LEUNG HIU NAM Educational Background 2010-2012 2006-2009
Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Master of Science in Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences The University of Hong Kong Bachelor of Arts (Architecture Studies) - Second Class Honours (Division One)
Work Experience 2009 Aedas Architectural Assistant (Year-out) 2008 Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man Architects & Engineers (HK) LTD Architectural Trainee (Summer Internship) 2007 JMB Formula Limited Assistant Interior Designer (Summer Internship)
Graduation Project, Msc3 RMIT Studio Facaulty of Architecture, TU Delft AR3AR051 RMIT Thesis Plan (2011-2012 Q1)/ AR3U012 Thesis Plan (2011-2012 Q1) Supervisors: Lidy Meijers and Roberto Rocco
THESIS PLAN 1. PERSONAL MOTIVATION Motivation for RMIT
In the rapidly developing society, urban spaces are constantly under redevelopment. In the course of continuous demolition and construction, architecture lost its unique local characteristics of the place. From where I come from, Hong Kong, the problem is much more severe as the dense population and the competition in real estate speed up urban decay and urban regeneration. Many buildings with Chinese and colonial characters were replaced by concrete and glass-facade high-rises, turning the city into a ‘concrete jungle’. Under such environment, it is not easy to maintain a balance between conservation and development. In recent years, the Hong Kong government has demolished a few colonial landmarks to make way for future plans. That action has significantly raised the awareness of general public on the issue of conservation – not only preserving the architecture, but also the identity and culture of Hong Kong. I believe that the key to solve the problem is to reinvent a new meaning and a new use to those buildings, and considering them as part of urban planning, instead of treating them as piece of decorative jewel only. Architects play a very important role in it. It is the responsibility of architects to recognize the value and the possibilities in these pieces of jewels, and urge the government to take action in restoration and transformation of them. However, very sadly, the architectural field in Hong Kong lacks enthusiasm, techniques and experiences. Only a few projects can be considered as successful while in many cases, the buildings are demolished or problems of under-uses or gentrification etc arises after some period of time. From another point of view, re-use of old buildings also provide a solution to the rising cost of construction and construction materials, contributing to conservation of environment Therefore, I would like, through a year of RMIT studio, gain some insight in different ways of doing conservation projects, particularly how the merge the old and the new and how to re-connect these buildings to the society. I hope I could bring these skills back to hometown and make contribution to the field before it is too late to stop the irreversible destruction.
Motivation for Studio Utrecht
For this particular studio, besides of dealing in the conservation of former industrial buildings, I find it challenging to develop a new community in Utrecht Zuid which could be self-sustainable and could resist the deterioration of the community which happens in the Netherlands quite frequently in different places. And the government’s solution to the deterioration is to demolish the whole community and rebuild it. I wonder if the problem could be anticipated by putting historical consideration in the planning, or what function to be injected into the community could help the self-regeneration of the community.
THESIS PLAN 2. SITE INTRODUCTION
Utrecht & Utrecht Zuid/Zuidwest Industrial Development Utrecht is a city with rich historical and cultural background. It was an important trading centre as it is in the central part of the Netherlands and also on the banks of Vaartse Rijn which was an important trading route connecting to Germany and France. Industries proliferated in
Merwede Canal Zones 4&5
Utrecht South along Vaartse Rijn in the 19th century. However, with the realization of Merwede Canal in1881, and later the Amsterdam-Rijn canal in 1951, the industrial centre shifted to the west bit by bit and settled along the Amsterdam-Rijn canal. As a result, Vaartse Rijn and Merwede Canal were no longer used for water transport and industries left the area, leaving numerous vacant factory buildings there. Residential Development
The government planned a large-scale city extension in Utrecht Zuid in 1940s. Extensive residential plans were carried out in Transwijk and Kanaleneiland, but in 50 years time, the area become dilapidated. Families living there moved to the newer part of Utrecht and new immigrants moved in, the area began to deteriorate and social problems arised. Study Location Because of the decline in industries and the deterioration of the residential areas, Municipality of Utrecht is planning to redevelop the area. (Source: Google Maps) In this research, the focus will be on Merwede Canal Zones 4 & 5.
1850 1900 1940 1948 1957 1970 1981 Development of Jogerius Complex and the surrounding areas from polders to current situation (self-illustration, info from TUDelft Map Library)
2. SITE INTRODUCTION Jan Jongerius Complex The Jongerius Company was one of the pioneers that settled along Merwede Canal. From an insignificant gardening company to a remarkable car dealer in the area, the company expanded the small cottage house to a large complex with a villa, an office and a production hall in 1937. What makes the complex stand out in the area is the architecture of it. It is believed that the villa was designed by Jan Jongerius, the founder of the company, himself. Unlike any architecture in the Netherlands at that time, the villa was designed in Streamline Moderne style, probably inspired by the fair architecture in the American in 1930s. The company grew in the next 10 years, making numerous extensions until 1955 the company went bankrupt and the whole complex was taken up by the Ministry of Defence. In recent years, the architecture of the villa and the office was recognized and are undergoing restoration initiated by â€˜Stichting vrienden van het Jongerius complexâ€™. The villa will become a public restaurant while the use of office is still uncertain. Besides of the uniqueness of the architecture, the complex is the only building in the area still bears the historical orientation which follows the orientation of the polder before Merwede Canal was dug.
Jongerius Complex in 1940s (Source: HetUtrechtsarchief)
THESIS PLAN 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT 3.1
Relation with the Surrounding Neighbourhoods The area next to Merwede Canal started to develop as industrial district with the realization of Merwede Canal, but industries started to moved out with the realization of Amsterdam-Rijn Canal. Later, Transwijk was developed as residential zones in the 1940s. From 1990s, the original residents moved out and imigrants moved in, the area began to deteriorate and social harmony was disrupted in those residential areas because of the differences in social classes and racial composition. Being located between these problematic neighbourhoods and the new developed residential zones on the west bank of Merwede Canal, the
problem will be finding the new roles of these industrial buildings and the relation of those vacant buildings with the surrouding neighbourhoods. Barrier between Residents and Merwede Canal Also, the huge strip of industrial zone, including the Jongerius Complex, standing between the residential areas and Merwede Canal has blocked the residents from utilizing the Merwede Canal bank area which has high potential to be developed as a leisure space.
Relation between former industrial zone and surrounding neighbourhood (Self-Illustration)
Poor Connection The Jongerius Plot (Merwede Canal Zone 4) and Merwede Canal Zone 5 have poor connection with the surrounding plots. The west side of the plot are Merwede Canal
bounded by wide road with fast traffic while the east side is disconnected by Merwede Canal, which makes the Jongerius Complex very detached from the surroundings and inaccessible to the pedestrian from the neighbourhoods.
Overste den Oudenlaan & Europalaan
Disconnection of former industrial zone (Self-Illustration)
THESIS PLAN 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT 3.2
ARCHITECTURAL LEVEL - JAN JONGERIUS COMPLEX
Lost Identity The Jan Jongerius Complex has a high historical and architectural value to the area. The complex with a rather modern appearance has gone through the golden age of being one of the most important car-dealers, Jongerius Company, the dark age of WWII when it helped the production of artilleries for the Germans and the mystery age of the occupation by the Ministry of Defenee. With departure of Ministry of Defense, the complex loses its role in the area. The immediate question arises will be how much of the complex is worth preserved, and what can be the new identity of the complex. Poor Existing Condition Over the years, the complex was alterd in a bad way and the condition of the complex has deteriorated seriously. Problems arises in both architectural and detail levels. Current situation of the whole Jongerius Complex (Bing Maps) Architectural • The garden between the villa and office is in poor condition and the pergola was demolished, weakening the central axis which is an important feature in the complex. • The symmetrically-designed office was in echo with the villa, however, the symmetry and the cohesion with villa was weakened by the demolition of entrance canopy and the turrets. Consturction and Detail • The steel structure of the office building is rusting seriously. • The white plastered facades of the office and the production halls are in bad condition. The white plaster is cracking and falling off, and there is also graffti on parts of the facade. • The level of insulation is insufficient in all buildings. • The concrete floor of basement of the office building is so thin that ground water penetrates through the floor. • Parts of the brick work in the complex are damaged by salt and damp. Incongruity with Neighbouring Fabric Also, the Jongerius complex is the only place left where historical subdivision of the polders is still visible and all the buildings in the complex still orients parallel to the old polders. The rest of the area has orientation parallel or perpendicular to the roads or the canal. If the complex is preserved, the problem is how to merge the complex with the existing urban fabric in the area. Orientation of the buildings at the site (Self-illustration)
4.RESEARCH QUESTION & SUB-QUESTIONS 4.1 RESEARCH QUESTION How to transform the Jongerius Complex into a community centre which helps to revitalize the surrounding post-war neighbourhoods and enhance social harmony of different social strata? 4.2
Urban & Social Level 1.
What will be the relation between the complex and the surrounding neighbourhoods? What will be the relation between the complex and Merwede Canal?
How can the complex merge with the new urban fabric?
What community facitilies are needed in the district?
How to improve the accessibility of the complex with surrounding neighbourhoods?
What functions can generate interactions among different social classes?
Architectural Level 1.
What are the historical and architectural values of Jongerius Complex to the site and to the residents?
What are the criteria for deciding which part of the complex should be kept, which part should be demolished? (The complex consist of the villa, the garden, the office, the production hall behind the office, the larger assembly hall, the smaller assembly hall and a wood storage and editing shed)
What are the limitations provided by the architecture? What are the possible functions that the complex can support?
What will be the new role of the complex in the area?
What approaches should be taken in the re-design process? Should it be perfect authentic, symbiosis, contrast or a mixture of a few approaches?
Source: Google Map
5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
ANALYSIS IN THREE SCALES BUILDING ANALYSIS
- History - Architectural - Technical - Current Condition
Identify the PROBLEMS Site Identity
Factory building as a barrier between residential areas and Merwede Canal
unpleasant neighbourhoods and other social problems arise from the deterioration
Lost of identity of Merwede Canal and the area
How to connect the residents in Kanaleneiland with the abandoned Merwede Canal by injecting new functions to the vacant Jongerius complex and revitalizing the residential areas, giving a new meaning to both the canal and the complex and reflecting the history of the area?
- with reference to the government figures for the area - improvement of the current plan
Generate vision for the site Develop concept & try out different schemes
Compare different approaches of industrial complex redevelopment - Liberty Village, Toronto - Old Trumanâ€™s Brewery, London - Manufaktura, Lodz Poland
Investigate other potentials
BUILDING DESIGNS IN DIFFERENT SCALES EVALUATIONS
Set up critera for value assessment
- History - Infrastructure - Morphology - Functions - Soccial/Economical/Cultural
PLOT ANALYSIS - History - Condition - Connectivity with surroundings - Connectivity with city centre - Government Planning
- identify what to be presrved and demolished Conservation Approach/Limitations/Potentials
Utrecht & Utrecht Zuid
evaluate if it provides solutions to problems
Qualitative Research Method will be adapted as the main research method. Through the site analysis in three different scales, the problems are identified. The aim of the research was to gather in-depth understanding of why and how the problems are generated through the data collected. Thus, a design which tackles the very fundament problems of the site can be generated after the search.
Case Study Research will also help in generating possible solutions by using multiple sources of evidence and gaining insights from the prior development of design propositions. The three cases, Liberty Village in Toronto, Old Trumanâ€™s Factory in London and Manufaktura in Poland, are chosen based on their similar functions with Jongerius Complex and the scale of the projects.
6. SOCIETAL & SCIENTIFIC RELEVANCE With the moving out of Ministry of Defense, the Jongerius Complex will lose its role in the area. The aim of the project is to develop a new identity to former industrial zone and Jongerius complex. Unlike the former uses, the new role OF Jongerius complex will have a strong relation with the surrounding neighbourhoods, acting as a catalyst for the regeneration of the post-war residential zones and providing cultural and leisure facilities to the community.
Current situation of Kanaleneiland (Source: www.utrecht.nl)
Being situated between the old post-war neighbourhoods in Transwijk and Kanaaleiland and the new residential area in Veilinghaven, the former industrial area and Jongerius Complex will take up the responsibility to connect and provide public spaces for different communities. Through this intermediate, communities of diffrerrnt social classes and different races can meet and interact with one another, thus enhances the social harmany.
Apartment at Transwijk (Source: Google Map)
Although there were numerous projects about revitalization of industrial buildings, none of them can actually serve as a reference for the case of Jongerius Complex due to the differences in various aspects and the nature of the projects. The combination of the isolation of the complex and the close proximity of it with problematic neighborhoods increases the difficulty in consideration of the re-use. And most existing cases are developed as tourist-based project. Therefore, this project can be a foremost example of redevelopment of industrial buildings on the community basis and serve as a reference for future projects with similar conditions. Newly developed residential blocks at Veilinghaven (Own Photos)
THESIS PLAN 7. ETHICAL PROBLEMS There are three parties involved in this project, the Utrecht Municipality, the local communities and Stichting vrienden van het Jongerius complex. Gentrification From the government point of view, it would be the best to develop Noord Transqijk into a higher income residential zone. Through the redevelopment, the government hopes to solve the deterioration of post war housing condition by gentrification and to attract developers. This development would perhaps lead to the development of Jongerius Complex into functions that suits more the higher social class, further isolating the lower social class. This will probably result in disruption in social harmony. Demands of Community Facilities However, the existing residents in the area are mainly from the lower social class. What they want would most probably be community facilities which can help them to improve their living condition. Connection with the History On the other hand, the Jongerius Foundation would like to develop the Jongerius Complex to a function that relates more to the past. Proposals like turning the complex into a slow food processing unit with a farm to supply food for the restaurant in the villa, are taken into consideration. The question is will the new design bias towards certain party? How to take a balance from the demands and interests of different parties and come up with a solution that can benefit all parties.
8. EXPECTED END PRODUCTS End Products The design process will be divided into 3 phases â€“ the analysis, the master-planning and the building design, resulting in 3 final products in the end Analysis Report - Finished in Msc3 Q1 An analysis report was done in 3 levels - urban, plot and architectural levels. A general research of the history and development of Utrecht and an study of the Utrecht Zuid and Utrecht Zuidwest of historical, cultural, social, economical and demographical development are resulted in. An in-depth study of Merwede Canal zones 4 & 5 on the physical condition was carried out. A value assessment on different buildings of the Jongerius Complex was done. The conclusion is the office building bears high architectural value in terms of its simple and symmetrical design layout while the production halls has lower significance. It also acts as a background for the restored villa. The office, together with the villa, frame the garden with a central axis which is also of high importance. Masterplan - FInished in Msc3 Q2 A masterplan which covers Merwede Canal Zones 4 & 5 is designed. The masterplan will provide a better connection for the former industrial area with the surrounding neighbourhoods. Community and retail facilities will be injected into the area. These facilities will serve as focal points in the masterplan, encouraging people from the neighbourhoods classes to meet there and generate interaction. The aim of it is to improve the social harmony among different social strata and attract people to utilize the bank area of Merwede Canal.
Scoop of master plan (self-illustration)
Building Design - To be done in Msc3 Q2 & Msc4 The Jongerius Complex is the subject of the building design. It will become one of the focal points in the area. The office will be kept and new buildings will replace the production halls, which will as a whole form a community center with a library, a community hall, exhibition space and a sports centre surrounded by public spaces of different qualities. The community center will provide leisure and cultural facilities mainly to the residents living in the surrounding neighbouhoods. The community center will serve as a meeting place for different social classes.
Subject of re-design (self-illustration)
THESIS PLAN 9. TIME PLANNING SCHEDULE
September Week 1 Excusions Background Information Research Site Analysis Value Assessment Generate Research Question Thesis Plan Draft Finalized Thesis Plan Presentation Drawings
October Week 4
November Week 4
December Week 4
January Week 4
Febrauary Week 4
March Week 4
April Week 4
May Week 3
June Week 3
<Understand the site conditions/Interview with architects, factories owners and urban planners/take photo <Collection of information from different sources - Utrecht Archive, literature and internet <define the topics for analysis/organization of information into 3 scales - urban, plot and building <develop criteria for value assessment/produce value assessment report <define research question <write about motivation, site analysis, problem statement, research question, methodology and working schedule <write about relevance, ethical problems, end products/finalize text and images/layout planning <conclusion for the analysis/final production of analysis/presentation preparation
Refine Research Question Prov ide Possible Solutions First Idea of Masterplan Dev elopment of Master Plan
<Evaluate on analysis and refine research question <decision on project area/develop vision for the site/propose function mappings <sketches of masterplan/re-visit the site for deeper understanding/meeting with architects, urban planners <refine the masterplan/develop arguement/produce concept drawings
<production of presentation drawings - Site plan 1:1000, plans & sections 1:500/production of concept drawings
- Site Plan 1:1000 -Design Plans & Sections 1:500
<Production of conceptual models/presentation presparation
Models Making P2
Reflection Dev elopment of Design
evaluation on P2/amendments on master plan/finalize masterplan> decision on specific building or building parts/develop concept for design/develop schemes based on>
Presentation Drawings - Floor plans, sections, elev ations 1:200/1:100
finalize plans/production of presentataion drawings - plans & sections 1:100 or 1:200, facade sections 1:20>
- Faรงade Sections 1:20 Models Making
production of models in different scales/preparation of presentation>
evaluation on P3/Amendments on design/start of technical details and structure>
Presentation Drawings - Site Plan 1:1000 - Floor plans, facades, sections 1:200/1:100 - Faรงade sections 1:20
Finalize design and details/refine arguements/refine previous concept drawings> Production of final drawings- site plan 1:1000, plans sections facades 1:100 or 1:200, facade sections 1:20, detials 1:5>
- Details 1:5 Models Making
Production of models in different scales/preparation of presentation>
Reflection Refinement of prev ious drawings Models Making Prepration of Presentation P5
evaluation on P4/amendments on design and details > finalize design/refine previous drawings > Final model making > presentation preparation >