on all floors )

TOTAL

7615

20625


Figure 68 Analysis of Area Distribution. (Source: Archdaily.com)

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Figure 69 Diagrams explaining the Security Solution. (Source: CUL)

5.3 Security

The Capitol Complex is currently inaccessible to a majority of the citizens of Chandigarh and tourists from all over the world. A road currently leads to the proposed site of the Museum of knowledge at 15 feet below the grade of the upper plaza. Because this road is 15 feet below grade, it is not considered a security threat. By creating a publicly accessible plaza from the road and in front of the site of the museum, the public can visit the complex without compromising the security of the plaza.


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Inferences PARKING •

Parking should be placed outside building as we face a height restriction.

LEVELS •

Can be exploited to provide Security Solution.

Can be used to separate intertwined functions and place them in adjacency.

PROGRAMMATIC FUNCTIONS •

Conference facilities is a big function that could be housed in a Separate Block.

Museum Component could go underground as doesn’t need natural lighting throghout.

Knowledge Center could be on the way to Library,

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Photo 15 View of the Assembly Building from inside the Tower of Shadows. (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

Chapter 6: Technology “The truthfulness of materials of constructions, concrete, bricks and stone, shall be maintained in all buildings constructed or to be constructed. The seed of Chandigarh is well sown. It is for the citizens to see that the tree flourishes. LE CORBUSIER “The Edict of Chandigarh,” 1959


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Services

6.1 6.1.1. HVAC

HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Airconditioning Air-conditioning is a function of which primary objective is to maintain desired conditions within a space those are conducive to human comfort or required by a product or process. In this process both temperature and humidity are to be maintained. Both temperature and humidity vary with the type of applications required. For example, desired temperature and humidity requirement for a hospital building will be different from an office building or a manufacturing facility center. (Gary D. Beckfeld, 2012) CHOSEN HVAC TREATMENT: Variable Refrigerant Flow/Volume System (VRF/VRV) Variable refrigerant flow is an HVAC technology invented in Japan by Daikin company in 1982. Like ductless mini splits, VRFs use refrigerant as the cooling and heating medium. This refrigerant is conditioned by a single outdoor condensing unit, and is circulated within the building to multiple fan-coil units (FCUs). By operating at varying speeds, VRF units work only at the needed rate allowing for substantial energy savings at partial-load conditions.

Figure 70 Components of a VRF Colling System. (Source: buildingenergy.cx-associates.com)

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6.1.2. PLUMBING

Figure 71 Water Supply Diagram (Source: Slideshare.net)

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS 1. In a low rise building where the number of floors is 3-4 floors. Water has enough pressure that it can rise to the height of individual units and pressurised water can come out of the taps. This pressure depends on the distance from local water tower or local pumping station. 2. In a high rise building there are 2 different options adopted. in one of them, there is a water motor installed at a building level which pumps the water to every floor. 3. In other one, there is a receiving tank on the ground floor which supply water to the water pump which pushes the water to an over head tank. This tank is installed individually. From these individual tanks water is supplied to that particular unit. 4. In case of a building which is designed for fire safety, there is a fire tank installed from which wet rises and sprinklers are attached. Water comes to this fire tank first and the surplus water in transferred to the supply overhead tank. Fire tank should be filled all the time with fresh water.

DRAINAGE SYSTEM: MODIFIED SINGLE STACK SYSTEM • Close grouping of the sanitary appliances  install the branch waste and soil pipes without the need for individual branch ventilating pipes. • To prevent the loss of trap water seals •  WC branch pipe min. 100 mm bore and the angle θ = 90.5° to 95°. • To prevent the loss of trap water seals •  basin main waste pipe min. 50 mm bore and the angle θ = 91° to 92.5°. • Five basins or more / length of the main waste pipe exceeds 4.5 m  a 25 mm bore vent pipe connected to main waste pipe at a point between the two basins farthest from the stack.

Figure 72 Modified SIngle Stack System (Source: Slideshare.net)


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MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

Structure Figure 73 Column Grid used in the Design (Source: Author)

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6.3

Sustainability

Figure 74 Orientation #1 is worst, #3 is good, and #2 is best. (Source: Author)

6.3.1. BUILT FORM & ORIENTATION The use of natural lighting in a building is one of the most important elements as the sun is an endless source of light energy to us and should be utilised properly. This can be done by • Natural light from the north and south is preferred as the sun is vertical when it is in the south and there is no direct sun from the north.

Figure 12 Orientation #1 is worst for daylighting, #3 is good, and #2 is best.

• Form of the building should be broken to allow max day light throughout the form also any areas deeper than about 7.5m in the building do not allow natural light from the windows to reach.

A common rule of thumb states that the window to wall ratio should be 40% or lower for adequate insulation in cold climates, though more advanced windows with higher Rvalues (lower U-values) allow higher ratios. In warm climates, higher ratios can be acceptable even without well-insulated windows, as long as the windows are well shaded from the sun's Figure 76 Window to wall Ratios (Source: greenbuildingstrategies.com) heat. Skylights and light wells can be used to increase the day lighting factor in building areas, which cannot be easily laminated with direct light.

Figure 75 Cutouts in building’s footprint for daylighting. (Source: greenbuildingstrategies.com) There must be climate responsive window to wall area ratio that must be considered while designing fenestrations in the buildings. Figure 13 Cutouts in a building's footprint can provide good daylighting

Figure 77 Skylighting Strategies (Source: greenbuildingstrategies.com)


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6.3.1 Facade

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6.4

Terrace Garden

Figure 78 Terrace Garden Layers (Source: greenterraces.com)


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Inferences SERVICES •

Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system is used for HVAC.

Modified Single Stack system is used for Drainage.

MINIMISE SOLAR HEAT HAIN •

Buildings oriented towards along NW-SE direction.

Facade elements ensure light comes in only from North or East.

Terrace Garden minimises heat gain through the roof.

STRUCTURE & MASS •

Prestressed Concrete Beams of span 13 m c/c used with beam depth calculated by thumb rule s/21 to s/18.

Thick Building Mass needs Atrium/ Light shaft so that light goes till center of the Building in all floors.

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“Fatehpur Sikri, Golconda, and Mandu must have been foreign to their times, but are today woven flawlessly into the Indian fabric. Will that then also be the fate of Chandigarh?� (Prakash, 2002) - VIKRAMADITYA PRAKASH

Photo 16 Facade of the Secretatiat Building at Chandigarh (Source: Flickr.com)

Chapter 7: SWOT Analysis & Design Determinants


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SWOT Analysis

7.1. 7.1 SWOT Analysis

STRENGTH

WEAKNESS

- Architecturally relevant Context - Le Corbusier's Capitol Complex in Chandigarh, India

- No strict Program to adhere to whilst designing building.

- Strong Visual Language & Bold Forms can be designed

- The Function / Purpose of the Building is to be derived from studying what the city of Chandigarh needs today.

- The Location of the Building ensures that the building will receive the desired footfall.

- Design has to contigous with the Modernistic tradition limiting the scope for Experimentation

SWOT THREAT - Security Concerns - The Capitol Complex serves various democratic buildings and its security must not be compromised. - Architectural Disjunction between the existing language reinforced in every building and monument and new design can occur if desing is not done in a sensitive manner

OPPORTUNITY - Rejuvenate the dead space in Sector - 1, Chandigarh around the Capitol Complex. - Intensify the democratic principles of the Capitol complex by incorporating the civil society inside the MoK. - Contemplating the importance of Le Corbusier's version of modern architecture in present time.


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7.2.

Design Determinants


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Inferences FLEXIBILITY •

Open, flexible spaces that flow are required especially in Library.

Multipurpose spaces are needed for different type of events.

FUNCTIONS ON GROUND FLOOR •

Each bulding function should have a clear relationship from the Ground floor.

Library Book Collection Facility should be on Ground Floor,

REFERENCE DESKS •

Each floor needs reference desk because the building is a multi - use building.

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Photo 17 Lunch time at High Court Terrace (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

Chapter 8: Design Development There was anxiety and anguish in taking decisions on that vast, limitless ground. A pathetic soliloquy! I had to appreciate and to decide alone. The problem was no longer one of reasoning but of sensation.... No potter’s clay in your hands to experiment with. No Marquette that could ever have served as a genuine aid to a decision. It was a tension, mathematical in nature, which would bear fruit only when the buildings were completed. The right point. The right distance. Appreciation. Groping, we brought the masts closer to one another. It was a battle of space fought within the mind. (Prakash, 2002) -Le Corbusier


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THESIS 2017

Form Development

Figure 79 Form 1 & 2 (Source: Author)

104

FORM 1:

FORM 2:

• • • •

• • • •

Funnel of Knowledge Bulky in Massing 1 Block Typology Courtyard in Middle

Infinity Loop of Knowledge Massing block becomes thinner. 2 Blocks on Ground that transform to one block 2 Courtyards in two blocks formed.


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FORM 3: FINAL Levels of Knowledge • Massing changes on every floor to create shaded courts on the floors below. • 2 Block Typology has fully manifested in this form with Conference Facilities contained in one block and other functions of the Knowledge Center and Museum in One Block. • Library is on the Uppermost floor of both Blocks. • Courtyards have given way to shaded courts.

Figure 81 Programmatic Zoning (Source: Author)

Figure 80 The Final Form (Source: Author)


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Inferences SPLIT LEVEL DESIGN •

Two block typology is achieved on a split level.

Connecting ramps are externally visible highlghting circulation.

COURTS AS OPEN SPACES •

Upper court acts as the entrance court.

Lower court terraces centered around the food component.

MASSING •

Staggered Massing is achieved by lifting the block by one grid on each floor achieving a part pilotis.

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Chandigarh is not a city of lords, princes or kings confined within walls, crowded in by neighbors. It was a matter of occupying a plain. The geometrical event was, in truth, a sculpture of the intellect. (Prakash, 2002)

Secretariat Terrace (Source: The Architectural Review)

LE CORBUSIER

Photo 18 View of the Capitol Complex from

Figure 7 Archicomic about the Geometry in the layout of the Capitol Complex. (Source: Chandigarh Urban Lab)

Chapter 9: Design Drawings


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Context Plan

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9.2

Site Plan


110

9.3

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Ground Floor Plan

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9.4

Basement Plan


112

9.5

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First & Second Floor Plan

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9.4

Third & Terrace Floor Plan


114

9.5

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Sections

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9.6

Elevation & 3D


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9.7.

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Model Photographs

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Detail Model

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Conclusion Q & A WITH S.K. DAS (SKD) & ASHOK B. LALL (ABL)

The primary objective of the MoK project was fulfilled by the design by providing a

building

which

can

become

a

comprehensive cultural resource of the highest standard and latest technology. The design effectively solves the security problem by allowing people to become a part of the Capitol Complex once again without posing a danger to the high-security needs of the Goverment buildings around it. The building thus, promotes an environment to facilitate research and exchange knowledge.

JURY Comments 9.8


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Q

ABL: For me, the relationship of

The approach that I took was

Efforts were made so that the

the buildings could have been

similar by going for a subdued

visual connection between the

played with. Somehow the de-

design that sits in awe of its

two coursts can be established

sign lacks a gesture that like

monumental context. I think

by providing large openings in

Corbusian buildings possess.

the issue here is that people

the shear wall supporting the

Thats an area where I would ex-

do not or cannot come here to

ramp that connects the upper

pect you to work further. Spa-

experience this place. Thus, the

block and the lower block. The

tial Modernity. Also in the Roof

whole solution was designed

ramp does not coonect from

Garden design you seem to

to provide acces of people to

the ground floor of the upper

have led the people there but it

the Capitol complex without

block to the first floor of the

lacks a roof design feature that

endangering the functions that

lower block to ensure clear

gives it a language. Talking to

the complex already sustains.

passage to the lower court from

the other buildings, the scale of the Governor’s Palace was quite high, so how do you reach out

Q

to the other buildings?

the entrance court.

SKD: I do not like the divider

And

between the two courts. The Pilotis

idea

that

you

A

In his book, Chandigarh’s Le Corbusier:

The

Struggle

Prakash

was shaping up to be the grand masterpiece

of

the

Capitol

without

free

the

sloped

encountering

any

physical barriers.

courts.

posits

that since the Assembly building

physical

from one court to the other

movement between the two

for

Modernity in Postcolonial India, Vikramaditya

ensured

the

landscaping leads you directly

off the ground in succession have

for

connection

have

incorporated by lifting the block should

as

A

I completely agree with you. This was an active concern during

the

design

that

the

COmplex, the design of the MoK

relationship of the two courts

became subdued compared to

doesn’t

the Governor’s Palace.

because of the level difference

become

between the two.

disjuncted

!

ABL: Well, it was good take on a complex problem. All the best for the future!


126

MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

a. Appendix

THESIS 2017


THESIS 2017

127


128

MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: COMPLETING THE CAPITOL

THESIS 2017

b. Bibliography • BARNES, T. & DUNCAN, J. (1992) Writing Worlds: Discourse, Text, and Metaphor in the Representation of Landscape. New York: Routledge. • BLACK, G., (2005), The engaging museum: developing museums for visitor involvement. London: Routledge. • CORNISH, D. (2013). Once upon a museum: Fiona Romeo on exhibition curation. Wired.co.uk. Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-02/22/ storytelling-in-museums • CORREA, C. (1987) “Chandigarh: The View from Banares’.’ In Le Corbusier, ed. Allen H. Brooks, pp. 197-202. Princeton: Princeton University Press, • CURTIS, W. (1986) The Symbolism of Chandigarh in Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms. New York: Rizzoli. • DUNCAN, C., (1995), Civilizing rituals. Inside public art museums. London: Routledge. • DUNCAN, C., and WALLACH, A., (1980), The Universal Survey Museum. Art History December, 3 (4), p.451. • FORREST, R. (2014) Exhibition Narrative: The Spatial Parameters. In Exhibitionist, Spring 2014. pp. 28–32 • GORLIN, A. (1980) Oppositions: An Analysis of the Governor’s Palace of Chandigarh • HEIN, G.E., (1998), Learning in the museum. New York: Routlegde. • HEIN, G.E., (2006), Museum education. In: Sh. Macdonald, ed. A companion to Museum Studies. Maiden; London: Blackwell Publishing, pp.340-352.

• HENDERSON, G. E. (2010) “Consumed with (and by) Collecting: Museology as a Narrative Strategy,” disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory: Vol. 19, Article 3. • HILLIER, B. and TZORTZI, K., (2006), Space Syntax: The Language of Museum Space. In: Sh. Macdonald, ed. A companion to Museum Studies. Maiden; London: Blackwell Publishing, pp.282-301. • JACOB, J (1962) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. • JEANNERET-GRIS, C. E. (1965) Open Hand and the Pit of Contemplation. In Chandigarh, the new capital of East Punjab. Chandigarh. • KALIA, R. (1987) Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City. Delhi: Oxford University Press. • LE CORBUSIER. (1957) Oeuvre Complete 1952-1957, ed. W. Boesiger. Zurich: Girsberger, p. 102. • LEGRADY, G. (2005) “Making Visible the Invisible: Seattle Library Data Flow Visualization.” Presented at International Cultural Heritage Meeting 2005. • MOSER, S. (2010) The Devil Is in The Detail: Museum Displays and the Creation of Knowledge. In Museum Anthropology, Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp. 22–32 • MUMFORD, L. (1962) Yesterday’s City of Tomorrow. In: The Lewis Mumford Reader. New York: Pantheon Books. • NOORDEGRAAF, J., (2004), Strategies of Display. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers.


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• • •

• • • • •

PRAKASH, V. (2002) Chandigarh’s Le Corbusier: The Struggle for Modernity in Postcolonial India. Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd. RYBCZNSKI, W. (1998) Time magazine – U. S. Edition, June 8, 1998, Vol. 151 No. 22. SANDHU, K. (2015) What Le Corbusier wanted — and didn’t get in The Indian Express. August 10, 2015 http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chandigarh/what-lecorbusier-wanted-and-didnt-get/ SENNOTT, S, ed. (Jan 1, 2004). Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture. Taylor & Francis. p. 366. STENGLIN, M. K. (2009). Space odyssey: towards a social semiotic model of three-dimensional space. Visual Communication, 8 (1), 35–64. TZORTZI, K. (2007) Museum Building Design & Exhibition Layout: Patterns of Interaction. In Proceedings, 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul TZORTZI, K. (2011) Space: Interconnecting Museology and Architecture. In Journal of Space Syntax, Vol. 2 Issue 1, pp. 26-53 WITCOMB, A., (2003), Re-imaging the Museum: Beyond the Mausoleum. London; New York: Routledge

• • • •

Chandigarh Master Plan – 2031 3. MASTER PLAN AREA 2631 Chandigarh Master Plan – 2031 16. DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS AND REGULATIONS 407- 462 Chandigarh Master Plan – 2031 - 13. LAND USE 324- 344 Chandigarh Master Plan – 2031 - 19. CHANDIGARHS HERITAGE 482- 500


THESIS - 17

AUTHOR - RAMYA KHARE A/2440/2012 FINAL YEAR STUDENT BACHELOR OF ARCHITECURE SCHOOL OF PLANNING & ARCHITECTURE RAMYA.KHARE@GMAIL.COM

Museum of Knowledge, Chandigarh - Architectural Thesis  

Museum of Knowledge (MoK) or the Musee de la connaissance is an unrealized project, proposed by Le Corbusier in his place of ideation, the C...

Museum of Knowledge, Chandigarh - Architectural Thesis  

Museum of Knowledge (MoK) or the Musee de la connaissance is an unrealized project, proposed by Le Corbusier in his place of ideation, the C...

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