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Open Hearts, Open Gates‌.

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Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Management of Homes

Indradhanush Academy Centre for Equity Studies 105/6A, 1st Floor, Adhchini, Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110017 Ph.: 011-26514688, 41078058 Email: Website:

Centre for Equity Studies

Indradhanush Academy Centre For Equity Studies

Indradhanush Academy

la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---gj jkr dh ckgksa esa] lqcg dk ut+kjk gks la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---geus rks t+ekus dh] jaft'k dks gh ih Mkyk pqHkrs gq, gj iy dks] gl [ksy ds th Mkyk D;ksa iwN jgs gks rqe] D;k geus xok;k gS thou dh rks cl NksM+ks] gj [okc ijk;k gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---oks iy Hkh Fkk viuk] ;s iy Hkh gekjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] vc dksbZ gekjk gS---oks jkrsa feV gh xbZ] ,d lqcg vkbZ u;h py jgs veu dh jkgksa ij] gj [okc gekjk gS ,d vk'kk veu dh] gS vc bl fny esa dksbZ jkg u vc jksds] dqN dj ds fn[kkuk gS c<+k,axs ge dne dks] feVk;saxs gj xae dks pysaxs mu jkgksa ij] tgk¡ ls fn[krk fdukjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] gj dksbZ gekjk gS----

In this life full of strife In this life, full of strife, We long for a friend and guide... In the darkness of night We long for a dawn, warm and bright In this life full of strife, We long for a friend and guide… We swallow hatred and the vile Stinging moments, with a smile Why do you ask, what have we lost, Not just life, even our dreams went past...

List of Team Members who contributed to this Manual Aarti Chandra Ambika Kapoor Harsh Mander Harshdeep Singh Preeti Mathew Satya Pillai Shashi Mendiratta Shubhada Hiwale

In this life, full of strife We long for a friend and guide… That past was ours, this present is ours In this life, full of strife, Now we have someone as a guide and friend… Those nights have passed, there dawns a new sun Walking on the paths of peace, every dream is ours There is a ray of hope in this heart There is no stopping us; we have to achieve something now We will take a step forward, remove all the pain We will walk on paths in life, from where the shore is near In this life, full of strife, We have everyone as a guide and friend…

Written by one of the children from Sneh Ghars in Delhi

Sveta Dave Chakravarty

Open Hearts, Open Gates…”

Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Management of Homes

Indradhanush Academy Centre for Equity Studies

We would like to thankâ&#x20AC;Ś In researching and writing these handbooks, we have drawn on some of the best examples in the work by pioneers like Sister Cyril in Kolkata, MV Foundation led by Shantha Sinha and the BOSCO Brothers. We have added learning based on the efforts of Centre for Equity Studies and Aman Biradari, of work with state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Delhi; to establish and manage Sneh Ghars in Hyderabad and Delhi. Without the support of the senior officials in the Department of School Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) especially Secretary, Anshu Vaish, Additional Secretary Anita Kaul, Directors Neelam Rao and Maninder Kaur, and the state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Delhi, this effort would not have been possible. This effort was supported by grants from ICCO & Kerk in Actie; Save the Children and Axis Bank for which we are very grateful, and look forward to further support for this work from diverse sources, including Partnership Foundation and Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. We are grateful to the following experts who authored various portions of the detailed manuals; for each, this was a labour of love. The writers are Ambika Kapoor, Anant Asthana, Deepika Nair, Dr. Madhurima Nundy, Dr. Vandana Prasad, Harsh Mander, Harshdeep Singh, Preeti Mathew, Rachel Firestone, Satya Pillai, Shaheen Adreshir, Sharmila Sinha, Shashi Mendiratta, Subroto Baul, Sunil Snehi and Sveta Dave Chakravarty. We thank Father Koshy of Navjeevana Bala Bhavan, Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh) and Father George of Bangalore Oniyavara Seva Coota (BOSCO), Bangalore (Karnataka) for giving their valuable time and sharing their experiences. We thank Aisha Khan from Hamdard Girls Hostel, Dr. Sushma Goel, Lady Irwin College and Dr. Neerja Jaiswal, MS University, Baroda for giving us technical expertise on Home Management. Special thanks to Sridhar Iyer and Dimple Mander, who gave their valuable time and insights. We are grateful to Salaam Balak Trust and Karam Marg, for allowing us to visit their homes and understand different perspectives of care and documentation. We thank Dayaram, Annie Koshy, Anita Rampal and Dilip Ranjekar, for taking time to review and provide valuable feedback, suggestions and inputs for the education component. We are grateful to Dr. K.R. Antony, Pediatrician and President, Public Health Resource Society (PHRS); Prof. Rama V. Baru, Professor, Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health (CSMCH), Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU); Mita Deshpande, Research Scholar, CSMCH, JNU; Arun Srivastava, Consultant, National Health Systems Resource Centre (NHSRC); Dr. Lipi Dhar, HOPE Project; and Ifat Hamid, ARK Foundation who reviewed the Health Manual and gave valuable inputs. We are grateful to Dr. Shanti Raman, Community Pediatrician, South West Sydney and Sydney Local Health Networks for providing background material and reviewing the module; Dr. Ramani from Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) for providing the JSS Drug formulary;


Ms. Mridula Bajaj and Ms. Kamini Malhotra from Mobile Crèches for giving access to their health record formats; Ms. Mita Deshpande for First-Aid information and booklet developed under the School Health Project of University School Resource Network (USRN) and Dr. Ganpathy, PHRN. We learnt a great deal from the children themselves, as well as the team members or Sneh Sathis who undertook the pilot to establish Sneh Ghars, in Loreto Rainbow Home, Kolkata, the Dilse team, Delhi and the Aman Vedika team, Hyderabad, for providing rich insights on residential care setups in functional schools. We acknowledge Satya’s stewardship and for holding the reins of all the teams to ensure timely completion of this complex task. She was ably advised by Sister Cyril, Sveta Dave, K Anuradha, Ferdinand Van Koolwijk, Fr. George Kollashany, and Shashi Mendiratta; and assisted by her team members Shubhada Hiwale, Preeti Mathew and Ambika Kapoor. We would also like to thank Aarti Chandra for patiently going through the transcripts and editing them. Finally, sincere and heartfelt thanks to Harsh Mander, for his inspiring leadership of the entire process of putting our learning’s together and ensuring that the child remained in focus at all times.


Contents Introduction:....................................................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 1: Setting up the home...................................................................................................... 8 Chapter 2: Housekeeping..............................................................................................................19 Chapter 3: Routine...........................................................................................................................26 Chapter 4: Budgeting and Purchase ...........................................................................................30 Chapter 5: Safety............................................................................................................................34 Chapter 6: Records..........................................................................................................................39 Reference: .......................................................................................................................................42 Annexure: .......................................................................................................................................43


Introduction Sneh Ghars have been established in partnership with state governments under the SSA initiative that seeks to achieve universalisation of primary and upper primary education. These residential homes are now recognised as critical in the government’s efforts to reach out to not only the most vulnerable but also the hardest-to-reach group of children and bring them into the ambit of education. The street child belongs to this group of neglected children needing care and protection. The argument for residential care as not just the best but the only option for street and homeless children has been presented in the initial sections of this collection of manuals. The Home Management manual lays down guidelines/processes for setting up and managing a non-custodial, residential home that provides comprehensive, long term care for deprived, homeless children living on the streets in urban areas. A home inhabited by over a hundred street children has many events taking place from the time children get up to the time they go off to sleep. Each and every activity has to be well understood, processed and analysed; resources carefully planned and utilised to have an efficiently run home. While it is understood that home management is an organised process, keeping the approach childcentric yet systems-oriented will be a challenge, albeit not an impossible one. The guidelines and processes are based on the vision that the home:

•• •• ••

ill be safe, secure and comfortable for all children, including children with special W needs; Will be a place where children are happy, healthy, well-adjusted and full of hope; Will provide a nurturing, conducive environment that enables the physical, emotional and social development of all children.

Goals of Home Management The systems and procedures detailed in the manual seek to ensure that:

•• •• •• •• •• •• 6

T he home is clean, hygienic, orderly and aesthetically appealing at all times; All relevant and required equipments and facilities are available and functional; Stock keeping and storage of all items is well planned and as per need; The home sets and follows a daily routine that ensures efficient management of time of both children and caregivers and caters to all needs of different groups of children; All records, registers, documents required for running the home are maintained and regularly updated; Overall repair and maintenance of the home is undertaken on a regular basis;

•• ••

T he home provides adequate support to all visitors, partner organisations, resource persons, volunteers who come to engage with children; All care givers in the home are aware of their roles, responsibilities and tasks associated with their role and are performing effectively.

It is desirable and hoped that by establishing processes that seek to achieve the goals listed above, the home will be “Inspection/Review-Ready” at all times.




Setting up of the Home

Children from the streets first require a physical space to move away from street life, and therefore the first major step in setting up a Sneh Ghar is to get a secure building and infrastructure. This chapter covers the initial work required to find an appropriate space and set it up with basic facilities such as water, sanitation, electricity and gas connection. So far, there has been a mixed approach in the provision of buildings. The Rainbow Model started by Sister Cyril in Kolkata is located inside the Loreto school premises. In Delhi the Government has provided unused buildings or part of government offices/campuses to be run as homes. However as in the Aman Vedika model in Hyderabad, the preferred and the recommended approach is to create residential spaces within existing schools. Allocation of Buildings The first stride in getting a building is to undertake a survey to map the government schools in the city that have a low turnout of children. Out of the negotiated buildings, the implementing NGO may be allotted one or more school buildings or portions of it to run the program. The allocation is confirmed The experience of the Dil Se team through a MoU which is signed between the NGO and has been relevant in understanding Department of Education. [Refer Annexure 1] the constraints of taking over On the basis of this contract, a letter of allotment is provided which allows the NGO to take possession of the building. It is necessary to ensure that there is no unattended stock piled up in the portions allotted for starting the home. Duplicate keys to the premises should be taken along with the letter. The allotment is usually for a specified time duration which may be renewed after completion of the specified time period.

an allotted building. Even if the premises are allotted, the actual clearing up of the building may take time causing delay in taking occupancy of the place. Considering all these constraints and challenges a lot of follow up is required to be done by the Sneh Sathis.

Planning the Layout The School buildings are usually not designed for residential use. Hence, it is important to pre plan allocation of rooms to utilize the available spaces effectively based on which, structural changes or renovations may be done. In reality, there may not be much space available and the Sneh Ghar will have to operate from a limited three or four rooms and therefore rooms may be used for multi-purposes. For instance, the dining area may have to be combined with the kitchen and dormitories can be used as classrooms during the day. The dimensions of rooms and spaces for children in this manual are based on the provisions 8

given under the Juvenile Justice Act. However separate rooms for recreation, and counseling may not be available because of the limited space. The key aspects1 to be kept in mind while allocating rooms for specific purposes are as follows:



ffice and general store room could O be adjacent to each other to easily coordinate issue of articles, daily use items and entry into records. If the kitchen and dining area are in two separate rooms a connecting door will make access easy. If possible the wash area may be located adjacent to the kitchen and dining area.

Criteria for selecting running schools as Sneh Ghars: • If the number of children enrolled is much lesser than what the space permits and therefore space is available for establishing a Sneh Ghar. • If the department is considering to shut down the school. • School has a play ground which will be available to children of the Sneh Ghar. It is critical that the principal of the school be convinced of the idea and is willing to cooperate in this initiative. All efforts should be made in this regard by the implementing team.

Fig.1: The layout of rooms in one of the Delhi homes. In an exceptional case so far, a vacant school building with 14 rooms was allocated to Dilse campaign.

These are suggestive and may not be applicable for all homes.



•• ••

T he classrooms and computer rooms (if available) should be separate from the dormitory area. Each room should have a separate area for storage.

Electricity, water, sewage These facilities already exist in the school where the Sneh Ghar will be situated and recognizing that this is a government initiative, the school should ideally extend these facilities to the Sneh Ghar. An audit of these facilities should be done before finalizing any building. The members of the NGO have to negotiate with the principal of the school about the use of these facilities in the school. For instance in Hyderabad, Sneh Ghars are accessing the same electricity connection as that of the school and only making a separate payment by installing a separate sub-meter. This will help in tracking consumption. In some cases, there may be outstanding dues from previous usage that need to be paid before applying for a sub-meter. If the school does not have these facilities then the Department of Education should be contacted to provide these basic amenities. As a last resort the implementing NGO will have make provisions. Applying for a new electricity connection A requisition form can be obtained at the nearest divisional or sub divisional office of the electricity supply board. This form can often be downloaded from the official website. Initially, a temporary connection can be applied for. This is given for a period of three years. A permanent connection is given after three years based on the usage. While submitting the application, the following documents are necessary: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

NGO registration copy; Copy of the MoU with the government; Possession/Allotment Letter (Government Premises); Election ID/Pan card of the project- in-charge; Passport size photographs of the project- in-charge; Affidavit stating if the bill is not paid in time, the NGO will be held responsible.

After submission of the duly filled requisition form, an acknowledgement slip mentioning details of the date of submission of the new connection application form and a Unique Application Number is given to the applicant. An electrical engineer and or contractor from the department will visit the premises to verify the details and check if there are any existing dues for the site and will submit a report stating the details of the load of electricity required. Based on this report, the application is 10

rejected or accepted. If accepted, a demand note will be raised by the department, based on which the specified amount of money has to be deposited by the applicant. Within seven days of payment, the connection is activated. In case the Sneh Ghar needs a three-phase connection, the formalities of the application are the same as a single-phase connection but the requirement should be a minimum of 11 KW. Applying for a new water connection „„ For

obtaining a water connection, the NGO should contact the concerned Zonal Engineer (ZE), for areas that fall in the jurisdiction of the Municipal Corporation. An application form can be obtained from the office of the Zonal Engineer. „„ The form must include all the documents mentioned in the application for electricity supply. „„ Any pending dues will be checked by the concerned ZRO (Zonal Revenue Officer) after submission of the application. „„ ZRO will issue a “no dues certificate” or details of any pending dues within three working days from the receipt of the file. „„ ZE will give technical clearance within two days from the receipt of the file, intimate the NGO and send the file to the ZRO concerned for depositing connection charges including road repair charges and development charges/ meter security if any, etc and raise a bill which the NGO will have to pay within 24 hours and submit a copy of the receipt to the ZE concerned. A bore well is required if the available supply of water is not enough. However it should be considered as the last option since it causes depletion of ground water and has high costs for construction. For buildings with plot size more than 200 square meters, construction of a 2Rain Water Harvesting facility is essential for getting approval for a bore-well connection. To apply for a bore-well connection, a similar application has to be submitted to the ZE along with a copy of the same set of documents. The need for a bore well connection has to be stated clearly in the application. A committee consisting of the Electrical Engineer, Junior Engineer, local councilor and the Deputy Commissioner will assess the requirement. Once approved, the process can be started but should only be done through a plumber approved by the zonal office. The ZE will also do a physical verification of the boring on the appointed date, either himself or by deputing a Junior Engineer or Fitter. An electric motor of appropriate wattage has to be bought in order to pump up the water.

Rainwater harvesting system is the collection of rainwater from the surface which directly receives rainfall. It can be a paved area like a terrace or courtyard of a building. The water collected has to be transported through pipes into a recharge pit. This will help to restore the ground water levels.



Applying for a fresh sewer connection In order to obtain a sewer connection, contact the concerned ZE for areas falling in the jurisdiction of the Municipal Corporation. In case of approved colonies, the form along with the documents and an attested copy of sanctioned plan of building should also be submitted. After this, a proportionate deposit is to be made by the applicant within 20 days. The connection is sanctioned within 30 days as per the rules. It is important to note that the applicant has the responsibility of maintenance of the sewage only till the mainline. Any repairs/maintenance of the connecting line has to be done by the applicant. The connection from the main line is the responsibility of the Municipal Corporation. Applying for a cooking gas connection A commercial gas connection offering cylinders of capacity 19 kg or 47.5 kg is the best option for the bulk cooking requirements of the Sneh Ghar. As per the rules laid down by the Department of Explosives, LPG can be stored up to 100 Kg without an explosive license in unconnected cylinders. Hence, up to 100 Kg gas from the nearest dealer can be obtained for industrial/commercial usage. Application for a commercial gas connection needs to be written on plain paper to the concerned authority and submitted along with the set of documents. On registration, the distributor will send an intimation letter through registered post. On producing this letter the connection will be made immediately. For confirming a connection, a security deposit at the existing fixed rate has to be paid. On payment, a Subscription Voucher (SV) is issued which has to be kept for future reference. Maintenance of the Premises As the government owns the allotted building, it is suggested that the concerned departments should provide all the maintenance including horticulture and landscaping. Along with the MoU, the issuing authority should give formal instructions, directing the concerned agencies to provide regular support for these purposes. This increases the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement and ownership and makes the initiative sustainable and cuts the cost for the implementing NGO. In case this option is not possible, it is necessary to have a maintenance plan in the form of an Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC). That will cover plumbing, electrical work, replacement of any faulty equipment, water proofing, building maintenance, repair of furniture, white wash, paint, computer repairs, etc. The contract may be given to a single agency or to separate concerned agencies.


Fig.2: A Commercial Gas Stove A commercial gas connection and stove is best for bulk cooking in homes.

Setting up the rooms Each room in the Sneh Ghar requires specific equipment and furniture to make the place livable, useful and comfortable. This section discusses in detail the requirements as laid out in the JJ Act as well as the learning from the various residential models across the country (see Table 1). Kitchen The area designated as the kitchen should have enough space for storage and cooking bulk quantities of food. Many times, the kitchen and dining may be located in the same room. Ideally, a Sneh Ghar with 80-100 children would need a kitchen with floor area of 300 sq. ft3 approximately so that the bulk preparation, cooking, and serving can be done with ease. While a counter top is useful for chopping and other preparatory activities, cooking will invariably require mixing and stirring of huge quantities and therefore it is recommended that the stove is kept on the floor.


In the Loreto Rainbow Homes Kolkata, children live in spacious halls that have been reclaimed from the terrace of the school building. Children have lockers that are made along the four walls to store their personal belongings. The setup and the individual child supplies are of a comfortable minimum level; this is done deliberately so that they do not have problems in adjusting when they move out. Table 1: Space requirement for Sneh Ghar with 100 children

Type of room Dormitories Classrooms Health room Kitchen Dining hall Store Recreation room Library Bathrooms Toilets Office rooms Counseling TOTAL

Number of rooms 4 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 10 16 1 1 43

Total Area (Sq. ft.) 4000 1200 150 500 1600 500 600 1000 250 400 300 120 11970

As per norms4 an area of approx.500 sq. ft is recommended for 100 children. However, since Sneh Ghars usually have space constraint, a minimum 300 sq. ft. is more realistic and adequate to run the activities smoothly.


Specific requirements of a kitchen „„ A

commercial gas stove and connection. „„ Utensils suitable for bulk cooking and serving. „„ Refrigerator for storing perishable items. „„ Continuous supply of clean water for drinking and running water for bathing, washing and cleaning. „„ Good quality and high capacity purifying systems for drinking water should be installed. A water cooler can help to store drinking water as well as provide chilled water in summer. „„ A heavy-duty mixer-grinder for large quantities of mixing, grinding and blending processes. „„ A weighing machine to measure bulk quantities of grain and vegetables. „„ Exhaust fans in the kitchen to let out the fumes and smoke. „„ A separate store room or a corner to store groceries, utensils and daily kitchen supplies. Dormitories Dormitories provide the residents a space to rest, be comfortable, play and sleep. These rooms must have sufficient natural light and ventilation that will prevent dampness and allow fresh air to come into the rooms. Dormitories should to be planned in such a manner that each child has an individual space of 21 sq. feet approximately. In case the dormitories are also being used for teaching-learning purposes, an additional floor area of 100 sq. ft should be available for activities. Specific requirements of a Dormitory „„ One

mattress, one pillow and at least two sets of bed sheets, pillow covers and a quilt/blanket should be provided for each child. „„ Depending on the resources and mutual consensus of the implementing team members, the children can be made to sleep on mattresses on the floor or on beds. Where the children sleep on the floor on mattresses, the bedding should be neatly piled up in the morning. „„ Providing bunk beds, if possible with in-built lockers can optimize the space in the dormitories. The space between each bed should be at least four feet so that locker compartments can be accessed easily. While allotting the bunk beds, the younger children should be given the lower part so as to avoid accidental falls while sleeping. Bunk beds must also have a support on the sides to prevent such accidents. The ceiling of the room should be high enough to accommodate bunk beds or else it could also become a cause for accidents. „„ A locker to store personal items such as clothes, books, etc. should be provided for every child. 14


order to prevent clutter a shoe rack/s depending upon the number of children is essential. „„ Mosquito repellants have to be provided and replenished on a regular basis as per the number of rooms. „„ Desert coolers and room heaters may be provided in each room as per seasonal needs. „„ Each room should also have a doormat at the entrance. „„ Every room should be equipped with basic cleaning equipment like a broom and dust collector. Dining area As per norms, for every 50 children, a space of 800 sq. ft. has to be provided for dining area. Depending on the space, resources and collective agreement, a low seating arrangement with mats or low desks or dining tables with chairs can be chosen. If the space is less, children can have food in batches instead of sitting all at one time. As a norm, children who are youngest should be served food first, followed by the older children. Each child is given a set of plate, glass, bowl and spoon and these can be kept in the same room on racks/ storage space. Classrooms Classrooms in Sneh Ghars should be designed for use of informal and personalized teaching methods. Every child, even those mainstreamed, will need extra attention from the teachers because of their low level and slow pace of learning. Given below are certain aspects that can help to make classrooms in the Sneh Ghars more child-friendly:




hairs and tables or benches and desks C may be used depending on the funds available. Low seating can also be considered. Classrooms should attract and generate interest in the children. Apart from the white/ black board, the walls may be decorated with pictures, paintings, etc. Project work done by the children should be displayed. An easy method to change the look of the room is by changing the display of TLMs as per the teaching activities conducted. Blackboards on the lower side of the wall help children to scribble, draw and engage in self-learning exercises. See figure 3.

Figure 3: The concept of low blackboards is being successfully used in government schools across the country. Such boards in the Sneh Ghar will enhance the children’s opportunity for self learning.


•• •• ••

If the Sneh Ghar has computers, they may be kept within the classrooms. Each classroom should have storage space for the teachers to store TLMs, books and stationery. Teaching learning material (TLM) should be stored or displayed in such a way that they are accessible to children and the teacher while they study. The teacher may involve the students in creating TLMs.

Toilets and Bathrooms As Sneh Ghars will be typically located in a non residential school building, the number of toilets and bathrooms may be insufficient. New facilities have to be added or existing ones modified. One toilet and one bathroom for every 10 children, is necessary for comfortable use and hygiene. As per the JJ Act norms, eight children can share a toilet and one bathroom per ten children should be provided. Given below are some points to be kept in mind for planning toilets and bathrooms:


T oilets should be constructed using good quality material that is easy to clean and low on maintenance;


S eparate sections may be planned for brushing teeth, bathing and toilets so that more children can use the facilities simultaneously;


L ow taps can be provided outside in a row where children can wash their clothes. Latches of doors, hooks for hanging clothes, mirrors and washbasins should be placed at suitable height for small children;




ater supply has to be available on a continuous basis. W Water tank of storage capacity of 10000 liters is needed for a home with over hundred children and Sneh Sathis. If there is no connection, a bore-well may be dug for which an electric motor of 2 HP will be needed to pump water from it to the storage tanks;

Following changes can be done to a building to make it suitable for differently-abled children:

• Ramps instead of stairs

• At

least one bathroom suitable for use by physically disabled children.

• Hand rails all along walls.

eysers of appropriate capacity have to be installed. If resources allow, exhaust G fans should be provided in the toilet area.

Play Area Although JJ Act has not specified a separate area for play, home should preferably have adequate outdoor space for physical activity and exercise. It should be protected from all sides to guard against strangers and stray animals. A five feet wall or hedge can suffice for this purpose. The ground should be cleared of stones, weeds, thorns and poisonous plants before use. Children love to take part in activities that involve jumping, swinging, climbing, playing on merry-go-rounds, etc. Play equipment such as swings, slides, jungle gyms can be added after ensuring that the surface is smooth. A sand pit in this area can prevent injuries. In case an open ground is not available, children can be accompanied to a nearby park or playground for outdoor activities. Gardening If the space permits, a garden can be developed with the children. Each Sneh Sathi can engage with a group of 8 to 10 children and orient them about gardening by giving them information about different kinds of soils, types of plants, how to plant them, amount of water required, and so on. Children can take on responsibilities like measuring the land, removing unwanted grass and stones, planting saplings, watering and putting manure, digging the soil for airing, removing the dry leaves, etc. If the home has no space, then potted plants can be grown. Selection of plants can be based on the availability of space, water, sunlight and those requiring low maintenance. Gardening can become part of the classroom projects of children. It can provide varied learning ranging from counting, observing growth, knowing about plant varieties and so on. It depends on how effectively the Sneh Sathis use this opportunity. Displays Attractive display in the home improves the aesthetic appeal and gives a cheerful look to it. Displays should be used to give information about the Sneh Ghar such as the number of school going children, children attending special classes or courses, those who are undergoing medical treatment and so on. Time schedules of children should also be put up on display. Similarly, the schedules of Sneh Sathis can be put up near their area of work. Outside the kitchen and dining space, the dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s menu can be displayed. Care 17

Table 2: Basic display boards




Certificate of NGO registration, list of all children in the home, school wise distribution of children, list of funders and donors, monthly expenditure of the home, list of requirement for the home from potential donors, parents’ visiting hours, birthday calendar of children and Sneh Sathis, emergency phone numbers and contact details of other important persons/agencies, children’s committees.


Names of the children, time table of the class, worksheets made by children, projects made by them, theme based display.

Dormitory/Outer List of children occupying the dormitory, the Sneh Sathi in charge, nonwalls of the room negotiable rules for Sneh Sathis and children, time schedule of children, personal hygiene posters, craft and creative work done by children, status on reward charts. Certificates, medals, trophies, special achievement of the children, photographs of various functions and festivals celebrated in the home, outdoor learning aids. Kitchen and dining area

Menu for the week, nutritive value of different food. Do’s and don’ts while having meals etc.

should be taken to balance the use of aesthetical and information boards so that the displays do not appear monotonous and dull. Poems, rhymes, cartoon pictures can also be used to make the look colorful. Suggestion for displays in each room is given in Table 2. Creative use of walls The walls of the home can be designed in a way that provides self-engagement opportunities for children without any active supervision from either the Sneh Sathis or teachers. For example, a height meter on the wall helps the children to measure their height themselves. Based on the average height of the children, the lower or higher portion of the walls can be utilized for this. The illustrations should be clear and legible. It helps to give a creative space to the children for learning drawing, writing stories, poems, learn alphabets, numbers, play games, draw patterns, etc. [Refer to Annexure 2 for a comprehensive list of setup requirements] 18




Housekeeping is the function that deals with cleanliness and all ancillary services attached to that.â&#x20AC;¨One feels comfortable in an environment which is clean and orderly, so cleanliness is important for health and well being. It is also essential for promoting safety and health. Tidy area is a happy area. Maintaining high standards of cleanliness and housekeeping is not an easy task. It is something that has to be worked on continually by all Sneh Sathis, but when done right it prevents accidents and injuries, saves space, time and materials. In a home that is clean, orderly and free of obstruction; everyone will feel safer, think and work better. Cleanliness and housekeeping starts from the outside of the home with a clean and well maintained front that is attractive and free from litter. An attractive outside includes a front door that is clean, garbage cans that are in good condition and not overflowing, and windows that are clean and free from damage and do not have faded and out-dated signs and posters, and a building exterior that looks like it is being cared for. Good housekeeping is not the result of cleaning up once a week or even once a day. It is the result of maintaining cleanliness all the time. Maintaining high standards of cleanliness and housekeeping is an on-going and never ending job and will only happen if there is a detailed schedule of the tasks that need to be done each day, each week and each month, and that they are assigned to specific Sneh Sathis and children to complete. In addition, all Sneh Sathis and children have to understand the importance of maintaining these high standards each and every day. Housekeeping activities have to be planned as per the type of room and its usage. Cleaning supplies have to be purchased and stored before hand to prevent shortage. Easy measures like not littering waste in and around the home and leaving the bathrooms clean after use; can help to a great extent. One of the easiest methods to ensure cleanliness is to inculcate a practice of removing slippers/shoes before entering a room. This is especially effective while accessing the kitchen and the dining area. This may not be practical in winters or cold regions especially in the north as it is too chilly to walk barefoot. Doormats outside each room also help to maintain clean floors. A simple monitoring plan can help to ensure that each protocol is carefully followed. These should be easy to implement and suited to the day-to-day functioning of the home. A clear follow up plan needs to be pursued to ensure that all challenges are solved as soon as possible. A monitoring plan is not an end in itself but a means to make the functioning smoother.


Children’s Participation

Children must play an active role in maintaining cleanliness. Every room or dormitory can have a group leader from amongst the children whose responsibility can be changed on a weekly basis. Some of the functions of a group leader are:

• Ensure children wake up on time and keep their beds tidy. In case the children sleep on the floor on mat/mattresses, everyone rolls and stacks them before they leave the room.

• Take a lead in helping the children to clean up their rooms in the morning and before leaving for classes or school.

• Ensure that the children’s clothes and personal belongings are stacked in the lockers. • Ensure that shoes are to be stacked in a corner of the room or in a shoe rack. This activity will allow the children to participate and take responsibility for keeping their dormitories clean. It may reduce a lot of burden of the Sneh Sathis to ensure cleanliness.

Housekeeping Routines Daily, weekly and monthly routines should be developed. For instance, cleaning of the kitchen after every meal should be done daily, while a thorough overall cleaning has to be done only once a week. [Refer Annexure 3(i)] A housekeeping routine is best followed if it is agreed upon and known to all residents. The routines can be displayed in appropriate places so that everyone is able to view it and plan their activities accordingly (see Table 4). The home coordinator should physically inspect all the rooms and the outdoor areas on a daily basis and this forms a major part of their job profile. [Refer Annexure 3(ii)] Given below are good practices for maintaining kitchen hygiene. (a) Kitchen ‰‰ The

kitchen platform needs to be cleared after every meal. ‰‰ The sink area should be cleaned after washing utensils. ‰‰ After cutting vegetable peels should not be left on the floor but should be collected in a waste bin or on old newspapers and disposed. Waste from cooking and any leftover from meals should be collected in dustbins with liners. Liners should be changed as per the quantity of waste. Before adding a new liner, the dustbin has to be washed with soap/washing powder and wiped clean and dry. ‰‰ The mops and dusters used for the kitchen need to be washed daily. There should be four to five sets of mops and dusters so that while one is being 20

used the other set can be washed and dried. New mops should be bought to replace the old ones every month. ‰‰ Apart from daily cleaning, the entire kitchen needs to be washed thoroughly every week and cobwebs removed. Thorough cleaning of the kitchen should be done once every 15 days, after removing all the movable items. ‰‰ Refrigerators and water coolers should be cleaned thoroughly every week. (b) Dining area ‰‰ The

dining area has to be cleaned after every meal. ‰‰ The plates, glasses and bowls used by children should be washed after every use and soaked in warm soapy water once a week for thorough cleaning. [Refer to Annexure 3 (iii)] (c) Dormitories and Classrooms ‰‰ Cupboards

are to be cleaned thoroughly once a month. Fresh newspapers may be used to line the racks. Naphthalene balls can be used in cupboards to keep moths away. ‰‰ A weekly schedule of cleaning the area and sun drying the beddings and quilts (in winters) has to be followed. By the end of winters, the quilts/blankets may be given for dry cleaning. Post laundry, these should be wrapped in newspapers or cotton bed sheets and stacked away systematically in the store room. Before using them in the next season, they should be thoroughly aired. ‰‰ Bed sheets and pillow covers should be washed and changed every week. ‰‰ Do not let water collect in the dessert cooler. [Refer to Annexure 3 (iv)] (d) Bathrooms Cleaning of bathrooms and lavatories is one of the most important housekeeping activities and it becomes even more challenging when the ratio of children to bathrooms is low. Bathrooms should be cleaned with disinfectants at least twice a day. Drainage and sewage facilities need to be checked regularly to prevent any clogging. Dustbins have to be emptied daily and replaced with new liners. [Refer to Annexure 3 (v)]


Table 4: Housekeeping Routine of a Home




All rooms should be swept and mopped twice in a day using water in which disinfectant has been added. Kitchen should be mopped after every meal and the dustbins must be emptied. Dusters used in the kitchen must be washed. Doormats should be dusted vigorously every day. Toilets should be washed twice daily, using phenyl. Rubber sheets of the children who wet their beds should be washed and sun-dried.


Water coolers must be cleaned. Sheets and pillow covers to be changed. Kitchen floor and wall tiles have to be washed thoroughly at least once a week.


Cobwebs to be removed. Mattresses/pillows/blankets/quilts to be sunned.


Refrigerator emptied and cleaned. All rooms washed with water. Overhead tanks must be cleaned. Fans/tubes to be dusted. Fumigation has to be ensured to prevent pests


Water purifiers should be thoroughly cleaned. Desert coolers/geysers/heaters and other electrical appliances not in use should be wiped and packed in newspaper or cardboard boxes. Winter clothes and bedding should be laundered or dry cleaned and stored in almirahs or large trunks. Use naphthalene to keep them moth free. Fumigate the campus. Fans should be cleaned. Gas burner must be cleaned. Gas rubber pipe should be checked.

Half yearly

All appliances need to be inspected.


Whitewash and painting.

Waste Management Sneh Ghars with more than a hundred children will produce a lot of waste, of which some will be recyclable and some not. The best way to dispose it is to reuse the recyclable waste. For this, systematically collect it in differently coloured bins and if open spaces are available, make manure using the composting method. All residents should segregate reusable items from the non-recyclable ones while disposing it. Composting is a process that hastens the breaking down of plant remains and other organic waste into an earthy, dark, crumbly substance that enhances the soil. This dark substance produced is called compost. Compost manure in the soil 22

improves soil structure, texture and aeration along with having a better water holding capacity. Composting if done as per the technique will prove to be of great help in increasing the soil quality, which in turn will help create a flourishing garden in the Sneh Ghar. Composting Dig a pit, preferably close to the kitchen area. The pit could be with a diameter of four feet, or a square pit, three feet on each side. Install a wire mesh inside the pit along the walls either in a circular or cubicle fashion depending on the shape of the pit. To begin, a layer of dry leaves should be added in the soil. Sprinkle water over it. Add the vegetable and other organic waste to the pit to a thickness of two inches. Sprinkle some more water. Put a shovel-full of soil or compost to add micro-organisms to the bin and add more layers of dry and green leaves till the top of the pit. Mixing of ingredients every few weeks will help to accelerate the process.

These items that are recyclable can be used for composting

Storage Storage in the home should be planned such that all the items are arranged systematically and are within comfortable reach. Some Sneh Ghars may not have enough space to organize a separate store room, and in this case, the available space like office area, dormitory, kitchen area needs to be used effectively. Good Storage

•• ••

Items should be stacked neatly in almirahs, on racks or in boxes to avoid cluttering;


upboards should be dusted and cleaned and shelves lined with fresh newspaper C that should be changed every month;


T he store room should be well ventilated so that it is free from moisture and unpleasant odour;

oods should be stacked in such a way that counting can be done without moving G them;


•• •• ••

It should be clear of unnecessary traffic;


o regular pest control. Local pest control agencies can be contacted for this. Infection D from pests can be avoided to a great extent if storage is done six inches above the ground;


Boxes and containers used for storage can be labeled in a clear and legible way.

Check all the items for signs of damage on a regular basis; I tems that are used most frequently should be located within easy reach. The oldest stock should be issued first; this process is the first in/first out (FIFO)4 rule;

Storage of food items:

•• •• ••

Ensure that the lids on the jars are fastened tightly. Keep food items away from kerosene, acids or cleaning agents. F ood items need to be inspected regularly for spoilage, insects or rodents. [Refer to Annexure 3 (vi)]

Storage of Clothing: Each Sneh Ghar will have large amounts of linen such as bed sheets, pillow covers, curtains etc and clothing in the form of daily wear, school uniforms and occasional wear. These must be cared for so that they can last the longest as possible. Older children in the age groups of 12-18yrs may wash their own clothes. While for younger children, housemothers may have to do this, each taking the responsibility for a set of 10-15 children. Older children may also help with this. Care of clothes: „„ Labeling the clothes by putting the name of

the child to whom the garment is being

issued; „„ Clothes

that need any kind of repair such as minor tear, missing buttons are to be mended before washing. A sewing machine and sewing kit for minor alterations should be available in the Sneh Ghar;

„„ Excessively

stained clothes should also be washed separately;

„„ Clothes

should be sorted before washing on the basis of the type of fiber, such as cotton, woolens, and synthetics. Whites and dusters used for mopping and cleaning should also be washed separately. Soaking of fabrics help in loosening of the dirt and thus making the washing process easier. It also reduces the damage to the fabric;

A FIFO issue system is used in efficient management of materials; this method helps in ensuring that the oldest material is used first. This also calls for systematic storage as per the date of purchase. This method helps to utilise perishable and semi perishable items before the expiry date.



„„ Washed

and dried clothes should be neatly folded and stacked. Daily wear, uniforms and undergarments should be kept in separate piles;

„„ Damp clothes should not be stored as moisture can cause mildew. This causes colour

change in the clothes; „„ After use, the clothes should be dried to remove any moisture. A laundry box should

be provided in each dormitory to collect all soiled clothes; „„ Woolen clothes should be packed in newspapers as moths stay away from printer’s

ink; „„ To

protect clothes from insects use repellents like dried neem, camphor and moth balls. For a pleasant fragrance, dried neem leaves and dry eucalyptus leaves can be used.





A routine gives children a sense of organization, stability, comfort and security and helps them develop self-discipline. The very definition of growing up is change. Children have to tackle and learn new skills and information at an astonishing pace, even their own bodies change constantly. Like adults they can handle change better if it is expected and occurs in context of a familiar routine. Children who have never lived in a home have not learnt that life can run more smoothly if things are organized. Children who do not develop basic selfcare routines, from grooming to food, may find it hard to take care of themselves. Structure allows them to internalize constructive habits.â&#x20AC;¨A familiarity and security of a home, coupled with a predictable routine allows children to feel safe, and develop a sense of mastery in handling their lives. Children need and in fact even desire routine. Benefits of Routines 1.

Routines eliminate power struggles preventing them from being nagged by adults. This activity (brushing teeth, napping and turning off the T.V. to come to dinner) is done at that time of the day. The adults are no longer seen as a bad figure.


Routines help children to cooperate by reducing stress and anxiety for everyone. Everyone knows what comes next; there are fair warnings for transitions and no one feels pushed around.


Routines help children learn to take charge of their own activities. Over time, children learn to brush their teeth, pack their backpacks, etc., without constant reminders. Children love being in charge of themselves. This feeling increases their sense of mastery and competence. Children who feel more independent and in charge of themselves have less need to rebel and be oppositional.


Children learn the concept of "looking forward" to things they enjoy, which is an important part of making a happy accommodation with the demands of a schedule. A child may want to go to the playground now, but can learn that one always goes to the playground in the afternoon and so can look forward to it then.


Schedules help maintain consistency in expectations. With a routine, adults are more likely to stick to healthy expectations for everyone in the home uniformly, because that is what everyone is doing in the home. This results in development of healthy habits, where everything runs more smoothly.


Setting up a good routine (also includes good practices)

•• •• •• ••


•• •• •• ••


daily schedule includes a combination of routines. Each of the routines can be A broken into specific tasks. A routine will go smoothly when the child is trained in each specific set of tasks. Should provide adequate time for sleep, play, eating, education, healthcare, recreation and reflection. Routine is established keeping in mind the child’s needs. There should be a range of activities that are healing, stimulating and empowering for them. Every activity requires a preparation and winding up time. While scheduling activities the Sneh Sathis should take into account the realistic time to do the invisible tasks. e.g. during meals the mess/dining room needs to be readied- mats to be laid, children to be seated, served one by one, clearing and cleaning up before the next batch of children are called in etc. (Refer Table 3) Schedules cannot be exact. While some activities will be fixed some need to be left flexible which if need be can be rescheduled to another day if required. Children should be reminded that if an activity is being performed regularly, it is not that it will always be done this way. The routine time schedule should be established through an interactive discussion with the children. Routines should be reviewed and revised based on the weather, school vacations, during preparation time for annual events etc. The routine should be displayed in the home. The families, volunteers and the school should know the routine and should be informed of any revisions made. Since children while on the street have not had to follow a schedule, some children especially the new ones might take some time to get into the routine. Space should be given while cautiously encouraging time to get into it. The Sneh Sathis should do what the routine demands. If the child knows it will always be consistent, s/he will not fuss. Do not change the routine. Sneh Sathis also need to respect and follow the routine so that children can look up to them.


Table 3: Planning for the dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s routine


Timings/ duration Details (approx) Waking up 15 min The younger children should be woken up by the house mothers. The timings could be adjusted by 45 mins to an hour depending on the weather. The daily routine for grooming needs to be carefully planned so that each child gets enough time to use bathrooms and toilets. Freshening up 45 min The day should begin with the children brushing, bathing and grooming and getting ready for school and other activities for the day. While children above 7yrs can manage independently, younger ones should be taken care of by the home mothers or older children. Assembly 15-20 min A participative morning assembly should be held during which the plan for the day should be shared with the children. Some physical exercises could help stimulate the children to take on the day. Meals 1hr 30 mins Breakfast, midday fruit, lunch, evening tea, snacks and dinner should be served according to a pre decided time and menu. Formal/bridge 4-5 hrs Children attend school or bridge study classes based on education the level and individual plan. Self Study 1 hr Time and space for children to understand/practice concepts at their own pace. Review time 30-45 min Time made for the critical activity of a. personal reflection; b. Collective discussion and plan various aspects of running a Sneh Ghar. Play 1hr 30 mins Structured and unstructured games played indoors or outdoors. Personal time 1 hr The routine should provide for unstructured, personal time to the children during which they can wash, groom and simply be. Non academic/ 1 hr Planned based on the time available, resources and Leisure interests of the children. Activities can be scheduled in such activities a way that some of them are taken up daily, some weekly and some for few days in the month i.e. learning dance, music, arts, and crafts, self defense, theatre. Sleep 8 hrs Growing children need adequate rest and relaxation. While the younger children need rest in between the day, the older children should be encouraged to go to bed latest by 10.30pm.


Routine of Sneh Sathis Sneh Sathis have to cater to various needs of the children as per their roles. Time schedules may be planned under the leadership of the home coordinator. A detailed time schedule helps to clarify each member’s role and can become a handy tool for monitoring as well. Work schedules of respective Sneh Sathis should be displayed in their work areas. This ensures easy reference and helps to keep a track on whether activities are done on time. [Refer to Annexure 4] At weekly review meetings, the time schedule may be discussed among all to understand if all the requirements of their work are being addressed. Planning for successive weeks can also be done by this process. Refer table 4 for activities that can be planned weekly, monthly, quarterly, six monthly and annually. Table 4: Frequency of activities to be planned by the Sneh Sathis




• Issuing of stationery and toiletries to staff and children. • Weekly staff meetings. • Phone call by children to parents..


• Conducting parents meeting, staff meeting, balsabha. • Attending monthly review meetings in schools where children are mainstreamed. • Planning of home budget. • Celebration of birthdays, festivals. • Health check-ups. • Stock taking. • Checking of child records and registers in the Sneh Ghar.


• Purchasing of clothes. • Outing for children.

Half yearly

• Purchasing of foot wear for children. • Purchasing of bed sheet. • De-worming.


• • • •

Purchase of uniforms and other school supplies. Sports day, Annual day. Outstation trips. Stock taking of fixed assets.




Budgeting and Purchase

The main principle of financial planning of a home is budgeting. Budgeting is the systematic allocation of available limited resources to a number of needs and wants. It is a snapshot of the resources available at hand and gives the information about how much the home needs, how much it is spending and how much remains. The budget for running a Sneh Ghar should be prepared jointly by the Sneh Sathis and the children. It helps children to understand the value of saving money and planning expenditure. The process of preparing a budget involves the following: Planning The budget should be prepared on a monthly basis and should be based on the daily and weekly expenses under various heads. Even the smallest expense must be estimated, calculated and added to the budget. Money will be required for a range of things like purchase of food, clothing to payment of utility bills and maintenance such as white washing and building repair. Figure no. 4 below captures the heads under which most of the requirements of a home are likely to fall. Budget can be prepared keeping in mind the minimum requirement per child for items such as food, stationery, clothing and bedding. [Refer to Annexure 5 (i), 5 (ii) and 5 (iii)] Fig. 4: Items included in home budget


Balance check: At the end of each month a balance check of the stock should be done to understand the exact quantities of supplies that are left over from the previous month. Accordingly, number and/or quantities of items to be purchased can be calculated. For instance, if bathing soap bars are in the stock and can last for ten more days, the requirement for next month will only be for the remaining twenty days. The stock available after a physical check should be cross verified with the entries in the stock registers. Therefore, it is important that these registers are updated daily. By doing a balance check; resources can be more judiciously utilized. If the resources are limited, it is important to prioritize. High on priority are the basic needs of food, water, clothing and shelter; and care should be taken never to compromise on these. It is a safe practice to request a surplus of 10-15 % to the monthly budget to prevent any shortages arising out of unexpected situations. Purchasing Once the exact requirement of items for the month is calculated, a purchase list can be prepared. All items can be broadly divided into categories of perishable and nonperishable items and should be purchased accordingly. a) Non-perishable items: Items such as groceries, stationery, toiletries etc. that are required in large quantities should be purchased in bulk from wholesale vendors as it is the most economical and viable option. Purchasing from cooperative societies like the Kendriya Bhandar5 helps to get cost effective deals. Order should be placed well in advance as vendors require time to pack and send all the items. b) Perishable items: Items such as milk, vegetables, fruits, and eggs can be ordered from a retail shop in the neighborhood on standing orders for the quantities specified in the beginning of the month. On days when extra quantities are required, Sneh Sathis accompanied by children can undertake the purchase. In the Aman Vedika Homes, Hyderabad, children are a part of various committees for managing the home. One such committee is the purchase committee. Children are involved in making a list of all the supplies needed as well as in accompanying the Sneh Sathis for purchasing. Through this, they learn how to negotiate, give the correct amount of money and keep an expense statement, etc. It also sensitizes them to work judiciously within the reality of limited budget and resources. This also helps the organization to maintain transparency.

Central Government Employees Consumer Cooperative Society Ltd. also known as Kendriya Bhandar was set up as a welfare project for the benefit of the Central Government employees and public at large. It has sales counters across the country for grocery, consumer and household items, stationery items, medicines and allied items.



While receiving the items, check whether they have been delivered as per the quality and the quantity specified in the order. Based on the satisfactory delivery of all items, an acknowledgement slip should be signed and sent back to the seller and payment of the bill raised should be made as agreed. Stock keeping After purchase, each item, be it perishable, non-perishable or fixed asset, needs to be entered in a stock register, along with the exact quantity and date of purchase. It should be signed by the Sneh Sathi who receives and issues the stock, which should in turn, be checked and countersigned daily by the home coordinator. Issue of stocks Stocks can either be issued daily, weekly or monthly, based on the frequency of use. One or two of the Sneh Sathis may be designated to hold the exclusive responsibility to issue stocks which will be received by the Sneh Sathi responsible for utilizing it for specific services such as cooking, cleaning, teaching etc. Clear details have to be entered about what is being issued, by whom, to whom and in how much quantity along with the date. Personal items required by children such as toiletries, clothes and footwear etc. should be distributed by the designated Sneh Sathis and the same should be recorded in a distribution register in which each child’s name is entered. The stock for stationery may be issued to the teacher who will in turn distribute it as per need. Fixed assets: Equipment and Furniture As soon as items such as furniture, equipment, large containers, appliances etc. are received in the home, they should be labeled using a coding method that will make it easier to record and check. An example of a code can be “1H-KI-FAN-01-21.2.09”. 1H: home number1; KI: kitchen; FAN: name of equipment; 01: number of equipment; date of purchase. For any equipment that comes with a free or paid service, the warranty/guarantee period needs to be recorded. All such documents should be kept in an envelope in the same register. Stock taking Audit of the fixed assets is done on an annual basis during which a physical counting and listing of all assets is done. It is a crucial method to understand the gaps in the records and the actual stock available. Also, the number of items that are either damaged or misplaced can be found in the process and helps to maintain accountability among the Sneh Sathis and children for each item used in the Sneh Ghar. On the day of stock taking, no new item should be issued or distributed from the store. The stock register should be handed over to the supervisor for cross checking. One Sneh Sathi 32

assisted by another should take charge of this operation. After each item is counted, the quantities should be entered in the stock register and discrepancies noted. Donations Apart from the funds raised formally, support is received in the form of voluntary donations and is a great source of help in reducing the home expenses. Donations can be monetary and/or in kind. Donations in kind may include stationery, supplies, fixed assets, etc. It is not advisable to receive cooked food but may be accepted in the form of raw material required in preparing the decided menu such as grains, cooking oil, flour, spices, etc. The home coordinator should receive all donations, while in his/her absence, the home manager can receive it. Large monetary donations should be received through cheque. Donations need to be entered in the donation register and countersigned by the staff that receives the donation. All donations received in a cheque form should be deposited in the bank at the earliest. All donations should be immediately acknowledged with a receipt. In case of fixed assets, donor's name can be displayed on the donated item. The Sneh Sathi should maintain a contact book of all the donors and update it regularly. They should be called for important functions and celebrations of the home. The Sneh Sathis should hold regular meetings on a quarterly or half yearly basis with the donors to update them about the home activities. They can be provided with copies of annual report of the Sneh Ghar. Many individuals like to celebrate special occasions like birthdays and anniversaries. The Sneh Sathis should be prompt enough to collect such information from donors and make it a point to wish them. These small initiatives go a long way in developing a long term relationship.





Although a child may be aware of safety and may have been taking care of herself while on the street, she may not be fully equipped for the new environment of the “home” she finds herself in and will often lack the skills to protect herself. For e.g. most of them will not have handled electricity, climbed to the roof top of a building etc. It is the responsibility of Sneh Sathis as parents and teachers, to guide them, love them, nurture them and make sure they are safe. In matters of safety children need to be instructed. Sneh Sathis should teach them about personal safety skills gradually and consistently about what is best. Sneh Sathis should keep the following in mind – Identify potential hazards, i.e. things that could cause harm to the children or staff; Assess Risk
or the probability that significant harm will occur; Take Risk Control Measures. Safety procedures can help decrease the number of incidents. Make sure that these measures are adequate and that they are used, maintained and continue to work. It is critical that all children and Sneh Sathis should be informed and trained in these. General safety measures

•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••


B oundary walls should be high preventing entry of unwanted elements; A security guard should be posted at the gate round the clock; Construction of the home should be strong enough to prevent accidental damages; Parapets of the terraces should be sufficiently high to prevent falls; Furniture and equipment in the home should be placed such that it does not hurt them while moving around; Overhead water tanks should be fixed properly and should be well covered; Latches of doors and windows should be checked for any repairs; There should be no dark or dimly lit areas during the night especially near the toilet area; Children should wear chappals while moving around to prevent hurts/ injuries if the ground is uneven, or to prevent insect bites etc.; Leakages in the roof should be repaired immediately. This is a concern especially in cases where the home is housed in old buildings. If not attended to, the leakages can lead to short circuit;


•• •• •• •• •• •• ••


•• •• •• ••

are should be taken that chemicals, disinfectants and sharp things such as knives, C needles are kept away from children’s reach to prevent inadvertent accidents. Children should not possess any sharp objects or weapons that can cause harm. For this, a regular check of the lockers, bags and storage spaces should be done to remove any sharp objects, match sticks, lighters, crackers, etc.; Care should be taken that there are no broken glasses in and around the home premises. Any breakage should be given timely attention and immediate repair; The equipment and furniture that children use should not have sharp edges. All the surfaces should be inspected for any damage. Children should play with safe objects; Around outdoor play equipments like slides or jungle gym, there should be adequate amount of soft soil or sand to avoid injuries. Safety in the Kitchen During cooking, children should not be allowed to stand close to the stove; Synthetic clothes should not be worn while working in the kitchen. For example, nylon catches fire easily, melts and sticks to the skin, causing serious burns; Pans with Bakelite or wooden handles should be used. In case this is not possible, especially for bigger vessels, tongs or a separate napkin should be used to hold or lift them. Spoons and stirring equipment should have long handles to avoid burns caused by hot steam while cooking; The gasket of the pressure cooker should be replaced if it becomes loose or hard. The vent pipe of a pressure cooker has to be unclogged and cleaned to allow smooth flow of steam. The Sneh Sathis should not try to remove the weight from the cooker unless the pressure comes down; If using kerosene stoves temporarily for some reason, the tank should be filled only up to 2/3rd level to avoid bursting. Refilling kerosene in the stove or generator should not be done while it is still on; While receiving the LPG refill cylinder, the seal of the cylinder needs to be checked. The safety cap should not have any cracks. A cracked rubber tube of the LPG stove should be replaced immediately; The knob of the LPG cylinder needs to be turned off when not in use. Sneh Sathis should clean the LPG hose periodically with a wet cloth. Choked holes of the burner should be cleaned, when it has cooled down; Safety audit of the gas stoves and pipes should be carried out once in every two years.

Safety with Electricity


E lectrical equipment like fans, tube lights, etc. should be located such that children do not come in direct contact with them.



E lectrical points should not be too low and young children should not be made to sleep close to it. Heating rods and room heaters should be used under supervision.


While Purchasing „„ Standard

pins/Wires/cables/switches with ISI mark should be purchased; „„ Properly earthed 3-pin plugs should be used to connect refrigerators, mixergrinders, coolers, TV, music system, heaters, washing machines, iron boxes and geysers; „„ Electrical appliances with ISI mark should be bought and the instruction manual should be strictly followed; „„ MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)6 is a must to reduce load; „„ ELCB7 should be installed to avoid fatal shocks. Precautions „„ Instruct

children to not play with sockets; „„ Periodically check the earth resistance and the earth lead for its continuity; „„ All electrical work, checking and repair should be done by a government licensed electrical contractor. While working on electrical equipments „„ Use

rubber gloves and rubber mats when working with electrical equipment; „„ Use fully insulated tools while handling electric wires and equipment; „„ Cover bare portions of the electrical connections with a good quality insulator; „„ Always ensure that a matching plug and socket is used to avoid loose contact and consequent heating and melting; „„ Clean the contact surface of the plug and socket of the electrical heater. Replace the socket every 2 to 3 years; „„ Always switch off the main supply when some repair work is to be done; „„ Periodic cleaning of the appliances should be done only after detaching the appliance from the main supply or switching off the main supply; „„ Report electrical accidents, slanting poles, inadequate ground clearance, snapped electrical wires and leakage of current, to the concerned electric supply department immediately;


A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a faulty condition and by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.

An Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker is designed to detect a current flowing in the safety "ground" or "earth" wire.



„„ Do

not use lamp brackets to tie wires or ropes to dry clothes. „„ Never change fused bulbs when the switch is on; „„ Do not tie an electric switch or appliance when hands are wet or bleeding from a cut; „„ Do not use broken switches, plugs and sockets; „„ Do not extend loose wiring/open wiring from junction points/plug points; „„ Do not overload a plug; „„ Do not burden an electric system by additional or unauthorized load; „„ Do not touch a person who is in contact with the electric supply, with bare hands; „„ Do not climb/lean on electric poles/transmission towers; „„ Do not carry appliances like fans, heaters, iron, etc. from place to place, when it is connected to the 'ON' supply. The strain, on the trailing wires, would disconnect one of the wires in the plug, which could prove hazardous; „„ Do not fly kites near overhead lines; „„ Do not touch snapped electrical wires; „„ Do not trail loose wires along a wet floor; „„ Do not depend on the switch provided in the body of appliances but provide a separate switch control for the plug; „„ Do not leave an electric iron 'SWITCHED ON' after the iron gets sufficiently hot (in case of an iron without a thermostat); „„ Do not stack rice, cotton bags or hay, high enough to rub against the wired portions of the installations. This practice leads to deterioration of insulation due to constant abrasions; „„ Do not stand very close to a bulb and ask another person to switch ON the supply; „„ Do not fiddle with electrical appliances or their controls. Preparing for an Emergency „„ Every home should be prepared for disaster that can occur due to fire, earthquake,

flood, etc.; „„ A detailed training and mock drill should be carried out regularly to respond to such disasters. The drill should include drawing an exit plan and a list of materials required in emergency situations; „„ Disaster response agencies in the city can be contacted to engage for such trainings; „„ Each home must be equipped with fire extinguishers that are easily accessible. These should be checked regularly to ensure proper functioning. Sessions should be planned to train staff and children on their use;


„„ A

group of older children should be formed and given special responsibilities to encounter the eventuality of any such occurrence. „„ A first aid kit should be available in each home; „„ In case of any emergency, the names and contact numbers of persons/ institutions such as police, fire, ambulance, etc. that would need to be called should be displayed in each home.





Importance of Home Records Home records are essential to keep a track of resources that are being used and help to maintain transparency in all processes. Record keeping is also a must for any organization that runs with donor support. It is also important for monitoring and for preparing reports. Alternative to Paper Records Advancement in technology has made documentation easy by storing data electronically. It helps to save time and does not need space for storage like physical documents. It also helps to analyze effortlessly. For instance, when clothes are issued to children, the manual register needs to be checked back and forth before arriving at a conclusion. In contrast, computerized data allows for easier and faster calculation. A further advanced method of storing information is by the use of customized software. With the support of the Internet, certain software can also help share live information about all the records with multiple users at any given place and time. Thus it is of great value when a donor, Sneh Sathi and child can simultaneously view the issue of supplies in the home. Sneh Ghars can take a decision on using any of the methods based on the feasibility and resources available. List of Records Central Admission Register: Details of every child who enters the Sneh Ghar have to be entered in this register along with the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s photograph. [Refer to Annexure 6 (i)] Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Attendance: Attendance of the children should be taken twice a day, first during morning assembly and second before bedtime. A physical count can be done along with this to reconfirm the number. The attendance register is the most important record. Balsabha Record: The details of the two kinds of Balsabha i.e. i) Review and Planning and ii) Reflection and Sharing, should be entered as and when they happen. The complaint/ suggestion box may be opened at these meetings and the resolutions of the same should be recorded in the same register. Health Records: Combined or separate registers can be maintained to record details of immunization, de-worming, de-licing, received by each child. Height and weight of each 39

child should also be recorded quarterly in a register. A separate record of children being sent to hospital OPD or doctors outside the home can also be maintained. A separate register for recording counseling details of children should be maintained by the Counsellor. Parents’ Meeting register: This register must have details of the parents who have attended the meetings. It should also have a narrative report of the proceedings of the meeting. Staff Attendance register: This is the record of daily attendance of residential as well as non-residential Sneh Sathis. The leaves taken by the Sneh Sathi also have to be noted in this to be able to calculate leave at the end of every month. Staff meeting register: Staff meetings with all the concerned Sneh Sathis, facilitated by the home coordinator on a weekly basis should be recorded in this register. Staff movement register: Any Sneh Sathi who goes out for office work to schools, head office, hospital, government office, community etc. should enter the time of exit, purpose of visit and re-entry into this register. Entry and exit register: Guests or visitors have to enter their name, contact details, purpose of visit etc. in the register before entering the home. A record of the ‘entry time’ and ‘exit time’ has to be maintained. Visitor’s Record: This is a record of feedback provided by dignitaries, donors and government officials visiting the home. This register should be referred to during meetings and review sessions to understand and implement feedback for improvement. [Refer to Annexure 6 (ii)] Donation register: It helps to track all that has been donated by well-wishers and supporters and is a useful record to gain further support. The details of all donors should be checked and updated on a regular basis. This record can be used to send ‘Thank You letters’, reports, invites and greeting cards throughout the year. [Refer to Annexure 6 (iii)] Inspection Register: Feedback given by government officials who visit for monitoring purpose is recorded in this register. The feedback should be used to take steps for improvement. [Refer to Annexure 6 (iv)] Food (dry ration) stock and issue register: After entering the balance from the previous month the new items should be noted. After issuing each day’s requirement, remaining quantities should be entered. [Refer to Annexure 6 (v)] Meals register: This has details of food items prepared and/or distributed to children per meal/ snack. This register helps to ensure that the menu is being followed on the agreed lines. It has to be countersigned by the manager or the home coordinator and a child by rotation, every day for each meal. [Refer to Annexure 6 (vi)]


Stock record (Toiletries, stationery, clothing and footwear): In this register the new items should be noted after entering the balance from the previous month. After issuing each dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirement, the remaining quantity available should be entered. Distribution record (Toiletries, stationery, clothing and footwear): While issuing any material to the children, it should be entered in the register with signatures of both the child and the Sneh Sathis. This will help in keeping transparency. Similar process should be carried out for the Sneh Sathis as well. [Refer to Annexure 6 (vii)] Fixed Assets: This register should have a record of all the fixtures, furniture, equipment, appliances and large containers. They should be entered along with their coded numbers. Restoration Register: This register has to be filled when the child leaves the home and gets repatriated with his/her family. Details of address and date of restoration have to be entered. After this details of restoration have to be entered into the central admission registers. [Refer to Annexure 6 (viii)] Home visit record: This record contains information about the duration of the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s visit to his/her family and the date of return, etc. Parents who come to take their children have to give it in writing that the child will return home on the agreed date. If the child is repatriated to the family, all the details have to be filled in the same register as well as the Central Admission Register. [Refer to Annexure 6 (ix)] Cash register: This register should have entries of all petty expenses made on a daily basis. The monitoring team from the project office must have a regular check to ensure that update of all cash transactions is being done. The balance amount of the previous month has to be carried forward and added to the amount received for the current month. The entries and cash in hand must be tallied at the end of each day. [Refer to Annexure 6 (x)]


References Mehrotra, S. (2006), The Economics of Eementary Education in India: The challenge of public finance, private provision and household costs, Sage Publications: New Delhi. Seen, but not heard – India’s marginalized, neglected and vulnerable children, Voluntary Health Association of India, New Delhi. 2002. Sarada, D. (2009), Child Rights and Young Lives: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Studies, Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi. Bhattacharyya, S. (2000), Juvenile Justice: An Indian Scenario. Regency Publications, New Delhi. Bhargava, V. (2005), Adoption in India: Polices and Experiences. Sage Publications, New Delhi.Hill, M. (1999), Effective ways of working with Children and their Families, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. Hill, M. & Aldgate, J. (1996), Child Welfare Services: Developments in law, policy, practice and research, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. Tipple, G. & Speak, S. (2009), The Hidden Millions: Homelessness in developing countries, Taylor & Francis. Petrie, P. (2006), Working with Children in Care: European Perspectives, McGrawHillInternational, Berkshire. Hicks, L. & Gibbs, I. & Weatherly, H. (2007), Managing Children’s Homes: Developing Effective Leadership in a Small Organization, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. Kendrick, A. (2008), Residential Child Care: Prospects and Challenges, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London Andrews, S. (2009), Textbook of Hotel Housekeeping Management and Operations, Tata McGraw Hill Education, New Delhi. Varghese, A., Ogale, N. & Srinivasan, K. (1985), Home Management, New Age International, New Delhi. Gopalakrishnan, P. (2002), Handbook of Materials Management, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. A-Z about Residential child care in England. Composting (Waste Management) (Rearing pets) (Rearing pets)


Annexure Annexure 1: Sample of MoU





Annexure 2: Comprehensive list of setup requirements Type of room

Equipments and furniture


Refrigerator, mixer grinder, commercial gas stove, water purifier, water cooler cum storage tank, storage trunks, utensils for bulk cooking, serving utensils, storage containers.

Dining area



Lockers, shoe rack, sleeping mats.

Classrooms and library

Black board, books for library, tables and chairs, mats, teaching materials, display boards.

Toilets and bathrooms

Washing machine, geyser, buckets, mugs, water storage buckets, wash basin, hosepipe, stool, cloth string, clips.

General purpose equipments: Emergency lamps, computer, UPS, TV, DVD, telephone, sewing machine, torch, mosquito repellants, indoor and outdoor play equipment, exhaust fans, fans, mirrors, fire extinguisher, desert cooler, tables and chairs, door mats, curtains, mats, basic medical equipments, dustbins.


Annexure 3 (i): Cleaning specific surfaces Surfaces



Painted surfaces (washable paints)

• Dust and remove the cobwebs regularly. • Sponge with warm water and detergent. • Rinse with clean fresh water.

Never rub the wall vigorously or scrub with coarse abrasives and brushes. Never use strong chemical solvents.

Marble/granite/ mosaic/ cement

• Clean with hot water. • Keep the surface dry as wet surfaces cause dullness. • Occasionally cleaning can be done with kerosene oil and sawdust. • Rub with lemon juice to keep marble stain free and white. • Wash with a mild soap and warm water. Rinse and dry in open air. • If extra bits of food stick on the chopping board, it can be removed by using the back of a knife. • Clean the surface with a wet cloth.

It is important to wipe corners and sides daily.

Plain wood (Chopping boards, rolling boards and pins) Laminated/ veneer surface (sun mica) Steel


• • •


• • •


• •


Always scrub along the grain Never use a hard scrubbing brush.

Do not scratch using coarse abrasives. In case of spilling, wipe the surface immediately. Clean with cold or hot water and deter- No hard abrasives should be used since the steel can get gent. scratched. Use mild abrasives to remove stains. Keep the surface dry because Clean immediately after use. Remove stains by using brick powder, moisture can cause rusting. bran, saw dust etc. Clean with a wad of old newspapers Do not use hard scrubbers and abrasives. and water. In order to add to the shine, add vinegar to the water. In case of grease stains, add ammonia to warm water and clean the surface. Avoid soaking in water. Dust and clean regularly. Washing can be done with warm salty water (1 tbsp of salt to 1 Liter of water). Dry the surface immediately. Clear varnish coating can be used to prevent staining. Polishing can be done using liquid wax polish.


• Remove tough stains with kerosene and dry in the sun for a short while.


• Turn upside down and beat with a wooden stick. • Soak in soapy water and wash with soapy water. • Sun dry the mats after rinsing.

Strong abrasives should not be used as it will cause scratching and loss of shine.

Annexure 3 (ii): Sample of the Housekeeping Schedule Month: Sunday







1 Bed sheet washing, Kitchen Cleaning 8 Bed sheet washing

2 Cobwebs, Cleaning gas stove, Sun drying

3 Mixer Grinder



6 Water Tank cleaning


9 Cleaning gas stove

10 Mixer Grinder





15 Bed sheet washing, Kitchen Cleaning

16 Cleaning gas stove

17 Mixer Grinder



20 Doors and window

21 Office cleaning

22 Bed sheet washing

23 Cleaning gas stove

24 Mixer Grinder




28 Store room cleaning

29 Kitchen cleaning

30 Cleaning gas stove

31 Classroom and dormitories cleaning

This schedule is a sample for reference. It should be reviewed daily and activities completed have to be ticked. Incomplete activities should be reallocated to another date. 49

Annexure 3 (iii): Checklist for Kitchen and dining area Indicators 1

2 3 4

5 6

7 8

9 10 11 12 13


Cooking, serving and dinning utensils are clean Dining area is clean during meals. After meals, waste food is collected in a dustbin. Post meals, the dinning and the cooking area are cleaned and wiped with disinfectant. Utensils are cleaned, dried and arranged systematically. There are dustbins with liners in the kitchen and in the outer wash area. Empty dustbins are replaced with new liners. Dusters and wipes used for cleaning the kitchen are kept separately. Cloth dusters are washed thoroughly after use. Countertops are clean and disinfected. Cabinets are clean. Kitchen equipment, fridge and stove top are clean. Sink is washed and clean.









Annexure 3 (iv): Checklist for Dormitories Daily



Mosquito repellent is available and being used.


There is proper storage of clothes, combs, towels and other articles in lockers or trunks.


Desert cooler is clean and water is changed.


Mattresses are stacked up near the wall after use (if applicable).






Week Week Week Week Week 1 2 3 4 5

Weekly 1

Bed sheets and pillow cover are changed.


Mattresses and pillows are sun dried.




Annexure 3 (v): Check list for bathrooms and general cleaning Bathrooms 1 2

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

Day Remarks 7

Clean mugs and buckets. Bathrooms are cleaned with disinfectant.


General cleaning 1 2 3

Week Week Week Week Week 1 2 3 4 5


Windows and doors are cleaned. Water tanks are cleaned. Cobwebs are removed.


Dustbins are emptied daily and new liners are placed.


Furniture, windows and doors are dusted.


Floor area has been swept and mopped with water and phenyl.

Annexure 3 (vi): Storage methods for specific food items Type of food

Name of the food

Non perishable foods

Cereals and pulses Store in clean, dry air tight containers. Mix wheat with dry neem leaves. Special Ayurvedic tablets are available which can be tied in muslin cloth and put in the containers. It helps to prevent infestation by pests. Tea Store in a dark place. Semolina (Suji)/ Dry roast before storage. Dalia Ghee/oil/butter Never leave the container open as it will make it rancid. Paneer Lightly fry paneer before storing in cool temperature. Fresh paneer can be kept in cold water or in the refrigerator but not more than two days. Potatoes Store in open baskets. Store onion and potatoes separately in open baskets. Pickles, papads, Store in a dry, cool and dark place in air tight jams, jellies, containers. chutney, processed foods, instant foods

Semi-perishable foods



Perishable foods

Leafy vegetables

Keep wrapped in moist cloth.


Coat with oil before storing.


Do not wash before storing as they get spoiled faster.

Cabbage/ cucumber

Wrap in 2-3 fold of newspaper/brown paper.


Do not wash before storing. Store with the pointed ends downwards. Store in a cool place or in a basket in an airy room.


Boil milk before storage. Do not mix old milk with fresh milk. Keep away from strong smelling foods such as onions, guavas, mangoes etc. Store in a cool dry place.


Store in air tight containers in cool place or a refrigerator to help it last longer.

Annexure 4: Sample of the daily schedule of home manager and housemother Timings

Home manager 1

Home manager 2


5:00 am

Wake up and freshen up Physical exercise with the children

Wake up, Issue ration for breakfast and lunch and supervise cooking and cleaning

Wake up

Bathe, help younger children to get ready, Supervise cleaning of respective rooms by children Supervise and have breakfast

Bathe, groom younger children, Supervise cleaning of respective rooms by children

Supervise and have breakfast

Check uniforms of children at the gate

Take children to the school/school bus

Freshen up Breakfast

Bathe Â

5.30-6.30 6.30-7.30

7.30-8.15 7.45-8.15 8.15-8.30

Wake up children, ready them for school


Supervise reading time for children

Supervise reading time for children

Sewing clothes




Assembly 53


Health drill for children in the home

Health drill for children in the home


Administrative work

Administrative work


Supervise campus cleaning

Ensure stock available for next day’s food

12.00-1.00 1.00-2.00 2.00-3.00


4.00-5.00 5.00-5.15


Lunch preparation

Rest Lunch supervision and have food Administrative work

Vegetable purchase, and other marketing work Rest Tea and snacks

Lunch supervision and have food Supervise campus and kitchen cleaning, utensils, dining area Issue ration for dinner

Lunch with their designated children Spend time with Children

Record Keeping Arrange for review, have tea and snacks

Tea preparation Have tea and snacks

Wash clothes


Attend review with children

Attend review with children

Attend review with children


Staff meeting

Staff meeting

Staff meeting


Help volunteers/ play

Help Volunteers/ Play Prepare dinner


Supervise and have dinner Supervise cleaning of dormitories and younger children while they prepare to sleep. Toiletries for each dormitory issued to respective staff Lights off

Take attendance of children Supervise kitchen cleaning

Serve and have food

Lights off

Lights off



10.15 pm


Cleaning of kitchen and utensils

Annexure 5: Requirements per child Annexure 5 (i): Food items Items

Quantity per day per child


600 gm

Dal/Rajma Chana

120 gm

Edible oil

50 gm


300 ml

Green Leafy vegetables

100 gm

Non Leafy vegetables

130 gm

•• •• •• ••

Non vegetarian food can be served once a week : 115 gm per child 4 Eggs per child can be given in a week Seasonal variety of vegetable should be used so they are fresh and less in cost. For sick children, as per physician’s recommendations.

Annexure 5 (ii): Stationery Type

Quantity per child


4 per month


2 per month


3 per month


2 per month


2 per month


2 per year

Sketch pen

1 set of 12 for three months


1 per year

Water bottle

1 per year


1per year


Annexure 5 (iii): Clothing, bedding and others The following items have to be provided to each child as per Juvenile Justice Act 2000 Clothing and footwear (Every Year) I. Four sets of clothing II. Five set of under garments III. Two towels

Bedding (Every year)

Toiletries (as per need)

I. One cotton mattress/ I. Dari/mat II. II. Two cotton bed sheets III.

IV. One Jersey and one pull III. One blanket over for winter IV. One pillow V. Three sets of school uniform for children attending outside school

Tooth paste/powder Tooth brush Soap





VI. Sanitary pads for girls VII. Handkerchiefs

VI. One pair of shoes VIII. Serving dishes as required VII. Four pair of socks VIII. One pair each of chappals and Slippers


Annexure 6 Annexure 6 (i): Central Admission register S. no

Date of admission

Name of the Child

Age/ Date of birth

Parent’s name

Address: Contactlocal and ed by permanent


Date and reason of Exit


Annexure 6 (ii): Visitor’s Record Date


Address and telephone number


Annexure 6 (iii): Donation in kind register S. no. Date


Quantity Name of the donor

Contact details of the donor

Donor’s sign

Received by

receiving staff’s signature

Note: No cash donations to be accepted

Annexure 6 (iv): Inspection registers Date

Name of the Inspecting officer


Inspecting officer’s signature


Annexure 6 (v): Dry ration issue format Particulars Rice Flour Tea Leaf Sugar Oil Salt Dalia Suji Soyabean Poha Sevai Murmure Wafers Papad Makhane Dhania Mirchi Haldi Garam masala Jeera Sabut Masala Ajwain Hing Sookha Nariyal Chat Masala Channa dal, Rajma



Receipt From purchase(Kg)

Issue (Kg)

Balance (Kg)

Kabuli channa Arhar dal Moong Chilka Masoor Moong Dhuli Urad ( chilka) Black Chana Kala Namak Tej patta Bhuna Chana Moong Fali Kali Masoor Rasana Rooh Afza Achar Saunf Amchur Macoroni Sabut lal Mirch Jam Maggie Lobia Urad Saboot Saboot Dhania Match box big


Annexure 6 (vi): Meals register Date






Breakfast Tiffin for school children Lunch Snacks Dinner Date

Meals Breakfast Tiffin for school children Lunch Snacks Dinner


Annexure 6 (vii): Individual child wise record of materials issued










Washing soap

Tooth brush

Vaseline/petroleum jelly








Name of the Child:


Stationery Notebook







Clothing Pants






School Uniform

School shoes

School Bag






Sweater with uniform


Bed sheet



These are the set of supplies that are given to each child. There is an individual record of each child.


Annexure 6 (viii): Restoration register S. Name no of the child

Admission Duration of ReaDate stay in the son for home repatriation

Address at which repatriated

Date Repatriated of re- by patriation

Sign. of the home coordinator

1 2

Annexure 6 (ix): Home visit register Date

Name of the child

Name and ad- Phone Number dress of parent/ no. of days guardian who of visit is taking the child home

Return date

Signature of the parent/guardian

Signature of the home coordinator



Annexure 6 (x): Cash book format Date

Cash in hand

Particulars of expenses





Annual Maintenance Contract


Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker


Liquefied Petroleum Gas


Memorandum of Understanding


Miniature Circuit Breaker


Non government organization


Public Sector Unit


Indian Standards Institution


Road Repair


Subscription Voucher


Teaching Learning Material


Zonal Revenue Officer


Zonal Engineer

la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---gj jkr dh ckgksa esa] lqcg dk ut+kjk gks la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---geus rks t+ekus dh] jaft'k dks gh ih Mkyk pqHkrs gq, gj iy dks] gl [ksy ds th Mkyk D;ksa iwN jgs gks rqe] D;k geus xok;k gS thou dh rks cl NksM+ks] gj [okc ijk;k gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---oks iy Hkh Fkk viuk] ;s iy Hkh gekjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] vc dksbZ gekjk gS---oks jkrsa feV gh xbZ] ,d lqcg vkbZ u;h py jgs veu dh jkgksa ij] gj [okc gekjk gS ,d vk'kk veu dh] gS vc bl fny esa dksbZ jkg u vc jksds] dqN dj ds fn[kkuk gS c<+k,axs ge dne dks] feVk;saxs gj xae dks pysaxs mu jkgksa ij] tgk¡ ls fn[krk fdukjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] gj dksbZ gekjk gS----

In this life full of strife In this life, full of strife, We long for a friend and guide... In the darkness of night We long for a dawn, warm and bright In this life full of strife, We long for a friend and guide… We swallow hatred and the vile Stinging moments, with a smile Why do you ask, what have we lost, Not just life, even our dreams went past...

List of Team Members who contributed to this Manual Aarti Chandra Ambika Kapoor Harsh Mander Harshdeep Singh Preeti Mathew Satya Pillai Shashi Mendiratta Shubhada Hiwale

In this life, full of strife We long for a friend and guide… That past was ours, this present is ours In this life, full of strife, Now we have someone as a guide and friend… Those nights have passed, there dawns a new sun Walking on the paths of peace, every dream is ours There is a ray of hope in this heart There is no stopping us; we have to achieve something now We will take a step forward, remove all the pain We will walk on paths in life, from where the shore is near In this life, full of strife, We have everyone as a guide and friend…

Written by one of the children from Sneh Ghars in Delhi

Sveta Dave Chakravarty

Open Hearts, Open Gatesâ&#x20AC;Ś.

Printed by: Print World # 9810185402

Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Management of Homes

Indradhanush Academy Centre for Equity Studies 105/6A, 1st Floor, Adhchini, Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110017 Ph.: 011-26514688, 41078058 Email: Website:

Centre for Equity Studies

Indradhanush Academy Centre For Equity Studies

Indradhanush Academy

Management of homes  
Management of homes