路 2012 路
The Viking Buy-Back Program Stephanie Drazic Danny Fehrenbach Jami Jenn Courtney Johnson Michele Leung Hannah Norberg Rob Radecki Kylei Rosselot Rainelle Uszynska
Executive Summary The Amazon Buy-Back Program is an alternative way for college students to sell their textbooks. The program will be holding an event the week before and during finals week which will aim to increase awareness and drive students to sell their textbooks to Amazon.com. There is a forecasted amount of 1,500 students to attend the event. Based on market research, the total target market would consist of 14,979 students. The following is an extensive integrated marketing communications (IMC) plan that has been created to effectively introduce the Amazon Buy-Back Program. This IMC plan will also successfully promote the program by implementing various market techniques to meet the advertising and marketing objectives described. As a by-product, this will help build the Amazon brand as a whole and allow for more students to buy and sell textbooks with Amazon. The chosen target market for this product consists of college-aged students between the ages of 18-34. The aim is to meet the needs of the target market that consists of 14,979 students and have chosen to position the program as a universal buy-back program that can meet all the needs. The chosen location of the franchise food chain will be holding the event for the Amazon Buy-Back Program. Both companies would benefit from this event which will begin June 4, 2012. This will begin the process of achieving the communication objective of gaining 80% awareness of the students in the specified target market. This date was chosen to introduce the program because it is the start of finals week.
Situational Analysis Brick & Mortar It is essential to note that, although this buy-back program is very similar to Amazonâ€™s current Trade-In Program, in reality they are quite different. The concept of being able to physically locate in college towns, and near campuses, requires an altered approach to gaining awareness and generating drive, than it does to do so online.
Core Competencies Customer-Centered Service: Excel in creating unique product offerings that aligns with the perspective of the consumer. Distribution System: Have the ability to ship anywhere in the world and provide excellent customer service through a quick and convenient process. Amazon has the ability to turnover their product inventory faster than anyone else in the market. Recommendation / Review System: Pioneered the review system within the e-commerce marketplace, provides credibility and insurance in the mind of consumers. 1
Operating Efficiency: Emphasis on exceptional inventory control allows for an easy transition into new markets and inventory demands.
Cost vs. Customer When marketing objectives are established, a very important question must be asked: Is there a proper balance between the program costs and customer importance? Where the program is presently, most of Amazonâ€™s efforts are focused on cost reduction. Yet, there seems to exist an imbalance in the two core aspects of Customer Focus and Cost Reduction. Within the core competencies which Amazon applies, one of their main strengths is their drive to apply a customercentric experience through all products launched. How to do this and why it matters? Referring to the product lifecycle and looking at where the buy-back program is currently, it is affirmative that it is still within the introduction stage, where much awareness and growth is needed in order to capture a market for the benefits sought in the marketplace. Within each specific stage of the lifecycle, there are 4 goals which can be addressed and influential of activities employed. The four goals make up what is called a Net Market Contribution. They include: 1) Growing the Market 2) Growing Market Share 3) Increasing Customer Revenue 4) Reducing Cost In essence it is up to the organization which of these goals to pursue, yet at this early stage in the lifecycle it is recommended for Amazon to grow a market for the textbook buy-back program. Please see the graphic below which illustrates this point.
Strategic Levers & The Product Life Cycle1
Competitive Advantage When looking at how Amazon separates itself from competitors in the industry, it can be said that the firm holds a cost advantage or a differentiation advantage. A cost advantage places downward pressure on the costs associated with the product or service, by utilizing economies of scope, production efficiencies, and reducing fixed costs. A differentiation advantage is characterized by extensive innovation, brand emphasis, and creativity. When weighing which advantage to pursue, it is important look at both what job you are doing for customers and also the industry you are competing within. When thinking of the Amazon Buy-Back Program, and the e-commerce industry in general, it is felt that with an intangible product offering it would be best to pursue a differentiation advantage. This will not only help to build awareness and lay a foundation for the program, but also with the strong brand recognition and reputation which the Amazon organization holds; the buy-back program can be leveraged in that aspect. Though reducing costs in the early years of the program is an attractive option, it poses the risk that focus might be lost from establishing a market for the program and therefore prevent its likelihood of becoming a nationally successful service. After a strong foundation has been established within the marketplace, Amazon will be able to reduce costs drastically, and pursue a cost advantage. By taking on this tactic, higher margins will be created for Amazon, and continue to leverage previously established activities.
Dr. Edwin Love, Department of Finance & Marketing, Western Washington University
Please refer to the spectrum below for a visual understanding of the factors up for consideration.2
SWOT Analysis 2
Dr. Edwin Love, Department of Finance & Marketing, Western Washington University
Internal Strengths Great concept that aligns well with other Amazon services. Accomplishing a largely unfulfilled need in the market. Already have an established relationship with a large portion of the target market. Strong brand image provides consumers with insurance. Convenient and easy sellback process. Strong infrastructure supports the logistical obstacles of the program. Implementation of the mobile application reflects the lifestyle of the user. Ability to develop the recommendations system to target specific schools & courses with textbooks to students.
Difficult to apply nationwide. Underdeveloped phone application. The costs that would need to be incurred to generate awareness go against company goals. Target market is still unaware of the program and its benefits. Brick and mortar program is inconsistent with Amazonâ€™s core, e-commerce.
If successful, possibility to be the preeminent textbook source. Partnerships with logistical company could significantly lower costs to operate program. Potential for growth of market share for the Amazon brand as a whole. Grow the market because few large organizations that have the capabilities to employ this.
Digitalization of textbooks takes out the resale of books, business turns into a rental service. To offset the increasing costs for students, schools provide more funding for libraries to increase the amount of textbooks they carry for short term reserve, which would eliminate some students need to purchases books. Emergence of individual school direct textbook exchange and resale forums. Emergence of subscription based rental companies where students pay a flat fee for a school year and have access to a large database of books for rental.
Segmentation & Targeting
Segment of Market In analyzing which segment to target, a need-based understanding of the customers that Amazon serves (with the buy-back of books, both text- and general books3) was established. In focusing on the benefits sought rather than the product attributes, there is more value that can be brought to a specific group. For the Amazon Buy-Back Program, the customer would be more interested in the benefits of cost savings, convenience, and brand equity rather than the quantitative measures that the program offers. Two major questions to be asked when establishing a grounded segmentation of the market are: 1) What are the benefits sought, based on the job you are trying to fulfill? 2) Who are the key groups of buyers? These two questions were answered below and a value-driver canvas was created. It is a chart that breaks down what benefits mean the most/least to different groups of buyers. Value-Driver Canvas4 12
Degree of Importance
Professionals/Avid Readers Casual Readers
Pinpoint Solutions, along with Amazon, felt that College Students offer the greatest potential from the Amazon Buy-Back Program. The benefits valued the most for this segment were Primary Market Price, Selection, and the Secondary Market Price offered. This would seem like the most attractive segment to pursue and target.
Analysis of anything larger than that market would have been more of a hinder than a help. Primary Market = initial buying of book; Secondary Market = selling back book
Target Market College Students Geographic United States Urban/Suburban Demographics Age: 18-34 Income: $35,000 or less Occupation: full or part-time student Education: some college and post-graduates Proposed Sample: 513,573 total* Psychographics Energetic/Adventurous Progressive Ambitious Busy/Active Price Sensitive Benefits Sought Money/Deals Convenience Reliability Speed of Service
*Forecasted Target Market Sample Population Top Ten Universities, Fall 20095 1) Arizona State University – Tempe, AZ 2) University of Central Florida – Orlando, FL 3) Ohio State University – Columbus, OH 4) University of Minnesota – Minneapolis/Saint Paul, MN 5) University of Texas at Austin – Austin, TX 6) Texas A&M University – College Station, TX 7) University of Florida – Gainesville, FL 8) Michigan State University – East Lansing, MI 9) Pennsylvania State University – University Park, PN 10) Indiana University – Bloomington, IN
59,794 58,587 56,867 52,557 51,112 50,051 49,589 47,800 44,485 + 42,731 Total Target Market Sample 513,573
Marketing Objectives 5
Proposed Team Structure In order to eliminate impractical costs, a single team, located at Amazon Headquarters in Seattle, WA, to take on the national application of this event is suggested. This is in place of having employees located across the nation, making individual visits to the participating campuses. Instead, to give more control to the Amazon team, each campus will have two student representatives as Amazon assistants. They will take on actions such as: Distribution of flyers. Possible distribution of press release to school newspapers. Supervision of any awareness events or guerilla marketing. Operating the table of the actual buy-back event. These students can be contacted through any academic or scholastic club on campus (e.g. DECA, Professional Women’s Association, etc.), and will be compensated at Amazon’s discretion. It is also suggested that, since the majority of this plan is centralized around the leverage of social media, that at least one or two Social Media Experts be hired onto this team.
Short Term Plan (One Year) The short term marketing plan for the Amazon Buy-Back Program will take place over a one year period, and include many strategic activities to gain awareness. To establish a strong foundation for this event, capital investments must be made, only at the benefit to the company’s efforts; see the Positioning Strategy portion below for more details. Beginning: August – September6, 2012 Ending: May – June, 2013
Long Term Plan (Five Years) The long term marketing plan for the Amazon Buy-Back Program will take place over an approximate five-year period, in a Pulsing Schedule. During this time, costs will be substantially tapered off to maintain ease of national application. Although, at the discretion of Amazon, the Short Term Plan may be applied again before or after the described five years, in order to reinstate awareness of the buy-back program. This is suggested due to the population of each targeted school continually fluctuating as students become enrolled and graduate.
Timeline Pulsing Schedule 6
Start/end month dependent on semester or quarter schedule.
Start: Year 1 Institute program structure Increased amount of students reps
Same program structure Less student reps Switch to digitally-focused strategy Keep school competition initiative Work towards operational efficiency
Analyze program data Possible same structure continued, or change to better fit needs Possible mimic of Year 1 strategy, to gain more awareness Continue to work towards operational efficiency
Forecasted Units Collected Total Target Market Sample: 513,573 One Event = 51,3577 x 2.418 ≈ 123,770 units collected Year-Long Semester System = (51,357 x 2.41) x 2 ≈ 247,540 units collected Quarter System = (51,357 x 2.41) x 3 ≈ 371,310 units collected
Communication Objectives Communication Hierarchy of Effects: 7 8
Assumption: 10% of the total target market will sell back their textbooks at the Amazon Buy-Back Program. 2.41 estimated from the previous Amazon Buy-Back event held in March 2012.
80% Awareness Achieve 80% awareness of benefits from the Amazon Buy-Back Program, by the 513,573 customers in the target market. This is a realistic goal because Amazon is already a well-known brand throughout the general population, including the target market. 80% Awareness: 513,573 x 0.80 ≈ 410,858
Positioning Strategy The strategic decision was made to re-title the event and remove it from underneath the umbrella of the Amazon Trade-In Program. The name was changed to the Amazon Buy-Back Program in an attempt to distance it slightly from the trade-in; not that Amazon does not wish students to participate in the trade-in program as well, but done so in order to leverage the extreme convenience factor of having an event solely for textbooks, which tends to be a sore spot for most college students. It is still aimed at providing an alternative for students to sell back a larger variety of textbooks for a more valuable price. The most important attributes of the Amazon Buy-Back Program are to be: Approachable Convenient Recognizable More Money Back All promotional and advertising content for the buy-back program will be centered on communicating these four attributions. A unified voice and message within the program will help to establish credibility among potential customers. Also, one opportunity suggested to be pursued is the establishment of a Unique Value Proposition (UVP) which is integrated across all platforms. When thinking about value of savings, which students deal with during a majority of their college career, the idea of bringing a sense 10
of gratification and achievement to the message would be more likely to influence unit sales. The UVP would read as follows: “Get more bang for your buck!” This helps to touch on the cost-savings aspect as well as the value Amazon offers in exchange with every book traded in.
The Golden Circle Analysis of the Amazon Buy-Back Program9
What product you offer? How the company does this?
Why it matters?
Amazon Buy-back Program Fast and convenient tradein process Brand Recognition Can receive up to 70% more than local bookstores Free shipping Quick price checks and mobile apps. Cash-savings Less worry Very best customer experience Services specifically designed for Students needs
When examining the positioning strategy of both Amazon and the Buy-Back Program, it is important to bring up the concept of Seth Sinek’s “Golden Circle”. This graphic shows three tiers of how companies communicate their product. First, what they offer, how they do it, and why it matters. For example, a majority of consumers are exposed to mere facts and specifications, but does this really influence consumer behavior? In the case of Amazon, it is crucial that the organization is able to communicate the purpose of a product first, and then move into how they do it, and what product is offered. For example, take into consideration the following statements: 1) Amazon now offers a Buy-Back Program, which allows students to ship in their textbooks directly for free and receive up to 70% more than competing bookstores. Users can either go online or use their mobile device to compare prices for a large variety of titles. With this new program, students are able to worry less about wasting money on textbooks and more on more important things. 2) Amazon believes in offering the lowest prices and most unique customer experience ever. Now, students are able to trade in a wide array of textbooks in a quick, convenient, and pain-free process. Introducing the Amazon Buy-Back Program, visit us today! By positioning the buy-back program in a way that communicates the benefits first, they are able to capture the segment in a more direct way, and sales are more likely to increase. The service is unique 9
and innovative, but unless we are able to cut through the marketplace clutter, there is a risk of never being noticed.
Generating Awareness See Appendix 4 for the Pros & Cons to the efforts listed below. Potential Location National Food Chain Given a standard and reliable contract, this would guarantee a location in every major college town, if not just lowering the possibility for location problems to arise. This helps with ease of national application and lowers costs for items such as tents, weather-proofing, etc. Public Relations Press Release (Appendix 1) Create a press release, and send to each participating school’s newspaper to promote the anticipated Amazon Buy-Back Program. Provide specific dates and times of the event. Create more awareness among the college community. Provide program details and benefits of the event. Posters (Appendix 2) Social Media Facebook Leverage Amazon’s current Student Facebook page in order to gain national recognition, through the instantaneous and viral-aspect of online communities. This would be most efficient, since this page already has close to 600,000 “likes”, and growing. Continue to update posts, with quality and relevant information. Continue to update multiple tabs, that include things like: Highlighting user uploaded photos to emphasize Amazon’s customer-focus, The promotion of contests, sweepstakes, polls, coupons, or exclusive deals, Create videos to generate buzz and word of mouth, Create a separate buy-back tab that lists all the participating schools, so students can look up the location, date, and time of their specific event. Create a possible countdown, the month leading up to the event. Examine traffic to the page to analyze marketing efforts. Twitter Continue to leverage the Amazon Student Facebook page by maintaining the link to the Twitter feed. This is to reach those potential users who are more active on Twitter than Facebook. Website Create a website catered to the Amazon Buy-Back Program, specifically. This is to increase customer convenience by streamlining the process for Amazon’s buy-back target market. Instead of making the user work their way through all the other offerings of the Trade-In Program (e.g. games, movies, etc.), they can have instant access to the exact information they are looking for. 12
Link to and from the Amazon Trade-In page; but the only one of the two pages to be linked to the Amazon Student Facebook page, due to its higher relevance to college students. Partner with a map service to provide detailed directions to the specific event location. Provide dates and times of each event. Create videos that communicate the features and benefits of this event, in a visually appealing manner, to increase visitor knowledge.10 Integrate all other communication platforms, including a download of the buy-back phone application, streaming Twitter feed, and a Facebook link with emphasis on the viral videos.
Incentive School Competition Create a competition between schools to engage in accelerated and increased sell-back of books by students. Whichever participating school sells back the most textbooks, a prize is won. Options for Amazon to give can come in many different forms, at many different price points: Amazon makes small donation to school (e.g. $5,000). Amazon sponsors one varsity team11 home game, reasonable budget included. Advertise the school as banner ads on the general Amazon website. These all have the possibility of enticing different parts of the school – Administration, Associated Student Body, general population – to attract the students to partake in the event. This may even include their own efforts to generate awareness (e.g. professor’s speaking about the event in class, mass emails to students, larger than usual articles in campus newspaper, etc.), generating a natural hype instead of Amazon attempting to create it inorganically. These efforts will also increase Amazon’s goodwill towards the communities they touch and the households in which they reside. This, in turn, will have a positive outcome nationwide and affect all of Amazon, more than just the buy-back program. Raffle Run a raffle as incentive, to increase attractiveness, and drive more traffic to the event. Students receive one ticket for every textbook sold back. Some consider sweepstakes to be fairer due to their pure random nature, but it would be inherently unfair if the winner had only sold back one, small, cheap textbook. Therefore a raffle would be optimal to avoid any negative impact on the contestants; not to mention the ticketing structure will drive more people to sell back more textbooks at once, to increase their chances of winning. Winner receives a prize. Options for Amazon to give can come in many different forms, at many different price points, with the strategy in mind that the winner becomes a repeat Amazon user. Kindle $25 Amazon gift card Amazon credit to account Scavenger Hunt This would help to generate word of mouth concerning the buy-back program and create a viral-nature around the event. 10 11
Especially if those users have not already been to the Amazon Student Facebook page. Team of the school’s choice.
Leverage the reach of the Amazon Student Facebook page, along with Twitter, to post clues for the scavenger hunt. If Amazon wished to have more control over who participated, it could be set-up such that participants must sign an electronic waiver (constructed by Amazon and implemented by the student reps), and provide a personal email with which to receive the clues.
This would allow the hype to dictate the event so no Amazon personnel would be required to attend, only the employed student reps to supervise. Guerilla Marketing Strategies Bookmarks (Appendix 3) This is the creation of bookmarks, to be distributed by the student reps, randomly into books throughout the campus library. The bookmarks can either be slightly customized to the specific campus, or just with a QR Code linked to the Amazon Student Facebook page or the Amazon Buy-Back Program website. Chalking Raise awareness by writing the Amazon Buy-Back Program details in chalk on campus walkways, including arrows pointing towards the event (day of). Example Creative: “Savings in a Bottle” Place recycled bottles in the Western Washington University fountain, in Red Square, that look like ships with an informational slip inside. This is with the intent that those passing by will be curious enough to investigate and spread the information via word of mouth.
Example Event & Budget Original Western Washington University IMC (4/20/12): Pending market research, the event will be held May 31, 2012 through June 7, 2012. The hours of the event will be held weekdays from 11:00am to 4:00pm. At the approved location, there will be music to attract students to an approachable, positive environment where they can sell back their textbooks. Depending on the location, would like to partner with local food vendors, such as Haggen, to provide food and fun activities for anticipated high traffic days. Overall IMC Budget12 Website Costs No cost under the assumption that a server is provided. Advertising Costs Outdoor Vinyl banner (8’ x 2.5’)* 150 Color Copy Flyers (11” x 17”) 100 Color Copy Bookmarks (11” x 17”) 100 Color Copy Trifold Flyers (8.5”x 11”)* 2 Lawn Signs (27” x 18”)* Google Adwords* Total Advertising Cost: Event Costs Speakers ($20/day)* Staffing ($10/hour)
$142.99 (Appendix 5) $67.50 (Appendix 6) $60.00 (Appendix 6) $45.00 (Appendix 6) $107.98 (Appendix 7) + $250.00 (amount may vary) $673.47
$120.00 (Appendix 8) + $600.00 (6 days, 5 hours/day, 2 staff members at all times)
Total Event Cost: Overall IMC Budget Total:
+ $720.00 $1,393.47
*More ideas and options for consideration when generating event awareness.
Appendices Appendix 1 – Press Release
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Contact: Rob Radecki 425-231-8663
AMAZON TEXTBOOK BUY-BACK PROGRAM CHALLENGES WESTERN BOOKSTORE
BELLINGHAM, May 21st 2012 – Amazon Buy-Back Program promises Visa and Amazon credit reimbursement for all students and emphasizes the more diverse titles they are willing to accept. The program will be located in the Sehome Haggen parking lot during finals week June 4th – 8th from 11am – 4pm. They have approved the program with Sehome Haggen to provide students with a convenient location to get money for their textbooks. This gives students another way to save money on textbooks. Amazon accepts more titles and editions than the Western Bookstore and can give students more money. Rob Radecki, an Amazon Marketing Representative, says Amazon can provide up to 70 percent more money for textbooks. This gives students the opportunity to get more “bang for their books.” Amazon’s scanner system looks up any textbook in the database and will immediately let students know if it will be accepted, along with the buy-back price. The Amazon Buy-Back Program is being operated with the essential help of two students from Western’s DECA club. www.amazon.com/sell-books/b?ie=utfb%node=2205237011 16
Appendix 2 â€“ Poster Copy
Appendix 3 – Bookmark Copy
Appendix 4 – Generating Awareness National Food Chain Pros Provides a mutually beneficial relationship for both parties involved. Aligns well with the target markets lifestyle characteristics. Opportunities for the national chain to create and distribute exclusive coupons tied to the campaign. Incentive for students to come to the event over competing buy-back events. Ample amounts of parking. Cons
The location within each individual college town will vary and may not be ideal for all students to access. The available space to use inside will be limited to what the business can provide so that it does not interfere with their operations. Franchise structure and operating procedures may make it difficult to work with one partner nationwide. Individual Franchisee’s may not agree with the terms of the event being held within or on the property of their establishment.
Press Release Pros Minimal cost. School newspapers are a credible source for information for students, and therefore effective in reaching the desired target market. Cons The benefit received from the exposure compared to the cost that it takes to work with each individual school in terms of time may not be worth it. Sending a targeted email to Amazon student members may be more effective and efficient. May not have the amount of exposure that is expected or needed. Posters Pros Cheap Easy to distribute If strategically placed in areas with a large amount of traffic you will attract a good amount of attention. Cons Easy to get lost in the clutter of advertising posters on college campuses. Advertising from for-profit organizations is often torn down if the appropriate school association did not properly approve it. If distributed outside, weather could factor into the durability of the posters. Facebook Pros This is where the target market spends a lot of their time. Getting more users involved in the page and show their approval by “liking” it is a powerful stamp of approval to their friends that shows that there is something of value. Great way to foster a relationship with target market. Cons An abundance of companies are trying to reach consumers on Facebook, it has become crowded and harder to attract the attention of intended audience. In order to get people to come back a second time, or influence their friends to take part, there needs to be something significant and unique. With social media most control is lost, be mindful of the type of content employed and how the audience could react to it. Twitter Pros 19
Having the Facebook account tied to Twitter is easy to implement. Requires little maintenance. Users enjoy the constant updates. Tweets can be re-broadcasted by followers to a wider audience within the target market. Twitter is less intimate so it is an effective place for businesses, because they can communicate with customers more effectively, especially regarding questions or concerns. Does not have as large of an active and engaged audience as other social media sites. Loss of control in social media. Posts are limited to only 140 characters, would need to direct to alternate page to provide more information. All multimedia including videos and photos is only available in links.
Website Pros Provides target market with complete program details that they can access in one place. Complete control in the design and execution of communication with the user. Cons
May by underutilized, users may be satisfied with the information from the social media pages. Keeping the information on the main trade in page may expose users to the other trade in services that Amazon offers.
School Competition Pros Creates excitement about the program. Accelerates word of mouth exposure. Competitions and prizes are a proven method to generate awareness within this target market. Cons Each school ends their semester or quarter at different times, would have to take place over several weeks. Need to provide clear program competition details so that there is no confusion that could lead to negative reactions from participants. Participants could lose interest because of the long wait for results. Raffle Pros Cons Pros
Increased traffic to event from the target market. Random, yet fair, to avoid negative impacts. Increased textbooks sold back to Amazon through the event. Some might seek ways to take advantage of system by selling back non-textbooks, unless Amazon wants to accept those as well to increase profits, as well as traffic to event. If run through a national campaign, would require a large amount of organization and a long time for results to be available. If run through a local campaign, will require coordination with each individual school.
Provides an incentive over competing programs. Generates word of mouth exposure. College students love free things.
Scavenger Hunt Pros Leveraging social media is more impactful on the target market because online content is longer lasting than flyers, which are temporary, get torn down, or are rained on and destroyed. Due to its heightened interaction level, very likely to get large amounts of traffic, and just as likely for the participants to remember the buy-back program, tell their peers, and attend themselves. Possibility to greatly increase hype and word of mouth. Cons Potential to have unpredictable negative impacts. Loss of control if run by student reps. Contest detail would need to be clearly explained to prevent parties from gaining unfair advantages. Guerilla Marketing Pros Cheap and effective way to capture the attention of your target market. Can employ basic strategies across all campuses but customize it to each campus to reflect the individual school. Breaks through the clutter of advertising messaging that college students see. Cons If it does not have a clear connection to the program it will just leave people confused to what they program is. Schools are protective over private organizations doing any form of marketing on school grounds. Liable for any damage to campus grounds. Bookmarks Pros Large reach, especially in a location and fashion most will not be expecting. Potential to extend to those of the target market that are not reached through traditional marketing methods. Cons Not as interactive for the target market, so less likely to be as impactful as other efforts. Since less interactive/impactful, potential to not achieve a viral nature and lessened opportunity for word of mouth. Chalking Pros Instant attraction of attention to the words or images on ground; most people walk with their eyes located somewhere on the ground in front of them, they cannot miss this. 21
Washes away with rain. Potential for less impact; students can walk over chalkings and completely “ignore” what is written.
Example Creative Pros Customization to the individual school, the ships tied into Western's mascot (Viking). Using a main landmark on campus to spark interest and curiosity. People walking by will notice it because it's unique and will standout. Cons School authorities may put an end to the effort before it has successfully attracted the attention of the student body. If there is not a clear connection in the mind of the students to the program it will leave them confused about what the program is really about. Loss of control, could be altered or vandalized and affect how students view it.
Appendix 5 – Outdoor Vinyl Banner13
Appendix 6 â€“ Flyers, Bookmarks, Trifolds14
Appendix 7 â€“ Lawn Signs15
Appendix 8 â€“ Speaker Rental16