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Nagaland Biodiversity & Conservation Programme A n A c t i o n Document

M.Sc. Wildlife Biology and Conservation, Wildlife Conservation Society-India Program, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore Department of Forests, Ecology, Environment And Wildlife, Nagaland

Bikram Grewal

Ramki Sreenivasan

Bano Haralu


CONTENTS Executive Summary Saramati and Pungro Fakim Shatuza Khonoma Dzulekie Benreu Intanki Singphan Mokokchung Herpetofauna Amphibians Butterflies Birds Camera Traps

4 12 16 20 24 30 35 40 45 49 50 74 92 96 113

Acknowledgements Dr. Ajith Kumar Course Director, Post-Graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, Wildlife Conservation Society-India, National Centre for Biological Sciences Dr. A Pittet The Centre for Electronics Design and Technology (CEDT), IISc, Bangalore Mr. Abeio Kire IFS Special Secy to CM. Former Commissioner and Secretary Forests Mr. K.S Shashidhar IFS Addl Principal Chief Conservator of Forests Mr. Zhotoho Forests Warden i/c Kiphire Mr. Ramridinbo Kaurinta Range Officer i/c Intanki National Park Mr. Kiusang Yimchunger Range Officer i/c Kiphire Mr. Chuba Forester 1 Singphan WLS Mr. Tsilie Sakhrie Khonoma Dr. Sapu Changkija Medziphema Agricultural University Mr. Itachu Parliamentary Secretary Tourism for arrangements in Shatazu, Phek District. 3


Nagaland Wildlife Conservation

Phase I – Rapid Biodiversity Survey Executive Summary Background Nagaland is a mountainous state located in the north-eastern part of India with a geographical area of 16,527 sq. km of which ~ 30% is under forest cover. Falling in the Indo-Malayan Region it is also part of a global biodiversity ‘hot-spot’ and the Eastern Himalayan endemic bird area, indicative of the region’s rich biological wealth. The remarkable floral and faunal diversity of the area could be attributed to the wide range in climatic conditions, elevation gradients and vegetation types that are characteristic of the state. Four recent field visits in 2010 to various parts of Nagaland (Khonoma, Benreu, Intanki, Pungro, Fakim, Mon and Mokokchung) by a team of wildlife enthusiasts resulted in significant wildlife sightings but also found immense and shocking conservation challenges owing to rampant hunting (both for commercial and subsistence purposes) and forest clearing (largely due to jhum or shifting cultivation practice and potentially illegal timber operations). A detailed report was submitted to the Government of Nagaland by the team in mid 2010. Despite the grim findings the team believed that Nagaland has a fantastic opportunity to protect its unique wildlife as part of its overall heritage. Thus based on the findings of these preliminary field visits and detailed discussions with senior officials of Department of Forests, Ecology, Environment and Wildlife, Nagaland, it was proposed that an immediate conservation program is considered by the government, the primary goals of which would include: • Phase 1 (concluded) – a scientific survey to assess the current status of biodiversity and extent of biotic pressures that may influence the same across the state and identify biodiversity rich sites that would be prioritised for conservation programs 4


Nagaland Wildlife Conservation

Green-colored Pit Viper Trimeresurus cf popeorum

The team at work

• Phase 2 – Pilot the execution of conservation programs (including conservation education and eco-clubs) in a critical area identified in phase 1 to get the ‘model’ right as well as implementing existing best practices. • Phase 3 – Based on learnings from phase 2, roll-out a state-wide five-year plan for the entire state. This memo summarizes phase 1, with specific recommendations based on site-wise findings and strongly recommends moving into phase 2. Results of the biodiversity survey The following areas were surveyed by a team of 11 scientists. The locations were Saramati and Pungro, Fakim, Shatuza, Khonoma, Dzulekie, Benreu, Intanki, Singphan and Mokokchung.

Recommendations A. Threat reduction Overall, the survey confirmed the urgent need for initiating conservation programs across the state especially in the key biodiversity rich areas. As the site-specific reports would suggest, though significant biodiversity exists in Nagaland, they are under tremendous pressure from diverse and intense conservation threats. 1. Hunting: the current merciless, uncontrolled, rampant, widespread and all-year round hunting at most places visited of all life-forms will in all probability wipe out wildlife in Nagaland in a few years. The team jointly feels that the situation is the worst amongst all North-east Indian states. Hunting of some species is a jailable crime in India. In Nagaland, it is pursued by one and all for domestic, local and commercial reasons. There seems to be an insatiable appetite for bushmeat. Nothing is spared and nowhere. Intanki, a national park, abounds with hunting camps. Only snakes are not consumed – though they are promptly killed on sight. One migrant raptor – the Amur Falcon – is massacred for a few rupees each in Northern Nagaland in winter. Blyth’s Tragopans are captured by villages (in E Nagaland). Pastors send hunting parties for bushmeat. Real hornbill casques and feathers are sold at the Hornbill Festival.

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Nagaland Wildlife Conservation

Nature lessons

Dead birds for sale

Strict regulations on firearms should be imposed to ensure that ammunition for guns is not easily available. Similarly, in order to discourage people from making ammunition at home, awareness campaigns should be conducted discussing the un-lawfulness of the activity and the potential punishment for such crime. Also, the process of firearm license procurement should be made more rigid and fewer licenses given out in each village. An immediate and widespread effort should be launched by the government (not just forest department) to create awareness towards stopping hunting. 2. Conservation Awareness: an awareness of protected area notifications and boundaries and what that means legally should be initiated around PAs. Violations in PA should be immediately controlled (like mining in Singphan, encroachment and hunting in Intanki) It is also vital to enlighten the forest department staff about the forest ecosystem and develop an anti-hunting sentiment, since only then can they be expected to protect the forest. Most villagers adjoining PAs were unsure of the legal status of the wildlife sanctuary and its boundaries as well as potential violations. Also, since the bulk of Nagaland’s forests fall in community owned areas, there should be a widespread conservation awareness initiative for various stakeholder groups in churches, schools, markets and villages. 3. Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centres. Across sites, the teams found wild animals kept by villagers – some as pets, others for eventual consumption. These included rare mammals like Leopard Cats, Slow Loris and Stump-tailed Macaques as well as several bird species. While the team physically didn’t observe any, keeping tragopans as pets seemed to be a widespread hobby. To manage this, wildlife rescue and rehabilitation centres needs to be established in key sites area for wild animals, with modern facilities and experienced veterinarians to deal with rescued, orphaned or injured animals which can eventually be released back into the wild when considered fit to survive without human aide. Village communities need to be educated that keeping wild animals in captivity as pets is illegal. 6


Nagaland Wildlife Conservation

Timber logging

Wildlife training

Coppised trees

Jhum

4. Jhum: Entire landscapes across the state are scarred by jhum fields. While most of these fields are on the periphery of protected areas, encroachment into the sanctuary is likely with passage of time unless Forest Department personnel begin to monitor the area regularly. The area under jhum cultivation is estimated to be over 90,000 hectares. The jhumming cycles are now down to under five years. This has resulted in acute water problems as well as huge landslips further eroding forest cover. This is one of Nagaland’s major problems and unless it is reduced, this practise will have catastrophic results. Original jhum cultivation had a long cycle of about 20-25 years, which was allowed to elapse before the same plot of land was cultivated again. In this process, the forest cover remained relatively intact. But the increase in population demanded more cultivable land, thus shortening the period to about four-five years. This has greatly effected the vegetation of the area, as well as the total environment. 5. Human Activity and Encroachment: Conflicts over water resources appear to be a major source of direct conflict. The most common environmental elements around which conflicts can erupt are water flow, diversion, salinization, floods and pollution. Deforestation, due to human encroachment, results in acute water shortage and in some places the inhabitants often have to trek for miles to obtain potable water. 6. Logging / Timber Extraction: The recent escalation in the price of timber at Kohima and Dimapur to an all time high of Rs 500/- for cubic foot has only accelerated the demand for illegal timber. A recent newspaper report estimated that 7


Nagaland Wildlife Conservation

approx 3,92,000 metric tonnes of timber is removed from Nagaland every year. This despite the Hon. Supreme Court of India having issued directives to stop all illegal logging activities, as this activity inflicts permanent environmental damage to the country. B. Continued Biodiversity & Threat Assessment Studies The biodiversity survey carried out in May and June 2011 is at best a rapid dipstick. We propose more systemic and ongoing attempts to map Nagaland’s biodiversity engaging local resources that we identified across sites. This should include: 1) Intensive camera trapping for mammals in winter. Rains were an impediment for the teams in May-June 2011. 2) Butterflies and botanical survey (across seasons) is essential to assess the importance and success of initiatives by the communities. 3) A quantitative assessment of threats – hunting’s impact on species loss, loss of forest cover through jhum and logging, roads, etc. Satellite imagery data would be very valuable for such ongoing threat assessments. 4) Assessment of dependence on forest produce for livelihood purposes by local communities C. Local Engagement One heartening sign during the survey across sites was the availability of good local youth resources (most of them unemployed) to help the scientific team. These resources have abundant field and bush skills and a great understanding of the local terrain. They can be vital for ongoing biodiversity surveys as well as proposed conservation programs. We strongly recommend using them for future surveys and conservation programs. D. Alternate means of livelihood opportunities must be developed through initiatives such as local self-help groups, establishment of piggeries, poultry farms and fisheries (the scale of which should be strictly regulated and monitored). Workshops by the state animal husbandry department could be conducted to make people aware of such opportunities. Orchards and vegetable gardens in the region could also generate employment opportunities and provide income. This would be an attempt to reduce pressures on wild resources.

Large Indian Civet

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Nagaland Wildlife Conservation

E. Conservation Program As originally discussed in the master proposal, the team recommends moving into Phase 2 of the program (detailed below).

Phase 2 Based on our current research on best practices on conservation programs, we will pilot a program in one area shortlisted from the survey results. The program will attempt to merge various conservation initiatives and arrive at a Current Best Approach (CBA) based on three specific efforts undertaken in the past in Nagaland: 1. Conservation Education Program and creation of Eco-camps (pioneered by the NGO North-east Network NEN) Initiating conservation education through teacher training workshops with custom designed education material “Under the Canopy” that helps: 1. Reconnect children with nature. 2. Channel energies from hunting to curiosity. 3. Exposure to alternative career options. The interactive program uses 1. Arts & crafts. 2. Using the senses. 3. Game oriented. 4. Practical experiences like herbariums. 5. Activity based learning. 6. Drama & debate. 7. Mapping. Based on an ongoing conservation program in Chizami (Phek district) the “Under the canopy” program had the following outcome: 1. Shift in focus and a change in perception were seen in people in 3 days. 2. Realization that their forests and animals were in trouble and that they had the power to do something to reverse the damage done. 3. Desire to eat wild meat reduced. 4. Parts of the forest declared protected. 5. Field visits to wildlife sanctuaries (like Kaziranga) initiated. Pictures 1 & 2 below show parts of the ‘Under the Canopy’ material used in teacher workshops.

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Nagaland Wildlife Conservation

2. Creation of Community Conservation Areas (CCAs) pioneered in Saramati by the Late Dr. Ravi Sankaran of SACON, Coimbatore. Pictures 3 & 4 show the broad level CCA creation process as well as an instance of CCA resolution by villages in Saramati.

CCA Project Implementation Steps to Sustain the Community Conservation Effort: 1. Capacity Building 2. Advocacy 3. Secondary Data Collection (especially recording IEK) 4. Formulation of CCAs Support Impact of the Saramati Project 1. Many formal resolutions (as many as 25) Proposing for new, larger CCAs 2. Christian Missionary (Association) banned serving wild animals in the feasts at churches 3. Several student unions of Nagaland banned hunting & selling of wild animals 4. Press reports on the project (environment related) Activity- ~25 3. Stopping hunting in Khonoma by village elders Khonoma is the first village in Nagaland to ban logging and hunting in their community forest in 1996. Both these initiatives have lead to regeneration of the natural resources including the setting up of the Khonoma Nature Conservation and Tragopan Sanctuary. For this the community leadership has received applause from individuals, organizations and government. They have clubbed the efforts of conservation with rich culture and history of Khonoma, to initiate community driven eco-tourism programme. Even, in this Khonoma leads, by being the first village in Nagaland to be awarded the Green Village project. The objectives of this initiative are stated below: 1. Conservation of natural resource and wildlife in the community owned village forest land, to ensure secure future for coming generations 2. Banking on the rich natural, cultural and historical traditions to develop an alternative livelihood source in form of eco-tourism to bring developmental benefits to the village 3. Approach to conservation and eco-tourism are guided by the perspective of sustainable development, i.e. one that ensures environmental, economic and cultural sustainability. 10


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Saramati and Pungro

Location:

Saramati / Pungro Team visited:

GPS Coordinates:

Saramati: 25°44’23.34”N, 95° 2’13.98”E Pungro: 25°48’47.68”N 94°50’42.63”E

District:

Tuensang / Kiphire

Dates visited: 10th – 16th May

Shashank Dalvi, Vishnupriya S., Aamod Zambre, Anup BP and Tsutenmew

Introduction 1. Saramati Community Forest This is a large stretch of forest that is contiguous with Fakim wildlife sanctuary. The last village in this area, Thanamir owns this forest patch. The region is under great stress from many anthropogenic factors such as large scale jhum (up to 2400 m in elevation), intense hunting for bush-meat and regular collection of firewood. The greatest market demand for animal parts both from Fakim and Saramati come from Myanmar. It is imperative that this community forest be declared a CCA for future conservation. 2. Pungro Town and surrounding habitat This place although very much degraded, the habitat (grassy slopes with mid elevational conifer forest) around Pungro is home to four distinct species of laughingthrushes namely Moustached Laughingthrush (near endemic to Indian Sub-continent), Yellow-throated Laughingthrush (near endemic to Indian Sub-continent), Spot-breasted Laughingthrush, and White-browed Laughingthrush. This habitat is currently under pressure due to massive logging of conifer trees. It is important to protect this habitat from logging without further delay.

Team members with local villagers

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Saramati and Pungro

3. The team proposes further biodiversity monitoring work: • Extensive camera trapping during winter. • Urgent attention is needed to find out more about status of Leaf Deer and conservation of the species in Nagaland. Intense camera trapping along the eastern border of Nagaland will add more knowledge of the distribution of the species in Nagaland. • Extensive snake and amphibian survey during monsoon • Regular monitoring and further study of birds like laughingthrushes (ones from Saramati as well as Pungro).

Capped Langur being cooked

Moustached Calotes

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Saramati and Pungro

Biodiversity Findings • L  eaf Deer or Putao Muntjac (Muntiacus putaoensis): First confirmed record for the state. Further confirmation regarding the presence of Leaf Deer are currently under progress in the NCBS lab. • P  ungro is home to four distinct species of laughingthrushes poorly known in India namely Moustached Laughingthrush (near endemic to Indian Sub-continent), Yellow-throated Laughingthrush (near endemic to Indian Sub-continent), Spotbreasted Laughingthrush, and White-browed Laughingthrush. • Black-faced Laughingthrush (Garrulax affinis): New sub-species for India. • Scaly Laughingthrush (Garrulax subunicolor): New sub-species for India. • Brown Bush-warbler (Bradypterus luteoventris): First breeding elevation range for India. • S potted Slug Snake (Pareas macularius): First colour images of a snake from India, also recorded after a long time.

Women collecting wood

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Leaf Deer

The discovery of Leaf Deer Muntiacus putaoensis (through skulls and skin are being corroborated by genetic testing) is one of the most significant findings of the survey and this will enhance the deer’s geographical range by 1.5 times. During the survey we obtained evidence (skulls and skin) of six Leaf Deer – two from Thanamir at the base of the Saramati mountain Villager with Leaf Deer skull and four from Vonstuvon. Interviews with villagers seem to indicate that Leaf Deer is becoming increasingly difficult to find in the last few years – though they still hunt the animal. Adult males as well as females show wounds on one or both ears (we observed this in Thanamir specimens), which indicate both males as well as females possibly defend territories. Urgent attention is needed to find out more about status of Leaf Deer and conservation of the species in Nagaland. Intensive camera trapping along the eastern border of Nagaland will add more knowledge of the distribution of the species in Nagaland. Background The Leaf Muntjac, Leaf Deer or Putao Muntjac (Muntiacus putaoensis) is a small species of muntjac. It was discovered in 1997 by eminent wildlife biologist Alan Rabinowitz then with the New York-based Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) during his field study in the isolated Naungmung Township in Myanmar. Hunters knew of the species and called it the Leaf Deer because its body could be completely wrapped by a single large leaf. Anticipating its existence in neighbouring Jairampur Forest Division of Changlang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, a team led by Aparajita Datta of the Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF) confirmed the presence of Leaf Deer during field surveys conducted in 2002 (Datta et al 2003). This is amongst the smallest known species of muntjacs (mean adult body mass 12 kg), at half the size of the Indian muntjac M. muntjak (22–29 kg). So far, the Indian Muntjac is the only muntjac species known to occur in the Indian subcontinent. Reference: Datta A, Pansa J, Madhusudan MD, Mishra C (2003) Discovery of the Leaf Deer Muntiacus putaoensis in Arunachal Pradesh: an addition to the large mammals of India. Curr Sci 84:101–102 Rabinowitz AR, Myint T, Khaing ST, Rabinowitz S (1999) Description of the leaf deer (Muntiacus putaoensis), a new species of muntjac from northern Myanmar. J Zool 249:427–435

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Fakim

Location:

Team visited:

Shashank Dalvi, Anup BP, Priya Singh, Nisarg Prakash and Tsutenmew

Dates visited:

24th May – 5th June

Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary

GPS Coordinates:

25°49’6.78”N, 94°58’28.44”E

District:

Kiphire

Introduction • • • •

One of Nagaland’s wildlife sanctuaries. In March 1980, the State Government bought 64 acres of land from Fakim village Total area of 642 hectares High elevation zone (surveyed area between 2000-2400 m) with valleys and ridges along Indo-Myanmar border • Habitat – Evergreen forest

Recommendations 1. Immediate ban on hunting needs to be implemented within the Protected Area. Fakim will definitely bounce back if it is made a “no-hunting” area with definite commitment from the villagers. 2. Forest department needs to establish its presence within the Sanctuary to control hunting. This can be done by deploying personnel at the neighbouring villages of Fakim and Vongtsuvong along with a field-station within the Protected Area.

Skulls from a hunter’s bounty, a common sight.

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Fakim

3. Large scale conservation awareness regarding the existence of the Protected Area, its geographical boundaries and its significance needs to be created. Simultaneously, the local communities need to be acquainted with the existence of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and be informed that hunting is illegal. The importance of biodiversity conservation also needs to be established. Village elders, pastors, doctors, teachers and youth organisation members should be motivated into propagating conservation awareness in the region. 4. Employment opportunities need to be created in the region to reduce the dependence of local communities on hunting and timber extraction. This can be done by generating alternate employment opportunities through creation of selfhelp groups and promoting eco-tourism in the area. However, in the latter case, a threshold should be determined for the number of tourists visiting the area each season of the year to prevent negative impacts of tourist activities. 5. The region hosts a high diversity of flora and requires an immediate floral assessment. 6. Intensive biodiversity survey with high camera-trapping effort is required in the area to monitor its mammalian fauna. However, this exercise needs to be conducted in dry season.

Threats 1. Hunting: Even though there is no logging pressure inside the PA there is immense hunting pressure (for large mammals) from at least 2 villages -- Fakim and Vongtsuvong). The area has no closed season with high hunting pressure throughout the year. Species such as Barking Deer, Wild Pig and non-human primates are most frequently killed for subsistence purpose; while Asiatic Black Bear is commonly hunted for bile. Animal parts such as bear bile, furs and skins are occasionally sold to buyers from Myanmar and more frequently to traders in Dimapur. The most common mode of hunting is with 12-bore guns and home-made cartridges. However, trapping and snaring too is common. Almost every house visited in Vongtsuvong and Fakim villages (in the neighbourhood of the Wildlife Sanctuary) had many animal skulls displayed (maximum in one house being 155) including stuffed birds such as the Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus). Also, the greatest market demand for animal parts both from Fakim and Saramati come from Myanmar.

Wild Dogs or Dhole

Hill Partridge

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Fakim

2. Jhumming: The entire landscape around the protected area, around Vongtsuvong, Fakim, Thanamir and Penkim villages is scarred by jhum fields. While most of these fields are on the periphery of the protected area, encroachment into the sanctuary is likely with passage of time unless Forest Department personnel begin to monitor the area regularly. 3. Inadequate presence of the Forest Department: During the period of the survey, no forest department personnel were seen anywhere within the sanctuary or in the neighbouring villages. Similarly, no infrastructure of any kind suggests that protection measures are attempted within the sanctuary. Of the six nights spent by the research team within the sanctuary, gun-shots were heard on three nights and one day. 4. Lack of conservation awareness: All household heads spoken to in Vongtsuvong village (closest village to the sanctuary) were unsure of the legal status of the Wildlife Sanctuary and its boundaries. Similarly, all visitors to the area from Myanmar (they travel to Pungro to obtain daily requirements), had no idea of the legal status of the sanctuary and of prohibitions on hunting in India. 5. Lack of education and employment opportunities: The geographical location and mountainous terrain of the region makes it less conducive to developmental activities. Thus, most youth are school drop-outs and depend entirely on revenue earned out of jhum. Therefore, hunting of animals such as bear for its commercial value along with timber extraction becomes an important source of revenue.

Monocled Cobra road-kill

Rodent for the pot

Barking Deer

Hunter

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Fakim

Biodiversity Findings Absence of carnivore signs is slightly worrying but given more time and trap nights, a clearer picture would emerge.  Mammals 1. Direct: Dhole or Indian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) – An earlier birding group saw and photographed at least four individuals just outside Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary. Capped Langur, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta ), Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus), Malayan Giant Squirrel (Ratufa bicolour) 2. Tracks: Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak), unidentified species of small cat 3. Pellets: Barking Deer 4. Calls: Barking Deer, Rhesus Macaque, Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel 5. Camera trap: Barking Deer, unidentified rodent species 6. Skulls and skins: Barking Deer, Wild Pig (Sus scrofa), Serow sp (Naemorhedus sumatraensis rubidus), Rhesus Macaque, Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides), Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus), langur sp., Sambar (R. unicolor), porcupine sp., Red Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), unidentified large flying Squirrel sp. (Petaurista sp.), unidentified viverrids and mustelids 7. Freshly killed or in the process of being persecuted in front of us: Rhesus Macaque, Barking Deer, Red Giant Flying Squirrel Reptiles Bella Rat Snake Elaphe bella: First record for India

Bella Rat Snake Maculophis bella We stumbled upon this beautiful Bella Rat Snake Maculophis bella, formerly referred to as Elaphe leonardi close to Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary which turned out to be new species for India. This small snake (2½-3 feet, 80-90 cm) appears to be a montane species as it can be found at higher elevation like 15002000m. This species is known from northern Myanmar and western Yunnan province, China.

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Shatuza

Location:

Shatuza

GPS Coordinates:

25°40’42.71”N, 94°45’44.31”E

District:

Phek

Priya Singh, Dipti Humraskar, Swapna N., Team visited: Anaki Pfithu and Pelevisie Puzieu Dates visited: 6th – 14th June

Introduction 1. In December 2010, 13 villages of Phek district decided to impose a complete yearround ban on hunting in the Shatuya Forest, which is located in proximity to these villages. The area south of Shatuya Forest is separated from the southern forests and jhum fields by the Zhipu-Shatuza-Laruri road and has a seasonal ban on hunting (during non-breeding season) for six months of the year (April to September). 2. Total area: Unknown 3. Altitude ranges from approximately 1500 m to 2000 m 4. Habitat- Warm temperate forest type

Recommendations 1. A complete ban on hunting within the Shatuya Forest needs to be implemented along with strict penalty for violating closed-season laws in the area outside the precincts of the “no-hunting zone”. 2. Strict regulations should be imposed to ensure that ammunition for guns is not easily available. Similarly, in order to discourage people from making ammunition at home, awareness campaigns should be conducted discussing the un-lawfulness of the activity and the potential punishment for such crime. Also, the process of firearm license procurement should be made more rigid and fewer licenses given-out in each village.

Shatuza landscape

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Shatuza

3. While the importance of the Waziho cement plant and its ability to create employment opportunities for the region cannot be undermined. Eco-sensitive technology should be implemented to ensure that neither the road network nor the quarrying threatens the ecology of this area. 4. Regular wildlife monitoring with the help of local youth organisations and local NGOs should be conducted to collect base-line data on wildlife in the area. 5. Conservation education should be implemented in schools and religious heads such as pastors should be encouraged to discourage people from hunting. 6. The region holds tremendous potential for adventure, nature and cultural tourism. Thus, eco-tourism initiatives such as bird-watching, fresh-water fishing (catch and release) and hiking trails (using existing trails, refrain from clearing more vegetation or creating concrete trails or steps) may be introduced. However, adequate thought and expert advice must be sought on ways to ensure that such activities are ecofriendly and in sync with conservation objectivities. 7. Alternate means of livelihood opportunities must be developed through initiatives such as local self help groups, establishment of aviaries, piggeries, poultry farms and fisheries. Workshops by the state animal husbandry department could be conducted to make people aware of such opportunities. 8. Orchards and vegetable gardens in the region could also generate employment opportunities by providing income. 9. A rescue and rehabilitation centre needs to be established in the area for wild animals, with modern facilities and experienced veterinarians to deal with rescued, orphaned or injured animals which can eventually be released back into the wild when considered fit to survive without human aide. Leopard Cat

Spotted Linsang

Himalayan Palm Civet

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Shatuza

Campylotes histrionicus

Unidentified agamid

Threats 1. Hunting: Hunting is prevalent in the region despite a unanimous decision taken by the 13 villages around Shatuya Forest to impose a complete ban on hunting in the region. The research team heard gun-shots during the closed season while conducting the survey. It is thus imperative for the state government to support youth organisations trying to introduce the concepts of “no hunting zone” and “closedseason” in the region. 2. Timber extraction: Timber extraction started in this region post the construction of roads in mid 1990s. This has resulted in vast scale extraction of valuable timber, primarily, hoolong, from the forest, with most forested area present today comprising of secondary growth forest. It is thus imperative to impose a ban on any further timber extraction in the region. Some people residing in the area believe that deforestation in the region has not just affected local water supply but has also brought about a rapid change in climate with no snow-fall in the region for the whole of the last decade. 3. Lack of education and employment opportunities: Most youth in the area are school drop-outs with no employment opportunities. Jhumming, road construction activities and hunting seem to be the only livelihood options for most people. 4. Impacts of the cement factory: The only cement factory of Nagaland at Waziho has attracted a large network of newly constructed roads in this area. This along with the limestone quarrying in the region could adversely impact conservation initiatives in the region. 22


Shatuza

Biodiversity Findings Mammals 1. Direct: Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak), Large Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha), Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel, unidentified shrew and unidentified rodent species. 2. Tracks: Barking Deer and Wild Pig (Sus scrofa), small cat species and Asiatic Black Bear 3. Pellets: Barking Deer, Serow (Capricornis sp.) and Wild Pig 4. Calls: Barking Deer, Rhesus Macaque and Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel 5. Camera trap: Barking Deer, Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), Spotted Linsang (Prionodon pardicolor), Himalayan Palm Civet (Paguma larvata), Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel, unidentified shrew and unidentified rodent species 6. Skulls and skins: Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus), Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Sambar (Rusa unicolor), Barking Deer, Serow, Wild Pig, Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides), Rhesus Macaque, langur sp., porcupine sp. and other unidentified mustelids and viverrids. Leaf Deer? 7. In captivity: Leopard Cat kitten and unidentified mole species Fresh Asiatic Black Bear pugmarks

Mole captured to be consumed

Ground orchid

Shatuza children

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Khonoma

Location:

Khonoma

GPS Coordinates:

25°38’37.26”N, 94° 2’2.14”E

District:

Kohima

Team visited:

Dipti Humraskar, Viral Mistry, Swapna N., Moaakum Kichu, Pelevisie Puzieu and Rokohebi Kuotsu

Dates visited: 8th – 14th May

Introduction 1. Khonoma village council declared the village as a community protected area ten years ago. 2. The Khonoma Nature Conservation and Tragopan Sanctuary, an area of ~25 sq. km is also located in Khonoma. Hunting or collection of any forest produce from the sanctuary is strictly prohibited and violators are penalized to deter such activities. 3. The Khonoma Youth Organisation is an active body working towards conservation of wildlife and its monitoring in the entire Khonoma jurisdiction. 4. Total area 25 sq. km 5. Altitude ranging between ~1400 - 2000 m ASL (taking into account only the area surveyed) 6. Vegetation – Temperate to sub-alpine evergreen forest. There are several alder plantations around the village which act as the main source of firewood thus reducing dependence on wild trees.

Pareas macularis

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Khonoma

Recommendations 1. Given the initiative of the village council in imposing a ban on hunting and declaration of Khonoma as a community protected forest, it is essential to laud their effort and involve them in a long term monitoring and conservation project to sustain their interest and enthusiasm. 2. Awareness campaigns and an intensive training programme in basic wildlife survey and monitoring techniques for the youth will prove a vital tool for conservation and prevention of violations of the existing ban. 3. Mapping of the community protected area is essential to aide monitoring and conservation. 4. Compensation scheme: In order to prevent retaliatory killing and bounty hunting, a good and effective compensation scheme needs to be implemented. 5. Eco-tourism: Responsible eco-tourism for butterflies, birds as well as herpetofauna should be encouraged with the involvement of local people. 6. Central body: A central body (similar to the Angami Youth Organization) should be established constituting representative members from villages across the state who can organize meetings to discuss the wildlife issues in their respective villages and share their experiences.

Ferret Badger

Blue Pansy

Beetle

Orchid

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Khonoma

Skulls displayed in a house

Threats 1. Jhum - Proximally located jhum fields attract wild animals like porcupines and Barking Deer which could be targeted in retaliation to crop raiding. 2. Hunting: Several skulls and some skins were observed in the village suggesting the history of hunting from the village. Though the ban on hunting has been imposed, some people still violate the law and occasionally hunt wild animals. 3. Bounty hunting: Despite the ban, bounty hunting does exist in the village mainly targeted at wild dogs which often lift Mithun calves. 4. Road: A motorable road exists from Kohima up to Peren. However, due to poor condition of the road, there is a proposal for construction of a better and wider metal road. This will have a grave impact on the wildlife of the entire stretch allowing free movement of traffic which could lead to difficulty in monitoring and increase in instances of road kills.

Marbled Cat skin displayed outside a house in Khonoma

Yellow-bellied Weasel skin

26


Khonoma Biodiversity Findings Mammals 1. Direct: Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak (call), Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus, Himalayan Striped Squirrel sp., Orange-bellied Squirrel Dremomys lokriah and Mus spp. 2. Camera traps: Ferret-badger Melogale sp., weasel Mustela sp., Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel and unidentified rodents 3. Signs and tracks: Barking Deer, porcupine sp., Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus and small cat sp. 4. Skulls and skins: Serow sp. Capricornis sp (skull), Barking Deer (skull), Wild Pig Sus scrofa (skull), Stump-tailed Macaque Macaca arctoides (skull), Asiatic Black Bear (skull), large flying squirrel sp., Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata (skin) and Backstriped Weasel Mustela strigidorsa (skin).  eptiles R Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus), Green Rat Snake (Ptyas nigromarginata), Boulenger’s Striped Keelback (Amphiesma parallelum), Jerdon’s Calotes (Calotes jerdoni) and skink (Asymblepharus sp.) Spotted Slug Snake (Pareas macularius) from Khonoma: First colour images of the snake from India and first record for India in long time.  mphibians A Megophrys sp., Rhacophorus taroensis, Bufo sp., Raorchestes sp. and some unidentified frogs. 27


Khonoma

Birds

Flavescent Bulbul Pycnonotus flavescens

Black-throated Prinia Prinia atrogularis (ssp. khasiana)

Red-faced Liocichla Liocichla phoenicea (ssp. bakeri)

Brown-capped Laughingthrush Ianthocincla austeni

Rusty-capped Fulvetta Alcippe dubia

Spot-breasted Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus erythrocnemis

28


Khonoma

Mountain Bamboo Partridge Bambusicola fytchii

Lesser Shortwing Brachypteryx leucophrys

Cachar Wedge-billed Babbler Sphenocichla roberti

Naga Wren-Babbler Spelaeornis chocolatinus

Striped Laughingthrush Trochalopteron virgatum

29


Dzuleke

Location:

Dzulekie

GPS Coordinates:

25°37’13.48”N, 93°57’23.11”E

District:

Kohima

Team visited:

Dipti Humraskar, Viral Mistry, Swapna N., Pele, Roko, Vimezolie Terhuja, Vizokholie Meyase and Moaakum

Dates visited: 20th – 28th May

Introduction 1. A part of the forest has been declared as a Community Protected Area with a ban imposed on all kinds of extraction, namely hunting, logging, burning and collection of forest produce for over ten years since the year 2000 by the village community with strict penalties to deter people. Hunting in the protected area is permitted for ten days in a year during December; however, this period was further curbed last year and at present hunting is permitted only for two days during the New Year’s Eve. 2. Total area unknown 3. Altitude ranging between ~1700 – 2400 m ASL (taking into account only the area surveyed) 4. Vegetation – Semi Evergreen and Evergreen forests with bamboo and cane. Rhododendron present at higher elevations

Dzulekie landscape

30


Dzuleke

Recommendations 1. Intensive camera trapping for mammals in winter, birds and botanical survey (across seasons) is essential to assess the importance and success of initiatives by the communities. 2. A socio-economic study of all villages in and around the community protected area to estimate dependence on forest produce. 3. Mapping of the community protected area to aide in effective monitoring and conservation 4. Training of local students from the villages around such regions in basic wildlife survey and monitoring techniques and wildlife conservation. Organizing an intensive training program tailored to their requirements at an institute outside the state. 5. Immediate need to begin conservation awareness and education programs at Dzulekie and all villages and towns around the community protected area 6. Promotion of controlled and sensible eco-tourism to encourage the local populace towards wildlife conservation and provision of alternate livelihoods.

Small flying Squirrel species

8 ft long non-venomous Green Rat Snake

31


Dzuleke Small-clawed Otter pelt

Blyth’s Tragopan

Tail of large flying Squirrel species

Serow skulls

Wild Pig, macaque and Serow skulls

32


Dzuleke Jerdon’s Pit Viper freshly killed by 3-5 yr old boys in the village

Otter pelts and flying squirrel tail

Threats 1. Jhum: Mostly close to the village and few in number but given the proximity to the densely forested area, jhum fields are often visited by wild animals like Barking Deer, Himalayan crestless and Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupines, Wild Pig, Asiatic Black Bear and at times macaques, which is likely to result in retaliatory measures by people despite the ban on hunting 2. Hunting: Skins and skulls (mostly old) of some mammalian species like Serow, Barking Deer, Wild Pig, Stump-tailed Macaques, Small-clawed Otters, flying squirrel, Asiatic Black Bear, etc. were seen in houses suggesting the occurrence of hunting. However the intensity of this activity could not be estimated given that our visit didn’t coincide with the hunting season in the village which is December. 3. Firewood collection: Non-commercial, mainly for domestic usage only. 4. NTFP: Collection of leaves, fruits, tubers, bamboo, cane, mushrooms, etc. for noncommercial purpose, mainly for household consumption. 5. Road: A road connecting several settlements of varying sizes between Khonoma and Peren already exists. However, due to bad condition of the existing road, it is currently being renovated and widened (+7m on either side) which will probably increase vehicular traffic and accessibility to the area and can prove a potential threat allowing free and easy movement of people from outside into the area. For instance, shortly after the team left the area, a Common Palm Civet was found dead by the villagers. According to the local field assistants, the individual was shot by outsiders.

Clouded Leopard skin displayed in the Morung in Dolong ~8 kms from Dzulekie

33


Dzuleke

Biodiversity Findings Mammals 1. Directly seen: Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, large flying squirrel species, small flying squirrel species, Wild Pig Sus scrofa, Serow sp Capricornis sp, Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus, Himalayan Striped Squirrel and Pallas’s or Orange-bellied Squirrel. 2. Camera traps: Himalayan Crestless Porcupine Hystrix brachyura, Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine Atherurus macrourus and unidentified rodents 3. Signs and tracks: Barking Deer, Stump-tailed Macaque Macaca arctoides, Wild Pig, porcupine sp., Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Serow sp and small cat sp. 4. Captive animals: Stump-tailed Macaque (captured by a young boy in a Nepali village approximately 15 kms. from Dzulekie where hunting is not banned) 5. Skulls and skins: Serow sp (skull), Barking Deer (skull), Wild Pig (skull), Stumptailed Macaque (skull), Small-clawed Otter Amblonyx cinereus (skins), Asiatic Black Bear (fur), large flying squirrel species (tail) and Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa (skin, in Dolong village approximately 8 kms. from Dzulekie)  eptiles R Green Rat Snake Ptyas nigromarginata, Himalayan Keelback Rhabdophis himalayanus, Venning’s Keelback Amphiesma venningi (second record for India), Amphiesma nuchalis, Jerdon’s Pit Viper Trimeresurus jerdoni, Spot-tailed Kukri Oligodon dorsalis, Mandarin Trinket Euprepiophis mandarinus, Oriental Snake Trachischium sp.  mphibians A Odorana sp., Hyla sp., Rhacophorus taroensis., Megophrys sp., and some species yet to be identified. Butterflies mud-puddling

Dusky Labyrinth

8 ft long dead Green Rat Snake

Stump-tailed Macaque young meant for the pot

34


Benreu

Location:

Benreu

GPS Coordinates:

25°34’13.22”N, 93°51’25.99”E

Team visited:

District:

Peren

Dates visited: 28th May – 4th June

Dipti Humraskar, Swapna N., Pele and Roko

Introduction 1. Similar to most villages across Nagaland, the hunting season in Benreu is open for six months of the year beginning from the winter months till April. 2. Benreu is among the last few remaining villages that still practices animism. 3. The village is located along the Mt. Pauna mountain range which is the third highest mountain in Nagaland. 4. Total area unknown 5. Altitude ranging between ~1071 - 2200 m ASL (taking into account only the area surveyed) 6. Vegetation – Semi-evergreen, evergreen and oak forest

Benreu landscape

35


Benreu

Recommendations 1. Given the level of pressure on wildlife in this region, an extensive conservation education programme should be implemented to educate locals about the ecological significance of biodiversity and the importance of conserving it. 2. An immediate and strict ban on hunting should also be imposed to curb further loss of fauna and habitat 3. Intensive camera trapping for mammals in winter, birds survey and botanical survey (across seasons) should be initiated 4. A socio-economic study of the village to estimate the dependence on forest produce 5. Training local youth in basic wildlife survey and monitoring techniques 6. Exploring responsible eco-tourism opportunities to encourage locals to conserve wildlife and provide a steady source of income.

Logging truck seen between Dzulekie and Benreu

36


Benreu

Threats 1. Hunting: Several skulls were observed in the Morung (clan house) situated in the village, suggesting the occurrence and scale of hunting. The absence of mammal captures on camera traps and that of fresh tracks and signs, also indicates the impact of the six months open hunting season practiced in the village. On the contrary, the same duration of survey done in Dzulekie resulted in photographic captures as well as observation of several fresh tracks and signs of mammals. 2. Jhum: Shifting cultivation is extensively practiced in the region along with paddy. The jhum fields are frequently visited by mammals such as porcupines and Barking Deer which may face retaliatory killing for destroying crop. 3. Proximity to urban areas: Peren and Jalukie towns are located close to Benreu as a result of which regular vehicular movement including logging trucks was observed near Benreu 4. Firewood collection: non-commercial mainly for domestic usage Hornbill beak

5. NTFP: Collection of leaves, fruits, tubers, bamboo, cane, etc. for non-commercial mainly for household consumption. 6. Lack of a community initiated ban to regulate levels of extraction and usage of forest produce Peacock Pheasant feathers

Moth

Asiatic Black Bear skin used for a traditional shield

37


Benreu

Biodiversity Findings Mammals 1. Direct: Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma larvata, Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus, Himalayan Striped Squirrel and Pallas’s or Orange-bellied Squirrel 2. Camera traps: None 3. Signs and tracks: Barking Deer, Serow sp Capricornis sp, Sambar Rusa unicolor, porcupine sp. and small cat sp. 4. Skulls and skins: Serow sp (skull), Barking Deer (skull), Wild Pig Sus scrofa (skull), Sambar (skull), macaque sp. (skull), Gaur Bos gaurus (skull), Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis (skin) and Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus (skin) 5. Other: Bengal Slow Loris Nycticebus bengalensis (one individual was found electrocuted on May 28, 2011 (morning of the day on which the team arrived) however it was consumed on the same day and there were no body parts remaining to be examined or photographed thus species identification was based on detailed description provided by the villagers and confirmation through presentation of clear colour photographs to the villagers)  eptiles R Khasi Hills Bent-toed Gecko Cyrtodactylus khasiensis. No snakes seen.  mphibians A Raorchestes sp., Polypedates sp. and Rhacophorus bipunctatus

Leopard Cat skin mounted on a stick to scare chicken

Atlas Moth

38


Benreu

Birds

The house in Benreu where the Dark-rumped Swift is said to breed Grey-sided Thrush, victim of a hunter’s catapult

Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus obscurus

Spot-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis guttaticollis

39


Intanki

Location:

Intanki National Park

GPS Coordinates:

25°45’57”N, 93°31’47”E

Dziesekhou Dzuvichu, Girish Punjabi, Team visited: Suman Jumani, Akum Jamir, Samcharen and Toshi

District:

Peren

Dates visited: 22nd – 31st May

Introduction • • • •

Nagaland’s only National Park declared on 3rd March, 1993 Lowland Tropical Semi-evergreen forest Total area of 20,202 hectares Low elevation area bordering Dhansiri Reserve Forest in the state of Assam

Recommendations 1) Forest department staff is young, enthusiastic and energetic, but seem to be uneasy due to the instability in the region. There is a need to provide them with arms to protect Intanki against poachers and the logging mafia. While the illegal dwellers carry weapons, the forest department staff is not adequately armed. 2) Forest department staff is posted outside the core area of Intanki; instead they should have some permanent protection camps inside the park. 3) Foremost, there needs to be some solution to tackle two illegal villages – the Inavi and the Naga united. The Inavi villagers have been allowed to settle down in ‘Hazadisa’, approximately 15 km from the present illegal Inavi/ Hevuto village1.

Deforestation

40


Intanki

4) Forest department staff in Intanki is well qualified and there can be serious scope for scientific wildlife research which is bound to help them in evaluating management actions. Very importantly the park needs to be extensively mapped and areas with good presence of wildlife demarcated, so that their protection can be prioritized. 5) It is also important to provide more facilities such as light weight tents, good rain gear, footwear, night lamps etc to the field staff, since access into Intanki is difficult and such provisions would also ensure lesser extractions from the forest to prepare makeshift camps. Also for patrolling to be more effective, the forest guards need more effective modes of transport (perhaps horses) as jeeps are not always useful, especially during the monsoons. 6) The adjoining Dhansiri Reserve Forest in Assam is continuous with Intanki, and therefore inter-state co-operation by building an anti-poaching/ anti-logging network may go a long way. 7) Education in village schools (especially in Baisumpuikum village) around the park is essential in creating awareness and promoting conservation of the forest and its denizens. It is very important to explain to the village communities the consequence of forest degradation, especially how that may affect their livelihood. 8) It is also extremely vital to enlighten staff about the forest ecosystem and develop an anti-hunting sentiment, since only then can they be expected to protect the forest.

41


Intanki

Birds

A hunter’s bag, Intanki National Park

Chestnut Thrush

Slender-billed Oriole

Spotted Wren Babbler

42


Intanki

Threats 1) Lack of political will: There is a clear lack of political will from the state and the centre to protect Intanki national park. A number of encroachments are present, even though some of the illegal dwellers have been evicted earlier (some apparently 27 times) they have repeatedly returned. The forest department seems to be waiting for the court order to evict them again. 2) Hunting and logging: Intanki as a protected enclave is extremely important to harbour biodiversity given that there is an unsubstantial demand for wild meat. We found at least four hunting camps and two snares inside the park - reason enough to believe that hunting still happens relentlessly even with the presence of department staff. We also found large areas that were completely logged within the park. Hunting and logging mafia seem to surreptitiously operate in Intanki and large-bodied herbivores such as Sambar Rusa unicolor, Wild Pig Sus scrofa and Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjac are locally very threatened by extirpation.

Hunters and trappers at work

43


Intanki

Biodiversity Findings Absence of carnivore signs is slightly worrying but given more time and trap nights, a clearer picture would emerge.  Mammals 1. Direct: Asiatic Elephant Elephas maximus, Wild Pig Sus scrofa, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus?, Sambar Rusa unicolor, Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine Atherurus macrourus, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjac. Sambar Rusa unicolor 2. Tracks: Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus, Wild Pig Sus scrofa, unidentified species of small cat 3. Pellets: Sambar Rusa unicolor, Asiatic Elephant Elephas maximus, unidentified species of small cat 4. Calls: Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjac 5. Camera trap: Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine Atherurus macrourus, unidentified species 6. Skulls and skins: Wild Pig Sus scrofa, Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileatus, Sambar Rusa unicolor, Asiatic Brush-tailed porcupine Atherurus macrourus 7. Freshly killed or in the process of being persecuted in front of us: Common Monitor Varanus bengalensis Reptiles King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah, Eastern Cat Snake Boiga gokul, Assam Snail-eater Pareas monticola, Water Monitor Varanus salvator

Hunters near Intanki

44


Singphan

Location:

Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary

GPS Coordinates:

26°56’0.40”N, 94°54’4.20”E

District:

Mon

Team visited:

Viral Mistry, Dipti Humraskar, Swapna N., Moaakum, Ponglan Konyak, Hawat Konyak, Mongai Konyak

Dates visited: 15th – 18th May

Introduction 1. Declared as Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary in December 2009 2. Area of 2357 hectares 3. Low lying area ranging between ~ 100 – 300 m ASL 4. Habitat – Sub Tropical Moist Deciduous Bamboo dominated

Recommendations 1. A complete ban on coal mining should be imposed immediately 2. The motorable mining road and all footpaths should be closed to civilians/villagers and only be used by forest staff for patrolling and monitoring purposes. Better transport facilities should be provided to the villages encouraging them to use the alternate road in place of the road passing through the forest.

Bengal Slow Loris from Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary

45


Singphan

3. Given the level of disturbance, it was difficult for the team to deploy camera traps. The restriction of traffic and movement of people will also aide in conducting an exhaustive and effective camera trapping exercise for mammals in the winter season and other floral and faunal surveys across seasons. 4. Immediate need for conservation education and awareness workshops for local people is a prerequisite as the wildlife sanctuary is not going to be a success story without their cooperation. 5. Identification of local youth to be engaged in conservation awareness initiatives for long-term benefits 6. Strengthening forest staff - Training and awareness programs for forest department staff should be carried out to enable them to monitor wildlife and natural resources of the area better. Select staff can also be sent to well protected areas like Kaziranga (Assam) to gain firsthand experience on wildlife management and conservation 7. An intensive survey (camera trapping and other) in the winter and a study focused on elephants looking at habitat utilization, ranging patterns and assessing conflict is essential to prioritise conservation efforts for the sanctuary.

Threats 1. Coal mining: Despite being declared a wildlife sanctuary, coal mining is rampant in adjoining areas with heavy traffic through the sanctuary due to mining trucks and vehicles to ferry labour. The access road to the mine located in the upper Tiru region cuts through the sanctuary allowing free movement of people and vehicles from early Colour Sergeant

Rhacophorus bipunctatus

Pallas’s Squirrel

46


Singphan

morning to as late as 10pm. Labour employed at the mine include several people from across the state as well as from other parts of the country. 2. Human presence: Apart from the road being used by the mining company, villagers from upper and lower Tiru villages also use the road and several footpaths cut through the forest to get to markets at the Nagaland- Assam state border. Impacts of this high level of disturbance can be seen on the habitat along the road as well as footpaths cut in the forest. 3. Human-elephant conflict: Existence of elephants in and around the sanctuary often lead to conflict between the animal and humans either by entry into the villages or crop raiding. On one occasion during the survey, elephant trumpets were heard followed by gunshots. Upon enquiring with the local assistants we were informed that elephants visit crop fields often at Tiru village and in retaliation local people fire into the air to deter them. Interviews with elders at lower Tiru village later confirmed human elephant conflict however the intensity of the situation could not be gauged.

Mining truck on the access road to the coal mine

47


Singphan

4. Lack of strict monitoring and patrolling by forest department: During the survey duration, patrolling by the forest department staff was not observed nor did we see any anti-poaching camps set up anywhere in the sanctuary. Therefore, there remains a doubt about protection and monitoring measures within the forest considering the fact that there is regular movement of vehicles and people along existing roads and footpaths in the sanctuary. 5. Proximity to state boundary: Without strict protective measures access to markets across the border becomes very easy thus endangering wildlife and natural resources in the area

Biodiversity Findings Mammals 1. Direct: Bengal slow loris Nycticebus bengalensis, Asian elephants Elephas maximus, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Pallas’s Squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus, Hoarybellied Himalayan Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus and Himalayan Striped Squirrel 2. Tracks and signs: Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Asian Elephants Elephas maximus and Chinese Pangolin Manis pentadactyla (old burrow) 3. Camera traps: Nil  eptiles R White-lipped Pit Viper Trimeresurus albolabris, Assam Snail-eater Pareas monticola and Himalayan Keelback Rhabdophis himalayanus (dead)  mphibians A Polypedates sp., Fejervarya sp., Rhacophorus bipunctatus, Minervarya sp.

Team at rest

48


Mokokchung

Mokokchung The team spent a morning in the Mokokchung town and visited a couple of households to collect some data on hunting. During the short duration the team found a captive pair of common Palm Civets Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Great Barbet Megalaima virens, dead raptor and bulbuls, skulls of Serow, Barking Deer, Sambar and Wild Pig and a report of one Slow Loris found in a village backyard in November, 2010. Also, during the travel from Singphan to Mokokchung, the team found several snakes on the road – both dead and alive.

Animal cage

Bulbul head and Lantern Fly

Serow and Sambar heads displayed as trophies

49


Herpetofauna

Nagaland Biodiversity Herpetofauna Report The herpetofauna of Nagaland is unique as it is situated at a very important bio-geographic location. The Indo-Malayan region, along with Himalayan and SinoHimalayan elements, influence the herpetofauna of Nagaland. Similar to other northeastern states of India, Nagaland is also poorly surveyed for herpetofauna. Surveys conducted in north-east India in the last ten years have resulted in new records for the country as well as for the individual states. For example Medo Pit Viper Viridovipera cf medoensis (David et al., 2001), Boulenger’s Water Snake Sinonatrix percarinata (Captain, 1998), Kaulback’s Lance-headed Pit Viper Protobothrops kaulbacki (Bhide et al., 2008) turned out to be a new species for the country. Species like Protobothrops jerdonii xathomelas (Zambre et al., 2009) turned out to be a new subspecies for the country and Dinodon gammeie (Mistry et al., 2007) was rediscovered after almost a century. Sites surveyed during the Nagaland Biodiversity Project include Khonoma, Dzulekie, Benreu, Fakim, Intanki, Singphan, Pungro, Saramati and Shatuza.

Field Methods We covered areas across vast elevations ranging from 200-3800 meters. However, we encountered reptiles and amphibians mainly between 200-2500 meters in elevation. We used visual encounter survey method to find reptiles and amphibians. We searched extensively in likely micro-habitats such as along/under logs, bark, leaf litter, small trails, streams, along the roads and culverts during night as well as daytime. Each survey team consisted of two-three field biologists along with one-two local assistants. We also recorded the GPS locations of all the species found during the survey.

Reptile Identification None of the reptiles were collected during the survey. However, we caught them to photograph and note taxonomical details that aid in identification. All the reptiles were released in the same location from where they were captured. Every reptile was identified after examining the scalation in detail. In addition to this, morphometric measurements were taken to help in identification. We did not record identification characters like dentition and other internal characters for any of the animals. In case of some common species (like Agamids) only the first two to five individuals were identified with the help of above mentioned field methods. Subsequently individuals were identified visually without catching them.

Amphibian identification Most of the identification of amphibians are tentative in this report. This is due to 50


Herpetofauna

inability to collect specimen, which seems to be the assured way to identify them to the species level. However two to five individuals were photographed with taxonomic details for tentative identification. As we enrich our identification knowledge, we will keep updating this report.

Highlights This survey resulted in quite a few rare species (=data deficient) and rediscoveries after several decades. During the survey period of two months, the team recorded 30 species of snakes, one turtle and nine species of the order Sauria that include lizards, geckos, skinks, etc. A significant discovery turned out to be the “ Bella” Rat Snake or Burmese Rat Snake Maculophis bella bella that was a new species for the country. Darjeeling Snail-eater Pareas macularis, Darjeeling Oriental Slender Snake Trachischium fuscum, Medo Pit Viper Viridovipera cf medoensis and Venning’s Keelback Amphiesma venningi venningi constitute the first record from Nagaland whereas Mandarin Trinket Snake Euprepiophis mandarinus is just the second record for the state.

Threats and conservation challenges for herpetofauna of Nagaland Amphibians and reptiles in Nagaland (like the rest of the north-east India) face somewhat similar yet different conservation challenges when compared with rest of India. Amphibians as well as reptiles being ectothermic in nature are highly sensitive to the surrounding environment and their micro-habitat requirements. A slight change in both can effectively cause a local extinction of the species. Logging and deforestation are one of the main reasons in this state concerning herpetofauna. Apart from these indirect threats, there is another direct conservation challenge faced by reptiles and amphibians in the region. All snakes, venomous or non-venomous, are killed mainly due to fear or retaliation across the state. We witnessed people from all age groups killing snakes at first sight (small kids who killed a Jerdon’s Pit Viper to an elderly woman who killed an eight feet long non-venomous Green Rat Snake). Lack of awareness is one of the main reasons behind such killings. Most snakes found in the region are non-venomous and can cause no harms to humans. However, people in the region believe all snakes are venomous in nature and cause death. Though most people in Nagaland fear snakes and kill them, we met a few people who also consumed snake meat. Also, only a single encounter of the freshwater Indian Leaf Turtle Cycemys gemeli during the entire survey could indicate the over exploitation of all the fresh water turtle and tortoise species in the state. Frogs on the other hand are collected in large quantities for the pot. A sack full of frogs is a very common sight in the Kohima market. We also witnessed tree frogs smoked over a fireplace in a Mithun shed for later consumption. Herpetofauna, mainly amphibians, play a vital role of bio-indictors. Change in their assemblage or abundance indicate the health of an ecosystem. It is therefore essential to conserve these species and maintain their population in the wild. 51


Herpetofauna

Reptiles Family - Colubridae

Species – Pareas macularis Common name – Darjeeling Snail-eater Location – Khonoma, Dist. Kohima, 25°38’59.34”N, 94° 1’23.32”E Description – Snail-eaters are non-venomous snakes. They feed on slugs and snails and hence the name. The Darjeeling Snail-eater is known to inhabit hilly evergreen forests. This individual was found along a road cutting in the Khonoma village. Distribution – West Bengal, Sikkim and parts of north-east India

Species – Pareas monticola Common name – Assam Snail-eater Location – Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary, Dist. Mon, N 26.92739, E 094.90324 Description – This non-venomous snake was found at night on the road running through the Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary. This road sees a lot of traffic till as late as ten pm due to the presence of a coal mine on the other side of the sanctuary. Distribution – Eastern Himalayas in Sikkim, Darjeeling, Assam, Nagaland and Khasi Hills 52


Herpetofauna

Species – Elaphe porphyracea porphyracea* Common name – Banded Trinket Snake Location – Enroue Kohima to Mokokchung, closer to Mokokchung, N 26.36595, E 094.55049 Description – This individual was spotted on the road and seemed like it was run over by a speeding vehicle. This beautiful non-venomous snake occurs in pink colour or reddish brown like the specimen that was found. It is active during early morning and evening and is found in tropical mountainous forests. Distribution – Sikkim, West Bengal, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh

Species – Euprepiophis mandarinus* Common name – Mandarin Trinket Snake Location – Dzulekie Description – The Mandarin Trinket Snake is a beautifully patterned non-venomous snake known to be crepuscular in behavior. A villager found this snake while digging soil in his field and the snake accidentally died during the excavation process. N 25.61800, E 093.95329 Distribution – The only previous record of this snake exists from eastern Arunachal Pradesh in the Changlang district. This is a new record for this species from Nagaland. 53


Herpetofauna

Species - Coelognathus radiatus Common name – Copper-headed Trinket Snake Location – Near Kiphere village Description – Copper-headed Trinket Snake is known to be diurnal in behavior. It was spotted along the road during the day enroute from Pungro towards Kohima. Distribution – Along the Himalayas from Uttaranchal to Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal and Sikkim

Species – Maculophis bella bella (BURBRINK 2007) Common name – “Bella” Rat Snake or Burmese Rat Snake  Location – Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary 25°49’8.45”N, 94°58’53.48”E Description – This beautiful (Bella=beautiful in Italian) snake was found close to the Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary and is a first record of the species from India. There are two known sub-species of this snake of which M. bella bella is previously known by only six specimens. Formerly referred to as Elaphe leonardi, Bella’s Rat Snake has undergone revisions of its genus and species as many as nine times. This small snake (2½-3 feet, 80-90 cm) appears to be a montane species as it found on higher elevations like 15002000m. Distribution – Known previously from northern Myanmar and western Yunnan province, China. Conservation Status and Threats: Data deficient. 54


Herpetofauna Species – Ptyas nigromarginata Common name – Green Rat Snake Location – Dzulekie, N 25.63549, E 094.01261, N 25.61800, E 093.95329 Description – Spotted often by the team during surveys and walks around the village, this snake is extremely swift which gives few opportunities to observe and admire its beauty. Frank Wall in 1907 described the beauty of this snake; he wrote “It is difficult to realize form the museum specimens the extreme beauty and brilliancy of colouring of many snakes in life, and this forcibly applies in the present instance. Our specimen was a bright green of so soft a hue that the skin looked like velvet. This merged into a yellowish green anteriorly and yellow posteriorly, the latter merging into a rich black on the tail. The black margins to the scales served to enhance the beauty of the dorsal green. However, the beauty of this snake fails to captivate some villagers who kill this non-venomous snake in fear and retaliation as observed on one instance in Dzulekie village. Distribution – In north-east from Sikkim and Darjeeling to Arunachal Pradesh

55


Herpetofauna Species – Oligodon dorsalis Common name – Spot-tailed Kukri Location – Dzulekie, N 25.61800, E 093.95329 Description – This individual was seen coming out of a crack under a culvert. It has an elaborate underbody colouration with a checkered black and white pattern on its ventral (belly) scales and bright red on its caudal (underside of the tail) scales. When alarmed, this non-venomous snake displays an interesting behavior where it coils its tail to expose the bright red underside, a behavior observed in the venomous coral snakes and their mimics. Distribution – Assam, Nagaland, Garo Hills, Khasi Hills and West Bengal

Species – Oligodon cinereus* Common name – Black-barred Kukri Location – Near Mokokchung Description – A roadkill of this snake was found while driving to Mokokchung. Distribution – Chittagong Hills of Bangladesh, Assam, 56


Herpetofauna

Species – Oligodon albocinctus Common name – White-barred Kukri Location – Enroute from Kohima to Pungro Description – This snake was found late afternoon crossing the road. It vigorously tried to escape when encountered. It is a non-venomous snake found in hilly regions Distribution – Most parts of the north-east, Sikkim and West Bengal

Species – Dendrelaphis sp.* Common name – Bronzeback Tree Snake sp. Location – Mokokchung, N 26.23570, E 094.41755 Description – This snake was found completely crushed on the road and hence it was not possible to identify it to the species level. Distribution – NA

57


Herpetofauna

Species – Rhabdophis subminiatus Common name – Red-necked Keelback Location – Khonoma, Shatuza, N25.63981, E 094.01744 and N 25.68251, E 094.76078 Description – Red-necked Keelbacks are diurnal and found in wet tropical forests. Though it does not have true fangs, it has enlarged rear teeth and highly toxic saliva due to which bites from this snake have caused severe symptoms. Distribution – From Sikkim and Assam to Arunachal Pradesh of the Eastern Himalayas

Species – Amphiesma parallelum Common name – Boulenger’s Striped Keelback Location – Khonoma, N 25.63549, E 094.01261 Description – This snake was found near the Tragopan Sanctuary, Khonoma. Distribution – Sikkim, Assam

58


Herpetofauna Species – Rhabdophis himalayanus Common name – Himalayan Keelback Location – Singphan, Dzulekie N 26.92739, E 094.90324 and N 25.61800, E 093.95329 Description – Was found crossing the road within Singphan WLS. In Dzulekie, a villager found it in his field and brought it to us in a bag since he knew we were studying snakes.  Distribution – Eastern Himalayas in the west up to Sikkim and Assam.

59


Herpetofauna Species – Amphiesma venningi venningi Common name – Venning’s Keelback Location – Dzulekie, N 25.618233, E 093.956617 Description – This keelback was found near stream and on being captured, it regurgitated a tadpole. They are known to inhabit hill streams close to disturbed evergreen montane forest. Distribution – Previous records exist from Patkai hills in Arunachal Pradesh and Jayantia hills in Meghalaya. This record from Dzulekie could be the first one from Nagaland.

Species – Amphiesma khasiense Common name – Khasi Hills Keelback Location – Shatuza, N 25.69883 E 094.75813 Description – This snake is known to feed on frogs and tadpoles. This individual was found in the evening in a paddyfield containing a lot of tadpoles and hence it was probably forging. The species has peculiar white colouration on its lip scales that continues along the side of its neck. Distribution – From Khasi and Garo Hills in Meghalaya to Changlang district in Arunachal Pradesh. 60


Herpetofauna Species – Rhabdophis nuchalis Common name – Groove-necked Keelback Location – Dzulekie, N 25.623397, E 093.960303 Description – R. nuchalis is so called because of the presence of a nuchal gland or a nuchal groove on its neck. It is known to inhabit hilly areas and was the most commonly encountered snake in Dzulekie. It is a non-venomouns snake seen in two colours, dark grey and reddish brown

61


Herpetofauna

Species – Trachischium fuscum Common name – Darjeeling Oriental Slender Snake Location – Dzulekie Description – From Western Himalayas up to Darjeeling and Assam  Distribution – This snake was found in the pitfall trap that was set up in Dzulekie

Species - Boiga ochracea Common name – Tawny Cat Snake Locality – Enroute from Pungro to Kohima, closer to Kiphere Description – This is a nocturnal and mostly arboreal snake seen on bushes and shrubs. This individual was found as a road kill, probably run over by a vehicle. It is known to have a mild venom only effective against its prey like lizards, birds and their eggs and small mammals but harmless to humans. Distribution - West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam and throughout most parts of the north-east

62


Herpetofauna Species – Bungarus sp.* Common name – Krait sp. 02 Location – Enroute Pungro to Shatuza Description – This snake was found dead and badly damaged. Hence it is difficult to ascertain the species and identification is pending. Distribution – NA

Species – Naja kaouthia* Common name – Monocled Cobra Location – 25 kms from Kohima towards Pungro Description – Monocled Cobra is a venomous snake found in wetter regions in contrast to the spectacled cobra found in drier regions. It has a single eye tshaped mark on its hood. Distribution – All over north-east along with some part of mainland India.

63


Herpetofauna Species – Naja species Common name – Cobra species Location – Enroute Pungro to Shatuza Description – This snake was found dead and badly damaged. Hence it is difficult to ascertain the species and identification is pending most likely Naja kaouthia. Distribution – All over north-east along with some part of mainland India.

Species – Ophiophagus hannah Common name – King Cobra Location – Intanki Description – King Cobra is the longest venomous snake in the world, both feared and worshipped by people across the country. They feed on other snakes and sometimes monitor lizards. They show great parental care where the female builds a nest and stays with the eggs till they hatch. It was seen in the Intanki wildlife sanctuary. Distribution – Along the western ghats in Karnataka, Goa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Terai region in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and north-east and the Andaman Islands. 64


Herpetofauna

Family - Viperidae

Species – Ovophis monticola Common name – Mountain Pit Viper Location – Khonoma, Fakim, N 25.62117, E 093.99947 Description – Mountain Pit Viper is a short stout snake with a triangular head and presence of heat sensory pits between its eye and nostril like all pit vipers. The eye in this snake is camouflaged due to the colouration of the side of its head. Its mainly nocturnal but was encountered during the day in two out of three sightings. Distribution – Uttaranchal, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.

Species – Trimeresurus albolabris Common name – White-lipped Pit Viper Location – Singphan Description – This snake was encountered crossing the road at night in the Singphan WLS. Lip scale edges bordering the mouth are narrowly lined by white. Males have a narrow white stripe on the lower side of the body that may be present, absent or indistinct in females. Males also sometimes have a white line below the eye along the side of the head. These colour patterns are varied and hence cannot be relied upon for identification of the species. Distribution – West Bengal, Assam 65


Herpetofauna Species – Protobothrops jerdonii Common name – Jerdon’s Pit Viper Location – Dzulekie, N 25.62580, E 093.97157 Description – This snake was spotted while returning back from a walk when five village kids were seen pelting stones at something on the road. After approaching we realized that it was a Jerdon’s pit viper with a smashed head. It is the most feared snake in the region and also known to have been responsible for most bites in the village. Distribution – From Meghalaya to Arunachal Pradesh in the north-east

66


Herpetofauna

Species – Trimeresurus sp. Common name – Unidentified Green Pit Viper sp. 02 Location – Enroute from Shatuza to Kohima Description – Identification of these snakes depends upon the scale count. Due to unavailability of time we unable to do the scale count for this snake. Distribution – NA

Species – Trimeresurus sp. Common name – Unidentified Green Pit Viper sp. 03 Location – Enroute from Shatuza to Kohima Description – Identification of these snakes depends upon the scale count. Due to unavailability of time we unable to do the scale count for this snake. Distribution – NA

67


Herpetofauna Species – Viridovipera cf medoensis Common name – Medo Pit Viper? Location – Mokokchung Description – This snake known to inhabit wet montane forest is a recently described species (1997). It was spotted during an earlier visit to Nagaland. It could possibly be a Medo Pit Viper Viridovipera cf medoensis, which if true will be the first record of this species for Nagaland and second from India. However, the species identification of this snake still needs to be ascertained. Distribution – Known only from one previous report from a single location near Gandhigram village in the Changlang district in Arunachal Pradesh.

68


Herpetofauna

Family – Geoemydidae

Species - Cyclemys gemeli Common name - Indian Leaf Turtle Location – Distribution – Assam and Arunachal Pradesh Description – This turtle was photographed in Intanki National Park. Also, a carapace was found in a house in Khonoma.

69


Herpetofauna

Family – Agamidae

Species - Calotes jerdoni Common name - Jerdon’s Forest Lizard Location – Dzulekie, Benreu N 25.61538, E 093.94463 Description – This is a fairly commonly seen green or brown coloured lizard. They often encountered on the road mostly squashed and with 12 eggs on four occasions. Distribution – Throughout the montane north-east India, North Bengal and Sikkim

70


Herpetofauna

Species - Ptyctolaemus gularis Common name - Blue-throated Forest Lizard Location – Khonoma, 25°38’59.34”N, 94° 1’23.32”E Description - It has a blue coloured gular pouch that is folded in a u-shaped pattern. We found just one individual of this species. According to existing literature the distribution of this species remains below the Brahamaputra river (Smith 1935), however, it has been previously recorded from Pakke Tiger Reserve and one more individual from the lower elevations of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary by independent teams. Distribution – South of the Brahamaputra River throughout north-east. According to Wall this species used to be extremely common around Shillong (Smith 1935).

Species - Calotes mystaceus Common name – Moustached Forest Lizard Location - Pungro town, and along the road from Pungro to Shatuza, 25°48’47.68”N, 94°50’42.63”E Description – Fairly commonly seen in the region around Pungro. Similar to the Garden Lizard C. versicolor, this lizard was seen on bushes in gardens in Pungro town and on trees along the road as well. The fore body of this lizard is blue in colour with a broad light coloured strip running from its snout beyond its shoulder. Distribution – Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar islands.

71


Herpetofauna

Family - Gekkonidae

Species - Cyrtodactylus khasiensis Common name – Khasi Hills Bent-toed Gecko Location - We found the gecko quite regularly around Pungro Town, 25°38’59.34”N, 94° 1’23.32”E and 25°48’47.68”N, 94°50’42.63”E Description - This gecko has long, bent and sharply clawed digits with the absence of lamellae. It has a distinct tail with dark brown or black and white bands. Distribution – Throughout north-east India, West Bengal and Sikkim.

72


Herpetofauna

Family – Scincidae

Species – Unidentified sp. Common name – Common Skink species Location – Shatuza, N 25.699689 E 094.757978 Description – NA Distribution – NA

73


Amphibians

Family - Bufonidae

Species – Duttaphrynus sp. Common name – Toad species Location – Benreu, Pungro

Species – Duttaphrynus melanostictus Common name – Common Asian Toad Location – Khonoma

74


Amphibians

Family - Hylidae

Species – Hyla cf. annectans Common name – Indian Hylid Frog Location – Khonoma, Dzulekie

75


Amphibians

Family - Megophryidae

Species – Xenophrys sp. 01 Common name – Horned Frog species Location – Khonoma

Species – Xenophrys sp. 02 Common name – Horned Frog species Location – Khonoma

76


Amphibians Species – Xenophrys sp. 03 Common name – Horned Frog species Location – Khonoma, Pungro

Species – Xenophrys sp. 04 Common name – Horned Frog species Location – Dzulekie

77


Amphibians

Family - Dicroglossidae Species – Euplyctis cyanophlyctis Common name – Indian Skipping Frog Location – Shatuza, Pungro

Species – Fejervarya sp. 01 Common name – Cricket Frog species Location – Singphan

78


Amphibians Species – Fejervarya sp. 02 Common name – Cricket Frog species Location – Singphan

Species – Fejervarya sp. 03 Common name – Cricket Frog species Location – Singphan

79


Amphibians

Family - Ranidae

Species – Amolops species Common name – Cascade Frog Location – Vunsuvong

Species – Sylvirana cf. leptoglossa Common name – Assam Forest Frog Location – Singphan

80


Amphibians Species – Humerana sp. Common name – ?????? Location – Singphan

Species – Odorrana mawphlangensis Common name – Mawphlang Odorous Frog Location – Dzulekie

81


Amphibians Species – Odorrana species Common name – Odorous Frog species Location – Vunsuvong

Species – Paa sp. Common name – Paa species Location – Vunsuvong

82


Amphibians

Family - Rhacophoridae

Species – Philautus sp. 01 Common name – Bush Frog species Location – Khonoma, Shatuza, Pungro

Species – Philautus sp. 02 Common name – Bush Frog species Location – Khonoma

83


Amphibians Species – Philautus sp. 03 Common name – Bush Frog species Location – Benreu

Species – Philautus sp. 04 Common name – Bush Frog species Location – Dzulekie

84


Amphibians Species – Philautus sp. 05 Common name – Bush Frog species Location – Benreu

Species – Philautus sp. 06 Common name – Bush Frog species Location – Dzulekie

85


Amphibians Species – Rhacophorus taroensis Common name – Taron Tree Frog Location – Khonoma, Dzulekie, Shatuza

Species – Rhacophorus bipunctatus Common name – Twin-spotted Tree Frog

Location – Singphan, Benreu

86


Amphibians Species – Rhacophorus cf. tuberculatus Common name – Tree Frog species Location – Khonoma, Pungro

Species – Rhacophorus maximus Common name – Large Tree Frog Location – Pungro

87


Amphibians

Species – Polypedates sp. 01 Common name – Tree Frog species Location – Khonoma

Species – Polypedates sp. 02 Common name – Tree Frog species Location – Dzulekie, Benreu

88


Amphibians Species – Polypedates sp. 03 Common name – Tree Frog species Location – Benreu

Species – Polypedates sp. 04 Common name – Tree Frog species Location – Dzulekie

89


Amphibians

Family - unidentified

Species – Needs to be confirmed Common name – Quacks ?? Location – Khonoma

90


Amphibians

Family - Ichthyophiidae

Species – Ichthyophis sp. Common name – Caecilian Location – Khonoma

91


De Niceville’s Windmill Atrophaneura polla (De Niceville, 1897) Order - Lepidoptera; Family - Papiliondae

De Niceville’s windmill, a very rare butterfly is known to range through Manipur, Nagaland, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh in India and in Myanmar. However, it is known to have been recorded/photographed only twice or thrice in the last 100 years, from Nagaland and from Mishmi hills of Arunachal Pradesh. Our sighting/photograph from Dzulekie (~1900m) in Kohima district of Nagaland during a biodiversity survey could probably be the third recorded sighting for this century. This red bodied swallow tail was described by Charles Lionel Augustus De Niceville in 1897 who was the curator of the Indian museum in Calcutta and has contributed vastly to the entomofauna of the region. We photographed one individual of De Niceville’s Windmill in May 2011 mud puddling by a river along with many individuals of Rose Windmill and Common Windmill. Due to very subtle differences between the De Niceville’s Windmill and the Rose Windmill, the two species are very difficult to tell apart and same reason could be responsible for this very rare status of this swallowtail. The butterfly was also seen mud puddling on the road between Kohima and Peren that goes through Dzulekie. Mud roads in north-east India have been observed to be one of the best places to see several butterfly species either basking or mud puddling. However, currently a metal road is being constructed through Dzulekie which will not only increase traffic movement through this beautiful patch of forest, but will also destroy the opportunity to observe some of these rare butterflies that often use this road. 92


Butterflies Blue Forester

White-spotted Judy

Common Palmfly

Common Tortoiseshell

Common Batwing

Constable

93


Butterflies Leopard Lacewing

Long Branded Silverline

Map

Nurinissa Junglequeen

Orange Owlet

Orange Oak Leaf

94


Butterflies

Panther

Punchanello

Quacker

Red Lacewing

Tailed Red Forester

White Dragontail

95


Important Bird Sightings

Amur Falcon Falco amurensis: Nagaland is one of the most important passage-ways for Amur Falcons in India and where this species mindlessly slaughtered. However awareness and strict protection for two months in the year can provide safe passage for the species.

Blyth’s Tragopan Tragopan blythii: State bird of Nagaland. This species has been surviving at high elevations of Khonoma Community Forest, Saramati and Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary. Other than a captive breeding programme and self imposed ban on hunting by a few communities there are no other measures for the conservation of this species in the state. 96


Important Bird Sightings

Yellow-rumped Honeyguide Indicator xanthonotus: Nagaland is home to a very distinct subspecies of this species known as fuscus. We have sighted this bird regularly around Khonoma community forest. This is probably the only sighting of this subspecies from India in past few years.

Blue Pitta Hydrornis cyaneus: We didn’t record this species during any of our visits to Nagaland. There is at least one photographic record of a dead bird being sold in Dimapur market by Rita Banerjee. Status of this bird in Nagaland as well the rest of the India is unknown. 97


Important Bird Sightings

Burmese Shrike Lanius collurioides: One of India’s rarest shrikes. We recorded this species on consecutive years during our May 2010 and May 2011 surveys. The May 2010 record of this species was the first summer record for the species for the country. This species might be breeding in small numbers in eastern Nagaland.

Grey-sided Thrush Turdus feae: Nagaland is one of the most important wintering grounds for this species in the world. We recorded this species in good numbers near Benreu during Jan 2010. However we also recorded hunting of this species in the same locality by local tribes. Other than Nagaland this species has been recorded only once from Namdapha National Park. 98


Important Bird Sightings

Gould’s Shortwing Heteroxenicus stellatus: This species was recorded during May 2009 by Indi Glow, Sachin Rai, Khandu T. and Shashank Dalvi. This is probably the only record for the state. However we believe that this species might be breeding at higher elevations of Dziiku Valley and Saramati regions of Nagaland.

White-browed Bush-robin Tarsiger indicus: We recorded this species breeding on three different occasions at Mount Saramati during May 2011 survey. This is probably the first breeding record for the species south of Himalayas. 99


Important Bird Sightings

Purple Cochoa Cochoa purpurea: We recorded this species during the May 2009, Jan 2010 and May 2010 surveys in Khonoma and Benreu. This species might be under recorded due to its secretive habits.

Brown-capped Laughingthrush Trochalopteron austeni: We recorded this species at Khonoma Community Forest during Jan 2010 visit. This is probably the only confirmed record for this species from Nagaland as well as India after 1952.

100


Important Bird Sightings

Moustached Laughingthrush Garrulax cineraceus: We recorded this species for the first time during our May 2010 followed by May 2011 visit to Pungro outskirts. There have been no records of this species from India since 1952. Interestingly this sub-species looks distinctly different than the other two sub-species which are recorded from China and SE Asia.

Scaly Laughingthrush Trochalopteron subunicolor: We recorded this species during May 2011 survey in Saramati community forest. This is probably the first record of the species south of Himalayas. 101


Important Bird Sightings

Spot-breasted Laughingthrush Garrulax merulinus: We recorded this species during May 2010 as well as May 2011 survey from Pungro outskirts. This is one of the most difficult species of bird to observe in the field and might well be overlooked in the past. However, this species have been recorded only twice since 1952 from India. Subsequently this bird was also found in Khonoma.

Black-faced Laughingthrush Trochalopteron affine: We recorded this species during May 2011 survey in Saramati community forest. This is probably the first record of the species south of Himalayas. 102


Important Bird Sightings

White-browed Laughingthrush Garrulax sannio: We had unconfirmed sighting of this species from Pungro outskirts during May 2010 survey. However confirmed sightings was later obtained in subsequent surveys.

Yellow-throated Laughingthrush Garrulax galbanus: We recorded this species for the first time during our May 2010 followed by the May 2011 visit to Pungro outskirts. There have been no records of this species from India since 1930’s.

103


Important Bird Sightings

Striated Laughingthrush Garrulax striatus: We recorded this species during May 2011 survey in Saramati community forest. This is probably the first record of the species south of Himalayas.

White-browed Fulvetta Fulvetta vinipectus: We recorded this species being very common at higher elevations of Saramati community forest during May 2011 survey. This is probably the only confirmed record of subspecies austeni from India in past few years.

104


Important Bird Sightings

Naga Wren-Babbler Spelaeornis chocolatinus: This is one of the very few endemic eastern India birds. We recorded this species quite regularly from Khonoma community forest from May 2009, Jan 2010, March 2010, May 2010 and May 2011. However we also recorded this species from Fakim wildlife sanctuary during May 2010 and May 2011 survey.

Cachar Wedge-billed Babbler Sphenocichla roberti: We recorded this species from Khonoma community forest from May 2009 and Jan 2010 visit. We also recorded this species in Benreu during Jan 2010 survey. 105


Important Bird Sightings

Spot-throated Babbler Pellorneum albiventre: We recorded this elusive and rare species right outside Pungro Town during May 2010 survey.

Spot-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis guttaticollis: We recorded this species from Benreu for the first time during Jan 2010 survey. This was the only third record for the species from India since 1970’s. However this species was subsequently recorded from outskirts of Pungro during May 2010 and May 2011 surveys.

106


Important Bird Sightings

Brown Bush Warbler Bradypterus luteoventris: We recorded this species from outskirts of Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary during May 2011 survey. This could be the only confirmed breeding site for the species from India in past few years.

Aberrant Bush Warbler Cettia flavoclivacea: The bird, which we found, may well be a ‘Manipur’ Aberrant Bush-warbler. This needs further investigation.

107


Important Bird Sightings

Lemon-rumped Warbler Phylloscopus chloronotus: We recorded this species breeding on two different occasions at Mount Saramati during May 2011 survey. This is probably the first breeding record for the species south of Himalayas.

Grey-crowned Warbler Seicercus tephorocephalus: We recorded this species during May 2010 and May 2011 survey. We were able to obtain the very first photos of this species from India.

108


Important Bird Sightings

Chestnut-vented Nuthatch Sitta nagaensis: We recorded this species during Jan 2010 survey. This is probably the only second sighting of the species from Nagaland in last few years. The only other place this species has been recorded is from Murlen National Park, Mizoram in Jan 2011.

Slender-billed Oriole Oriolus tenurirostris: We recorded this species right outside Pungro Town during May 2010 survey. This is one of the very few sightings of this species from India in past few years.

109


Birds Chestnut-vented Nuthatch

Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus Atrogularis

Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra

Small Niltava Niltava macgrigoriae

110


Birds Burmese Shrike Lanius collurioides

Brown Bush Warbler

Brown Bush Warbler

Naga Wren Babbler

Scaly Laughingthrush

White-browed Fulvetta

White-browed Shortwing

Yellow-browed Tesia

111


Birds Ashy Laughingthrush Ianthocincla merulina

White-browed Laughingthrush garrulax sannio

Black-faced Laughingthrush

Yellow-throated Laughingthrush Dryonastes galbanus

112


Camera Traps

Introduction Species inventories are an essential tool for any conservation initiative. Knowledge of the existing wildlife in a region, the species diversity and distributional pattern of species, is the important information to design meaningful conservation strategies. Camera traps have been identified as useful non-invasive tools to create such inventories and are now being used extensively across differing types of ecosystems for documentation and monitoring of wildlife populations. The tropical forests of Nagaland have been subjected to intensive hunting, large scale landscape changes and high levels of anthropogenic disturbances. Under such circumstances, wildlife often tends to be shy and tools like camera traps become essential to collect evidences of surviving species. Another factor that supports the use of camera traps to document wildlife in such regions is the inhospitable terrain that makes foot surveys over large areas difficult. Therefore, camera trapping was conducted across eight sites in Nagaland to gather evidences of species in the region. These sites include: S. No. Camera trapping site

District

Date

No. of days

1.

Intanki National Park

Peren

22nd May to 30th May

7 days

2.

Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary

Kiphire

29th May to 4th June

7 days

3.

Shatuya Community Forest

Phek

7 June to 13 June

7 days

4.

Khonoma

Kohima

8th May to 21st May

Approx 10 days

5.

Singhpan

Mokokchung

14th May to 18th May

5 days

6.

Dzulekie

Kohima

21st May to 2nd June

Approx 10 days

7.

Benreu

Peren

2nd to 7th June

6 days

8.

Saramati region

Kiphire

15th May to 6th June

23 days

th

th

Despite several limitations of the study, some rare species were photo-captured. The species trapped across all sites include (description of each species given separately in the report): S. No. Category

Species photo-captured

1.

Small cat

Leopard Cat

2.

Ungulate

Barking Deer

3.

Mustelidae

Yellow-bellied Weasel and Ferret Badger species

4.

Viverridae

Himalayan Palm Civet

5.

Prionodontidae

Spotted Linsang

6.

Hystricidae

7.

Tupaiidae

Undetermined species

8.

Squirrels

Undetermined species

9.

Others (Talpidae, Soricidae, Muridae) Undetermined species

Himalayan Crestless Porcupine and Asiatic brushtailed Porcupine

113


Camera Traps

The major limitations of the survey were: a) Very short camera-trapping period - this region with its low species abundances needs long term monitoring to get an accurate idea of species distribution in the region. b) Small areas covered during camera trapping- the hypothesized low species abundances in the region and high levels of disturbance would mean larger home ranges of animals. Thus, large areas need to be camera trapped. c) Few camera trap units. d) Survey conducted during monsoon. Future camera trapping exercises in the region need to address the above limitations. Systematically conducted camera trap surveys would not only allow collection of high quality base-line data for the region but also allow reliable evaluation of the long term conservation objectives of such projects in the State.

114


Camera Traps

Birds in camera traps

Blue Whistling Thrush Myophonus caeruleus Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 31st May, 2011 Time: 08:26 AM. IUCN Status: Least concern.

Hill Partridge Arborophila torqueola with chicks Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 4th June, 2011 Time: 05:27 AM IUCN Status: Least concern.

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Camera Traps Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis Location: Khonoma, Kohima district. Date: 13th May, 2011 Time: 05:36 PM IUCN Status: Least concern.

Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis Location: Khonoma, Kohima district. Date: 16th May, 2011 Time: 03:54 PM IUCN Status: Least concern.

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Camera Traps Blue-winged Laughingthrush Trochalopteron squamatum Location: Khonoma, Kohima district. Date: 17th May, 2011 Time: 08:21 AM IUCN Status: Least concern.

Yellow-cheeked Tit Parus spilonotus. Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 11th June, 2011 Time: 03:48 PM IUCN Status: Least concern.

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Green-backed Tit Parus monticolus Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 12th June, 2011 Time: 01:02 PM IUCN Status: Least concern.

Spot-breasted Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus erythrocnemis Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 13th June, 2011 Time: 09:22 AM IUCN Status: Least concern.

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Camera Traps Spotted Forktail Enicurus maculatus Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district. Date: 27th May, 2011 Time: 11:39 AM IUCN Status: Least concern.

Spotted Forktail Enicurus maculatus Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district. Date: 29th May, 2011 Time: 04:45 AM IUCN Status: Least concern.

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Camera Traps Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district. Date: 25th May, 2011 Time: 01:04 PM IUCN Status: Least concern.

Mountain Bamboo Partridge Bambusicola fytchii Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district. Date: 2nd June, 2011 Time: 12:26 PM IUCN Status: Least concern.

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Ferret-badger Ferret-badger Melogale sp. Order: Carnivora Family: Mustelidae Ferret- badgers derive their name from a combination of features that they have in common with weasels and badgers. They are weasel like in their abilities to climb trees and badger like in appearance with a long snout and non-retractile claws with broad paws that equip them for digging. Two Melogale species, the Large-toothed (M. personata) and the Small-toothed (M. moschata) Ferret-badger are found in the north-eastern parts of India and have an overlapping distributional range. While both of them are taxonomically different, they have a similar physical appearance and thus are difficult to differentiate with certainty without establishing physical contact with them. The Small-toothed Ferret-badger can be differentiated from the Large-toothed on basis of a smaller size, shorter tail and a short, narrow white stripe on the head that generally does not go beyond the shoulder. The Large-toothed on the other hand has a white stripe on the back of the neck that usually extends at least to the mid-body and may even extend up to the tail. Also, the Large-toothed weighs almost twice as much as the Small-toothed, although that might not be a clear distinguishing character in field. A definite way to differentiate between the two species is through observing the dentition of the two species which is considerably different. Both species found in India are predominantly nocturnal and usually terrestrial, although they may climb trees. Distribution: The Small-toothed and the Large- toothed Ferret-badgers cover a diversity of habitat types that include forests, grasslands and agricultural areas. They may also be found in proximity to human habitation. However, their distribution in India is restricted to the north-eastern region of the country. Globally, the two species share a small region of overlap which includes north-east India, small part of Myanmar and Vietnam. The range of M. moschata includes parts of southeast and central China including Taiwan, northern Myanmar and Vietnam while M. personata occupies southern parts of south-east Asia that include Nepal, north-east India, southern Myanmar, southern China, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Conservation status: Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972: Schedule II; IUCN- M. moschata- Least concern and M. personata- Data deficient; not listed on CITES.

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Ferret-badger

Location: Khonoma (near a burrow close to the road), Kohima district (25.62895 N 094.00136 E).

Location: Khonoma (tunnel under a path), Kohima district (25.65199 N 094.00789 E). 122


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Ferret-badger

Location: Khonoma (Road between Khonoma and Mezoma), Kohima district (25.639944 N 94.018944 E). Date: 16th May, 2011 Time: 10:04 PM

Location: Khonoma (near a burrow close to road), Kohima district (25.62895 N 094.00136 E). 123


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Ferret-badger

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district. Date: 13th May, 2011 Time: 09:52 PM

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Himalayan Palm Civet Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma larvata Order: Carnivora Family: Viverridae The Himalayan Palm Civet, also known as the Masked Palm Civet due to its white and grey-black facial markings is known to inhabit a diversity of habitat types ranging from deciduous to evergreen forests. While the species is under much taxonomic debate, up to 16 sub-species of Himalayan Palm Civet have been identified so faralthough some taxonomists recognise only six of them. The species is common around human habitation and primarily exhibits a nocturnal and arboreal behaviour. It can be differentiated from other species of palm civets by its white whiskers and a coat devoid of any striped or spotted patterns. Distribution: The species has the widest distribution of all civet species in India, spanning across the western, central and eastern Himalaya from Kashmir to the northeastern region through Nepal. The distribution further extends into Myanmar, south China, Thailand, Cambodia, Sumatra and Borneo. The species is also known to occur in Andaman Islands and some uncertain reports exist of it being found in Japan. Conservation status: Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972: Schedule II, Part II; IUCNLeast concern; Indian population listed on CITES Appendix III. Location: Shatuza, Phek district.

Date: 11th June, 2011 Time: 07:04 PM

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Indian Muntjac Indian Muntjac Muntiacus muntjak Order: Cetartiodactyla Family: Cervidae The Indian or the Red Muntjac is a common ungulate of the deciduous and evergreen forests. It is also often seen on forest edges in cultivated areas and plantations. Usually the species exhibits solitary behaviour and is commonly hunted in the north-eastern parts of India. About ten sub-species of the Red Muntjac have been recognised although some taxonomists suggest combining these sub-species into three distinct species- M. muntjak in the Malaysian region; M. montanus in Sumatra and M. vaginalis in southern and southeastern Asia. Distribution: The Indian Muntjac is widely distributed in India. With the exception of the drier areas in the west and the extreme northern regions, the species inhabits most forested habitats of India. Three sub-species of the muntjac are known from India. These include, M. m. vaginalis in northern India; M. m. allieus in southern India and M. m. malabaricus in the Malabar region and Sri Lanka. The species was also introduced on the Andaman Islands. Globally the species has a vast distribution spanning across most parts of south and south-east Asia including Pakistan, southern China, Cambodia, Sumatra, Malaysia, Java and Borneo. Conservation status: Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972: Schedule III; IUCN- Least concern; Not listed on CITES.

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary (25⁰ 48.364’ N, 95⁰ 00.865’ E), Kiphire district. Date: 2nd June, 2011 Time: 6:28 PM 126


Camera Traps

Indian Muntjac

Location: Shatuya Community Forest, Phek district. Date: 12th June, 2011 Time: 05:59 AM

Location: Shatuya Community Forest, Phek district. Date: 12th June, 2011 Time: 9:33 AM 127


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Leopard Cat Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae It is one of the most common small cats found in India with 12 recognised subspecies globally. The species is distributed across a range of habitat types encompassing grasslands, evergreen forests, coniferous and broadleaf forests up to elevations of 3000 m. Leopard cats are known to be good swimmers and the presence of water is an important determinant for their distribution. The species is nocturnal and usually solitary. The body size and coat pattern of the species varies extensively across its range with individuals from the far north (Russia and north China) being very different in appearance from those in southern Asia. Distribution: Leopard Cat subspecies P. b. bengalensis is found across much of India except parts of western and central India. They are known to have the broadest distribution for any small felid spanning across most of India to Southeast Asia and further north up to Russia. Conservation status: Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972: Schedule I; IUCN- Least concern; Indian population listed on CITES Appendix I.

Location: Shatuya Community Forest, Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 11th June, 2011 Time: 03:10 AM

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Porcupines Order: Rodentia Family: Hystricidae The family constitutes of the largest rodents found on the Indian sub-continent with three species, all of which belong to the old world porcupines. Of these, the Asiatic Brush tailed Porcupine and the Himalayan Crestless Porcupine are distributed across much of north-east India and are commonly persecuted in this part of the country. Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine Atherurus macrourus Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine is the most endangered of the three porcupine species found in India. It is smaller than the Himalayan Crestless Porcupine and has a long body and tail, the latter of which is spineless for most part. The species is nocturnal and burrows in tree hollows, rocky crevices and tree roots during the day. Distribution: It is found in north-east India, central and southern China, Myanmar and mainland south-east Asia. Major threats: Hunting and deforestation. Conservation Status: IUCN Status- least concern; Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 Schedule II and not listed in CITES.

Location: Intanki National Park, Peren district (25.619743 N, 93.497016 E). Date: 28th May, 2011 129


Camera Traps

Porcupines

Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district (N 25.623167 E 93.930956). Date: 28th May, 2011 Time: 06:25 PM

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Porcupines Himalayan Crestless Porcupine Hystrix brachyura Also called the Hodgson’s Porcupine, the Himalayan Crestless Porcupine is the most common species of porcupine found in north-east India and is highly adaptable. It occurs in forested areas and grasslands and is common around agricultural areas. It has a short tail and a short dorsal crest. The quills have one dark band unlike the Indian porcupine which has multiple dark bands. Distribution: It is found from central to eastern Himalaya spanning across the state of West Bengal and the north-eastern states in India up to an elevation of 1500 m. It is also found in Nepal, central and southern China and throughout south-east Asia. Major threats: Hunting and deforestation. Conservation status: IUCN Status- least concern; Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 Schedule II and not listed in CITES.

Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district (25.62609 N, 93.95963 E). Date: 22nd May, 2011 Time: 09:44 PM

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Muridae and Talpidae Order: Insectivora and Rodentia Family: Talpidae and Soricidae (Insectivora) and Muridae (Rodentia) This section comprises primarily of the two families: a) M  uridae (rats, mice, bandicoots, voles, gerbils, house rats, field rats, wood rats, bush rats, bamboo rats, dormice, tree mice and birch mice) and b) Talpidae (moles and shrews). The family Muridae with over 250 genera and over 1000 species is distributed widely across the globe and is the largest family in the mammalian world. Apart from Antarctica and some islands, they are found almost all across the world and usually considered vermin. However, many species are rare and threatened. The family Soricidae comprises of shrews and has about 20 genera, also with a distribution across most parts of the world apart from the Australasia, the Arctic and some other islands. Although shrews are often grouped with rats and mice, they are smaller with short legs and a long pointed nose. Moles on the other hand are a part of the family Talpidae and constitute a small group with about 12 genera and about 30 species found in Asia, Europe and North America. Most species within this family spend large parts of their lives in extensive tunnelsystems underground and are adapted for the same with often vestigial eyes and a streamlined body to allow for movement in the burrows. Two species of moles are found in India, both with a distribution in the north-eastern regions, the Short-tailed Mole (Euroscaptor micrura) and the White-tailed Mole (Parascaptor leucura).

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Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district. Date: 26th May, 2011 Time: 06:54 PM

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 29th May, 2011 Time: 07:01 PM

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Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 30th May, 2011 Time: 07:05 PM

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 31th May, 2011 Time: 06:58 PM

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Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 3rd June, 2011 Time: 03:18 AM

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 1st June, 2011 Time: 06:40 PM

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Camera Traps

Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 2nd June, 2011 Time: 07:15 PM

Location: Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Kiphire district. Date: 30th May, 2011 Time: 11:39 PM

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Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district.

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district.

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Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district. Date: 16th May, 2011 Time: 06:52 PM

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district. Date: 17th May, 2011 Time: 01:01 AM 138


Camera Traps

Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 8th June, 2011 Time: 02:13 AM

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 11th June, 2011 Time: 07:02 PM

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Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 13th June, 2011 Time: 02:07 AM

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 7th June, 2011 Time: 11:31 PM

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Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 8th June, 2011 Time: 02:20 AM

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 7th June, 2011 Time: 08:12 PM 141


Camera Traps

Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 10th June, 2011 Time: 08:46 PM

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 12th June, 2011 Time: 02:25 AM 142


Camera Traps

Muridae and Talpidae

Location: Shatuza, Phek district. Date: 12th June, 2011 Time: 01:38 AM

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Spotted Linsang Spotted Linsang Prionodon pardicolor Order: Carnivora Family: Prionodontidae The Spotted Linsang belongs to the oriental linsangs and has recently been placed in the family Prionodontidae from the earlier Viverridae. The species lacks the scent glands found in civets and has 6-7 dark bands on the tail which is almost as long as the head and body put together. They have a spotted pattern on the body and limbs and are relatively uncommon. While very little information exists on their ecology, they are known to inhabit a range of habitat types and can be found up to elevations as high as 2700 m and higher. They are generally arboreal and dwell in tree hollows exhibiting a nocturnal behaviour. Distribution: The species is found in eastern Himalaya from Nepal to Myanmar, in the north-eastern hills, central and south China, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Of the two sub-species of the Spotted Linsang, P. p. pardicolor is found in Nepal, Bhutan, north-east India and northern Myanmar while P. p. presina is distributed over south China, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. Conservation Status: Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972: Schedule I, Part I; IUCN- Least concern; listed on CITES Appendix I.

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 11th June, 2011 Time: 01:57 AM

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Squirrels Order: Rodentia Family: Sciuridae Squirrels belong to the Order Rodentia which also comprises of porcupines, rats, mice and marmots amongst other groups. It thus is one of the largest mammalian orders and almost 40% of the mammals of the world fall in this group. There are about 27 species of squirrels found in India alone. These include the nocturnal flying squirrels (subfamily Petauristinae) and tree squirrels (subfamily Sciurinae). In India, tree squirrels comprise of the three species of giant squirrels (Ratufini tribe), five species of palm or striped squirrels (Funambulini tribe); one striped squirrel of the Tamiops genus and about five species of non-striped diurnal squirrels (Callosciurini tribe) found in north-east India. The Callosciurini tribe in India is restricted to the north-east regions and includes: The red-cheeked squirrels of a) Dremomys genus comprise of species such as the orange bellied Himalayan squirrel (Dremomys lokriah), red-cheeked squirrel (D. rufigenis), and the Perny’s long-nosed squirrel (D. pernyi), while b) The Callosciurus genus comprises of species such as the hoary bellied or Irrawaddy squirrel (C. pygerythrus) and the red bellied or Pallas’s squirrel (C. erythraeus). Conservation status: All non-striped diurnal squirrels found in India are categorised as least concern on IUCN and are not listed on the CITES.

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 10th June, 2011 Time: 11:54 AM 145


Camera Traps

Squirrels

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 9th June, 2011 Time: 06:35 AM

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 12th June, 2011 Time: 04:29 AM 146


Camera Traps

Squirrels

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 10th June, 2011 Time: 09:11 AM

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 8th June, 2011 Time: 03:50 PM 147


Camera Traps

Squirrels

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 11th June, 2011 Time: 04:35 AM

Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district Date: 26th May, 2011 Time: 05:24 AM 148


Camera Traps

Squirrels

Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district Date: 26th May, 2011 Time: 10:11 AM

Location: Dzulekie, Kohima district Date: 26th May, 2011 Time: 10:11 AM 149


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Tree Shrews Order: Scandentia Family: Tupaiidae

Some taxonomists suggest that the family Tupaiidae be grouped with the order primates while others support its inclusion with Insectivora. However, in recent times it has been placed in an order of its own called Scandentia. About 19 species of treeshrews have been identified so far and belong to either the subfamily Tupaiinae or Ptilocercinae. Most treeshrews are terrestrial and diurnal in their behaviour, although some may be arboreal and nocturnal. Of the two species of treeshrews found in India, the Northern Treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has a distribution in the north-eastern parts of the country. Like most other tree-shrews, the species bears a close resemblance to squirrels and can often be difficult to identify, especially through camera trap images which are sometimes not very clear. Usually the species can be separated from squirrels by the absence of long whiskers and the presence of a long, narrow snout. Distribution: The distribution of the order Scandentia is restricted to south-east Asia. The two species found in India include the Madras Treeshrew (Anathana ellioti) south of the Ganges and the NorthernTreeshrew in the north-eastern regions. The Northern Treeshrew has a vast distribution and is found in north-eastern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, southern China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Usually the species is found in regions with tropical forest, although they are also common around agricultural areas. Conservation status: Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972- Not listed; IUCN- Least concern; listed on CITES Appendix II.

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district (25.65199 N 094.00789 E) 150


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Tree Shrews

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district Date: 14th May, 2011 Time: 07:50 AM

Location: Shatuza, Phek district Date: 12th June, 2011 Time: 08:15 AM 151


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Yellow-bellied Weasel Yellow-bellied Weasel Mustela kathiah Order: Carnivora Family: Mustelidae Weasels are small mustelids with a large distribution across the northern hemisphere. They are adapted to hunting small mammals such as rodents that dwell underground. Of the five species of weasels found in India, the Yellow-bellied Weasel is the least known. It is a medium sized weasel with a dark brown back and a yellow ventral side. Unlike the pale weasel, it has a non-bushy tail ending in a black tip. Distribution: The species is found across most parts of the western Himalaya up to an elevation of over 5000 m. Its distribution spans across northern India, Nepal, Bhutan, parts of north-east India, Myanmar, parts of south and east China, northern parts of Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. In some parts of its range such as Hong Kong it is also known from areas close to sea level. Conservation status: Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972: Schedule II; IUCN- Least concern; Indian population listed on CITES Appendix III.

Location: Khonoma, Kohima district Date: 14th May, 2011 Time: 07:34 PM

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References Menon, V. 2003. A field guide to Indian Mammals. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Limited, Delhi. Nowak, R.M. and Paradiso, J.L. 1983. Walker’s Mammals of the World: 4th Edition. Volume I. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London. Nowak, R.M. and Paradiso, J.L. 1983. Walker’s Mammals of the World: 4th Edition. Volume II. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London. Prater, S.H. 1971. The Book of Indian Animals. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai and the Oxford University Press, Delhi. Wagchuk, T., Thinley, P., Tshering, K., Tshering, C., Yonten, D. and Pema, B. 2004. Field guide to the Mammals of Bhutan. Department of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu. Wilson, D.E and Mittermeier, R.A. eds. 2009. Handbook of the mammals of the world. Volume 1. Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Wilson, D.E and Mittermeier, R.A. eds. 2009. Handbook of the mammals of the world. Volume 2. Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Websites accessed: www.iucnredlist.org - accessed between 1st January, 2012 and 20th February, 2012. http://envfor.nic.in/legis/wildlife/wildlife1.html - accessed between 1st January, 2012 and 20th February, 2012. http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html - accessed between 1st January, 2012 and 20th February, 2012.

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Captive animals underline the urgent need for an animal rescue centre

Leopard Cat kitten brought home by a hunter after killing his mother.

Captive Slow Loris found at Mokukchong

Captive Common Palm Civets


Project Co-ordinator Bano Haralu Scientific Advisor Dr. Ajith Kumar (NCBS) Scientific Team: Viral Mistry, Dipti Humraskar, Shashank Dalvi, Swapna N., Girish A Punjabi, Suman Jumani, Aamod Zambre, Anup BP, Vishnupriya S., Priya Singh, Nisarg Prakash, Moaakum, Dziesekhou Dzuvichu Support Team: Tsutenmew, Pele, Roko, Anaki Pfithu, Mezakholie, Ponglan Konyak, Hawat Konyak, Mongai Konyak, Toshi Ozukum, Akumtemjen, Chiv Lam, Semcharen, Bendangwapang Ao, Pongliichem Sangtam, Namganbi Nring, Kilangmeren Ao, Opinath Bibul, Longstuthong Kikon, Dr.Simon, Dr. M Kire Nagaland Biodiversity & Conservation Programme Kuda Village, Phaipijung BPO, Dimapur - 797112, Nagaland


Nagaland Biodiversity Survey (2011) Summary