Rainna Stapelfeldt Februar y 2013
Chapter 13: Preventing Infectious Diseases Section 1: What are Infectious Diseases? An infectious disease is any disease that is caused by an agent that has invaded the body. Infectious disease can be passed from person to person, from food or water, from animals, or from something in the environment . There are five ways that you can become infected: Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and parasites. Bacteria are tiny, single-celled organisms, some of which can cause disease. They can live anywhere on earth. Examples of bacterial diseases are tuberculosis, tetanus or sinus infections. Viruses are tiny disease-causing particles made up of genetic material and a protein coat. Viral deseases include colds, the flu, measles, AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome. A fungi or fungus is an organism that absorbs and use the nutrients of living or dead organisms Protists are larger and more complex internally bacteria.
Your body uses skin and chemicals to fight pathogens and it has specialized defenses like the inflammatory response and the immune system. This is why your body can protect itself from pathogens. There are physical barriers that defend you.
Most protists are freeliving, but some account for diseases that are leading causes of death throughout some parts of the world. Malaria is a disease caused by a protest. Parasites An organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense. Harmful animal parasites include lice, tapeworms, and certain roundworms. Each infectious disease can be treated in different ways. A common way to treat most diseases is antibiotics. Antibiotics are medicines used to kill or slow the growth of bacteria. To treat viral diseases you can take medicines. For fungal infections you can take over-the-co0unter antifungal medicine or prescrip-
tion medicines. When you are treating protistan infections you can get prescription medicines, The best way of protecting yourself from protistan infections is prevention, such as good hygiene and sanitation. Lastly, when treating parasitic infections such as lice, use medicated shampoos. You can prevent getting lice by not sharing combs, and brushes with others or wear others clothing. Each infectious disease can be treated in different ways. A common way to treat most diseases is antibiotics. Antibiotics are medicines used to kill or slow the growth of bacteria. To treat viral diseases you can take medicines. For fungal infections you can take over-the-co0unter antifungal medicine or prescription medicines. When you are treating protistan infections you can get prescription medicines, The best way of protecting yourself from protistan infections is prevention, such as good hygiene and sanitation
Section 2: Protecting Yourself from Infectious Disease The three physical barriers are skin, mucous membranes, and chemicals. Your skin keeps pathogens from entering into your body. It uses chemicals such as sweat and oil, to kill pathogens that settle into your skin. It quickly
repair cuts that could let in pathogens. Your mucous membranes are soft tissue that line the mouth, nose, throat, digestive tract, vagina, and urethra. It gives out mucus to trap pathogens. Your body makes chemicals to destroy pathogens. Sweat is acidic and inhibits the growth of bacteria. Your stomach
CHAPTER 13: PREVENTI NG INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Section 2: continued
viruses to you lymph nodes. They are filled with white blooSometimes, there are pathogens that pass through the protective barriers. Inflammation is another way the body protects itself from pathogens. Inflammation is a reaction to injury or infection that is characterized by pain, redness, and swelling. Your immune system also defends off pathogens. It is made of certain types of blood cells and certain proteins called antibodies. These infectionfighting cells that also move through the lymphatic system which is a network of vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph throughout the body. This system picks up fluid from all over the body. The system carries bacteria
and cells that scan the lymph for pathogens. Cells in the blood whose primary job is to defend the body against disease are called white blood cells. Some will produce antibodies then they bind to specifi pathogens and warn other white blood cells. There are a few ways to prevent illnesses in your immune system. 1. Protect yourself– keep your body healthy. 2. Eat a healthy, bal-
anced diet– extreme diets and lack of nutrients can weaken your system. 3. Drink water– have 8 to 10 glasses of eater a day. 4. Reduce stress– Stress can weaken your immune system 5. Exercise regularly– try and get at least 60 minutes of exercise a day. Immunity to a disease develops by a vaccination. A vaccina-
Section 2: continued Get Vaccinated, Cover your mouth, and don't share personal items!
If you have a infectious disease, you have to take precautions to make sure they do not spread. Get vaccinated. Vaccinations help defend diseases and start to kill them if they are already in the body. Cover your mouth.
Cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough. If you sneeze wipe your nose and throw away the tissue. Don’t share personal items. Don’t use someone elses toothbrush, or eat or drink out of the same cups or food as some-
one. This increases the chance to pass and illness.
Section 3: Common Infectious Diseases Diseases can affect everyone, no matter how healthy you are. It is impossible to avoid pathogens because there are so many. There are many types of bacterial diseases, but two common ones would be meningitis, and salmonellis. Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain
and spinal cord. Each disease has symptoms. A symptom is a change that a person notices in his or her body or mind and that is caused by a disease or disorder. The symptoms for meningitis are severe headaches, fever, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and nausea. Meningitis is spread by contact with saliva or mucus from an
infected person. Hepatitis is a common viral disease. Hepatitis is a serious viral disease. Symptoms of hepatitis are inflammation of the live, jaundice, fever, and darkening of the urine. They are spread by contact by bodily fluids of infected person, and by ingesting
Section 3: Continued Fungal diseases are diseases such as, athletes foot, jock itch, and ringworm. The way these diseases are spread by a specific type of fungus comes in contact with skin that is warm and moist. The skin may become itchy and red and lesions may appear. A protozoan infection is when protists infect the body. Malaria is a protozoan infection that is caused by a protists that is passed from one person to another by mosqui-
toes. Symptoms include fever, headache, chills, nausea and headache. Parasitic infections are caused by animal parasites that can live inside the body and cause disease. Lice is the most common parasitic infections. Symptoms are itchy head and sores on the head. It can be spread throug h the use of others hairbrushes and clothing. There are always companies in your area who are there to
help infectious diseases. One organization would be the Red Cross. They help with any medical issues you could have.
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