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Exploring the unknown Did you know!

How medicine and physcology connects

The human brain is much more active at night than during the day. That is why you get all those thoughts before you sleep. People are more likely to cry at night because lack of sleep makes emotions hard to control.

Medicine The subject i chose was medicine. For a long time I have been interested in the human body and biology. The courses I specialized myself in in high school are all connected to medicine in one or another way. I think this subject is interesting because the human body is complicated and we are so perfect, f.x. the process from being a little sperm to being a full grown human being that can walk, see, think and everything is incredible. Our knowledge in medicine is constantly getting better and better and theories change as well. That‟s why people who study medicine always has to be upgrading their knowledge by reading studies online and constantly knowing what is new in science. You can study medicine in almost every country in the world. In Iceland there are oral exams and many people take it every year but only small percent of people get through. You can only take the exam four times, once every year, and many people have to take the exams four times to get in. So you have to be well prepared for the exam. After you get the doctor degree witch takes between 5-6 years to study most people decide what they want to specialize in. I want to be a surgeon, but surgery has many sub-specialties and I haven‟t decided yet what I would like to specialize myself in. I think people normally don‟t decide that until they have tried to work as a surgeon. It takes a long time until you are fully educated doctor and you have to be ready to dedicate your life to medicine. Rakel Lind Úlfhéðinsdóttir

A small area of the brain called Amygdala enables you to read someone else’s face expressions. Gamophobia is a psychological condition that causes a person to fear that they’ll one day marry the wrong person

If you smile, even if you are in a bad mood, it will immediately improve your mood, because the simple action of thinking about smiling and using the muscles is enough to trigger happy chemicals in the brain. A.Ý.Ú


Did you know ! Your brain doesn„t rest when it„s sleeping. The brain is not shot down like many people thing or sleeping while we are. He„s actually merging new memories and making new connections. So we„re always working. You have a friend limit. A normal person can‟t have over 50-150 that trey can call their friends. A.M.H

When I think of my future and what I want to learn in college, psychology is number one. I want to learn psychology as I plan to become a clinical psychologist in the future. That‟s why I choose psychology in the beginning of this class. I want to be able to assist people who are mentally ill. I think studying psychology is good for everyone as we human are really bad looking at and face our own problems and weaknesses. Sometimes it‟s good to have someone to talk to and then I want to be able to be there for some people. Many people always just imagine clinical psychologist when they hear the words psychology. But that‟s really not just like that. You can choose from many specialties

in psychology as it‟s a really wide course. Some people end up in the clinical psychology but that‟s not all of them. Some people choose to work as psychologists in ads. Some want to learn biological psychology, other choose to specialize in the personality and so on, there are multiple ways to specialize in psychology.

I think that everyone should learn something in psychology. It really gives you an extra boost in your everyday life. You never know what will happened in your life. It can be good or bad. If you or someone in your life have a big trauma for example it can be handy knowing something about how it‟s best to handle that. Alla María Heimisdóttir

An academic science. Psychology is an academic science that involves the scientific studies of human behaviour. It has the main goal to understand individuals and groups. I haven‟t yet decided what I want to do in the future. But I am very interested in psychology and even though I don‟t necessarily want to work as a psychologist, I think that psychology is a good foundation because I am interested in working with people. A diploma in psychology opens a lot of career options. You can work as a psychologist in different institutions. For example: hospitals, schools or even a gym. You can also have your own firm. A diploma in psychology is always very useful if you are working with people. You can choose almost any social profession you wish, psychology is a good foundation.

There are many subfields of Psychology. Such as: social, positive and biological psychology. I choose developmental psychology as my speciality. It mainly focuses on the development of the human mind through time, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on affective, moral, social, or neural development. Developmental psychologists would for example engage a child with a book and then make observations based on how the child interacts with the object.

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Did you know? The human tongue has 10,000 taste buds. Our eyes are always the same size from birth unlike our nose and ears The total weight of skin in an average human adult is 61 pounds (24 kg.) Our heart beats around 100,00 times every day When you sneeze, all your bodily functions stop-even your heart. There is more bacteria in your mouth than the human population of the United States and Canada combined

Hippocrates Hippocrates was an ancient Greek physician who is considered the father of western medicine. He is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods. He separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits. Hippocrates or some of his students wrote the Hippocratic Oath, he has taken RLĂš

Alexander Fleming Alexander Fleming (1988-1951) is known as the father of Antibiotics. He was a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist. Alexander Fleming is best known for two things, his discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and for his clinical discovery of Penicillin, but the funny thing about it is that he made that discovery accidently. His discovery of penicillin changed the world of modern medicine, penicillin has saved, and is still saving, millions of people around the world.

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Interesting words

and terms in the study of psychology Cognitive psychology Social Psychology

Sigmund Freud Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born May 6th, 1856 in Austrian. He died in September 23rd, 1939. He was 83 years old when he died which was really high age at this time. Freud is really well known psychologist and he is known as the father of psychoanalysis. But he is also known for working with psychotherapy and

Concent of stress


Social behavior

Freud was really obsessed with sex and could connect almost everything to

Psychiatric disorders

that. But despite all of that he is the founding father of the psychoanalysis and

Environmental variables Mood disorder Clinical psychology

that was and still is extremely influential in the psychology. A.M.H

Alfred Adler Was born February 7th, 1870 in Vienna, Austria. Died in May 28, 1937.


Alfred had health issues as a child which was the reason for his longing to


become a physician.


Sigmund Freud invited Adler to join a psychological analytic discussion group, this group later became the Vienna psychoanalytic society. Adler broke away from the group after some disagreements with some of Freud„s theories. Adler was always quick to let people know that he was a colleague of Freud„s and not a disciple of his. One of the key factors in Adler„s theories was that every person from a young age has a sense of inferiority and strive to assert their superiority over others.

Did you know that your mind wanders a lot! 30% of the times he wanders and all up to 70%. It can be both good and bad. A.M.H

Adler research and theories on Therapy and Child development played an essential role. However those are not the only areas where his knowledge helped. When Alfred Adler died he was cremated, his cremated remains were thought to be lost until being found at a crematorium in 2007 in Edinburgh. A.M.H


John locke Born August 29th, 1632 in Wrington, England. Died in October 28th, 1704. John Locke was English philosopher known as the father of Classical Liberalism. He came up with the theory of Tabula rasa which means blank slate. That theory of his is used a lot today. It comprises that children are born with no personality or mental content. He says that their knowledge comes from experience and perception. Their personality, social and emotional behavior, and intelligence comes from the nature, raising and experience. Many psychologist disagree with the Tabula Rasa but it is still unknown if it‟s true or not. A.M.H


Edward Jenner Edward Jenner was an English physician and scientist. He is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have saved more lives than the work of any other man. First he did his experiment on a eight year old boy. That wasn‟t enough proof so he performed his experiment on several more childrens. In 1798, the results were finally published. RLÚ

Edward Jenner

Bad side effects of cosmetics Many people have 'fillers' injected into their facial tissue to give them 'bee-stung lips' or to smooth out their wrinkles. Unfortunately, a lot of cosmetic treatment customers experience unpleasant side effects in the form of tender subcutaneous lumps that are difficult to treat and which -- in isolated cases -- have led to lesions that simply will not heal. Research recently published now supports that, despite the highest levels of hygiene, this unwanted side effect is caused by bacterial infection. 2014/03/140311104925.htm

How cancer cells spread Biologists have believed that cancers cells spread through the body in a slow, aimless fashion, resembling a drunk who can't walk three steps in a straight line. They now know that's true in a flat petri dish, but not in the three-dimensional space of an actual body. This finding is important because it should lead to more accurate results for scientists studying how cancer spreads through the body, often leading to a grim prognosis. To address this dimensional disagreement, the study's authors have produced a new mathematical formula that they say better reflects the behavior of cells migrating through 3D environments s/2014/03/140311123820.htm

Interesting word in medicine Carpus clavicle Coccyx Cranium Vertebrate Femur Humerus


Úlnliðsbein Viðbein Rófubein Höfuðkúpa Hryggdýr Lærleggur Upphandleggsbein

Hyoid Tungubein/malbein Metacarpal Miðhandarbein Caption describing picture or graphic. Metatarsal Framrist Patella Hnéskel Phalanges Fingubein/tábein


B.F skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974. Skinner's staunch behaviourism made him a dominating force in psychology and therapy techniques based on his theories are still used extensively today, including behaviour modification and token economies. "The consequences of behavior determine the probability that the behavior will occur again" --B. F. Skinner Jean Piaget.

"The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done. -Jean Piaget Jean Piaget was born 9 August 1896 and died 16 September 1980 at the age of 84. He was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher. Piaget's work has had a big influence on psychology, especially our understanding children's intellectual development. His research contributed to the growth of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, genetic epistemology, and education reform. Albert Einstein once described Piaget's observations on children's intellectual growth and thought processes as a discovery "so simple that only a genius could have thought of it."


Parenting after the loss of a Child

Did you know that.. Your more likely to blame people rather than the situation. If you‘re f.x. late for a meeting, you blame the driver for driving to slow but not the constructions or the traffic on the way. A.M.H People are inherently lazy. They try to do the least work done as possible to get a task done. A.M.H

As everybody know the life of people who loses their child change forever. That is something missing an it„s not coming back. In this article there was an interview with Mary, a women that had lost her eldest daughter. But she had to keep on being a good mother for Daniella, her younger daughter. At first she was so worried about Daniella and had to make sure she was okay constantly. It is common that parents are like that after loss of a child and want their other child to move their social life home instead of meeting other people at the mall or something like that. They can get so fearful and over protective to the other children. On the other hand sometimes parents get extra lenient to the other children and try to

10 keys to happier living based on self-acceptance Many people try to do make themselves happy but they„re self-acceptance is maybe not very strong and good. You have to accept you as you are and be good to yourself to be happy, or at least a lot happier if you are already.

You have to have in mind that you can only be yourself if you want to promote your selfacceptance. It can be hard to find out who you are or what it is you want to do with your life. But if you follow these 10 keys of happiness and find your self-acceptance things will come to you and if you are really happy you„ll stop letting the small that doesn„t matter get to you. You control your happiness all by yourself. It‟s your life, your body, your happiness and no one can change that accept yourself.

everything they can to make them happy and always be there for them. Often parent‟s relationship improves with the other children if a sibling dies as they have to be so strong and stay together. They have to learn to live without the other sibling or child together and learn to move forward as when it„s okay to smile again and to be happy and so on, especially for the other children. The parents have to try as well as they can to be strong for the other children as the parents are their rock. You never „get over „the death of a child and time does not change the loss. But it does help moderate the pain. It„s all about patience, time and try everything you can to stay strong.

Alla María Heimisdóttir

Here are 10 keys you can follow to live more happily: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Giving - Do things for others Relating – Connect with people Exercising – Take care of your body Appreciating- notice the world around

5. Trying out- Keep learning new things 6. Direction- Have goals to look forward to 7. Resilience- Find ways to bounce back 8. Emotion- Take a positive approach 9. Acceptance- Be comfortable with who you are 10. Meaning- Be part of something bigger A.M.H

William James. Agoraphobia An extreme fear of being in public places or open spaces from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing. Ageism Prejudice against older people, similar to racism and sexism in its negative stereotypes. EQ The emotional intelligence counterpart of IQ Social norms The expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable and appropriate attitudes and behaviors. Sleep apnea A sleep disorder of the upper respiratory system that causes the person to stop breathing while aslee Catharsis The process of expressing strongly felt but usually repressed emotions. Behaviorism A scientific approach that limits the study of psychology to measurable or observable behavior. Bipolar disorder A mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania. Broca's area The region of the brain that translates thoughts into speech or sign. Bystander intervention Willingness to assist a person in need of help

The art of being wise is the art of knowing what to overlook. --William James William James was born January 11, 1842 in New York City and died August 26, 1910 at the age of 68. William James is a Psychologist and philosopher who is often referred to as the father of American psychology. His 1200 page book, The Principles of Psychology, became a classic on the subject and his teachings and writings helped establish psychology as a science. In addition, James contributed to functionalism, pragmatism, and influenced many students of psychology during his 35-year teaching career.

The Personality Profile of Leaders Who Make War Leaders with a high need for personal power, like Putin, go to war more often.

Throughout history it has shown that leaders who tend to have the personality profile called “high need for power” are more likely to lead their countries in to war. Georg W Bush showed it for instance while Dwight Eisenhower didn‟t. It is important that leaders handle the power well. Leadership can be very stressful and power´s effects on the brain‟s act as a sort of anti-depressant. But power can be addictive and too much of it for too long causes dangerous changes in the brain, which can lead to reckless disinhibition, risk-blindness and difficulty in seeing things from other‟s perspective. ex UK Foreign Secretary Lord David Owen has described this as the “Hubris Syndrome” which he diagnosed leaders such as Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair and George W Bush.

Not many leaders can handle more than ten years of power without any physiological damage, such as altered personality or the increased desire for more power. Powerful leaders may create a delusion to themselves and they genuinely believe their abilities are crucial for the survival of their country and that no-one else can do what they do. That is why they fight to stay in post. But most democracies have devised constraints to counteract such dangerous changes to the brain. Vladimir Putin has been the Prime minister of Russia for approaching 15 years. That is a too long time for any man or woman‟s brain to endure without dangerous changes. Saturday‟s military incursion onto Ukraine may be a particularly worrying symptom of this leader‟s affliction. h-1-7/the-personality-profile-leaders-who-make-war A.Ý.Ú

Why People Rush Off Airplanes Why we can't wait to rush off airplanes

When a plane lands only microseconds pass until ninty-eight percent of the passengers are aggressively reaching towards the overhead compartment, lining up to leave – a mass exodus. It's pushy and uncomfortable. Why do we do this? 

Practical Reasons: Some people have other planes or cabs to cath.

The power of Crowds: Crowd mentality plays a huge role. Crowd mentality plays a huge role here. Someone stands, and someone else feels compelled to stand as well. Competition reigns; it’s instinctual  Nobody wants to be the sucker: Most people hate to wait on lines, so if you get first, you hope that the line will be short.  Flying phobias: Many people have flying phobias. They avoid flying, and always take the isle seat, because the window can trigger a panic reaction. It is understandable why they need to exit as quickly as possible  Other Emotional Reasons: Admittedly, some passengers suffer from anxiety disorders or ADHD, and for them, sitting for hours with very little to do is the definition of torture. And, some people can’t tolerate the smells or the tight quarters. But, does this explain why nearly everyone bolts to the exits; a hurry up and wait policy if there ever was one?  Existential Anxiety: While most people do not have a formal flying phobia, there still may be anxiety related to control. It would not surprise me if many folks, after flying 35,000 feet above the ground in the hands of another human being, feel an urgency to take control again. People get up because they unconsciously want their lives back. So why do why rush so much? We try to hard to control too many things. Sometimes letting go of control is what’s required. You may get to the same place nevertheless, but with a lot less pushing and shoving.


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