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Prakalp

- PMI Mumbai Chapter Journal

www.prakalponline.com

Conclave '12 Special

Delivering Business Results through Agility A PMI Mumbai Chapter initiative

Come | Connect | Share | Enrich


Delivering Business Results through Agility

Table of contents

Page

A study on project management psychological factors contributing to project success with specific focus on it projects

5 - 17

Harnessing big data solution to extract valuable insights from emails

18 - 27

How the world of agile was born? Neuroscience made me do it!

28 - 32

“To be recognized as the organization of choice by evangelizing Project Management”.

ß Evangelize project Management across industry, academia, community and government. ß Provide a forum for project management professionals to promote the principles and ethical standards of PMI. ß Promote networking among professionals, sharing project experiences and best practices, imparting training and enabling PMI certifications. ß Provide development of leadership skills among its volunteer leaders, members and society at large, and thereby enhancing quality of life.

Bharat Bhagat Tejas Sura R V Joshi Dattatray Pathak Rakesh Gupta Dr. Sanjay Buch Saurabh Parikh Amithanand D'silva Anjana Rao Rajesh Rupani Pradeep Sonawane Mitra Wani Kamal Jeswani Development Manish Nihal Jay Rawal Ajit Shah Jacob Zachariah

Advisor Advisor Advisor Advisor President Secretary VP Certification Training VP Finance VP Corporate Relations VP Publications VP Programs VP Communications VP Volunteer VP Membership VP Branches Ethics Committee Ethics Committee

Publication Team: Rajesh Rupani Mohammed Babrawala Shailesh Helekar Jhumur Mitra Disclaimer The information contained in this document represents the views of individual writers on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. It should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of PMI Mumbai Chapter, and PMI Mumbai Chapter cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented in this publication. This Journal is for informational purposes only. PMI MUMBAI CHAPTER MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IN THIS JOURNAL. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in, or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of PMI Mumbai Chapter. Some data or images used in this journal could be registered trademarks or property of their respective owners. PMI Mumbai Chapter does not claim any rights for the use of same as it is an office of no profit serving the growth of Project Management profession across the region. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the reader


Delivering Business Results through Agility

From the PMO’s desk Hi everyone, I welcome you all to this two day multi track Project Management conference PM Conclave’12 hosted by PMI Mumbai Chapter.This conference does not only target Project Managers but also other professions across multiple industries. When we say ‘Project’ what is it the first thing that comes to our mind? Something which is temporary, result oriented and has a start and end date, but is that only what projects are all about? If we look at our daily lives everything we do is a project for us, our entire day is full of activities that we perform and we certainly do not have a WBS for it, or do we? We wake up in the morning, brush our teeth, take bath, have breakfast, go to office..but do we follow the same schedule or set of activities every day? What if I like having my breakfast first and then take a bath? Can I not do it? I can right? Or else let me say that if we want to go for a movie that was not in a day’s plan, what do we do? Simply skip the movie?, no we change our schedule accordingly and also prioritize our schedule to fit in for the movie, then why can’t we do the same thing for our Projects as well, why are we so reluctant to accept change and prioritize when we know change is inevitable.That’s what Agile and agility is all about, prioritizing and reprioritizing and accepting that changes do happen and plan for it. As we were brainstorming on the Theme for the conference there were many themes that we discussed, themes revolving around Innovation, leadership, Portfolio management but the one that caught everyone’s attention was ‘Agile’. In this changing times when everyone wants to be quick, short and workable we thought why not have the theme as Agile and hence the theme of the conference was finalized to ‘Delivering Business Results through Agility’. So what is Agility all about? Is it really the ‘Agile’ we all talk about, the Agile methodologies or it’s something different? What’s the buzz all about? We hear the word in variety of places these days, Agile workshops, Agile labs, Agile leadership and many more. Agile is nothing great but just a mere concept which states that do things that are required, which are of high value and do it quick so that you generate an early ROI.That’s just Agile. There is myth that states that Agile is only being used in the IT industry, well think again, at PM Conclave’12 we have a speaker who is going to prove that Agile can be used beyond IT as well. Well as we respect that Agile is picking up and there is lots of buzz around it, and we still use traditional methodologies. At PM Conclave’12 we have made an attempt to blend both Agile as well as Non Agile methodologies and provide you with a unique flavor. We at PMI Mumbai Chapter really hope that you learn a lot from the highly diversified pool of speakers that we have, make new friends and keep them for life. Keep sharing and Enriching as knowledge has no boundaries. Thanks and Regards, Mohammed S Babrawala. Head PMO, PM Conclave’12. PMI Mumbai Chapter.

At PMI Mumbai Chapter we not only promote project management practices

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

President's Message Dear Friends, PMI Mumbai Chapter is on its twelve year journey.As we are passing through this journey we have pleasantly noted that are a few members who have been with the chapter for over 10 years. As part of the PM Conclave 2012 we propose to felicitate these members. There are many more members who have been sharing some part of the journey with the chapter for over 7 to 8 years. It’s really heartening to have the support of such members. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all these members who share similar feeling of belonging with the chapter. We started organizing the annual conference and the first one was conducted in 2006 in association with Computer Society of India, Mumbai chapter which was a 2 day affair.We then continued with the annual event as 1 day event and started celebrating the International Project Management Day. In 2010, the chapter was the joint host the national conference. This experience set a new bench mark for PM conferences in our region. Last year we scaled up our annual conference to 2 day conference with multiple tracks and larger budgets. We received very good feedback during and post the conference.This year in our 5th edition, we have attempted to scale up the conference further. Hope we can live up to the expectations of all our stakeholders. Hope in time with the support of industry, academia, our members and maybe more active participation from Government we could scale up the event further.We hope that our humble efforts in facilitating faster transformation of our nation through improved project management capability continues to gain momentum with each passing year. Coming to the theme of the conference.We deliberated on various topics and build consensus around Agility as the theme for this year.Agility means easy and quick.Agile responses is what our stakeholders expect from the projects teams.We have seen formal agile project management techniques being successfully used in software projects.We have various certifications in this space now including PMI-ACP or Agile Certified Practitioner. We organized one such training program a few months back and received a fabulous response.There seems to be interest and traction for Agile methodologies.We also came across use of agile practices in industries other than IT. Since our region has diverse group of industries we hope that knowledge sharing on the theme of the conference should help the participants. Our conferences are fully organized through voluntary efforts of our chapter members. A lot of effort is put in my the team members to deliver value to all the stakeholders. I take this opportunity to thank all volunteers for their help in delivering this conference. I would also like to thank all our speakers, guests and registered delegates without whose support we could not have put this event together. Hope that you have an enriching time at PMCONCLAVE 2012. For those readers who were unable to attend this event, look forward to your participation in future events of the chapter. Wish your association with PMI Mumbai Chapter is a rewarding experience. Warm Regards Rakesh Gupta President, PMI Mumbai Chapter

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

Editorial Dear Friends, Welcome to PM Conclave 2012 – PMI Mumbai chapter’s Annual Conference. It’s our privilege to host all of you at the event. The publications team is happy to present to you the PM Conclave 2012 special edition. This edition is published in two formats, the print edition & the electronic edition. These are differently edited based on the needs. The electronic edition has the full papers (top three) and a few other articles.The print edition has details about the conclave, summary of top three technical papers submitted during the conference, other articles, pages dedicated to our sponsors and the agenda of the conclave. One innovation that we have got in the print edition is to allow readers to capture notes in a structured fashion. We are using Cornell’s note taking method which gives a structure to the style of capturing notes. We hope the readers will find it easy to capture the notes in this structure. For the break-out’s the readers may not be able to attend all sessions and we encourage you to share notes with other conference attendees to help learn and grow. The theme of the Conclave is appropriately chosen as “Delivering Business Results through Agility”. Agile is the buzz word and PMI has taken the first steps to initiate the PMI-ACP (Agile Certified professional) certification. The first few bathes of certified professionals are out and the feedback is thoroughly encouraging. To keep with the theme of the conference, we have decided to keep the conference very agile and filled with valuable sessions. We have tried to cut the flab significantly and ensured that the attendees get their full value for money. The team has also tried to display agility at each stage of the conference and its setup. Right from the stage setup, to stalls to the planning, everything has been kept nimble and agile. Interspersed with the event we would also give some tid-bits about Agile and specific areas of learning so that those who are currently not Agile Practitioners get to learn the basics well. This will help them make an informed choice whenever they intend to pursue the path of agile. Our aim is to have all the attendees appreciate the principles of Agility and the benefits it can get to the projects. With the excellent line up of speakers and case studies, we believe this learning will only be better and the experience astounding. We at PMI Mumbai chapter strongly believe that you will enjoy every bit of the two days of sessions with eminent key notes, panel discussions, case studies and paper presentations. Happy reading and we look forward to your valuable feedback at all times!!! Be Agile Rajesh Rupani VP Publications PMI Mumbai Chapter

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

About PM Conclave’12.

Delivering Business Results through Agility A PMI Mumbai Chapter initiative A 2 day project management conference designed for industry leaders. 1-2 December, 2012, at Hyatt Regency, off International Airport, Mumbai. PMI Mumbai Chapter is proud to present its 5th Annual Conference PM Conclave’12. We at Mumbai Chapter have made constant efforts in bringing to you various high quality events months after months and years after years, be it with our PMP Club sessions, our PMPCE Prep courses or our Project Management and Leadership workshops and one such event that we do every year is our Annual Conference PM Conclave. The history of Conclave goes back in 2008 when we had our first ever conference, it used to be a one day conference, one of the very few chapters who were doing conferences at that time.The primary reason to have the conference was to celebrate the International Project management day where by providing opportunity for chapter members to meet network and share knowledge, and since then this is the 5thYear we are having this conference. We have different themes every year focusing on various aspects of Project Management, similarly the theme for PM Conclave’12 is ‘Delivering Business Results through Agility’. The primary focus of the theme does not just revolve around Agile, but it provides you a blend of Agile as well as Non Agile methodologies. The Conference is built in such a way that delegates not only get to learn from the eminent pool of speakers, but also get ample opportunity to network and get to know people. We have more than 300 delegates attending this year’s conclave from 80+ different companies across industries. Delegates now have a choice to listen to various speakers of their choice and interest. There are two amazing case studies to be presented at the Conclave. One is an award winning project case study on building a 590 MW solar park in Gujarat by Gujarat Power Ltd and other is on how an entire car was build in just 3 months using Agile. We also have the grand finale of Ideate, a project management competition presented by budding project managers from Mukesh Patel School of Technology and Management. If you have a peep through the delegate kit that has been provided to you, you will see that we have our bi-monthly journal ‘Prakalp’, this is special PM Conclave edition and it has all the speakers page attached to it for you to make notes, since you cannot sit in all the tracks, we emphasize that you connect to people who has attended other track sessions and share notes so that you do miss on what’s happening with the other tracks. We hope that you would enjoy every moment of this conference as much as we have had bring it to you.

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

A STUDY ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PROJECT SUCCESS WITH SPECIFIC FOCUS ON IT PROJECTS S. Chandramouli Cognizant Technology Solutions- Chennai Abstract Objective: This Research is the first step of an Endeavour to embark on a comprehensive study of Project Management Psychological Success Factors with specific focus on IT Industries. With a focus on the successful outcome aspects of the Project management, various sets of psychological success factors have been suggested in the literature. It is crucial to explore the relative importance and groupings of the psychological factors. Significance of the Study The project management profession is undergoing tremendous growth worldwide as officials of corporations, governments, academia, and other organizations recognize the value of common approaches and educated employees for the execution of projects (Waddell, 2005). Why Psychological Factors? Psychology can be broadly defined as the study of the human mind and behavior. It is a systematic approach to the understanding of people, their thoughts, emotions and behavior (Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior). Project Management is more to do dealing with the people rather than just applying scientific application of tools and techniques.Those scientific appliances will not work if people are not willing to accept it. Scope: This Research aims to identify psychological Factors associated with Project management in IT projects, and explore their ranking, underlying relationship and appropriate groupings. A questionnaire (Survey) instrument containing 20 Project management psychological success factors filled out by 206 project managers.

Methodology

Purpose

Outcomes

Literature Review

Identify initial CSFs

Twenty Initial CSFs

Face to Face Review

Obtain Opinions from Professionals

First Version of the Questionnaire

Pilot Study

Pilot the Questionnaire

The Finalized Questionnaire

Survey & Data Analysis

Prioritize CSFs & group them

Revised CSFs based on Group

Survey Data has been analyzed in order to understand the variables (initial Factors). Survey Respondents were asked to Rank the initial twenty psychological Factors based on Forced Ranking Method. The initial factors (variables) identified in this study are interrelated amongst themselves and also influence successes of the Project. This study relies on data from the Project Managers located at Chennai location.

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

Outcome of the Research: The study adopts a data reduction technique to examine the presence of any complex structure among a set of project management psychological variables. It is the outcome of this Research along with the theory on how to achieve those factors in any IT Project.The top three ranked psychological success factors for Project Management were “Leadership Ability of the Project Manager”, “Technical Skills of the team members” and “Customer Satisfaction Level”. These findings help to clarify what the high prioritized project management psychological factors are, and could also be used as an assessment tool to evaluate the performance of the Project Management and thus help to identify areas for improvement. After satisfying all the necessary tests of reliability of the survey instrument, sample size adequacy and population matrix, the data was subjected to principal component analysis, resulting in the identification of five new thematic project management competency areas; and were explained in terms of Experience Level of Stakeholders, Energetic team members, Risks and people management, Expectations management, Leadership ability.. Business Value: These Component areas now form the basis for lateral project management training requirements in the context of the IT industry. The main contribution of the paper is manifested in the use of the principal component analysis, which has rigorously provided an understanding into the complex structure & the relationship between the various psychological factors. It is hoped that the output of this study will be beneficial to all the stakeholders of projects while at the same time contribute to the knowledge enhancement in the Software field. Keywords: Project Management, Project Success factors, Factor Analysis, Surveys and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Author Profile: S. Chandramouli PMP, PMI ACP has been actively involved with the Project, Program management discipline and has a good record of delivering large-scale, mission-critical projects on time and within budget with Customer Satisfaction. He is the author of the book titled “Virtual Project Management Office”. “PMP Certification Excel with Ease” published by PEARSON, “PMI Agile Certified Practitioner Excel with ease” published by PEARSON. He got “Most Valuable Player of the Year 2004” award from Birla Soft Management for his initiatives on Project management. He is an alumnus of Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode (IIM K). He presented papers on Project Management in various international forums. He is a Project Management Professional (PMP) certified by Project Management Institute (PMI) USA. He was an active member in PMI's OPM3 and PMCDF Project Works. He is certified “Green Belt” in six sigma methodology. He is also ITIL (F) Certified. He conducts training programs on variety of subjects like Project Management, Program management, software engineering, quality system. He has been an invited speaker at various management conferences Organization: Cognizant Technology Solutions Chennai Email: Chandramouli.subramanian@cognizant.com Address: S. Chandramouli SFA Swethas Apartments No 1/68 Nanganallur 5th main Road Chennai 61 Phone : 09940076028

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors Table of Contents 1.1

Introduction to the Research

9

1.2

Significance of the Study

9

1.3

Why Psychological Factors?

9

1.4

Objectives of the Research

10

1.4.1

10

First Objective (Primary)

1.4.2

Second Objective (primary)

10

1.4.3

Third Objective (primary)

10

1.4.4

Fourth Objective (Secondary)

10

1.5

Study Assumptions

10

1.6

Principal Component Analysis

11

1.7

Data Analysis

11

1.8

Ranking of Factors

11

1.9

McDonald’s Omega (Reliability Test)

12

1.10 Associated Communalities (Reliability Test)

12

1.11 PCA Rotated factors

13

1.12 Recommendations

16

REFERENCES

17

7


Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors Executive Summary This Research is the first step of an Endeavour to embark on a comprehensive study of Project management Success Factors with specific focus on IT industry. With a focus on the successful outcome aspects of the Project management, twenty initial set of critical success factors (initial set of variables) have been suggested as an outcome of the literature. To find out the top Project Management psychological factors, we have done a survey using the initial Critical Success factors identified. The findings are listed in the report attached with the Chapters, which shows the Top 3 Psychological factors and what we need to do in order to ensure the Top 3 factors are factored inside our Project. Analysis of the survey was carried out using the principal Component Analysis Technique to reduce the number of variables (initial set of CSFs). The initial factors (variables) identified in this study are interrelated amongst themselves and also influence successes of the Project.This study relies on data from the Project Managers located at Chennai location.

8


Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors 1.1 Introduction to the Research Despite this significant increase in project management visibility and focus, project success rates continue to remain depressed. A large survey of project success revealed that over 30% of projects were considered failed (Standish Group, 2001).A survey in 2004 found that the failure rate improved to less than 25% but that a majority of projects continued to be considered either failed or challenged (Jugdev & Muller 2005). Understanding what makes Project a success is very important in today’s complex and competitive environment. This Research will help anyone to understand Project management psychological factors leading to Project success and the recommendation to use it for the success of the Project. 1.2 Significance of the Study The project management profession is undergoing tremendous growth worldwide as officials of corporations, governments, academia, and other organizations recognize the value of common approaches and educated employees for the execution of projects (Waddell, 2005). 1.3 Why Psychological Factors? Psychology can be broadly defined as the study of the human mind and behavior. It is a systematic approach to the understanding of people, their thoughts, emotions and behavior.The application of this understanding helps to solve human problems (Psychology:The Science of Mind and Behavior). Project Management is more to do dealing with the people rather than just applying scientific application of tools and techniques.Those scientific appliances will not work if people are not willing to accept it. Entire Software industry (IT) is moving from Process oriented culture to People Oriented Culture which is evident from lots of Software Projects moving towards agile methodology and so there is increasing acceptance that psychosocial factors play a crucial role in the success of the Project. What Can Psychology Offer to Facilitate Successful Projects? Using Psychology in projects can do the following (Project Management Psychology) •

Ensure that an appropriately skilled project team is selected so that all members have the skills they need to deliver a successful project.

Ensure that the project manager and the project team not only have the skills necessary to manage and deliver a project but also that they have the necessary people management skills.

Build a project team that bonds together in the pursuit of a common aim and continues to work as a coherent whole throughout the duration of the project.

Help ensure that the needs (including psychological needs) of Stakeholders/Team Members are understood and that there is buy in.

Ensure that Stakeholders and Team Members are engaged are engaged and involved in a way that is meaningful for them and creates a bond between them.

Ensure that there is a clear and concise plan in place to manage change and any perceived ‘resistance to change’.

Ensure that mechanisms are put in place to sustain the desired change brought about by the project

Ensure that the human element of risk taking is understood and managed.

However, to date, there has not been a systematic review critically appraising the scientific evidence relating to individual psychological factors with an emphasis on Project success Factors.

9


Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors 1.4 Objectives of the Research 1.4.1 First Objective (Primary) The Primary Objective of the study is to identify the top level Project management psychological variables (initial Success Factors) leading to Project Success with specific focus on IT industry in the current scenario. We are aiming to find Twenty (20) project management psychological variables leading to the project success using the literature survey. 1.4.2 Second Objective (primary) The second objective of the study is to find out the top 3 Project management psychological variables (initial Success Factors) leading to Project Success with specific focus on IT industry in the current scenario. 1.4.3 Third Objective (primary) The third objective of the study is to develop increased understanding of all the variables, finding out relationship between them (Success Factors) leading to project success. 1.4.4 Fourth Objective (Secondary) To devise methodological recommendations for future research and design the work in the area of Project Management. 1.5

Literature Review

The literature review provided the foundation for this research. The 20 psychological factors included in our study are summarized below: Table 1.1 Top 20 Psychological Factors S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Top 20 Psychological Factors Motivation level of the Team Customer Satisfaction Level Continuous Stakeholder engagement Ability to Manage Conflicts Trusted Team Members Empowered Team Members Leadership ability of the Project Manager Relationship between Stakeholders Communications skills of the Project Manager Technical skills of the Team members Learning from Failures Negotiation skills of the Project Manager Support from Executive Management Realistic expectation from the Customer Experience Level of the Team Experience Level of the Project Manager Team Commitments People Issues Addressed Quickly Understanding how to best manage project risks Aligned expectations among team members

10


Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors We listed down 20 psychological variables (initial success factors) based on the literature review that can influence the Project Success. We surveyed different project managers to determine the top psychological variables (initial project success factors). All identified variables were discussed and screened for further analysis to find out the Components leading to the project success. 1.5 Study Assumptions The following assumptions were made for this study: 1. 2. 3. 4.

1.6

Project management psychological factors will influence the successful project outcomes. Participants in the study will have a background in, and are familiar with the project management psychological factors because of their experience in handling projects. Success factors in project outcomes are based on the available literature. For the purpose of this study, we assumed that a successful project is one that has delivered the project outcome, within time and budget, whilst ensuring the sponsors and stakeholders are content with the quality of what has been delivered and that the delivered products or services are ft for purpose and sustainable. Principal Component Analysis

Principal component analysis is a powerful tool for reducing a number of observed variables into a smaller number of artificial variables that account for most of the variance in the data set. It is particularly useful when you need a data reduction procedure that makes no assumptions concerning an underlying causal structure that is responsible for co variation in the data.When it is possible to postulate the existence of such an underlying causal structure, it may be more appropriate to analyze the data using exploratory factor analysis. 1.7

Data Analysis

Note : We already achieved the first primary objective of the research thru the literature Review whose aim is to identify the top level Project management psychological variables (initial Success Factors) leading to Project Success with specific focus on IT industry in the current scenario. We also aimed to find Twenty (20) project management psychological variables leading to the project success using the literature survey.The third objective of the study is to develop increased understanding of all the variables, finding out relationship between them (Success Factors) leading to project success. Fourth objective of the research is to devise methodological recommendations for future research and design the work in the area of Project Management.We will be dealing with the fourth objective (Secondary) in the next Chapter. 1.8

Ranking of Factors

The analysis of the survey response data produced the means for the 20 CSFs ranging from 6.31 to 13.48, which indicated that all respondents consider these 20 psychological factors critical for Project success in IT projects. Table 1.2 Ranking of Variables S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Variable Factor Motivation level of the Team Customer Satisfaction Level Continuous Stakeholder engagement Ability to Manage Conflicts Trusted Team Members

11

Mean 7.15 8.33 8.54 10.72 11.301

Rank Rank 2 Rank 4 Rank 5 Rank 9 Rank 12


Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors 6

Empowered Team Members

11.296

Rank 11

7

Leadership ability of the Project Manager

6.31

Rank 1

8

Relationship between Stakeholders

10.13

Rank 8

9

Communications skills of the Project Manager

8.81

Rank6

10

Technical skills of the Team members

8.06

Rank 3

11

Learning from Failures

13

Rank 18

12

Negotiation skills of the Project Manager

10.87

Rank 10

13

Support from Executive Management

12.74

Rank 17

14

Realistic expectation from the Customer

8.87

Rank 7

15

Experience Level of the Team

11.39

Rank 13

16

Experience Level of the Project Manager

11.52

Rank 15

17

Team Commitments

11.69

Rank 15

18

People Issues Addressed Quickly

13.14

Rank 19

19

Understanding how to best manage project risks

11.94

Rank 16

20

Aligned expectations among team members

13.48

Rank 20

The highest ranking by all respondents was “Leadership ability of the Project Manager” (mean = 6.31), which therefore was considered as an extremely influential psychological factor to the success of projects. “Motivation Level of the team” was considered as second most influential factor with a mean score of 7.15.“Technical Skills of the team members” was considered as third influential factor with a mean score of 8.06. 1.9

McDonald’s Omega (ReliabilityTest)

McDonald's Omega = 0.828212 The above data indicates that our data is reliable. 1.10 Associated Communalities (ReliabilityTest) After satisfying all the necessary tests of reliability of survey instrument, sample size adequacy and population matrix, the data was subjected to factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA), with varimax rotation. Prior to principal component analysis, the communalities involved were first established. Communality explains the total amount an original variable shares with all other variables included in the analysis and is very useful in deciding which variables to finally extract. Table 1.3 Communality of Variables Variable V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7

Communality 0.681129 0.840575 0.661608 0.405118 0.5501 0.546201 0.587908

12


Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors V8

0.643166

V9

0.582432

V10

0.629793

V11

0.532217

V12

0.458641

V13

0.592733

V14

0.841407

V15

0.744087

V16

0.56136

V17

0.56806

V18

0.480996

V19

0.601963

V20

0.415151

Average Communality = 0.6 The communality measures the percent of variance in a given variable explained by all the factors jointly and may be interpreted as the reliability of the indicator.The communalities of variables clearly indicate that the Components are acceptable. 1.11 PCA Rotated factors The ability to interpret of results PCA can be improved through rotation (Norusis, 1988). The rotated factor solution is displayed by default and is essential for interpreting the final rotated analysis. Rotation suggests the bahaviour of the variables under extreme conditions and maximizes the loading of each variable on one of the extracted factors whilst minimizing the loading on all other factors and it is best factor output solutions for interpreting factor analysis. Below Table presents the results of the rotated component matrix of the PCA. Table 1.4 Rotated Loading Matrix ROTATED LOADING MATRIX

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Motivation level of the Team

-0.093

0.68

-0.028

-0.081

0.05

Customer Satisfaction Level

-0.43

-0.054

-0.291

-0.392

-0.138

Continuous Stakeholder engagement

-0.371

-0.241

0.043

-0.232

-0.12

Ability to Manage Conflicts

-0.425

0.203

0.007

0.402

0.248

Trusted Team Members

0.096

0.093

-0.647

0.094

0.169

Empowered Team Members

-0.039

0.22

-0.268

0.311

0.126

Leadership ability of the Project Manager

-0.006

0.062

0.124

-0.246

0.612

Relationship between Stakeholders

-0.246

-0.627

-0.2

-0.086

0.003

Communications skills of the Project Manager

-0.192

-0.156

0.087

-0.3

0.393

Technical skills of the Team members

0.284

0.529

-0.099

-0.334

-0.163

Learning from Failures

-0.063

0.712

0.636

-0.102

-0.373

Negotiation skills of the Project Manager

-0.003

-0.411

0.132

-0.047

0.436

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors Support from Executive Management

0.077

-0.613

0.031

0.113

-0.219

Realistic expectation from the Customer

-0.117

-0.067

0.219

-0.254

-0.651

Experience Level of the Team

0.836

0.144

-0.005

-0.122

-0.072

Experience Level of the Project Manager

0.748

-0.217

0.057

-0.068

0.278

Team Commitments

0.136

0.048

-0.289

0.415

-0.197

People Issues Addressed Quickly

-0.046

0.126

0.256

0.661

-0.07

Understanding how to best manage project risks

0.071

-0.01

0.655

0.189

0.02

Aligned expectations among team members

0.017

-0.048

-0.051

0.615

-0.108

The next stage involved the examination of the presence of any complex structure among the variables.A complex structure is said to be present when a variable has a factor or component loading greater than 0.50 on more than one component. Loadings express the influence of each original variable within the component. After checking for complex structure in the variables, the factor loadings are again examined, but this time to check for components that have only one variable loading on them. What remains is the interpretation of the 5 principal components extracted. Table 1.5 Component Identification table Component 1 (Experience level of stakeholders) var 15 Experience Level of the Team var 16 Experience Level of the Project Manager Component 2 (Energetic Team members) Var 1 Motivation level of the Team Var 10 Technical skills of the Team members var 11 Learning from Failures Component 3 (Risks and people Management) var 19 Understanding how to best manage project risks Component 4 (Expectations management) Var 18 People Issues Addressed Quickly Var 20 Aligned expectations among team members Component 5 (Leadership ability) Var 7 Leadership ability of the Project Manager Component 1: Experience level of stakeholders This component was relatively more important than the other 4 components. It indicated that project managers consider experience levels of stakeholders are significant the successful project execution. Component 2: Energetic team members This component ranked second among the 5 components. Energetic team members leads to project success and so before any management activities, we need to ensure that team members are energized. This includes motivation level of the team , Learning from failures and technical skills of the work.

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors Component 3: Risks and people Management Three CSFs were included in this component relating to Risks and people management. Project managers have the responsibility to manage risks and formulate appropriate strategies to manage stakeholders. During the process of risk management, project managers always try to predict the reaction of stakeholders and choose the optimal solution for managing stakeholders. Component 4: Expectations management Since many stakeholders, such as government, local communities and media would be involved at later stages of the project process or in future projects, project managers, as the representatives of different organizations, have the responsibility to realize the change of their influence and relationships, promote a steady relationship with them, and communicate with them properly and frequently thereby managing their expectations Component 5: Leadership ability of the Project manager If the project manager is not having the leadership skills for managing the project and the corresponding stakeholders, then the project may not succeed and hence this is considered as an important component of project success. The importance of Project management has been recognized by many scholars and professionals.With a focus on different aspects of Project management, various sets of CSFs have been suggested in the literature. The field of project management is growing, and the opportunity and need for research is great. Shenhar and Dvir (2007a) have suggested that as “more resources [are] being allocated to research, the future of project management as a scholarly pursuit appears promising.” It is hoped that this study will provide new data and possible insights to the ongoing efforts at understanding the role of project typology and its impact on recommended best practices, project manager behaviors, and organizational policies. Results could be of interest to organizations for identifying leadership traits that should be encouraged or recognized, instructive to project leaders as they attempt to produce desired results in challenging and dynamic environments, and finally, to other researchers that are attempting to create more effective models and approaches in the field of project management. It is crucial to explore the relative importance and groupings of project management psychological factors. This paper presented part results of a questionnaire survey, and aims to identify CSFs associated with Project management psychological factors in IT Projects and explore their ranking and underlying relationship.The complexity of project environments nowadays has placed renewed emphasis on the need for project managers to understand the success factors in particular psychological factors surrounding project management, the world over. It is factual that, studies on project management competencies have been evolving eccentrically on issues that affect project performance. However, until now, the literature underpinning project management competencies has been fragmented and loosely tied without concrete understanding of the intricate relationships between the various project management knowledge areas but this study shows that we need to concentrate on project management psychological factors also. 20 CSFs were identified through a literature review.. Based on a questionnaire survey, the ranking of these CSFs were obtained.This helps clarify what the highly prioritized factors are.The top three ranked psychological success factors for Project Management were “Leadership Ability of the Project Manager”, “Technical Skills of the team members” and “Customer Satisfaction Level”. These findings help to clarify what the high prioritized project management psychological factors are, and could also be used as an assessment tool to evaluate the performance of the Project Management and thus help to identify areas for improvement. Since the results in this paper are based on a questionnaire survey, the respondents may have different understandings about our statements, and this may bias the scoring of the CSFs.Therefore, the findings in this paper should be further validated by case studies, of which the details will be presented in a new article. In addition, since

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors the interviews and questionnaire survey were conducted locally in Chennai, the findings may not be generalized to the other geographical locations. In future studies, the same research procedure should be conducted in other locations which have different cultures from Chennai to seek the similarities and differences of the CSFs for Project management in IT projects. Future research to explore problems and challenges confronting project management education and practice would be important. Studies to explore project management competencies requirement for specialized projects such as public-private-partnerships (PPP) projects and project finance strategy (PFS) projects will be interesting. Replication of this research to a larger sample is recommended to validate or refute these results. A larger sample would enhance statistical validity and, importantly, allow for model building and testing. Investigate additional factors that may influence project success. 1.12 Recommendations RECOMMENDATION 1:ANALYSE RESOURCE EXPERIENCE It is acceded that that managing multiple projects in a project-driven organization by default requires resources to be shared amongst a number of projects.The optimal utilization of resources with necessary experience and skills are therefore, becomes of cardinal importance when a condition of limited resources is experienced.The efforts of all contributors to the project must be integrated. Projects consist of many diverse tasks that require the different levels of expertise and resources. The most effective project management is achieved when all such contributors collaborate and work together as a well-trained team, under the integrative leadership of the project manager. RECOMMENDATION 2: GET COMMITMENT OF STAKEHOLDERS If people are motivated then they commit. If people are committed then they are motivated. The successful completion of a project thus requires commitment to the project scope, quality, time and cost between the organization’s management and its client or sponsor. The question that arises is as to how the commitment of stakeholders can be assured. It could be seen as being the responsibility of the project manager to attain the willing commitment of people to assigned tasks in order to achieve the coordination and collaboration of different work groups. However, to enable the project manager to accept this responsibility he or she needs to have the support from top management (project sponsor) and also have the authority to drive the project through to the end. RECOMMENDATION 3: MANAGE RISKS PROACTIVELY Projects are uncertain business, by the very nature of its goal to create a unique product or service. Uncertainty, however, can lead to both risk and opportunities. Consequently, a very important part of a project manager's job is management of risk. The aim is to move potential uncertainties away from risk (that is, adverse time and cost implications) and towards opportunity (that will enhance the project and make it more successful). To do this, potential risks must first be identified and preferably grouped in some way, analyzed and then appropriate defensive responses initiated such as preventive actions to reduce the probability of the risk.Alternatively, contingency plans need to be developed as a precaution. Risk management calls for proactive steps to be taken during the planning of the project to mitigate the possibility of a less favorable outcome, by reducing the project risk wherever this can be achieved cost effectively.

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Study on Project Management Psychological Factors REFERENCES Bartlett, M. S. 1954. A note on the multiplying factors for various chi square approximations, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 16(Series B): 396–398 CHAOS Report (1994): The Standish Group :http://www.standishgroup.com/sample_research/chaos_1994_1.php [Accessed 4rh July 2012] Chandramouli (2011): PMP Certification Excel with Ease: Pearson Publication CHAOS Report in 1995 (http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/docs/chaos-report.pdf) [Accessed 2 July 2012] Conflict Management: Psychology and Science : http://iabmp.org/conflict-management-psychology-and-science [Accesed on 20 July 2012] Critical Success Factors of Project http://www.watermarklearning.com/Critical_PM_Factors.php [Accessed on 18 July 2012] Hayes, Frank. (1997). “Managing User Expectations”, Computerworld, Nov 3, 1997, 31,44. IT Cartex Survey : http://It-Cortex.com/Stat_Failure_Cause.htm [Accessed on 17 July 2012] Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2004). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Project Success and failure: http://www.umsl.edu/~sauterv/analysis/6840_f03_papers/frese/ [Accessed on 17 July 2012] Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior from http://www.shwetambara.com/psychology.htm [Accessed on 2 July 2012] Psychology Today – Embracing the fear of failure: http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200410/embracingthe-fear-failure [Accessed on 20 July 2012] Psychological Factors Definition: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_psychological_factors#ixzz1zRt59llO [Accessed on 2 July 2012] Wang, S. Q.; Tiong, R. L. K.; Ting, S. K.; Ashley, D. 1999. CRihsikn am, anagement framework for BOT power projects in Journal of Project Finance 4(4): 56–57 Wikipedia IT Industry in India: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IT_industry_in_India [Accessed on 4th July 2012]

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Harnessing Big Data Solution to Extract Valuable Insights from Emails Pramod Taneja, Principal Architect, Research & Innovation, iGATE “It is not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages.” Henry Ford Abstract “It is not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages.” – Henry Ford Customer loyalty plays critical role in success of any business. It is important to recognize the voice of customer in strategizing the future business plan. The voice of customer can be expressed through formal meetings/announcements, or informally through emails, chats as part of day-to-day project communication. Usually 90% of customer communication happens informally through emails, chats during project life cycle. Moreover it is noticed that these informal mode of communication from customer is not analyzed for future decision making process. One of the aspects of Big Data refers to these tons of email communication of customers with project managers, project team, which are unexploited by the software vendorsto refine their delivery process.Project Management Team would like to have anadditional insight of customer behavior in order to assess the project health and take timely remedial action to meet customer expectations.This article focuses on assessing the project health based on customer responseshidden in email repository by leveraging Big Data Solution. Keywords •

iGATE

Email mining

Big Data Solution

Pramod Taneja

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Harnessing Big Data Solution to Extract Valuable Insights from Emails

Table of Contents Introduction

20

Critical Success Factors

20

Solution

20

Detailed Process Flow

21

Visualization

23

Conclusion

25

Solution Roadmap

25

Further References

25

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

Introduction In today’s fast paced world, project teams including customers work at diverse geographical locations and heavily depend on email exchanges to ensure everyone in team are in sync with the project progress. Customers do express their opiniontime-to-time on the deliverables through emails. Ifthese opinions are monitored and analyzedat regular intervals, it can help to ensure the team is on trackfor meeting the project objectives. The customer response would reflect: •

the opinion – optimistic/pessimistic view point, sentiment and confidence on project health

the responsiveness of the project team to any queries

the association of individuals between the customer and project teams

Project Management Team can view this response analysisas part of their current project dashboardthat will give more granularities on the level of customer satisfaction. It thereby allows doing self diagnosis and applying remedial measures for strengthening the project management practices throughout the organization. Critical Success Factors The key points to be considered for representing the customer’s responseon the project dash board are: •

Email file size is usually very high & ever growing for each project team member andeasily runs into GB’s for projects over 6 months period

Categorizing emails that are relevant to a project

Identifying adequately the opinion expressed by customer through emails

De-duplicating emails, eliminating noise mails that are not useful for analysis

Identifying the frequency of communication exchanges between customer &project team on a particular subject

Integration of customer response trends with the existing project dashboard

Maintaining the confidentiality of information contained in email exchanges

Solution The solution to quantify the responses expressed in email involves combination of various Big Data Technologies for storing, processing and integrating unstructured data like email text messages with structured data like project information.The solution involves text analytics and team network analysis based on frequency and topic of email communication between customer and project team. The customer response analysis is then incorporated into project dashboard for visualization. Project Management can view customer response trends from two perspectives, one from the emails sent to Project/Program Managers and another from the emails sent to individual Team Leads. The project governance structure within customer organization could be of two levels viz. Customer PMO Team and Customer Execution Team. Usually Project Team includes key stakeholders from Customer end, however in this paper the Customer PMO Team and Customer Execution Team is represented as separate entity from Project Team to emphasize the value of customer responses on project health.

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

Effectively there could be 4 nodes of communication viz. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Customer PMO Team with Project Management Team, Customer PMO Team with Project Team Leads Customer Execution Team with Project Management Team Customer Execution Team with Project Team Leads

Figure 1 - Email Communication between Customer and Project Team The above diagram depicts the different channels of communication between the customer and the vendor Project Team. Opinions expressed by customers could be appreciative or suggest corrective action to meet project objectives.As shown in sample email text in above diagram, the keywords to identify sentiments are circled. Text analysis is done on these keywords involving tokenization, identification, normalization, stemming andlemmatizationtechniques.Appropriate weightage is given to each email based on the keywords used, the role of sender and recipient of the email. Email weightages is then aggregated month-wise for each project and plotted as graph to view the response trend expressed by the customer to Project Management Team and Project Leads individually. Detailed Process Flow The underlying technology stack for implementing the solution uses Cloudera Hadoop platform. Hadoop provides a reliable, scalable, and cost effective storage along with massive parallel distributed processing. The solution involves a custom ETL process—transforming email messages into text format to be stored in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and indexing, searching and integrating unstructured email data using Apache Lucene/Solr and Apache Tika software packages. Technology stack used for the solution: • Cloudera Hadoop on CentOS • Hive database • Java Mail API • Apache Solr & Apache Tika • Rapid Miner • NoSQL Graph database – Neo4j • Google Chart& Gephi for visualization

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Harnessing Big Data Solution to Extract Valuable Insights from Emails

Below is the process flow for assessing customer responses through emails from various Project Teams: Visualization 10

Google Charts & Gephi

Data Analytics Frequent Mail Conversation

9

Data Sources

Customer Response Time Gap

Java Mail API Graph Database

Hadoopstream

Extract Text from PST

3

Apache Tika

Solr

Rapid Miner

Extract email text & metadata (M/R jobs)

Performs Indexing & Searching on Text (M/R jobs)

Soft Behaviour Analytics using Rapid Miner

4

Project Data (RDBMS)

Derive Relevant Email text

Email body & Meta data

2

Email PST Files

7

6

5

Email PST Files

1

Customer Behavioral Trend

8

Email Text

S q o o p

HDFS

Sqoop Connector

Hive

Hadoop Cluster

* Source: iGATE Research

Figure 2 - Process Flow for assessing Customer Responses through Emails 1)

Project information such as the project team allocation details ofproject managers &team members, customer information, project milestone details etc are available in RDBMSdatabase.

2)

This project information is transferred to Hive tables on Hadoop by using sqoop connector

3)

Email PST files of all project members including the Project/ProgramManager and development Team Leads is transferred to HDFS.

4)

The Java mail API available on the CentOS, extracts text from the PST files and stores in text format.The customer related mails are extracted from the PST files to analyse the customer responses represented in the form of emails.

5)

A Map-Reduce code using Apache Tika libraries extracts the email body text (latest part of the mail content after removing the mail trail) and meta data information e.g. From,To, Date, Subject, etc. for further analysis. The From and To information is input to NoSQL graph database for identifying frequent email conversation and network graph analysis between different individuals.

6)

A Map-Reduce code using Solr libraries extracts email text as well as the project information from the Hive tables to identify relevant emails for further analysis. Indexing is done on the email. Solr performs text analytics using the stop words, stemming and lemmatization processing technique.

7)

The output is then used for customer response analytics by Rapid Miner using Machine Learning andLexicon based approach

8)

The response analysis is then stored in the Hive tables for all emails for further processing

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

9)

Following types of analysis is then done with the emails: a. Customer opinion b. Responsiveness on Customer emails c. Frequency of email sender-recipient/subject conversation

10)

The analysis reports are then viewed through Google Charts and Gephi visualization

Visualization Project Management Team require a unified view along with flexibility to slice and dice the entire gamut of project data including customer responses to analyze and visualize on the fly, and get deeper insights of project progress. Projects

Time

Cost

Resource

Customer Response To Manager

Customer Response To Lead

Project A Project B Project C Project D

Source: iGATE Research Figure 3 - Project Dashboard Above Project Dashboard shows the overall status of each project interms of Time, Cost, Resource availability, Response to Manager, and Response to Lead. Status of customer response is determined based on emails received by Project Managers and Team Leads.This indication gives insights to Project Management Teamand enables them to take proactive measures to resolve the unknown project issues. E.g. In case of Project A, all the dashboard parameters are shown GREEN except the Response to Lead is shown RED. Project Management Team can drill further the email responses to understand the reason and take remedial action.

Figure 4 - Customer Response Trend for Managers & Leads

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Harnessing Big Data Solution to Extract Valuable Insights from Emails

Above sample chart shows the customer response trends to Managers and Leads via emails. The project phase is also indicated along with the responses.The response received is quantified and aggregated month wise.The chart shows tworesponse trends; one each of Customer Execution Team and Customer PMO Team. Response index would be positive for appreciative mails while it would be negative for escalations due to various situations such scope creep or not meeting the customer expectations. For example, in month of Oct-11 the Customer PMO Team the trends indicates negative response to Managers as well as to the Leads while in Dec-11 positive responseto Managers, but negative response to Leads. The positive trend allows Project Management team to leverage the positive insights for motivating the team.The negative trend would alert Project Management Team to drill further on the relevant emails and take remedial action accordingly.

The communication pattern between the customer and the vendor Project Team is depicted in the above network graph.The data points for the graph are stored in NoSQL graph database.This is an interactive visualization between the various nodes i.e. sender or receiver of the project mails. The different colors as indicated in above graph indicate mails sent from and to the customer.The intensity of the lines between the nodesdetermines the quantum of email exchanges for e.g. the thicker line from “Customer EXEC Team..2” to “PM..2” implies that the information exchange is more compared to other entities.The thinner liner indicates the lesser interaction between two entities and without association links indicates entities that are not communicating. This gives pointers where to improve the communication channel and thereby improve the project health. Besides the network graph the other graph indicates the average response time to a particular query raised by the customer.This graph would provide additional insight to gauge the customer satisfaction level. Usually prompt reply to the queries is well appreciated by the customer. Customer emails are scanned for keywords like “What”,“When”, “Why”,“Who”,“Which”,“How” etc which indicates a query posted to Project Team.The immediate reply from any of the Team member on the same subject is considered and the time difference between the mails sent by customer with the mail replied is calculated as the response time.Average response time is calculated for all the queries raised for a particular month and chart is prepared month-wise to visualize the response trend to the customer’s queries.

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Delivering Business Results through Agility Harnessing Big Data Solution to Extract Valuable Insights from Emails

Conclusion •

• •

In addition to the traditional project dashboard parameters like Time, Cost, Resource, etc., the concept of mining customer responses hidden in email repository allows Project Management Team for self-diagnosis, extrapolate hidden positive sentiments or apply remedial actions. Happy customers bring repeated business. Usually positive customer response would mean better customer relationship. Success of a project execution lies in the implementation of effective communication plan. Project Management Team can measure the effectiveness of the communication and comprehend on what helps and harms the productivity by exploiting thebig data solution to extract unexploredinsights from emails.Also this will facilitate the communication with project stakeholders to promptly resolve any project issues and the outlook of the customer response can be carried forward to the successive projects. The essence of email responses within the organization project community can help to enhance various aspects of integration management like investment, organizationalpriority,project visibility and strategize to align with portfolio objective

Solution Roadmap • Apart from email responses, analysis of customer conversationssuch as phone call, meeting discussions, chats can further add value on project health • The responses from the customer relationship/executive management team can be incorporated on the project dashboard to get more holistic view of the customer account. • This solution can be further extrapolated to analyze the responses from key stakeholders which could be internal within the project team or external to the organization. • The weightage assigned to each email response can be made configurable to represent the response more accurately and get true health of the project. Further References • Vadher, Bhargav, "EMail Data Mining: An Approach to Construct an Organization Position-wise Structure While Performing EmailAnalysis" (2010). Master's Projects. Paper 63.– http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_projects/63 • Shitanshu Verma, Pushpak Bhattacharyya, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, Incorporating – “Semantic Knowledge for Sentiment Analysis”– http://www.cse.iitb.ac.in/~pb/papers/icon09-sa.pdf • MaiteTaboada -Simon Fraser University,Julian Brooke - University of Toronto, Milan Tofiloski - Simon Fraser University, Kimberly Voll - University of British Columbia, Manfred Stede - University of Potsdam - “LexiconBased Methods for Sentiment Analysis”– http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/COLI_a_00049 • Ioannis Katakis, GrigoriosTsoumakas, Ioannis Vlahavas - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Informatics, Greece– “Email Mining: Emerging Techniques for Email Management” http://lpis.csd.auth.gr/publications/katakis2006-idea.pdf

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

How the world of Agile was born? Neuroscience made me do it! Anita Dhir, PMP® CEO/President, Medhira Enterprises, Abstract: Neuroscience has radically changed the way in which we think about project management. It has helped define the manner in which we identify project requirements, promote team development, and create collaborative project environments. A project manager’s role may have changed a little during the transition from traditional to agile project management but, the core of the project manager’s responsibility remains the same: Stakeholder Management. Communicating, working with people, motivating them, and getting results remain the cornerstones for project success. Neuroscience of mindfulness provides some very interesting perspectives on the social aspects of project management. How do we best manage ourselves, our environments, our decision making, and our interaction with others? This presentation explores how the findings in the areas of social, cultural, affective, and behavioral neurosciences are being practically applied to achieving project success. Keywords: Neuroscience,Agile Project Manager,Agile Practices, Project Communications Summary: This presentation explores the impact of Neuroscienceon project management. Introduction: Traditional project management is very process-driven: The presumption being that processes, based on best practices, enable project success. Inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs determine what happens and in what sequence it happens. In this sense, by following the PMBOK® processes, project teams have developed and have been more concerned with outputs (content), while giving little importance to the human aspect that provides the context to the communications that are so vital for project success. Further, in doing so, we forget that a project manager’s most important responsibility is stakeholder management, and that the stakeholders, as human beings, are the most perfect bundles of memories, imperfections, intentions, and nuances. Neuroscience, which studies the human mind, the birthplace of ideas, thoughts, perceptions, analysis, and decisions, has advanced greatly in the last few decades.With brain imaging and other very sophisticated tools giving us insights about what happens from a chemical, electromagnetic, and a physiological perspective – we have proof that humans are wired differently and process information differently. Since stakeholders interpret things uniquely as well, they react to content in a myriad of different ways. All of these variables play a big role in a project achieving customer satisfaction (which is an emotional reaction), and is essentially the manifestation of project success. “What is neuroscience?” Neuroscience is a branch (as neurophysiology) of science that deals with the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, or molecular biology of nerves and nervous tissue and especially their relation to behavior and learning [11]. According to Wikipedia, Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system, and has become an interdisciplinaryscience that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine and allied disciplines, philosophy, physics, and psychology. In this paper, we will explore the influence of modern neuroscience and established psychological theories, such as personality traits, intellectual abilities, and fixed traits on stakeholder communications. A great deal of modern neuroscience uses brain imagery, such as CT/CAT, PET, MRI, EEG, as a major tool to research brain functioning and, more specifically, neural activity that can be identified in different areas of the brain as it relates to emotions. This may seem like trying to understand a car by drawing a schematic of the car parts, but it gives us insights into stakeholder management. We will explore four fields of neuroscience, namely:

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Delivering Business Results through Agility How the world of Agile was born? Neuroscience made me do it! •

Affective neuroscience: Study of the neural mechanisms involved in emotion, typically through experimentation on animal models [12].http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience - cite_note-14

Behavioral neuroscience (also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology):Application of the principles of biology (viz., neurobiology) to the study of genetic, physiological, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and non-human animals [3].

Cultural neuroscience: Study of how cultural values, practices and beliefs shape and are shaped by the mind, brain and genes across multiple timescales [5].http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience - cite_note-15

Social neuroscience: Interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior. Still a young field, social neuroscience is closely related to affective neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience, focusing on how the brainmediates [4].

There is a growing consensus that there are major business benefits gained by using the findings in neuroscience especially to understand complex human tasks such as communication, problem solving, and decision-making. Often, there is a vast lag between what happens in the laboratory and the manner in which the laboratory findings are practically applied. In this case, however, project management practitioners have taken up the challenge of applying neuroscience research to project management thus establishing what are now known as Agile practices. Context is king Context plays a vital role in communication. Several studies show strong interactions between the type of event, type of detail information, time of test, and type of retrieval information (Christianson, 1992). Behavioral studies have shown that cultural differences can influence memory and even perception. John Gabrieli, a professor at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, conducted a cultural neuroscience research in which he showedsimple drawings to two groups, one a group of 10 East Asians who had recently arrived in the United States and another group of 10 Americans and then scanned the brain activity patterns. He concluded that “Everyone uses the same attention machinery for more difficult cognitive tasks, but they are trained to use it in different ways, and it’s the culture that does the training. It’s fascinating that the way in which the brain responds to these simple drawings reflects, in a predictable way, how the individual thinks about independent or interdependent social relationships.” His research was able to verify the earlier psychological research findings that American culture, which values the individual, emphasizes the independence of objects from their contexts, while East Asian societies emphasize the collective and the contextual interdependence of objects - holistic context[2][10]. Deep, emotional attachment to a subject area allows a deeper understanding of the material and therefore, learning/ comprehension occurs and lasts [7].Emotion can also be embodied or perceived from words read on a page or a person’s facial expression. Neuroimaging studies using fMRI have demonstrated that the same area of the brain being activated when one is feeling disgust is also activated when one observes another person feeling disgust.During communication, the speaker’s emotions affect the listener more than the emotions being portrayed in the content. Further the listener’s emotions intensify the comprehension of the context of the message if they are in sync and / compress the comprehension when they are not in sync. These findings have resulted in several changes in debunking notions that set the environment for traditional project management. 1.

Stringently worded Requirements/Specifications are necessary •

Traditional project management emphasizes the use of formal, structured documents to capture project requirements. During requirements gathering, asking direct questions to the customer about their needs taps into only their conscious brain which is about one-sixth of the brain. This may lead to failure or misunderstanding of the needs. Agile Practice: Revisit requirements gathering repeatedly during the project’s lifecycle by using Sprints and other iterative methods. Tapping into the unconscious of

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

the customer’s mind to get the real requirements mandates the customer’s intimate involvement in the process. By getting their permission to observe and by asking them to narrate their current goal and reasons whyin a story format,project managers can get better details. Discussing their current pains and challenges also helps the project teams get an understanding of the requirements. Since, a significant portion of our unconscious thinking is focused on looking into the social environment for safety, openness, and the ability to be free, the more we create an open non-threatening environment for our team and customers, the more we can focus on problem solving. Further, engaging the project teams in more visual and auditory content, such as user stories, when discussing project scope will enhance understanding and variety. Agile Project Managers may present information in unique ways or ask team members to solve a problem using multiple methods, not just dictate a single solution. Use of fore-mentioned user stories, story boards, and mindmaps help capture the content and the context of requirements. Neuroscientist David Creswell from Carnegie Mellon carried out FMRI scans that showed something interesting happens when a group was given a problem, then given a distracter task – something that lightly held their conscious attention but allowed their non-conscious to keep working. According to Creswell,“The brain regions that were active during the initial learning of the decision information continued to be active (we call this unconscious neural reactivation) even while the brain was distracted with another task. This reactivation was predictive of how good participants were at making a better decision— more reactivation was associated with better decisions.” Rather than continuing to push at the problem consciously, by walking away from the problem and by getting a little distracted, we can have a better outcome, faster and with less effort. By applying these insights to requirements gathering, we can have similar advantages. 2.

Geniuses are born not made •

3.

Modern neuroscientists have claimed and scientific evidence has suggested that genius-level mental functioning is primarily all about *connections.* Early 1980s research by Dr Marian Diamond, a neuroanatomist at the University of California at Berkeley, made some interesting discoveries about brains that revolutionized our ideas about what a genius really is. She discovered the first “hard evidence” that higher intelligence could be created through mentally-stimulating exercise. Her examination of sections of Einstein's brain, also confirmed this theory as although Einstein's brain was not physically different from the "average" brain, it had an unusually high number of experience-based neural "interconnections" and, that was the source of his genius. She was able to prove that our experience-based neural interconnections can potentially increase in number and complexity throughout life. In other words, the more we learn, the more we stimulate and challenge our brain, the more of these pathways we create.And the more interconnections you have between your neurons, the closer you move toward genius-level creativity and thinking. Thus, by stimulating our brains, we force it to create new connections so that our neurons (brain cells) can communicate with each other. The most basic way to build brainpower is to intellectually challenge and exercise your brain. This increases our genius quotient. Agile Practice: Self Learning / Continuous Learning: One of the traits of agile teams is the focus on self-learning. Project managers can create smarter team members by engaging team members in intellectual challenges such as problem solving for project solutions, in becoming generalists/specialists, and practicing / engaging team in continuous learning. Further, project managers can create healthy new neural networks for themselves, sharpen their memory, and mental responses by learning new skills or languages [1].

Repetition is good •

Repetition can be valuable for project managers and teams.The Learning Curve Theory states that each time a task is done, the amount of time and cost involved in doing the task decreases. In other words, for each doubling of the number of units produced, the cost of producing each unit decreases by a fixed percentage. In contrast, neuroscience research has made us aware of the “spacing effect,” which suggests that project teams

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Delivering Business Results through Agility How the world of Agile was born? Neuroscience made me do it! are more productive when repetitive tasks are spaced out over time rather than pushed into a single episode. Researchers have also found that variety is key in productivity because, simply put, the brain craves it, boosting levels of both attention and retention. Agile Practice: Using Scrum and define Sprints that have a timeline of 2 – 4 weeks maximum. Involving project teams in short sprints or iterative development can provide project managers with means of managing the “spacing effect” (providing variety) while balancing the “use it or lose it”(repeatable work) that occurs due to time lapse which enables the remembering of the knowledge / experience.[1] 4.

Bigger pay leads to better performance. •

5.

Traditional belief is that bigger paychecks lead to better performance. A research led by Dohyung Kang and coworkers, (2009), found that many of what Maslow termed "needs" seem to be closely associated with the brain's dopamine system. Behavioral economic research by Beaver (2006), Komisaruk (2005), Dean Mobbs et al (2009), O’Doherty et al (2003); Knutson et al (2001) proved that the intensity by which the brain rewards circuitry was activated was similar to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Further, there was proof that” avoidance of punishment activates the reward circuitry itself, thus it is rewarding to escape punishment” (Kim, 2006).Thus, our brain cells and therefore, we, human beings crave self-mastery (self-actualization) the most. Thus, autonomy which is also self-direction, leads to the best performance, whereas money itself evoked a lesser response. People are more motivated by a sense of purpose and the desire to learn more to fulfill their curiosity and to lead a purposeful life to be the happiest. Agile Practice: Self-managed teams. Agile projects, will allow teams to define their specific goals, and create products that display Figure 1 their mastery over the most creative solutions are far more engaging, and lead to better results [9].

As long as the office space is functional, the furniture police rules •

Most offices were designed by the furniture police who lay out functional space, typically in the form of cubes, to ensure that status is rewarded. The boss got the corner office, the stars got window offices and the junior/mediocre staff members were hurdled in the middle. Of course, in some companies,they put the aisles near the windows to prevent any future contentions for the window offices.The basic premise was that you have to “earn your space”. Just as “Keeping up with the Joneses" causes anxiety at the social level, it impacts our work space as well. High levels of dissatisfaction based on real or perceived inequalities have an intense effect on arousing the aversive systems and result in increased job dissatisfaction and decreased motivation. According to Dr. Dean Mobbs and Walter McFarland, “The brain loses productivity, shuts down, and productivity is hard to regain. Said another way, triggering the aversive system has a deleterious effect on organizational productivity. It elicits both down time and costs to fix”. Further,“When people felt excluded,” says Naomi Eisenberger, a leading social neuroscience researcher at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA),“we saw activity in the dorsal portion of the anterior cingulate cortex — the neural region involved in the distressing component of pain, or what is sometimes referred to as the ‘suffering’ component of pain. Those people who felt the most rejected had the highest levels of activity in this region.” In other words, the feeling of being excluded provoked the same sort of reaction in the brain that physical pain might cause (See Figure 1). David Rock highlights that a joyful workspace is more conducive to productivity. Rock’s

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Delivering Business Results through Agility How the world of Agile was born? Neuroscience made me do it!

Figure 2 SCARF model stands for Status, Certainty, Autonomy, Relatedness and Fairness (See Figure 2)- the five domains of social experience within which we regularly encounter threats and rewards that trigger responses in the brain similar to those triggered by physical threats, such as pain and hunger, and physical rewards, such as relief and satiation. The basic premise of this model is that by giving some people corner offices and others no access to windows, people are aware of status differences and experience threat, akin to physical threat. Agile Practice: Cohabitation where all the project team and the project manager share a common office space, hopefully with a window. With an agile project to creating a war room where the entire team occupies the same room, the same furniture, removes the threat of fairness, status, and relatedness.The fact that the team sits together, works together, levels the playing field for autonomy. Making the work space a fun space creates a positive, pleasurable experience as well as a positive, safe place for work to be completed [15]. 6.

Project Information is controlled by the project manager •

Project communication is planned and controlled using the project communication plan. The premise being that status information is shared with the team during periodically scheduled status and performance meetings. Agile Practice: Make the project status and relevant information big, visible and accessible. Stress of certainty, defined in David Rock’s SCARF model,can be reduced by the use of visual aids to share project information. Big Visible Charts containing sprint burndown charts, current status, user stories, release burn down charts, and more are now part of the ”ideal agile workspace” and wikis, do that all team members have access to the same information all the time. Using flashing red traffic lights to communicate failed test results and ringing fire bells to communicate releases are some of the ways in which status is communicated and, thiscan make the project communication much more effective and help make the workplace a fun place to work in. Other tools such as ambient orbs, Nabaztag rabbits, task-boards may be used as well.

Key challenges: The use of colocation can result in distractions, fragmented interests, and low attention spans among team members. Without emphasis on regularly scheduled, “time-offs”, “time –outs” or pleasure breaks, the open and “all the time” communication can be very challenging. Short breaks consisting of stress reducing fun and relaxing activities cool down the amygdala and give the neurotransmitters the much needed build up time to improve productivity.Project managers may need to add quiet, calming,“no-interruption” and de”stress”ing “phases”: into their time line along with maintaining a disciplined 8-hour working day. Quantified benefits to business: Projects using the agile methods provide transparency and more real-time information than those using traditional project

30


Delivering Business Results through Agility How the world of Agile was born? Neuroscience made me do it! management. Reduced cost of change and closer relationships lead to faster time-to-market, and more user friendly products, services and results. Conclusion: In conclusion, the impact of neuroscience on project management is vast and evolving. This paper has highlighted some of the reasons behind the agile techniques. It is encouraging to note the expanding use of agile practices in today’s workspace. Traditional companies as well as projects have struggled with the introduction of more progressive policies and processes that incorporate the agile practices, some legitimately as there are legal and financial aspects that must be considered prior to the adoption. While neuroscience hasn’t yet radically changed the way we think about project management, it is helping to shape project policies and influencing new ways of implementing technology, and streamlining day-to-day interactions between stakeholders. By revisiting office layouts, our project policies, communication, and project logistics project managers can increase peoples feeling of status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness and fairness. References: 1.

Ammon-Wexler, Jill. Challenge Your Brain. Published 08/20/2005, http://talentdevelop.com/articlelive/articles/15/1/Challenge-Your-Brain/Page1.html

2.

Begley, Sharon. West Brain, East Brain. 2010. http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/02/17/west-braineast-brain.html

3.

Breedlove, Watson, Rosenzweig, 2007, Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience, 6/e, ISBN 978-0-87893-705-9, p. 2..

4.

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Decety, J. (2010). Social neuroscience and its relation to social psychology. Social Cognition, 28, 675-684http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience - cite_note-15

5.

Chiao, J.Y. & Ambady, N. (2007). Cultural neuroscience: Parsing universality and diversity across levels of analysis. In Kitayama, S. and Cohen, D. (Eds.) Handbook of Cultural Psychology, Guilford Press, NY, pp. 237-254.

6.

Christianson, S. A. (1992). "Emotional stress and eyewitness memory: A critical review". Psychological Bulletin112 (2): 284–309. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.284. PMID1454896.

7.

Havas, D. A., Glenberg, A.M., Rinck, M. (2007). Emotion simulation during language comprehension. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 14(3), 436-441.

8.

Hyde JS, Linn MC,eds, 1986, The Psychology of Gender: Advances Through Meta-analysis., Gender and Brain Imaging, Douglas Eby,http://talentdevelop.com/articles/gender.html

9.

Dr. Mobbs, Dean and McFarland, Walter, 2010, The neuroscience of motivation, NeuroLeadership journal, issue three.

10.

Nauert, PhD, Rick,Culture Affects The Way We Use Our Brain, Senior News Editor, Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on January 14, 2008, http://psychcentral.com/news/2008/01/11/culture-affects-the-way-we-useour-brain/1773.html

11.

"Neuroscience". Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. http://www.merriamwebster.com/medlineplus/neuroscience

12.

Panksepp J, "A role for "affective neuroscience" in understanding stress: the case of separation distress circuitry". In Puglisi-Allegra S, Oliverio A. Psychobiology of Stress. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. pp. 41–58. ISBN0-7923-0682-1, 1990.

13.

Rock, David, Hack the brain to increase complex problem solving, Published on September 18, 2012 by in Your Brain at Work

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Delivering Business Results through Agility How the world of Agile was born? Neuroscience made me do it! 14.

Rock, David, Managing with the Brain in Mind, Neuroscience research is revealing the social nature of the highperformance workplace, http://www.strategy-business.com/article/09306?pg=all

15.

Rock, David, 2008, NeuroLeadership journal, issue one , SCARF: a brain-based model for collaborating with and influencing others

Figure 1: Eisenberger, Lieberman, and Williams. Science. 2003 (social pain images); Lieberman et al., "The Neural Correlates of Placebo Effects:A Disruption Account," Neuroimage, May 2004 (physical pain images). Illustration: SamuelValasco. Author(s) Profile: Anita Dhir, PMP®, adhir@medhira.com President/CEO, Medhira Enterprises, www.medhira.com Anita Dhir, a system thinker, emphasizes on the importance of knowledge and relationships to achieve success. She has over 20 years of experience working with Fortune 500 companies managing strategic quality and PM initiatives. Anita is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at NYU for the PM Certification program. She has served on various PMI chapters Board of Directors. As Medhira’s lead consultant and global learning solutions provider (500+ workshops), Anita focuses on providing collaborative solutions. Anita has published CAPM/PMP® Exam Prep Kits to assist candidates in their quest for PMI certification. She has degrees in Engineering and Physics. Address: 4-74 48th Ave, 7N, Long Island City, NY 11109 USA Willows Twin Towers, B/10 NearVasant Gardens, Mulund, Mumbai 400080 India Phone Number: +1 718 340 8465 or +91 9920394438 Fax Number: +1 718 340 8465

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

The Value of PMI Membership a few highlights by Amithanand Dsilva Knowledge value from PMI.org ● PMI Global Standards Knowledge :Access to digital editions of all PMI standards.These standards are globally recognised and ranging from the the PMBOK which is the preeminent global standard for Project Management to Project Manager Competency Development Framework which helps in identifying ways to improve project managers competencies. ● eReads &references : eReads &Reference provides online access to 250 books with topics ranging from project management, leadership, crosscultural teams to knowledge management and much more. ● Project Management Journal :The research publication of PMI,the Project Management Journal is published every quarter.It features latest project management techniques,research and theories.Every article is reviewed by an international, multi-disciplinary review team. ● PM Network : A monthly publication by PMI its focuses on latest tools,techniques and best practices used by project professionals globally.Topics range from Risk Management,Green Energy to Cloud Computing and Virtual Teams. ● PMI Today :A monthly publication focusing on the latest developments in PMI certifications, research programs and news from chapters and other PMI communities. ● Knowledge Shelf :Knowledge Shelf has articles contributed by project managers with an aim to advance the body of knowledge.Articles are reviewed by a panel of volunteer practitioners for value and readability prior to posting. Value from PMI Mumbai Chapter ● Chapter Events &Services :PMI Mumbai Chapter conducts monthly speaker sessions,where an practitioners get an opportunity to share their knowledge and experience with others. Members also get access to a library at the chapter office, training programs on key skills, mentor program and lots more. ● Prakalp :The bimonthly magazine of the chapter it has articles written by local practitioners sharing their knowledge and experience. ● Volunteering : The Chapter provides many volunteering opportunities in the different portfolios of the chapter such as Communications, Branches, Finance etc. The Chapter has recently tied up with Toolbox which supports NGO’ s by deploying professionals who can help in developing competencies in main management fields.

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

About PMI Mumbai Chapter PROJECT MANAGEMENT Regardless of your industry or mission, project management is the value driver that helps your organization get the most out of its performance.When tailored, or "fit", to an organization's culture, project management brings value by improving: •

The execution of strategy, through repeatable, reliable performance and standardization;

The integration within the organization, through elimination of "silos" and collaboration;

The learning that a projectized organization undergoes as it explores new products, processes and markets.

better communication and

PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE (PMI) - USA Project Management Institute (PMI®) is one of the world's largest professional membership associations, with half a million members and credential holders in more than 185 countries. It is a not-for-profit organization that advances the project management profession through globally recognized standards and certifications, collaborative communities, an extensive research program, and professional development opportunities. Its worldwide advocacy makes it the global thought leader in this strategic organizational competency PMI MUMBAI CHAPTER The Mumbai Chapter of PMI® was initiated in late 1998, with the important role of advancing the PMI® objectives. PMI Mumbai Chapter was formally incorporated on 17th January 2001. It provides excellent opportunities to the project community to participate in seminars, open forums and other educational programs. In addition, it plays an important role in developing an understanding of local differences to the standard PMI® approaches and of their benefits and drawbacks. All these Chapter activities go a long way in establishing strong networks of project professionals. MISSION •

Evangelize project Management across industry, academia, community and government.

Provide a forum for project management professionals to promote the principles and ethical standards of PMI.

Promote networking among professionals, sharing project experiences and best practices, imparting training and enabling PMI certifications.

Provide development of leadership skills among its volunteer leaders, members and society at large, and thereby enhancing quality of life.

VISION To be recognized as ihe organization of choice by evangelizing Project Management". PMIMUMBAI CHAPTER-MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS Benefits For the Individuals • Educational Programs • Seminars & Symposium • Periodical Publications • Educational Foundation • Component Organizations • Career Services • On-line Services • Research & Standards • Professional Certification • Accreditation • International Professional Awards Program • Books, CD-ROMs & other resources • Free and discounted rote participation for various events

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Delivering Business Results through Agility

Benefits For the Organisation If your organization is involved in execution of projects, no matter what industry sector, you need to sponsor your key persons for PMI® membership. This gives the company recognition and visibility by your organization's increased ability to positively impact the outcome of your projects. You give value to your customers and increase the organization's attractiveness. The benefits may be summarized as follows: • Standardization of work methods and procedures consistent with recognized PMBOK®. • Effective employees development framework. • Ability to leverage an established program. • Enhancement of employee knowledge and competency and improved productivity. • Better monitoring and control of projects. • Savings in operating costs and fattened bottom lines. PONSORSHIPS& PUBLICITY OPPORTUNITIES FOR CORPORATES Corporates engaging with the Chapter participate and liaise with leaders in the project management field. The opportunities available for these are in the form of •

Annual Conference

Monthly Meeting

Monthly Programs

Publication

Website

Community Outreach

TRAINING PMI's family of credentials supports the project management profession and its practitioners and promotes ongoing professional development. There are nearly 300,000 credential holders worldwide in industries that range from healthcare, telecommunications and education to finance, construction and IT Courses offered by PMI component, such as PMI Mumbai Chapter are preapproved for contact hours in fulfillment of certification eligibility requirements, as well as PDUs to fulfill the continuing certification requirements (CCR) for PMI credentials. PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS IN HIGH DEMAND

95%

of executives from all over the world surveyed by the Economist Intelligence Unit agree that skills that comprise the project managers' skill set (e.g., execution, project risk identification and mitigation, communication, planning and team building) are most needed in their organizations.

75%

of these executives also agree that new recruits at their organizations usually lack these critical project management skills.

U.S. News and World Report has ranked project management among the top three skills most wanted by employers (along with leadership and business analysis).

35


PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE - Mumbai Chapter Unit No. 642, Mainframe 1-B Wing, Royal Palm (India), Aarey Milk Colony, Goregaon (E), Mumbai - 400065 Tel. +91-22-28792194 | Website: www.pmimumbaichapter.org | Email Id: publications@pmimumbaichapter.org

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