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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY 888.

STER. . A M E N WAY KLI C Y A L N A B NOT A ODUCED IN S I T I HTED. TO BE REPR G I R Y IS COP THIS BOOK K O O PLE B IVEN FOR M A S THIS NOT G S I N O ISSI PERM


RALLY! EDUCATION 22 Railroad Avenue Glen Head, NY 11545 888-99-RALLY Fax: 1-516-671-7900 www.RALLYEDUCATION.com LESLIE@RALLYEDUCATION.com

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Focus on NY ELA Skills for Reading Comprehension, Grammar, Listening, & Writing

………….. NY ELA Test Success Series Grade Levels 3–8 The NY Test Success Series consist of 4 books to focus on specific skills on the NY ELA Test. Each title is purchased separately. • •

NY Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills Long reading passages with higher-order thinking questions NY Listening Literary and informational listening passages (read by the teacher) with multiplechoice and extended-response questions NY Grammar, Punctuation, & Word Usage Skill review and multiple-choice practice assessments and extended-response questions NY Reading and Writing Reading passages with short- and extended-response questions

Price 25-pack: $184 Higher-Order NY Thinking & Grammar Reading Level C (Gr 3) Level D (Gr 4) Level E (Gr 5) Level F (Gr 6) Level G (Gr 7) Level H (Gr 8)

$184 5521-2 5524-3 5527-4 5530-4 5533-5 5536-6

$184 5569-4 5572-4 5575-5 5578-6 5581-6 5584-7

NY Reading NY & Writing Listening $184 5593-9 5596-0 5599-1 5602-8 5605-9 5608-0

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The New York English Language Arts (ELA) Tests Changes to the 2011 New York ELA Tests

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Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Questions and Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NY Performance Indicators Correlated to RALLY!’s Reading Comprehension Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Test-Taking Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Part 1: Guided Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Part 2: Independent Practice

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Executive Editor: Amy Collins Design Director: Jean-Paul Vest Editor: Shelley Wake The New York State Education Department has neither endorsed nor authorized this practice test booklet. ISBN 978-1-4204-5529-8 R 5529-8 Copyright ©2011 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 0910.MAQ RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

Introduction The New York English Language Arts (ELA) Tests Test Success Series: Higher-Order Thinking & Reading Skills prepares students for the NY ELA Tests. The tests are used to measure how well students are learning the New York State Learning Standards. The ELA Tests assess standards for reading, listening, and writing. This book focuses on the reading section of the test. In the reading section of the test, students read several passages and answer reading comprehension questions.

Changes to the 2011 New York ELA Tests The ELA reading tests for 2011 will include questions that require higher-order thinking skills. These higher-order thinking skills include: Summarizing, Analyzing, Inferring, Interpreting, Predicting, and Evaluating. Each of the Higher-Order Thinking Skills are made up of different reading comprehension skills.

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Summarizing: Main Idea, Cause/Effect, Compare/Contrast Analyzing: Cause/Effect, Compare/Contrast, Fact/Opinion Inferring: Conclusions, Inferences, Predictions Interpreting: Conclusions, Inferences, Predictions, Character-Plot-Setting (fiction) Predicting: Cause/Effect, Predictions Evaluating: Author’s Point of View/Purpose, Fact/Opinion, Compare/Contrast Higher-Order Thinking & Reading Skills focuses on the higher-order thinking skills that students will need to answer questions on the reading sections of the 2011 ELA Tests.

Part 1 Part 1 provides instruction and practice in answering questions using higher-order thinking skills. Students read one literary passage and one informational passage and answer the multiple-choice questions that follow each passage. Each question has a hint that provides guidance on how to answer the question.

Part 2 Part 2 provides additional practice in answering questions using higher-order thinking skills. Students read passages and answer the multiple-choice questions that follow each passage on their own. Part 2 includes both literary passages and informational passages.

Questions and Directions Higher-Order Thinking & Reading Skills only includes multiple-choice questions. Each question offers four possible answer choices. Students should review the questions and four choices carefully and select the answer they think is best.

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

Grade 6 NY Performance Indicators Correlated to RALLY!’s Reading Comprehension Skills The Higher-Order Thinking Skills are made up of different reading comprehension skills. Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding. R6-1-a: Locate and use school and public library resources, with some direction, to acquire information

Not Applicable

R6-1-b: Use the table of contents and indexes to locate information

1 Facts and Details 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-1-c: Read to collect and interpret data, facts, and ideas from multiple sources

1 2 3 6 7

R6-1-d: Read the steps in a procedure in order to accomplish a task such as completing a science experiment or installing software

1 Facts and Details 3 Sequence

R6-1-e: Skim material to gain an overview of content or locate specific information

1 Facts and Details 2 Main Idea

R6-1-f: Use text features, such as headings, captions, and titles, to understand and interpret informational texts

1 Facts and Details 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 12 Point of View and Purpose

R6-1-g: Recognize organizational formats to assist in comprehension of informational texts

3 Sequence 12 Point of View and Purpose 13 Literary Forms and Sources

R6-1-h: Identify missing, conflicting, unclear, and irrelevant information

7 Compare and Contrast 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 14 Prior Knowledge

R6-1-i: Distinguish between fact and opinion

8 Distinguish Fact from Opinion

R6-1-j: Identify information that is implied rather than stated

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

Facts and Details Main Idea Sequence Cause and Effect Compare and Contrast

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

R6-1-k: Compare and contrast information about one topic from multiple sources

7 Compare and Contrast

R6-1-l: Recognize how new information is related to prior knowledge or experience

1 Facts and Details 7 Compare and Contrast 14 Prior Knowledge

R6-1-m: Identify main ideas and supporting details in informational texts to distinguish relevant and irrelevant information

1 Facts and Details 2 Main Idea

R6-1-n: Apply thinking skills, such as define, classify, and infer, to interpret data, facts, and ideas from informational texts, with assistance

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-1-o: Use knowledge of structure, content, and vocabulary to understand informational texts, with assistance

1 Facts and Details 3 Sequence 4 Language and Vocabulary 6 Cause and Effect 7 Compare and Contrast 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 13 Literary Forms and Sources

R6-1-p: Condense, combine, or categorize new information from one or more sources, with assistance

7 Compare and Contrast 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-1-q: Draw conclusions and make inferences on the basis of explicit and implied information, with assistance

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-1-r: Make, confirm, or revise predictions, with assistance

9 Prediction

R6-1-s: Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, a dictionary, or a glossary

4 Language and Vocabulary

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression. R6-2-a: Read, view, and interpret texts from a variety of genres

4 Language and Vocabulary 5 Character, Plot, and Setting 6 Cause and Effect 7 Compare and Contrast 9 Prediction 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 12 Point of View and Purpose 13 Literary Forms and Sources

R6-2-b: Define characteristics of different genres

13 Literary Forms and Sources

R6-2-c: Select literary texts on the basis of personal needs and interests and read silently for enjoyment for extended periods

Not Applicable

R6-2-d: Read aloud from a variety of genres (e.g., plays and poems)

Not Applicable

R6-2-d1: Use inflection and intonation appropriate to text read and audience

Not Applicable

R6-2-e: Recognize that the same story can be told in different genres (e.g., novels, poems, or plays)

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 13 Literary Forms and Sources

R6-2-f: Identify literary elements, (e.g., setting, plot, character, rhythm, and rhyme) of different genres

4 Language and Vocabulary 5 Character, Plot, and Setting 6 Cause and Effect 10 Draw Conclusions

R6-2-g: Recognize how the author uses literary devices, such as simile, metaphor, and personification, to create meaning

4 Language and Vocabulary 7 Compare and Contrast 11 Make Inferences

R6-2-h: Recognize how different authors treat similar themes

5 Character, Plot, and Setting 7 Compare and Contrast 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 12 Point of View and Purpose

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

R6-2-i: Identify the ways in which characters change and develop throughout a story

5 Character, Plot, and Setting 6 Cause and Effect 7 Compare and Contrast 9 Prediction 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-2-j: Interpret characters, plot, setting, and theme, using evidence from the text, with assistance

5 Character, Plot, and Setting 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-2-k: Identify the author’s point of view, such as first-person narrator and omniscient narrator, with assistance

12 Point of View and Purpose

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R6-2-l: Determine how the use and meaning of literary devices, such as symbolism, metaphor and simile, alliteration, personification, flashback, and foreshadowing, convey the author’s message or intent, with assistance

4 Language and Vocabulary

R6-2-m: Recognize how the author’s use of language creates images or feelings, with assistance

4 Language and Vocabulary

R6-2-n: Identify poetic elements, such as repetition, rhythm, and rhyming patterns, in order to interpret poetry, with assistance

4 Language and Vocabulary

R6-2-o: Identify social and cultural context and other characteristics of the time period to enhance understanding and appreciation of text, with assistance

5 Character, Plot, and Setting

R6-2-p: Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, a dictionary, or a glossary

4 Language and Vocabulary

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation. R6-3-a1: Evaluate information, ideas, opinions, and themes by identifying a central idea and supporting details

1 Facts and Details 2 Main Idea 5 Character, Plot, and Setting 6 Cause and Effect 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-3-a2: Evaluate information, ideas, opinions, and themes by identifying precise and vague language

4 Language and Vocabulary

R6-3-a3: Evaluate information, ideas, opinions, and themes by identifying statements of fact, opinion, and exaggeration

8 Distinguish Fact from Opinion 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 12 Point of View and Purpose

R6-3-a4: Evaluate information, ideas, opinions, and themes by identifying missing or unclear information

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 14 Prior Knowledge

R6-3-b: Use established and personal criteria to analyze and evaluate the quality of ideas and information in text

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-3-c: Identify different perspectives, such as social, cultural, ethnic, and historical, on an issue presented in one or more than one text

7 Compare and Contrast 12 Point of View and Purpose

R6-3-d: Recognize how one’s own point of view contributes to forming an opinion about information and ideas

12 Point of View and Purpose

R6-3-e1: Evaluate, with assistance, the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to identify conflicting information

1 Facts and Details 7 Compare and Contrast 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

R6-3-e2: Evaluate, with assistance, the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to consider the background and qualifications of the writer

12 Point of View and Purpose

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Higher-Order Thinking and Reading Skills • Level F1

R6-3-e3: Evaluate, with assistance, the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to evaluate examples, details, or reasons used to support ideas

1 Facts and Details 6 Cause and Effect 7 Compare and Contrast 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 12 Point of View and Purpose 14 Prior Knowledge

R6-3-e4: Evaluate, with assistance, the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to identify differing points of view in texts and presentations

12 Point of View and Purpose

R6-3-e5: Evaluate, with assistance, the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to identify cultural and ethnic values and their impact on content, with assistance

4 Language and Vocabulary 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 12 Point of View and Purpose

R6-3-e6: Evaluate, with assistance, the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to identify multiple levels of meaning

4 Language and Vocabulary 5 Character, Plot, and Setting 6 Cause and Effect 7 Compare and Contrast 9 Prediction 10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences 12 Point of View and Purpose 14 Prior Knowledge

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Test -Taking Strategies There are six steps that you can follow to become a better test taker.

1. Relax: Everyone gets nervous about tests. It is normal. Try to relax and not worry! 2. Listen: Listen to and read all the directions carefully! Ask your teacher to explain any directions you do not understand.

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3. Read: Read each question and answer very carefully! 4. Think: If you are not sure how to answer a question right away, relax and give yourself some time to think about it. Eliminate answer choices that you know are incorrect and choose from those that remain. • Do what you are asked to do. Make sure you understand what the question is asking. • Make sure your answer makes sense. Think it through. • If more than one answer seems right, pick the answer that sounds best or most correct. 5. Plan Your Time: Do not spend too much time on any one question! If a question seems to take too long, skip it and go back to it later (if possible). Answer the questions you are sure of first. 6. Be Positive: Some questions will be hard to answer and others will be easy. Don’t be concerned with other students. Just concentrate and try your best!

RALLY! EDUCATION We’re All About Student Success!

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Part 1: Guided Practice Part 1 is made up of two passages with questions. Each question is followed by a hint to help you focus on the response. Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it. Use the “Hint” after each question to help you choose the right answer.

A Weekend with Rascal

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Every day when Carlos walked to school, he passed a brick house where a friendly golden retriever lived. The dog would often wag his tail happily as he watched Carlos walking. Carlos had wanted a dog for as long as he could remember, and he constantly asked his parents for a pet of his own. His parents had always insisted that Carlos was too young to handle the responsibility, but as Carlos got older they had started to reconsider their decision.

2

When Carlos returned home from school one afternoon, he was greeted at the door by a bounding ball of black fur. It was a puppy! Carlos’s parents entered the room and smiled at their son.

3

“You got me a puppy!” Carlos exclaimed.

4

Carlos’s dad shook his head and explained that the puppy belonged to the McDonnell family who lived down the street. Carlos’s family was going to take care of the puppy while the McDonnells were away for the weekend.

5

The disappointment Carlos felt was evident as his mother knelt down beside him. “We want you to be responsible for the puppy,” she said. “If you do a good job and think that you can handle all of the work, then we’ll see if we can get you a dog of your own.”

6

A small smile tugged at the corners of Carlos’s mouth. He was going to prove to his parents that he would be a great pet owner.

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GUIDED PRACTICE 7 8

His parents laughed and told him that the dog’s name was Rascal. Carlos couldn’t understand why they found the name humorous, but they assured their son that he would soon understand.

9

The first thing that Carlos did was take Rascal out to the backyard to play. They spent a few moments running around together before Carlos started looking for a ball that Rascal could play with. He had looked away for only a second, but when he turned back, Carlos found Rascal digging a hole in his mom’s flowerbed.

10

12

“What’s his name?” Carlos asked.

“Hey!” Carlos exclaimed. “Stop that!”

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Rascal ignored Carlos’s command and continued digging. Carlos’s dad came outside after hearing the commotion.

12

Dad firmly said the words “No” and “Bad” as he pulled the puppy away from the flowers. He told Carlos that puppies respond best to short words said in a firm voice. Because the dog can’t understand what the words mean, how a person says the words tells the dog what is considered good and bad behavior.

13

Later that night, Carlos prepared an area on the floor of his bedroom where Rascal could sleep. He put down a soft blanket, a bowl of water, and a toy for the puppy to chew on. Carlos got into his own bed and started to drift off to sleep, only to be awakened a few moments later by the feeling of something landing on the bed. Carlos saw that Rascal had jumped up on the bed.

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“No,” he said firmly. “You need to sleep on the floor.”

15

The puppy whined a little, but Carlos’s parents had told him that the dog needed to stay on the floor no matter how much he cried. They said that if Carlos gave in to the dog every time he cried, then Rascal would never learn to behave. The dog cried a little more, but finally went to sleep.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

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GUIDED PRACTICE 16

When Carlos awoke the next morning, he saw Rascal happily gnawing on something. At first, Carlos thought it was a dog toy, but then he realized that the puppy was actually chewing on one of his shoes!

17

Carlos snatched the sneaker from the puppy and scolded him. He showed the shoe to his parents, expecting some sympathy, but all he got was a warning to keep his shoes in a place where Rascal couldn’t get them.

18

Grumbling, Carlos fed Rascal and took him for a walk. Later, thinking he’d taken care of his responsibilities, Carlos agreed to join his friend Michael on a trip to the park. Carlos’s parents didn’t like that idea at all, though. They told Carlos that since they would be outside in the garden, he would have to stay in the house and watch Rascal. Carlos couldn’t understand why the puppy needed to be watched so carefully. He was sure that Rascal would be fine alone in the house.

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Mom told Carlos that puppies are a lot like babies. They need to be watched so that they don’t hurt themselves. Carlos sighed and told Michael he had to stay home. As he watched the puppy playing with a toy bone, Carlos realized just how much work a pet could be.

20

The following day, the McDonnells came by to pick up Rascal. The puppy was very excited to see his family. Though Carlos was sad to see the dog go, he was also very tired. After the McDonnells left, Carlos’s parents told him that he’d done a good job and that they would let him adopt a dog if he wanted to. Carlos thought about it for a while. Finally he told them that he wanted to wait a little longer before getting a pet of his own. It was a lot of work and he wanted to be able to give a dog the attention it would need. Carlos’s parents accepted his decision and told him to let them know when he felt ready.

21

The following week, Carlos walked by the house with the golden retriever. He saw a boy a little older than himself outside playing with the dog. He smiled at them and continued walking down the street.

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GUIDED PRACTICE

1

Standard 3; R6-3-a1 What is paragraph 1 mostly about? A Carlos’s desire to have his own dog B The neighbors’ new puppy Rascal C The sneaker that Rascal chewed D Carlos’s decision to wait to get a pet

3

Standard 2; R6-2-j Paragraph 9 is important to the story because it helps the reader understand— A why Carlos isn’t ready for a pet B where puppies like to play outside C that Rascal likes to cause problems D how puppies need lots of attention

HINT

2

Think about why this paragraph is important to the plot of the story. Carefully read all of the choices before choosing the one that fits best.

Standard 2; R6-2-i

Standard 2; R6-2-a

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! 4 Y L L Y L A L R A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

How does Carlos change by the end of the story?

The author uses the golden retriever at the beginning of the story—

A He knows that he does not like puppies.

A to show readers that Carlos dislikes dogs

B He feels his parents should trust him more.

B to explain an event outside of the story

C He realizes that he is not ready for a dog.

C to show what Carlos thinks he wants

D He sees that responsibility comes with age.

D to tell readers what will happen in the story

HINT

HINT Think about what Carlos is like at the beginning of the story and at the end of the story. How does he change?

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HINT

This question asks you about the main idea of the paragraph. Read all of the answer choices carefully before deciding which one best describes what paragraph 1 is mostly about.

Think about why the author includes the golden retriever in the beginning of the story. What is the purpose of doing this? Read all of the choices carefully before selecting the best one.

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GUIDED PRACTICE

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Standard 2; R6-2-i Read the first sentence of a summary of the story.

Summary of “A Weekend with Rascal” Carlos has wanted a dog for as long as he can remember. His family takes care of the McDonnell family’s puppy while they are away.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which set of sentences best completes the summary?

A The puppy is very playful. Carlos enjoys taking care of the dog, even though he can be a handful. Carlos is sad to see the puppy go when the McDonnells return. Carlos’s parents tell him that they will let him adopt a dog of his own. B Carlos’s parents want to see if he is responsible enough to own a dog. They explain that a puppy needs a lot of attention and cannot be left on its own. Carlos wants to go to the park with his friend instead of watching the puppy. C The puppy digs holes in the garden and chews up Carlos’s sneaker. The puppy, Rascal, is a real handful! After spending the weekend with the puppy, Carlos realizes that he doesn’t want a dog anymore. D Carlos’s parents let him take care of the puppy to see if he is ready to have a dog. Carlos realizes how much work having a puppy can be and decides to wait a while before he gets a dog.

HINT This question asks you to complete the summary of the story. Remember, a summary gives you all of the most important information about the story in a few sentences. Carefully read each answer choice and choose the one that mentions all of the major events that took place in the story.

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GUIDED PRACTICE

Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it. Use the “Hint” after each question to help you choose the right answer.

Discovery in the Valley of the Kings

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1

An area in Egypt known as the Valley of the Kings has captured the attention of the world’s most famous archeologists for centuries. The Valley of the Kings is home to the tombs of Ancient Egypt’s royalty. These powerful rulers were known as pharaohs. Their tombs have allowed historians a glimpse into the past. The artifacts found inside have helped experts understand what life was like more than 5,000 years ago.

2

After the rule of the pharaohs ended, the valley remained deserted for several centuries. Then Greek travelers started to explore this remote area. Several of these explorers wrote about the pipe-like corridors found in the valley. Many believe that they were describing the tombs of the Egyptian kings.

3

After the Greeks left, the valley was once again left untouched. The Valley of the Kings wouldn’t be rediscovered until the late 1700s. The French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt in 1799. His team drew maps of all of the known tombs and monuments in the area. This would be a great advantage to those who would follow in their footsteps.

4

Interest in the valley continued to grow throughout the 19th century. Many European explorers started to investigate the area. The discoveries these explorers made allowed scholar Jean-Francois Champollion to translate Ancient Egyptian symbols into English. This would help other archeologists during their travels through the valley. The tombs of the pharaohs Seti I and Kheperkheprure Ay were also discovered by Giovanni Belzoni during this time.

5

The powerful rulers of Egypt were often buried with precious jewels and other valuable objects. Many of their tombs had been plundered by robbers searching for buried treasure. This left archeologists with very few artifacts to show for all of the hard work they did.

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GUIDED PRACTICE 6

It was believed that all of the tombs in the valley had been unearthed by the start of the 20th century. Some people still believed that there was more to find buried beneath the sand. While working in Egypt, Howard Carter discovered a pharaoh who seemed to have been forgotten by history. Carter found symbols that referred to a boy king named Tutankhamun. Very little was known about the young man. He became pharaoh at the age of nine and ruled over Egypt for 10 years. Tutankhamun mysteriously died at the age of 19 and was buried among the other great rulers of his country. Carter’s determination to find the boy king’s tomb would lead to one of the greatest discoveries in history.

7

Supported by Lord George Herbert Carnarvon, Carter began a thorough search of the valley. Years passed and Carter found no sign of the king. It seemed as if Carter and his team were on a wild goose chase. They had very few clues to work with, and Carnarvon threatened to stop the search. But on November 4, 1922, all of Carter’s hard work finally paid off. After hours of digging, his team found a series of stone steps that led down to a door with a seal bearing Tutankhamun’s name.

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Though Carter had found what he had been searching for, his work was far from over. His team members found dozens of artifacts once they were inside the king’s tomb. Because they were so old and so valuable, all of the artifacts needed to be carefully catalogued and preserved by Carter’s team. This work had to be done before they could move into the second part of the chamber. It was here that Carter hoped to find the mummy of Tutankhamun.

Howard Carter with Tutankhamun

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GUIDED PRACTICE 9

Carter and his team finally opened the door to the burial chamber more than a year later. Though they found more priceless objects, the greatest discovery of all was Tutankhamun’s remains. Tutankhamun was the first royal mummy that had not been touched since the time of his burial to be discovered. This would provide historians with a great amount of knowledge about the Ancient Egyptians.

10

News of the amazing discovery spread quickly around the world. Hundreds of tourists flocked to the valley. The discovery renewed the world’s interest in the Ancient Egyptians. Tutankhamun would later be known around the world as King Tut. The once-forgotten pharaoh is now one of the most famous Egyptian rulers of all time. Today, many archeologists continue to explore the area, hoping to find another untouched tomb. However, there has been little found to rival Howard Carter’s astounding discovery in the Valley of the Kings.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The Valley of the Kings

18

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GUIDED PRACTICE

6

7

Standard 1; R6-1-n Why did Carter and his team feel as if they were on a wild goose chase? A They couldn’t translate the Egyptian symbols. B They couldn’t find any signs of Tutankhamun. C The team’s supporter wanted to stop the search. D The team knew very little about Tutankhamun.

HINT

Standard 1; R6-1-g The author organizes the article by— A asking a question and providing an answer B presenting a problem and offering a solution C comparing and contrasting two situations D following an event from beginning to end

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

This question asks you to identify what caused Carter and his team to feel as if they were on a wild goose chase, or a mission that would never succeed. If you need more help, reread paragraph 7 before choosing an answer.

HINT

To answer this question, consider how this article is arranged. Look at how the article starts and how it ends. This will help you determine which answer choice best describes the article’s organization.

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19


GUIDED PRACTICE

8

9

Standard 1; R6-1-o Look at the diagram of information from the article.

The Greeks traveled to the Valley of the Kings.

Napoleon made maps of the area.

Howard Carter unearthed King Tut’s tomb.

What belongs in the empty box? A Little has been found that could rival Carter’s great discovery.

Standard 3; R6-3-a1 What is the author’s purpose in this article? A To describe what life was like in Ancient Egyptian times B To explain why the pharaohs’ tombs were often robbed C To talk about one of the greatest discoveries in history D To show how the Greeks and French traveled the world

B The tombs of Seti I and Kheperkheprure Ay were discovered.

HINT E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C Searching has stopped since all of the tombs have been found. D Ancient Egyptian symbols have been translated into English.

HINT

This question asks you to determine the purpose of the article. Think about what this article is mainly about and what the reader can learn from it. Then choose the answer that fits best.

This question asks you to look at a sequence of events from the article. Carefully read each of the answer choices. Then, you can look back to the article to determine which event occurred last and belongs in the empty box.

20

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GUIDED PRACTICE

10

11

Standard 1; R6-1-r With which statement would the author probably agree? A Archeologists can learn nothing more about ancient people. B Carter’s discovery was one of the lesser finds in the valley. C King Tut is famous now because of the discovery of his tomb. D Exploring in other countries leads to problems and confusion.

HINT

Standard 1; R6-1-q From the information in the article, the reader can conclude that Howard Carter was determined because— A he discovered a king forgotten by history B he learned to translate Egyptian symbols C he made a map of the tombs in the valley D he spent years looking for Tutankhamun

E L P SAM HINT N O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

When you read an article, you can learn about the author who wrote it. You can learn from the author’s ideas and knowledge as well as the words he or she uses. Read over each of these statements. Knowing what you do about the author of this article, with which statement would he or she most likely agree?

Think about Carter and his search for the tomb. What information from the article best shows the reader that Carter was a very determined archeologist?

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GUIDED PRACTICE

12

Standard 3; R6-3-a3 Which sentence from the article is an example of a fact? A An area in Egypt known as the Valley of the Kings has captured the attention of the world’s most famous archeologists for centuries. B Carter’s determination to find the boy king’s tomb would lead to one of the greatest discoveries in history. C This left archeologists with very few artifacts to show for all of the hard work they did.

A fact is a statement that can be proven. Other statements are opinions, which cannot be proven. Read each answer choice and decide which one is a provable fact. That will be the correct answer.

22

Standard 3; R6-3-e3 Which sentence from the article best shows the reader the importance of Carter’s discovery? A Tutankhamun would later be known around the world as King Tut. B The discovery renewed the world’s interest in the Ancient Egyptians. C The powerful rulers of Egypt were often buried with precious jewels and other valuable objects. D The French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt in 1799.

E L P SAM HINT N O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

D He became pharaoh at the age of nine and ruled over Egypt for 10 years.

HINT

13

This question asks you to think about why Carter’s discovery is so important and why it is remembered today. Read each answer choice carefully before picking the sentence that fits best.

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GUIDED PRACTICE

14

15

Standard 1; R6-1-p How was the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb different from the discovery of other pharaohs’ tombs? A Most other pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings. B Tutankhamun was the first royal mummy found untouched. C Carter had looked for Tutankhamun’s artifacts for years.

Standard 1; R6-1-o The author organizes paragraph 1 of this article by— A showing readers what Egyptian symbols look like B telling readers about Howard Carter’s early work C informing readers of an amazing area of the world D explaining the history of Ancient Egypt to readers

D The Egyptian symbols inside were translated into English.

HINT

HINT E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

This question asks you to compare the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb to the discovery of other pharaohs’ tombs. What made the discovery of Tutankhamun special? Reread paragraph 9 if you need some hints.

This question asks you about how the author presents an idea. Authors have to organize their ideas carefully. They want to give information to their readers in the best possible way. Carefully reread paragraph 1 before choosing an answer.

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23


Part 2: Independent Practice Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it.

Career Day 1

24

Billy groaned. It was career day at school, and all of his friends would bring a parent to talk about his or her job. Becky’s dad, a policeman, would speak first. Jose’s mom, an architect, would show drawings. Billy’s mom had an important meeting to attend that day, but she promised to make an appearance at career day even if she arrived a little late. Billy wished he could be late for career day. The idea seemed boring to him, since he had already decided he wanted a career in sports.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2

As the bus arrived at school, Billy remembered last year’s career day. His father, a photographer, came and took pictures of his class. Billy’s mom, who taught archeology classes at the university, was busy teaching last year. Billy thought her job must be boring, since she was stuck at school all day. At the same time, he hoped she could make it to career day, if only because it would be embarrassing if she didn’t.

3

Becky arrived at school in her dad’s police car. After speaking to the class, her father would go directly back to the police station. Career day was the only day all year that Becky’s dad drove her to work in that car. He was in uniform when he stood up in front of the class. Becky’s dad talked about the lights on his police car and the interview rooms at the police station. He said some policemen patrol the streets while others stay at headquarters until they are called to an emergency.

4

Jose’s mom spoke next. She carried two big bags that contained samples of her work. Jose’s mom set one bag on the ground and opened another bag on the teacher’s desk. “My clients come to me before they begin construction,” she told the class as she held up a set of drawings. “We design small houses in town and big skyscrapers in the city.” Jose’s mom said architects create lots of drawings to get the plans correct. “My firm considers how a building affects the environment and how to keep the people inside safe.”

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5

Next, Tia introduced her dad. He played the trumpet in a local orchestra, and he practiced a lot. The group played all kinds of music, Tia’s dad said. They performed for a ballet a few weeks ago, and their next show would feature different types of jazz. The orchestra usually played locally, but once every year they traveled through the state to play in other cities.

6

Several other parents spoke to the students about jobs. There was a lawyer, a firefighter, and a business owner. Then the teacher, Mrs. Sanderson, stood up. “I’m going to tell you about my job,” she said. Mrs. Sanderson said she stayed after school to plan the next day’s lessons. When she went home, she graded homework and typed tests on her computer. Once a week, she met with the rest of the faculty to plan upcoming trips, assemblies, and special events like reading week or the spelling bee.

7

“Being a teacher sounds like being a student,” Billy thought. He studied at home and met with other students for weekly soccer and baseball games. Billy remembered that his team had a soccer match this weekend. The team won its last game because Billy scored two goals. He began to daydream about the games he had participated in and imagined himself in the future talking about his great sports career. Billy looked up and realized that the teacher had her history book open. Apparently, the class had switched subjects while he was thinking about sports.

8

There was a quiet knock on the door, and Mrs. Sanderson opened the door and peered into the hallway. She whispered to the visitor for a minute, and then Billy’s mom walked into the room.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

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25


9

Billy’s mom apologized for being late to career day. She was held up after she heard good news from the university where she taught. She had received permission to travel to Egypt for her work! She knew lots of information about Ancient Egypt and would spend the summer learning even more at a school overseas.

10

Billy’s mom began to talk about her job. “I’m an archeologist,” she said. “I restore old manuscripts.” Becky raised her hand and asked how Billy’s mom got the manuscripts. “People I work with bring them from other countries,” Billy’s mom said. “Now I have permission from the embassy to visit Egypt. I’ll tour the pyramids and dig in historical sites.” Jose asked how the items were restored. “The writings are from other cultures,” Billy’s mom said. “We carefully collect and photograph the documents. We brush back the dirt and study the written markings. Usually I translate the documents from ancient languages.”

11

The bell rang and all the students ran outside for recess. Then, they crowded around Billy to ask more questions. Becky said she wanted to know more about the lost languages. Tia said she was impressed that Billy’s mother planned an international trip. “My dad goes to other cities, but he doesn’t travel overseas,” Tia said. Jose said his mother brought her drawings home and asked if Billy’s mom brought any manuscripts home.

12

26

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Billy thought about all the weird manuscripts and art hanging on the walls of his house. His mom was always very excited to show the art and manuscripts whenever a relative visited. “My house is decorated with all that old stuff,” he told Jose. Billy’s friends said they wanted to see the art and manuscripts. Billy realized that he would have to pay more attention in history class in case he wanted to be a sports hero and an archeologist.

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1

Read the first sentence of a summary of the story.

Summary of “Career Day” Billy isn’t looking forward to career day because he thinks it is boring.

Which set of sentences best completes the summary? A Becky comes to school in a police car. Her dad tells a story about the police station. Right after that, he returns to work. B Tia’s dad talks about a musical tour. Billy imagines his future as an athlete. Then it’s time for recess.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C Other parents talk about their jobs. Billy’s mom talks about taking a trip to Egypt. The students are interested in her job. D Jose’s mom shows designs for a new building. Billy thinks being a teacher is like being a student. His mom interrupts history class.

2

Paragraph 4 is mainly about—

A how buildings keep people safe B why architects are important C what Jose’s mom does at work D where people can find skyscrapers

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27


3

Why do the students ask Billy’s mom questions?

6

A They are interested in her job.

From information in the article, what can the reader conclude happened at Billy’s mom’s meeting? A She was told to go to Billy’s career day.

B They want to be polite to her. C They hope to travel to Egypt.

B She received more art to hang in her house.

D They think Billy is ashamed.

C She was told she could go to Egypt. 4

Billy doesn’t like career day until—

D She preserved an ancient manuscript.

A he decides that all he wants to be is an athlete B the students are interested in his mom’s job

7

A theme found in this story is—

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C recess provides a break from school D Jose’s mom uses props for her talk

A keeping an open mind about others

B finding ways to help your community

5

What idea from the story shows that Billy’s mom likes her job? A She had to stay late at work.

C adults trying to persuade students D people cooperating with one another

B She loves showing her ancient art and manuscripts to visitors. C Billy asked her to come to career day and speak to his class. D Billy’s classmates wanted to hear more about archeology.

Go On 28

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Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it.

B e nd g i B

Bison The Students’ Newspaper

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 KidCO is Born! April 15, 2006

Weekly Edition

On Friday, April 21, Big Bend students can join a new club called KidCO, which stands for Kids who Conserve and Observe. KidCO is a club devoted to cleaning up the environment. The founder of the club will write environmental tips and updates on club activities in a weekly column in the Big Bend Bison. The developers of KidCO, three sixth-grade Big Bend students, invite all students to participate. Read on to discover more about KidCO!

by Lilly Grace 1

KidCO began in sixth-grader Kelly Kellerman’s basement. After having friends over to watch a movie, she was left with a room full of garbage. While filling up two large bags of trash, Kelly was amazed by how much waste a couple of kids could generate in a few hours. She started to think of ways that kids could be less wasteful. “The next time I invited my friends over, my mom made a pitcher of juice and we used reusable cups. Instead of a bunch of packaged snacks, my mom cut up fresh fruit for us to snack on,” Kelly explained. “I thought I’d still have a big mess to clean up, but we each put our own cup and dish in the dishwasher, which uses less water than if you wash your dishes by hand. I realized that when everybody does their part, there is hardly any mess and waste to clean up. It’s just a matter of convincing kids to do their part.”

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29


2

That’s how KidCO began—one kid with an idea. From there, Kelly discussed her ideas with her mother. Kelly’s mom said that if she felt strongly about improving the way kids treat the environment, she should do something about it. Kelly explained, “If kids knew taking care of the world made life easier, they’d be all for it!”

3

The first official meeting of KidCO took place in Kelly’s basement with her best friends Benjamin and Vicky. They thought about ways they could change the school to be friendlier to the environment. Their first goal is to convince the Big Bend Bison to print on recycled paper. Second, they’ve planned a Recycle Rally in May, where they’ll raise money to donate to the State Preservation Fund by collecting aluminum cans. They’d also like to start a garden that would provide fresh vegetables to the cafeteria. Benjamin explained, “People don’t like to make environmental changes because they think it means sacrifice, but the recycled paper will cut the price of newspaper production in half and the gardening idea means we won’t have so many cardboard boxes in our garbage every week from shipped vegetables.” “Plus,” Vicky added, “nothing beats the flavor of a fresh-picked tomato. KidCO isn’t just about making sacrifices. It’s about improvement; it’s about observing and then figuring out ways of conserving.”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

If you’d like to join KidCO, sign up in the main hallway on the morning of April 21.

30

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8

From information in the article, what can the reader conclude about Vicky?

10

A KidCO began in sixth-grader Kelly Kellerman’s basement.

A She doesn’t know Kelly. B She reads newspapers.

B She started to think of ways that kids could be less wasteful.

C She likes fresh foods.

C “If kids knew taking care of the world made life easier, they’d be all for it!”

D She doesn’t talk much.

9

Which sentence from the article is an example of an opinion?

D Their first goal is to convince the Big Bend Bison to print on recycled paper.

What was the first step in starting KidCO? A Kelly talked to her mom about helping.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

B Kelly imagined ways to make less trash. C Kelly met with Benjamin and Vicky.

D Kelly asked people to join on April 21.

11

Benjamin thinks that people don’t help the environment because they think— A it would require great sacrifice

B it would be an impossible task

C other people will do it instead

D one person can’t make a difference

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31


Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it.

B e nd g i B

Bison The Students’ Newspaper

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . KidCO This Week 8 8 8 May 13, 2006

Weekly Edition

Less than a month ago, KidCO began in Kelly Kellerman’s basement. The club has already proven itself priceless to Big Bend. On April 21, more than 200 people joined the club. Since then the group has improved the school and the town of Big Bend. Read Kelly’s column below for an update on KidCO’s progress.

by Kelly Kellerman 1

32

Currently, KidCO has 278 members. Those 278 people have spread a message of observing and conserving so that our influence can be seen all around Big Bend. Some of our greatest successes have come from the meetings we have every other Thursday after school at Nature Park. There, we talk about observations we’ve made and ways we can improve the world’s cleanliness.

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2

Member Alena Leon observed that the newspapers in the school library were thrown away at the end of each day. She suggested we put recycle bins in the library to collect them. Everyone at the meeting agreed that this was a great idea. Then, member Nick Bennet pointed out that the pet gerbils in the younger kids’ classrooms go through quite a bit of the expensive cedar shavings that line their cages. He wrote an article that said that shredded newspapers make a much better lining. KidCO members passed on the idea to Principal Smith, and he took our suggestion! After seeing how well the change worked, the school has encouraged us to recommend more ideas. (P.S. If you want to try this with your own pet, make sure your newspaper uses nontoxic ink. If it doesn’t, write your newspaper a letter to suggest it!)

3

KidCO has made small changes all over the school—too many to list in our column! One recent success was the Recyclable Rally held last week. To raise money for the State Preservation Fund, we encouraged all students, teachers, and school staff to bring used, washed cans to school. With the help of a local scrap yard, we collected enough cans to raise more than $3,000 for the Fund. The Fund really appreciated our donation and has included an article about KidCO in it’s national newsletter.

4

But perhaps the best parts of KidCO are the friends we’ve made and the feeling we get from helping to change the world. We thought it would be great fun to form a club and hold events, but we never realized just how much we could do to help the environment. KidCO proves that a few kids talking in a basement can start something amazing, and a few hundred kids working together can better our planet!

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now Printed on Recycled Paper!

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12

The author probably wrote this article to—

14

A encourage kids to care about the environment

A why the club has so many members

B describe the most recent activities of KidCO

B how the members come up with ideas

C tell readers a better way to treat their animals

C why Big Bend is the best place to live

D explain why newspapers should be collected

13

Why does Principal Smith encourage the kids to offer more ideas?

Paragraph 1 is important to the article because it helps the reader understand—

D how Nature Park is close to the school

15

The author uses the KidCO article in the State Preservation Fund national newsletter to show—

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A He wants the kids to eventually run the school. B He thinks their ideas could use more thought. C The kids’ newspaper plan was not possible.

D The kids’ newspaper idea saved a lot of money.

A that fundraisers can really be amusing

B that other KidCO groups are forming C how successful the Recyclable Rally was

D how much they need more fundraisers

Go On 34

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Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it.

The Problem with Beach Friends 1

Caroline explained the problem with beach friends to her brother Matt. “No matter how much fun beach friends have, eventually they always leave each other,” she said. “Most of the time, people never see their beach friends again.” Barely stopping for a breath, she continued, “Sometimes I’d like to bump into my old beach friends because I have the greatest times with them, and it would be nice to just pick up where we left off and not have to make new friends every time I...”

2

“Caroline,” Matt interrupted, “I just want to enjoy the sound of the waves, but I can’t hear anything over your talking.” Caroline could have chattered on for the whole afternoon, but she knew her brother, who was in high school, wasn’t always interested in her constant talking.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

3

Then Caroline saw a girl her age diving into waves, so she walked into the surf and introduced herself. “I’m Caroline; do you want to swim?”

4

The girl stared at Caroline and said nothing. Caroline figured maybe the girl didn’t hear her over the waves, or maybe the girl had water in her ears.

5

Caroline introduced herself again, and the girl said something Caroline didn’t understand. To Caroline, the words sounded like nonsense, and she realized that the girl probably didn’t speak English.

6

Though she didn’t understand anything the girl uttered, Caroline recognized the smile on the girl’s face. Smiles are a language that kids all around the world understand. Although the girls couldn’t communicate with words, they laughed all day as salt water burned their noses. Somehow, they learned each other’s names. Caroline’s new friend was named Rosetta. Without talking, Caroline taught Rosetta how to make a fist on the surface of the water and squirt water up into the air.

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35


7

Later, Caroline realized that she’d soon have to say goodbye to Rosetta. She had always thought the fun of a beach friend was having someone to talk to, but Caroline couldn’t talk to Rosetta and she was still having a great time. Caroline remembered the problem with beach friends and knew she probably would never see Rosetta again.

8

“Do you want to play again tomorrow?” Caroline asked. She kept forgetting that Rosetta didn’t understand English. It was just so natural for Caroline to speak, and now she couldn’t communicate that way. Rosetta gathered her items and looked toward her mother, who was packing up a beach bag and calling out to Rosetta.

9

Rosetta called back and Caroline listened. Because she couldn’t understand the language, she just paid attention to the beauty of the sound. Caroline loved to say things; she loved to let others know what she thought. Until today, she had never noticed how language could sound like music, or sound as beautiful as the crashing waves.

10

Caroline took Rosetta’s hand and said, “Tomorrow we can play again.” She tried to think of a way to express this to Rosetta without words, but she couldn’t. She was so used to being able to say things. Instead, she looked at Rosetta and explained, “I don’t know what your word is for ‘friend.’”

11

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E Y ! L L Y L A R . RAL 9 9 . 888

Rosetta turned her head a little to the side.

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12

“I don’t know your word for ‘friend,’” Caroline repeated and pointed to Rosetta and then herself, “but we’re friends.”

13

“Friends,” Rosetta repeated. “Amici,” she said slowly, pointing back and forth between herself and Caroline a couple of times. “Caro amici.”

14

Caroline wasn’t sure what the words meant, but she thought maybe, somehow, Rosetta understood. Caroline pointed to her house and said, “I’m staying right there. We can meet again tomorrow if you want.”

15

Rosetta smiled and spoke a few words in her language. Then her mother called and Rosetta ran after her. Rosetta waved as she and her mother walked from the beach. Caroline watched her go, fearing that she’d never see her again.

16

Inside the house, Caroline was busy thinking. Matt asked, “Why are you so quiet?”

17

Caroline told the story of her day’s experience, trying her best to pronounce the word amici.

18

“That sounds like the Spanish word for ‘friends.’ What language did Rosetta speak?” Matt asked.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

19

“Italiano,” Caroline said, just like Rosetta had.

20

“Oh, Italian,” her brother said. “Italian and Spanish are a lot alike.”

21

Caroline didn’t see how Italian and any other language could be alike when they sounded so different.

22

“Before she left, Rosetta said, ‘Domani verremo a contatto di alla vostra casa,’ but I don’t know what that means,” Caroline added.

23

By this time, the family was sitting down to dinner and Caroline’s mom said, “I bet we can figure it out together. Even though languages are all different, they’re also all kind of the same.”

24

“I’m pretty sure domani means ‘tomorrow,’” Caroline’s mother said.

25

“Yeah, and contatto sounds a lot like the word ‘contact,’” Caroline’s father offered.

26

“The word verremo reminds me of the Spanish word vendremos,” Matt translated, “which means ‘to show up.’”

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37


27

Caroline said, “So far we have ‘tomorrow,’ ‘show up,’ and ‘contact.’”

28

“Maybe she means that tomorrow she’d like to get together with you again,” Caroline’s father suggested.

29

16

“She wants to meet?”

30

“Yes. It’s just a matter of where,” Caroline’s mom said. Then she repeated the words di alla vostra casa.

31

Caroline’s dad smiled widely. “I learned French thirty years ago, and I can still tell you what votre casa means—’your house.’”

32

Rosetta was trying to say that she could meet Caroline at Caroline’s house! Although the two girls didn’t speak the same language, they had tried to tell each other the same thing.

33

The next morning Caroline waited on her porch. Rosetta approached with a smile on her face. Caroline knew then that what her mom said about languages was also true for people—even when people seem different, they’re all kind of the same underneath.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How does Caroline change by the end of the story? A She learns to speak a new language.

B She becomes friendlier to others. C She gets along with her brother. D She makes a great new friend.

17

Which sentence from the story best shows that Caroline and Rosetta get along?

A Then Caroline saw a girl her age diving into waves, so she walked into the surf and introduced herself. B Caroline taught Rosetta how to make a fist on the surface of the water and squirt water up into the air. C She tried to think of a way to express this to Rosetta without words, but she couldn’t. D Caroline didn’t see how Italian and any other language could be alike when they sounded so different.

38

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18

The reader can conclude that Rosetta—

20

A comes to the beach every year

Paragraph 1 is important to the story because it helps the reader understand— A why Caroline tries to make friends at the beach

B does not have many good friends C is visiting from another country

B how Caroline keeps in touch with beach friends

D is not an experienced swimmer

C why Caroline wants to see Rosetta the next day 19

Look at the diagram of information from the story. Problem

Caroline cannot understand what Rosetta is saying.

D how Caroline likes to tell her problems to Matt

Solution

21

Why does Caroline listen when Rosetta talks to her mother?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A She wants to know what they’re talking about.

Which of these details belongs in the box labeled “Solution”?

B She is beginning to understand their language.

A Caroline asks her mother to translate words for her.

C She likes the way the foreign language sounds.

B The two girls learn to communicate without words.

D She is trying to be polite to her new companion.

C Caroline asks Matt to find her an Italian dictionary. D The two girls draw pictures to show what they mean.

22

In paragraph 10, the author creates a mood of— A suspense B impatience C humor D frustration

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39


Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it.

A Land and Animal Preserve

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1

The prairie of southwestern Oklahoma looks as empty and rolling as the swells of the ocean. The grassy plains are unbroken as they stretch across the land to the blue sky on the horizon.

2

A set of bumps in the distance rises to become a mountain range. The mountains look out of place next to the flat land of the plains, but they are home to an animal that people once believed lived only on the low grasslands.

3

At one time, millions of American buffalo roamed the Great Plains. The animals, usually called bison, were a source of food, clothing, and leather for Native Americans. Bison, which can weigh almost a ton and stand six feet tall at their shoulders, ate the high grasses that covered the Great Plains.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

4

As American settlers moved westward into the plains, they nearly killed off the buffalo. Settlers and army officers shot buffalo in the hopes that the Native Americans would move from the area after losing their food source. Railroad companies also encouraged the widespread killing of bison. If a herd of buffalo blocked the tracks, the train would have to stop to wait for the animals to move. Even worse, the engine could be damaged if it struck a buffalo. By 1889 there were fewer than 1,000 buffalo left in the United States.

5

As the bison were hunted, several groups pushed to preserve and protect the buffalo. Private herds were saved, and eventually public refuges were established. One of these preserves is in the Wichita Mountains. These mountains look striking and unusual because of how they seem to rise from the otherwise flat ground.

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6

The Wichita Mountains have been a landmark on the face of Oklahoma for hundreds of millions of years. The area was a sea basin 550 million years ago. Silt and sand washed into the sea, and lava from underground bubbled to the surface. The land was thrust upward and then sank below the sea again. The lava created granite, which became the basis of the rocks that make up the Wichita Mountains today.

7

About 300 million years ago the earth buckled and formed the mountains the same way a bedspread wrinkles when pushed aside. The sea drained away, and the sand and silt became different types of rock. The lava that rose to the surface became great granite stones. Years of wind and rain wore down the mountains until they became the current weather-beaten series of boulders and rounded mountaintops.

8

Native American tribes rested in the mountains while moving between the Northern Plains, Texas, and Mexico. European traders met with the Native Americans to trade hides and other goods in the mountains. In the early 1900s, President Theodore Roosevelt set aside almost 60,000 acres of the range to be the Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

9

President Roosevelt encouraged conservation, or saving land and animals. He doubled the number of national parks. Roosevelt also set aside land as national memorials, national forests, and national refuges. He worked to protect areas like the Grand Canyon in Arizona, Mount Olympus in Washington, and Crater Lake in Oregon. After his death, a national park was named for him in North Dakota.

10

In 1905, members of the New York Zoological Society proposed releasing a small herd of buffalo into the Wichita Mountains. The federal government accepted the idea, and the buffalo arrived in 1907. The buffalo settled into the preserve, and the number has slowly increased. The animals continue to reside in this safe area.

11

Other animals were brought into the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge since then. The animals roam through the preserve freely. The outside of the refuge is lined with a fence, and bars in the road at the entrance prevent the animals from leaving the area.

12

American buffalo, longhorn cattle, and other animals can wander throughout the preserve. Sometimes the animals stop near the road, and drivers stop to see the animals up close. Visitors to the mountains use opportunities like these to glimpse both the ancient mountains as well as an animal that was once close to disappearing.

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41


23

Read the first sentence of a summary of the article.

Summary of “A Land and Animal Preserve” The bison once roamed the Great Plains before being hunted by American settlers.

Which set of sentences best completes the summary? A Railroads had difficulties with bison. Bison moving along the rails could delay or even damage the trains.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

B The nearby Wichita Mountains are a contrast to the flat, low grasslands of the plains. People can drive on roads near the mountains. C Some people worked to save the bison. A refuge area was opened for them in the Wichita Mountains. D A historic mountain range attracted tourists. The government decided to keep bison there.

24

What is paragraph 4 mainly about?

A Americans moving west into the Great Plains B Americans killing off the American buffalo C Americans building transcontinental railroads D Americans fighting the Native Americans

42

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25

The author probably wrote this article to—

27

A convince readers to take a trip to southwestern Oklahoma

A Mountains form only on hillcovered grounds.

B tell about a special place that preserves animals and nature

B Mountains were created through hard work by people.

C describe the powerful forces that make a mountain range

C Mountains formed only around Oklahoma.

D explain the changes in the homelands of the American buffalo

26

Which sentence from the article shows how near people can get to a buffalo today?

From information in the article, what can the reader conclude about the way mountains form?

D Mountains were made by powerful events long ago.

28

A theme found in the article is—

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A One of these preserves is in the Wichita Mountains.

B Sometimes the animals stop near the road, and drivers stop to see the animals up close. C In 1905, members of the New York Zoological Society proposed releasing a small herd of American Buffalo in the Wichita Mountains.

A Native Americans’ feelings about settlers B the beginnings of railroads in America C differences between the world’s mountains

D saving land and animals for the future

D The animals, usually called bison, were a source of food, clothing, and leather for Native Americans.

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43


Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it.

An Unlikely Hero

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1

Aaron observed Dr. Capponelli as she molded the plaster cast to his leg. She had just told Aaron that he had broken a bone in his left leg, which in addition to causing him an immense amount of pain, was certain to destroy any amount of enjoyment that he might have experienced on the camping trip he had planned with his family and friends for that weekend.

2

Aaron said little on the ride home from the emergency room, his mind replaying the fraction of a second that had ruined his whole summer vacation. He was rounding second base and heading for third when he saw the ball out of the corner of his eye and slid through the dirt to make the play. As his foot connected with the bag, he heard a loud snap, which was immediately followed by an explosion in his leg. Despite Aaron’s best efforts, the umpire called him out, but his leg pulsed with so much pain that he didn’t care.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

3

The sound of his father’s voice brought Aaron back to the present. “Don’t worry, Aaron, you’ll still have a good time on the camping trip this weekend.”

4

Aaron sighed; he knew his father was trying to make him feel better, but he was beginning to think that skipping the camping trip altogether sounded like the best idea.

5

The next day, Aaron teetered in the driveway on his crutches, watching as Lisa, his little sister, Benjamin and Tyrell, his best friends, and his parents bustled back and forth from the house to the camper with tents, sleeping bags, and coolers. Aaron resigned himself to the fact that he was going on this camping trip no matter what.

6

When the camper was loaded, everyone clambered in and buckled up. It took about two hours to reach their favorite campsite, a clearing at the edge of a river renowned for its marvelous whitewater rapids.

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7

Aaron felt useless as everyone busied themselves setting up tents, gathering wood for the campfire, and preparing food for dinner. He sat on the ground and rested his throbbing leg on a cooler filled with bottled water. When darkness fell, he listened to his father’s failed attempt at telling a terrifying ghost story, pointed out the constellations to Lisa, and told Benjamin and Tyrell about the exact moment when he knew his leg was broken. Later, everyone settled into their tents and fell fast asleep.

8

The next morning, Aaron awoke to the sound of chirping birds and the aroma of bacon cooked over an open fire. For a moment, he forgot that he had a broken leg and drank in the sights and sounds of a forest in the morning. As he rolled over, however, the dull ache in his left leg reminded him that he would be spending a long day by himself, lounging at the edge of the river with a book and a fishing pole. His mother had agreed to take Lisa downstream to calmer waters to go swimming, his father planned to go hiking (which was merely his excuse for going bird-watching), and Benjamin and Tyrell were going to trek upstream to join a whitewater rafting group.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

9

As everyone embarked on their individual adventures, Aaron hobbled to the edge of the river and seated himself in a warm patch of sunlight. He leaned his head against a rock and closed his eyes.

10

Aaron wasn’t sure how long he had been napping when the sound of a girl shouting for help roused him from his slumber. Scanning the water, his eyes locked on a girl who had somehow gotten her bright green kayak stuck between two boulders in the roughest part of the rapids.

11

She waved her arms and bellowed: “Hey, help me, please!”

12

Aaron grabbed his crutches and struggled to his feet. “How am I going to help her with this cast on my leg?” he mumbled.

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45


13

He suddenly remembered that his father had stowed a length of rope in one of the drawers in the camper. He dug quickly through some odds and ends until he found the rope, and then limped back to the edge of the river. He tied a knot in the rope to form a loop, swung it over his head like a lasso, and gave it a powerful toss toward the girl. Unfortunately, the rope didn’t quite reach the girl, so Aaron pulled it back and once again thrust it toward the girl. It was no use. The rope was so light that it was being carried by the wind. He couldn’t throw it far enough for the girl to reach it, and he knew that if she tried to jump into the water to grab it, she would be swept away by the raging waters.

14

I need to tie the rope to something heavier so I can throw it further into the water, thought Aaron, eyeing the crutches he had propped against a tree. He grabbed one, tied the rope around it, and heaved it toward the girl in the kayak like a javelin-thrower aiming to set a new world record.

15

The girl in the kayak caught the crutch in midair and, gripping it tightly in her hands, jumped into the river. It was difficult to pull the girl through the bubbling rapids, but eventually she was close enough that Aaron was able to grasp her hand and pull her from the water.

16

The girl, whom Aaron later learned was named Katie, thanked him numerous times as he handed her a towel. After a while, she had dried off and managed to relax, and Aaron offered her a bottle of cold water and a peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwich. She talked to Aaron as she munched on the sandwich.

17

“I guess it’s a good thing you have a broken leg,” she commented.

18

“Why do you say that?” Aaron inquired.

19

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

“Well, if you didn’t have a broken leg, I doubt that you would have been sitting here or heard my cries for help. You’re my hero,” said Katie, draping her arm across her forehead like a damsel in distress.

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29

In paragraph 8, the phrase “drank in the sights and sounds” indicates that Aaron—

32

Which detail from the story best shows that Aaron has a lot of determination?

A took medicine to stop his leg hurting

A He goes on a camping trip with a broken leg.

B went for a swim in the river

B He makes a new friend named Katie.

C was feeling hungry and thirsty

C He tries to slide into third base during his baseball game.

D relaxed and enjoyed the forest setting

D He shows his sister where the constellations are in the sky. 30

Aaron wants to skip the camping trip because he is— A afraid that he might hurt his leg even more

33

In paragraph 2, the word explosion helps give the reader a sense of Aaron’s—

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

B unwilling to help his family load the camper

A speed B pain

C fearful of being left by himself in the forest

C temper

D disappointment

D unlikely to be able to take part in any activities

34 31

The author organizes paragraphs 12 through 15 by— A comparing Aaron’s actions to those of the girl in the kayak B listing Aaron’s ideas about what he can use to save the girl in the kayak C explaining the relationship Aaron forms with the girl in the kayak

At the end of the story, Katie helps Aaron realize that— A having a broken leg is not the end of the world B camping with family and friends can be fun C whitewater rafting is an exciting adventure D sitting alone in the woods is a bad idea

D describing the steps Aaron takes to rescue the girl in the kayak

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47


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B AMPLE T GIVEN FO S S I H T IS NO N O I S IS PERM

ISBN 978-1-4204-5529-8


NYS-Higher-F