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Railway Heritage Trust 40 Melton Street, London NW1 2EE Tel: 020 7557 8598 Fax: 020 7557 9700 e-mail: rht@networkrail.co.uk

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Copyright Railway Heritage Trust 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Cover photo: Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt’s 1878 entrance to Bristol Temple Meads Station (see page 54). Inside front cover: Mocatta’s twin pavilions at one end of the London & Brighton Railway’s Balcombe Viaduct of 1841 (see page 28).

Published by the Railway Heritage Trust, March 2007 Research and text by Richard Horne Photo selection by Milepost 921⁄2 Design by Geoffrey Wadsley Printed in England by Ian Allan (Printing) Ltd, Hersham, Surrey KT12 4RG

Inside back cover: Disused and derelict for nearly 130 years, the entrance to the South Eastern Railway’s temporary Blackfriars terminus (1864 to 1869) on the line to Charing Cross was revealed and restored in 2006.

Frontispiece: W N Ashbee, architect of the Great Eastern Railway, created this building in the French Renaissance style for the front of Norwich Thorpe (now plain Norwich) Station when it was relocated and rebuilt in 1886. The domed roof is covered in zinc scales which were renewed in 1998 (see page 14). Right: The elegant entrance foyer to 1 Neville Street, the North Eastern Railway’s Accountant’s Offices. Opened in 1873 at the west end of the long frontage of Newcastle Station (see page 74), the foyer was added by the NER’s architect, William Bell, in 1884.

The illustrations used in this book come entirely from the Trust’s photographic collection, which is derived from a variety of sources. Many photographs were originally commissioned from Milepost 921⁄2, Rail Images or The Railway Picture Library primarily for Annual Reports. Where known, the work of other photographers is individually credited. Where the provenance of the photographs is not known, the Trust regrets that the individuals concerned remain anonymous, but gratefully acknowledges the contribution that their pictures have made.

Creative Image Photography

Outside back cover: The North Eastern Railway signal box of 1901 at Haltwhistle (see page 91).


Foreword RITAIN ’ S BUILT HERITAGE

is as varied as any in the world. Its architects, designers and engineers have drawn upon centuries of experience to create a huge variety of buildings and structures which provide an invaluable insight into much of the economic and social history of our land. All manner of materials have been used, including natural and local resources, those emerging from industrialisation and, latterly, those produced by late 20th Century and early 21st Century high tech processes. These advancements, together with developments in construction methods, have led to an array of buildings and structures which increasingly are becoming recognised as being of significant value and interest to the nation. Railway architecture, although less than 200 years old, displays its own vast variety of design, style and vision, enriching not only the rail traveller’s experience but also that of the general public. Richard Trevithick’s early experiment at Coalbrookdale led to the opening of the Stockton & Darlington Railway in 1825 and for the next 50 years the railway network spread throughout the country making the 19th Century undoubtedly the age of the railway. During that exciting period railways spread throughout the country as rival investors competed for business, not always to the benefit of the business bottom line. Some 9,000 stations, 1,000 tunnels and 60,000 bridges were constructed in addition to a large range of ancillary buildings such as warehouses, carriage sheds and locomotive depots, signal boxes, water towers, offices and hotels. Leading architects, engineers and contractors were attracted by the fame and prestige, not to mention fees and salaries, which were associated with this new era of opportunity. The on-going benefit to our heritage is a rich legacy of well designed buildings and structures which has largely stood the test of time – over 175 years in some instances. The second half of the 19th Century and the early years of the 20th saw a tremendous

growth in rail use. During this period the railways’ power and prestige were expressed in the construction of many ambitious buildings and structures that were needed to accommodate the ever increasing business. At the start of the period – the age of the Crystal Palace and the Great Exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park – significant examples of pioneering structures were completed. Their construction involved the use of what was then the latest technology and an unlimited supply of cheap labour; men prepared to live on the job in far from ideal conditions, who still produced generally high standards of workmanship. Excellent examples of such achievements include Dobson’s Newcastle Central Station, Brunel’s Paddington Station and Stephenson’s High Level and Royal Border Bridges. Whilst hardly anything physical remains of the Great Exhibition today, much of the railway infrastructure which brought millions of visitors to the Crystal Palace in 1851 still survives in daily use. Bristol Temple Meads, Paddington, St Pancras and Huddersfield railway stations compare favourably with our great country houses, cathedrals and other significant buildings. The great architectural practices of the day were involved; the hotel at St Pancras, for example, was the work of Sir George Gilbert Scott, famous also for the splendid Albert Memorial in Hyde Park, while the Charing Cross Hotel was designed by Edward M Barry, the younger son of Sir Charles Barry, architect of the Houses of Parliament. Civil engineers also played their part with, for example, Brunel’s Royal Albert Bridge across the Tamar and Stephenson’s tubular Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait. In contrast to the 19th Century, the second half of the 20th Century witnessed a period of decline for the railways. The second world war inflicted a huge toll on the railways and from then until the early 1980s the nation’s concern for its railways’ built heritage was far from being regarded as a high priority. There is no doubt that the situation was not helped by the lack of clear objectives for the industry as it lurched from one Transport Act to another, each conceived to address yet another apparent financial crisis. Building and structure

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maintenance and renewal budgets were cut and significant numbers of heritage buildings were lost through demolition and/or rationalisation. The demolition of the great Doric Arch at Euston in 1961 was an act that caused outrage and may well be regarded as a watershed after which the nation’s Victorian heritage began to assume greater importance. It wasn’t until 1981, however, that the then Secretary of State responsible for the built heritage decided that a record of the nation’s rich heritage should be assembled and published. The British Railways Board, conscious of the quality and variety of railway heritage, responded positively. In October 1984, at a conference organised by the Royal Society of Arts’ Cubitt Trust Panel to address ‘The Future of the Railway Heritage’, Robert Reid, Chairman of the British Railways Board, announced the formation of the independent Railway Heritage Trust. By making £1 million available to the Trust, the Board gave a further demonstration of its commitment to the conservation of the railways’ built heritage. The Board’s view that a respected and maintained heritage can complement an efficient and modern railway business was a welcome vision indeed and is as valid now as it was in 1984. In April 1985 the Railway Heritage Trust became operational. It was established as an independent registered company limited by guarantee and was supported at that time wholly by the British Railways Board. The remit for the Trust was in two parts. ‘The conservation and enhancement of railway buildings and structures which are listed or scheduled and are of special architectural or

historical interest’ and ‘to act as a catalyst between outside parties and owners in the conservation and alternative use of nonoperational property, including the possible transfer of responsibility to local trusts or other interested organisations’. That remit still applies today. A Board, chaired by The Hon William McAlpine, and comprising Marcus Binney, Simon Jenkins and Leslie Soane (Executive Director) was established together with an Advisory Panel of some 30 highly knowledgeable and influential members to aid the Trust’s business. Despite huge changes in the railway industry since 1985, including ‘privatisation’, the Trust continues to play a significant role in conserving the nation’s built heritage. In the 21 years since its formation there have been relatively few changes in Board and employee members. The Hon Sir William McAlpine, Bt, Marcus Binney and Jim Cornell (Executive Director) are the present directors and financial support now comes from Network Rail and BRB (Residuary) Ltd and is now twice the level it was in 1985. Since that time, the Trust has awarded grants worth £30.83 million to well over 1,000 projects. The grants awarded have attracted external funding of a further £36.79 million. This book represents a selection of the work in which the Trust has been involved in its first 21 years of operation and demonstrates the huge variety and quality of railway heritage which, in itself, forms a significant part of the nation’s built heritage. Jim Cornell March 2007

Directors 1985 to Present 1985 to Present 1985 to 1996 1985 to 1991 1991 to 1993 1993 to 2002 1996 to Present

The Hon Sir William McAlpine, Bt Marcus Binney Leslie Soane Sir Simon Jenkins Professor Sir Frederick Holliday Christopher Jonas Jim Cornell

Company Secretary 1985 to 1992 1992 to 2000 2000 to Present

John Bonar Richard Tinker Richard Horne

Administration 1985 to 1992 1992 to Present

Sarah Murgatroyd Claire Pickton

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Patrick Thurston

Patrick Thurston

Patrick Thurston

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The refurbished portecochère linking Marylebone Station (London’s last terminus, opened by the Great Central Railway in 1899) to what is now the Landmark London Hotel. Independently owned, the

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hotel became railway property in 1945. Converted to offices, it was headquarters of the British Railways Board from 1948 to 1986 when it was sold and (totally refurbished) became an hotel once again.


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British Railways Board

British Railways Board

Designed by James Drabble in Jacobean style, the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway’s Worksop Station was extended in 1900 by the Great Central Railway (successor to the MS&LR) in the same style to create an extraordinarily long frontage. Restoration in 1990 was followed by reinstatement of the clock in 1995 (see page 24).

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British Railways Board

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Graham Wilson

Not a Florentine villa, but Gobowen Station. Designed by the Chester architect T M Penson, it was opened by the Shrewsbury & Chester Railway in 1848. Its sparkling appearance belies the fact that before restoration work, completed in 1989, it was a picture of neglect. Derelict interior accommodation was transformed into commercial offices and, subsequently, the building itself has been sold into private ownership.

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Unique as the last remaining example of the ‘roadside’ stations designed by I K Brunel for the Great Western Railway, Culham was opened in 1844 on the, then, branch line to Oxford. Restored for office use, as

the station is now unstaffed, the interior retains many Victorian features. The Trust provides annual funding towards the conservation of the priceless collection of GWR ‘Brunel Era’ drawings held by

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Network Rail, and among them is that of Culham shown below (see also page 94).


r a i lway h e r i tag e t ru s t The London & Greenwich Railway, the Capital’s first, opened throughout in 1838. Mostly on a brick viaduct, it was intended that the arches could be used for housing, but damp and noise dictated otherwise. Many have since been used for storage and industrial use. At Mechanics’ Path (renamed Resolution Way) in Deptford, Spacia upgraded the arches and it is one of many such improvement schemes, nationwide, that the Trust has helped fund.

The link between Wolverhampton’s rival 1852 High and 1854 Low Level Stations (London & North Western and Great Western Railways respectively) includes a subway and this colonnade under the L&NWR viaduct. Although the Low Level Station closed in 1973 (and High Level is now simply Wolverhampton Station), the link remains an important feature in the redevelopment of the Low Level site and has been transformed from a dark and threatening area to one of airiness and light.

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Ken Scott

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Ken Scott

From the opening of its first station in 1830, the rapid growth of Middlesbrough necessitated its replacement three times culminating in William Peachey’s Gothic tour de force, completed for the North Eastern Railway in 1877. A single German bomb destroyed the great train shed in 1942, but further depredations led to a series of restoration projects from 1985. The main ticket hall had been brutally treated and the restored frontage is shown here, with the reordered interior shown opposite. Work to the adjacent Albert Bridge is shown on page 19.

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Ken Scott

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Great train shed roofs

Manchester Piccadilly Station (originally Manchester London Road) shown above, was built in 1866 by the London & North Western Railway (although shared with the

Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway) on the site of an earlier station of 1842. As part of the massive reconstruction carried out by Railtrack, completed in 2002, the Trust helped with

the repair of the column capitals and filigree brackets, as well as with other elements of the transformation (see page 88).

At Brunel’s London terminus of the Great Western Railway at Paddington, opened in 1854, the architect Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt assisted with decorative elements. Shown left are his arabesque traceries, fitted within the ribs of Brunel’s iron arches, following refurbishment of the train shed roofs in 1999 (see page 21).

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Few platform canopies can equal those of the Midland Railway for elegance and lightness. Typical (and complete) are those of 1876 shown above at Skipton Station, following complete restoration in 1994.

Very different is the cantilevered canopy over the downside entrance of the London & South Western Railway’s 1885 reconstruction of Bournemouth Station shown here. Shown above is the unique train shed roof structure, long threatened with demolition, but bravely tackled and restored by Railtrack in 2001/02 (see page 65).

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r a i lway h e r i tag e t ru s t Reconstructed in 1895 to the design of Charles Trubshaw, the clock tower of the Midland Railway’s Leicester Station was cleaned and repaired in 2006. The station portico had been previously restored in 1985.

Pedimental clock and window details on the front of Norwich Station following restoration work in 1998. Designed by W N Ashbee, this station was built by the Great Eastern Railway in 1886 (see frontispiece and page 2).

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Richard Horne

Darlington’s second station, designed by William Bell with a three arched train shed, was opened by the North Eastern Railway in 1887. The glazed end screens were refurbished as part of a major roof renewal project.

Cleaned and refurbished in 2001, Paul Hamilton’s design for the Birmingham New Street Power Signal Box remains today as powerful a symbol of the modernised railway as it did when constructed in 1966.

Overleaf: Brunel’s iconic Royal Albert Bridge at Saltash was opened in May 1859, four months before his death. Inscriptions ‘I. K. BRUNEL ENGINEER 1859’ were added to the outer faces of the two cast iron landward piers, as a memorial to him, but from 1921 were partially covered by maintenance gantries. In 2006, to celebrate the 200th anniversary of Brunel’s birth, new access arrangements were provided, allowing the gantries to be removed and the inscriptions to be fully revealed.

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Colin Nash

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Railways in the Dulwich area of London passed through the lands of Alleyn’s College, which insisted on a certain aesthetic quality for buildings and structures. Hence the elaborate design in cast iron for the London, Chatham & Dover Railway’s bridge over Turney Road and the large plaque (bottom left) in the bridge parapet opposite the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway’s North Dulwich Station. The shield with chevron and the letters ‘AC’ relate to Alleyn’s College; the shield at left is that of the LB&SCR. Following damage by vehicles, one side of the Turney Road bridge was recast and replaced in 2003.

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The ornateness of the North Eastern Railway’s Albert Bridge in Middlesbrough was undoubtedly due to its being an integral part of the great Gothic station (the platforms cross over it) built in 1877. The grandeur of the station, itself, was a response to the pride the NER felt in the town that it had created (see page 10). The bridge was repaired, repainted and imaginatively relit in 2003.

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The fine Art Deco north concourse at Leeds City Station (now plain Leeds), built by the London, Midland & Scottish Railway in 1938, was a first step in linking Leeds Wellington and Leeds New Stations into a single entity. The dire station reconstruction of

1967 relegated it to use as a car park, but the splendid second reconstruction by Railtrack, completed in 2002, restored the concourse and transformed it into a vibrant area. The work included restoration of a surviving Art Deco shop interior.

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Peter Cook/VIEW

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Although Brunel designed the Great Western Railway’s Paddington Station, opened in 1854, Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt added decorative details, including the fine strap iron arabesque tracery on the end screens of the three arched vaults that formed the original train shed. Long missing, the Trust funded replacement of the tracery at the south east end, as part of Railtrack’s

redevelopment of the ‘lawn’ area as a retail complex in 1999. Shown is the tracery in the central and largest of the aisles (see page 12).

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The opening by Queen Victoria in 1850 of the North Eastern Railway’s Royal Border Bridge over the River Tweed at Berwickupon-Tweed, established a continuous rail link between Edinburgh and London. Designed by Robert Stephenson, it stands 120 feet high and 720 yards long. Substantial repairs were carried out to 15 of its 28 arches over the three years to 1996.

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The North British Railway’s West Highland Extension, opened in 1901, was built by Robert (later Sir Robert) McAlpine, whose pioneering use of concrete for viaducts earned him the sobriquet ‘Concrete Bob’. Glenfinnan, the longest viaduct, was repaired in the 1980s. The upper inset photograph shows the private saloon of Sir Robert’s great grandson, Sir William McAlpine (who is the Trust’s Chairman) on the viaduct in 1986 at a ceremony to name locomotive 37425 ‘Sir Robert McAlpine’ on one side and ‘Concrete Bob’ on the other.

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Station clocks 1 Darlington (North Eastern Railway 1887) 2 Worksop (Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway 1849) 3 Brighton (London, Brighton & South Coast Railway 1883) 4 Nuneaton (London & North Western Railway 1915)

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5 Eastbourne (London, Brighton & South Coast Railway 1886) 6 Bushey (London & North Western Railway 1912) 7 Darlington (North Eastern Railway 1887) 8 Bognor Regis (London, Brighton & South Coast Railway 1902)

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Alston Arches, built over the River South Tyne in 1851 by the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway, was the first of seven viaducts on the branch line south from Haltwhistle to Alston (see also page 77). Closed in 1976, the south end of the line is now the narrow gauge South Tynedale Railway, while the north end, utilising the Alston Arches, repaired by North Pennines Heritage Ltd in 2006, is now a cycle and walkway.

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The Great Eastern Railway’s branch line of 1843 to Hertford was extended closer to the town centre when the present station was opened in 1888. Designed by W N Ashbee, it

displays features similar to those found on his station at Norwich, opened two years earlier (see frontispiece and pages 2 and 14). It was renamed Hertford East in 1923 to differentiate it from

Hertford North, the Great Northern Railway’s station of 1858. Restoration of the canopies, building and two porte-cochères took place over several years to 2000.

Boston Station, built in 1848 for the opening of the Great Northern Railway’s Peterborough to Great Grimsby line, was designed by Lincoln architect Henry Goddard. The entrance was through a five arched portico but, following enlargement of the station with a new entrance in 1911, the portico was mutilated with the outer arches removed and the remainder infilled. Renovation and reordering of the station in 1993 led to the original entrance being reinstated and the portico restored to its former glory, complete with ball finials.

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Station clock towers

Scarborough Station, opened in 1845 by the York & North Midland Railway (part of the North Eastern Railway from 1854) to a classical design by G T Andrews, was enlarged and remodelled by G W Bell in 1883. On the front, three new classical pavilions, with glazed awnings in-between, respected Andrews’ design. However, to achieve visual impact for the station, a clock tower was built, sprouting from the central pavilion in an incongruous, but rather splendid, Baroque design. The station has benefitted from several restoration projects over the last fifteen years; one being repair of the clock in 1993.

One of the country’s greatest provincial stations, Carlisle was designed in neo-Tudor style by Sir William Tite as a joint station for the Lancaster & Carlisle and Caledonian Railways, although it was later used (pre 1923) by seven railway companies. Built from 1847 to 1850, a feature of the frontage is the clock tower, for which a clock was bought from Conscliffe of Liverpool in 1853. Unusual for a railway clock in that it strikes the hours and had survived unmodified, it was completely overhauled in 2000.

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John Goss

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Balcombe Viaduct, over the Ouse Valley, is the finest in Southern England and one of the most elegant in Britain. Opened by the London & Brighton Railway in 1841, it was built to the design of the line’s engineer, John Urpeth Rastrick. The detailing of the Caen stone cornice, balustrading and Italianate pavilions (four at each end) (see also page 2) was contributed by the architect, David Mocatta. Construction materials were supplied by barge up the River Ouse, although today it is little more than a stream. Repaired by Railtrack in a rolling programme over four years to 1999, the specialist contractor took great care in sourcing replacement stone. The illustration showing scaffolding while the work was in progress demonstrates the magnitude of the restoration work.


John Goss

John Goss

John Goss

John Goss

John Goss

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Footbridges

The repaired Midland Railway lattice footbridge at Stamford Station. It is clearly of later date than the main station building, opened in 1848 by the MR controlled Syston & Peterborough Railway.

A very different design of lattice footbridge is this 1866 North British Railway example removed from Drem (east of Edinburgh) and re-erected in 1993 at the former Midland Railway Settle Station on the now famous Settle & Carlisle line, opened in 1876 (see pages 52, 66 and 67). The lamps are new ones made to an original MR design (except now electrically lit) and are the standard for stations on the line.

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r a i lway h e r i tag e t ru s t Designed by William Tress, the Italianate St Leonards Warrior Square Station was opened by the South Eastern Railway in 1851 on its line from London to Hastings. Lying in a natural amphitheatre between two tunnels, the entire station site has been tidied and surrounded by spear-top railings. The scheme included realigning and widening this path down from London Road, formerly unkempt and dangerously straight.

These gates to the former station yard at Farnborough North, on the South Eastern Railway’s 1851 Reading, Guildford & Reigate line, were renovated in 1992. They clearly demonstrate the attention to detail that was the norm in Victorian times for even the most mundane of items.

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British Railways Board

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arrows of which are fret cut to read ‘SER 1866’. Bomb blast had blown one of the four cwt stone ball finials at the foot of the east tower into the Thames. This was recovered at low tide,

cleaned and reinstalled. Since the photograph was taken an office block, of unbelievably unsympathetic design, has been built over the platforms between the towers. British Railways Board

The twin towers of London’s Cannon Street Station, 1866 City terminus of the South Eastern Railway, are a prominent feature of the Thames riverside. Designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, they originally flanked an arched train shed of 190 feet span but, bomb damaged in the war, it was demolished in the 1950s. A project to repair and clean the towers, completed in 1986, included the reconditioning and application of gold leaf to the two weather vanes, the


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The elegance of canopies on the Midland Railway has already been referred to (see page 13) and Kettering Station has fine examples. The original design of ridge and furrow canopy is found on the 1857 island and west side platforms (shown at left), but the finer design with hipped ends is found

on the platform and entrance canopies of the main building of 1895, on the east side. It was designed by Charles Trubshaw, whose favoured use of terracotta decoration is apparent here, as it is also on his major projects, Leicester Station (see page 14) and the Midland Hotel in

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Manchester. Renovation of the east side buildings and canopies, coupled with replacement of the subway by a footbridge, was completed in 2001. Restoring glass to the older canopies, in place of the present GRP sheeting, awaits a future scheme.


Paul Childs

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Paul Childs

Paul Childs

Currently being transformed into London’s Eurostar terminal, St Pancras Station was opened in 1868 when the Midland Railway created its own route into London from Bedford, instead of sharing the Great Northern Railway’s line into Kings Cross. The MR directors required a prestigious design and, in front of W H Barlow’s magnificent arched train

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shed (the world’s largest span at the time), Sir George Gilbert Scott created for the station entrance and hotel an extravagant Gothic fantasy, embodying every such style from Early English, through Flemish and French, to Venetian. The commensurate cost caused the hotel to be reduced by one storey, the offices by two and the clock tower lowered. The interior


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Paul Childs

Paul Childs

was equally fantastic and over the grand staircase the ceiling was decorated by Andrew Benjamin Donaldson with eight panels depicting the Virtues and the MR’s coat of arms, all under a star spangled sky. The hotel became offices in 1935 and disused from 1985. After a tentative start in the 1970s British Rail undertook an £8 million renovation scheme of the Scott building from 1993. This included restoration of Donaldson’s panels, which had been damaged by water penetration and discoloured by layers of varnish.

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The Tudor Gothic frontage of Paisley Gilmour Street Station was inspired by the nearby jail and County Offices, both now demolished. Opened in 1840, it was briefly the terminus of the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock & Ayr Railway before the line was extended to Glasgow, Bridge Street. Enlargement of the station in 1890 retained the frontage, which was restored in 1997, with further work in 2001. This included reconstruction of County Square (facing the station) with modern lighting, landscaping and sculpture.

The North British Railway’s Berwick-upon-Tweed Station, at the north end of the North Eastern Railway’s Royal Border Bridge (see page 22), was the end-on junction between the two companies. Opened in 1846 (four years before the bridge), it was rebuilt by the London & North Eastern Railway after the 1923 grouping, but in a very Scottish style (using a prewar NBR design). Improvements to the station buildings were followed by remodelling and restoration of the forecourt by Northumberland County Council in 2005, using high quality finishes and reinstating the elegant stone gate posts.

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The early stations on the Wolverhampton to Shrewsbury line were unlike other Great Western Railway ones as they were designed by Edward Banks for the Shrewsbury & Birmingham Railway, opened in 1849, but taken over by the GWR five years later. A typical example is that at Albrighton which by the 1990s was disused. Restoration of the exterior and total renovation of the derelict interior was undertaken in 1993 and 1996, so allowing the building to be let and ultimately sold into private ownership.

Replacing an earlier London & North Western Railway station of 1850, the present station at Market Harborough was built

jointly with the Midland Railway in 1886; a fine building designed by Francis Stevenson in Queen Anne style and quite unlike the

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stations of either railway company. Sitting in the vee between the MR’s main line to London and the L&NWR’s cross country

line to Rugby (closed in 1966), it had suffered the usual depredations of railway life until, in the 1990s, both exterior and interior improvements (rebuilding the truncated chimneys, reinstating windows and refurbishment of the ticket hall) were carried out as part of major renovation projects.


r a i lway h e r i tag e t ru s t Famous as the location of the 1945 film ‘Brief Encounter’, the largely derelict buildings at the junction station of Carnforth have been brought back into use by the Carnforth Station & Railway Trust as a travel shop, visitor centre, museum, shops and café, with help from many sources. Opened by the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway in 1846, part of the original station (designed by Sir William Tite) is incorporated in the main building (below) which dates from the 1880 reconstruction, jointly by the London & North Western, Midland and Furness Railways. Lying in the vee between the line to Barrow and the West Coast Main Line, it now houses the visitor centre and museum complex. The entrance building (left) dates from the 1880 reconstruction and, once a gaunt shell, now houses a travel shop and retail outlets.

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Goldilea Viaduct lies on the Castle Douglas & Dumfries Railway, opened by the Glasgow & South Western Railway in 1859 as the first part of its line across southern Scotland to Stranraer Harbour. Opened throughout in 1874, it closed in 1965 and by 2004 the viaduct, now a listed structure, was suffering from weathering and water percolation. A major scheme was then undertaken to provide waterproofing, new drainage and numerous stone repairs.

Prosaically named, Bridge 96 at Newton-le-Willows is, in fact, Mill Lane Viaduct. Designed by Robert Stephenson, it is one of the major structures on the world’s first main line railway, the Liverpool & Manchester. Major repairs in 2004 included repointing, brick and stone repairs and waterproofing, with the addition of a safety handrail carefully designed in a Victorian idiom.

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Eastern Track Renewals

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built in red sandstone with terracotta dressings and surmounted by a clock tower. Nottingham, uniquely, has an internal concourse of equally generous proportions under a long rooflight.

Eastern Track Renewals

Eastern Track Renewals

Nottingham, one of the Midland Railway’s three great provincial stations, the others being Leicester and Sheffield (see pages 14 and 58), was designed by A E Lambert and opened in 1904. A feature of all three stations is the large glass roofed cab area, behind an arcaded wall; at Nottingham

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Throughout the 1990s several schemes have seen the exterior and interior of the station renovated, with the concourse returned to its former glory. Improvements included refurbishing the dispersal footbridge and stairs to platforms, with glazing reintroduced to the generous MR ridge and furrow canopy roofs.

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Designed in a French Renaissance style, the present Crystal Palace Station was opened by the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway in 1875, replacing an earlier station of 1854. This had been built to serve the adjacent Crystal Palace, moved from Hyde Park after the 1851 Great Exhibition. The Palace burned down in 1936, but the station remained, far larger than current needs. It stood for years in a parlous state of decay until, in 2000, Railtrack renovated it, which included completely replacing the concourse roof (lower photo), building a new, but reduced, portecochère and reinstating the Mansard roof on the north pavilion, which had been illegally demolished (both shown in the upper photo).

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Also designed in the French Renaissance style, by Alfred Waterhouse, is the London & North Western Railway’s Hotel at Liverpool Lime Street Station. Although the station dates from 1836, it has been rebuilt twice and the hotel was opened in 1871. Facing St George’s Square, it forms one side of Liverpool’s greatest public space. Relegated to use as offices by the London, Midland & Scottish Railway in 1933, it became disused, then derelict in the 1970s. Salvation came when Liverpool John Moores University took a 150 year lease and converted it to student accommodation, completed in 1997. Restoration of the entrance hall and grand staircase is shown. Details of the stained glass rooflight over the stair appear on page 85.

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The first station in Britain built in a truly Modern style, Surbiton Station, exemplified the Southern Railway’s progressive spirit. Designed by the company’s architect, J Robb Scott, and completed in 1937, it replaced an earlier station dating back to 1845. Comparisons with cinema architecture of the time are relevant, exemplified in the two lofty ticket halls and the ‘Odeon’ style clock tower. A complete renovation of the concrete building, restoring many lost period details and reinstating SR lettering, was completed by Railtrack in 1999.

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Above: Another fine example of modern architecture, also designed in-house and now listed, is Harlow Town Station. The work of the Eastern Region Architect’s Office of British Rail, it was completed on a new site in 1960 and is an appropriately impressive

gateway to the new town. The existing station, serving the old town, was renamed Harlow Mill. Refurbishment of the station in 1998 included new automatic entry doors (to the original hardwood design) and repainting in the original colour scheme.

Below: A contrasting strong visual statement: the canopies and platform buildings at Aviemore Station. Opened by the Inverness & Perth Junction Railway in 1863, the station was completely rebuilt by the Highland Railway in 1892 as its largest through station. Originally

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the junction for the Forres line, closed in 1963, the Strathspey Railway now operates steam trains from the eastern platform over part of this line to Boat of Garten. The canopies and platform buildings were completely renovated from 1997 to 1999.


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Perhaps one of the least altered Victorian stations, Grange-over-Sands is also one of the most charming and elegant. Designed for the Furness Railway by E G Paley to serve the growing seaside resort, it opened in 1867 and was a diminutive copy of Paley’s nearby Grange Hotel. Extensive renovation work was completed in 1998 and included restoration of the glazed canopy with its delicate filigree work and finials.

The Great Northern Railway’s Lincoln Station was built in 1848, just two years after the Midland Railway opened its station (now closed and converted into a shopping centre). It was designed in Tudor

Gothic style by J H Taylor, in contrast to the neoclassical design of the MR station. Renovation work to the canopies in the 1980s was followed in the 1990s by substantial stone repairs. A major feature of the

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improvements was reconstruction of the footbridge with lifts added in stone towers and a new lattice span to a design based on the Victorian original.


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The spectacular glazed roofs over the concourse and platforms at Wemyss Bay Station, the work of the engineer Donald Matheson, lie behind a delightful Domestic Revival frontage designed by the architect James Miller. Built by the Caledonian Railway in 1903 to handle holiday crowds

transferring to steamers for Rothesay and Bute, the station replaced an earlier one of 1865. The entire station complex was completely refurbished in 1994.

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On a par with Brunel’s greatest bridges is Robert Stephenson’s High Level Bridge at Newcastle upon Tyne. A vital link in the railway from London to Edinburgh (see page 22), it was constructed by the High

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Level Bridge Company and opened by Queen Victoria in 1849. Stephenson’s ingenious design uses cast iron tied arches for the spans. The rail deck, on top, is supported on hollow pillars off these. The road deck, below, is suspended

from the top deck beams by wrought iron rods passing through the hollow pillars. Of the several restoration projects carried out since 1987, the most visually spectacular was the floodlighting of the bridge, completed in 2003.


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Opposite page: Simple, yet elegant, the swing bridge over the River Yare at Reedham was built by the Great Eastern Railway in 1905. Its single track predecessor, opened by the Yarmouth & Norwich Railway in 1847, was replaced when the line was

doubled. A red flag, visible in the main photograph, is flown when the bridge is closed against river traffic. A special colour scheme was prepared when the bridge was repainted in 1997.

Almost a symbol of Scotland itself, the Forth Bridge was financed by the Forth Bridge Company (jointly owned by the North British, North Eastern, Great Northern and Midland Railways) at a cost of £3 million. It was designed by Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker. The three giant cantilever towers each consumed over 50,000 tons of steel and

construction lasted from 1883 to completion in 1890, with a formal opening by the Prince of Wales. Floodlighting of the bridge, at a cost of nearly £1 million, was the culmination of the bridge’s centenary celebrations in 1990.

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Opened by the Midland Railway in 1876 and passing through some of England’s most dramatic scenery, the Settle & Carlisle line was threatened with closure in the 1980s. It survived and is now a strategic route supported by its Friends, Development Company, Trust and the local authorities. Many beautiful stations survive, built to standard designs in three sizes (but each using local materials) and Appleby, restored in 1999, is an example of a large (type 1) station. The new lighting, standard for the line, uses exact copies of the MR gas lamps (see pages 30, 66 and 67).

The impecunious Oxford, Worcester & Wolverhampton Railway (known as the Old, Worse & Worse) built cheap timber buildings, but that at Charlbury was slightly grander and, with Brunel as engineer for the line, was built to his South Devon Railway design, with broad eaves and arched windows. The OW&WR passed to the Great Western Railway in 1863. Charlbury, home station of the late Sir Peter Parker, British Rail’s Chairman from 1976 to 1983, was well kept but was the subject of some heritage improvements in 2002.

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The Jacobean style is almost synonymous with the design of North Staffordshire Railway stations. Grandest of these was that designed by the architect H A Hunt at Stoke-on-Trent, the company’s headquarters, opened in 1849 (see page 65). Together with an hotel and other railway buildings, it faced onto Winton Square, laid out by the NSR in 1848. At the heart of the

British Railways Board

British Railways Board

British Railways Board

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British Railways Board

Potteries, the station naturally has a tiled roof, laid in alternating bands of Staffordshire Blue and Red. Roof repairs carried out in 2000 required over 100,000 handmade tiles; the new ones exactly matching the originals.

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Bristol Temple Meads Station has, uniquely, received help from the Trust in every year from 1985 to 2005. Brunel’s Tudor style original Great Western Railway terminus of 1840 on Temple Gate (lower left) is now the British Empire & Commonwealth Museum. The passenger shed (below), with hammerhead roof beams, is the Museum’s conference area. The Bristol & Exeter Railway opened in

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1841 with its station at a right angle to that of the GWR and S C Fripp designed its Jacobean style offices of 1852 (opposite page, lower left).


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With the advent of the Midland Railway, the Brunel station was extended (chimney detail, right) and a new joint station was built in 1878 on the curve that linked the GWR and B&ER lines. Designed by architect Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt and engineer Francis Fox, it featured an arched Gothic train shed (opposite page, top left) and a new, central, entrance in French Gothic style (above). This was originally surmounted by a steeply pitched roof with finials, destroyed in the war.

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Two wrought iron viaducts

Two viaducts, both on lines built primarily for coal traffic, now closed, and both unusual in being constructed of wrought iron. Bennerley Viaduct (below) was opened

by the Great Northern Railway in 1878 on its line from Nottingham to Derby. It crosses the Erewash Valley (and the Midland Railway’s main line) on 19 spans with

Bilston Glen Viaduct (right), on Edinburgh’s outskirts on the line to Glencorse was built by the North British Railway to the design of James Bell in 1892. It replaced an earlier viaduct of 1874, designed by Sir Thomas Bouch (of Tay Bridge infamy) that consisted of six spans, carried on five piers. Ground conditions in the steep gorge it crossed led to the new viaduct having a long and deep central lattice span (331 x 47 feet), between short spans at each end. Following restoration work, completed in 1998, it is now in use as a footpath.

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a total length of 1,400 feet. The majority of the piers are of lattice construction. Restored in 1994 and 2002, it has yet to find a new use.


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The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway, one of England’s few narrow gauge passenger railways (and the only one taken over by the Southern Railway at the 1923 grouping), only lasted until 1935. Opened in 1898, the major structure on the line is Chelfham Viaduct, brick built with eight arches on a graceful curve and 70 feet

Right: The Great Western Railway’s 1840 passage through Bath is marked by many fine stone structures. To the west lie the twin Twerton tunnels, separated by a short gap, with differently designed portals

at the outer ends. That at the eastern end is a Tudor Gothic arch with curiously asymmetrical crenellated towers, which was treated to stone repairs and cleaning in 1989.

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high. Unused for 60 years, to its restoration in 2001 (waterproofing, brick repairs and cleaning) was added reinstatement of the long demolished parapet walls in the hope that one day the fledgling preservation Lynton & Barnstaple Railway Company will be able to run trains over it.


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The 1904 reconstruction and enlargement of the Midland Railway’s Sheffield Station of 1870 extended onto the forecourt with the curious result that the building on the new platform 2 (shown here) was formerly the station frontage. The new frontage, designed by Charles Trubshaw, included a large portico, as at the MR’s rebuilt Leicester and Nottingham Stations (see pages 14 and 40). The station has received many improvement schemes over the 16 years to 2006, including renovation of the platform canopies with provision of new lighting.

This charming collection of Great Western Railway structures almost hide the original stone buildings of St Erth Station, built by the Cornwall Railway in 1852. The station’s importance increased, as junction for the St Ives branch, from 1877. A complete restoration and regeneration scheme was carried out in 1999.

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Richard Horne

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Much of Brunel’s original Bristol & Exeter Railway station of 1841 at Bridgwater survives in the present classical stucco building, although some alterations were carried out by the Great Western Railway in 1882. Total reroofing and refurbishment, including restoration of the original ticket hall, were undertaken from 1991 to 1995 and, when completed, the station had an almost surreal glow.

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Opened by the South Wales Railway in 1850, Cardiff Station was twice enlarged until completely rebuilt in a neo-classical style from 1932 to 1934. The platform buildings are faced with Doulton Carrara tiles, but the main building is of white Portland stone with ‘GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY’ emblazoned across it. The last of several improvement schemes was the conversion in 2004 of the empty curved west wing on the front into an ‘M&S Simply Food’ outlet. This faces onto the forecourt which has been transformed with high quality paving into a grand piazza.


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British Railways Board

The London, Brighton & South Coast Railway’s original terminus of 1884 at Bognor Regis (plain Bognor until 1929) blew down in 1897 and its timber replacement burned down in 1899, resulting in the erection of the present fine Domestic Revival building, with its ornate gables and cupola clock, in 1902. Set further back from the street than its forebears, a large forecourt was created which was landscaped in

British Railways Board

1993 along with renovation of the station roof and forecourt canopy. A further fire caused much of the roof to be replaced yet again. A final scheme, in 2001, encompassed brick repairs and cleaning to the walls surrounding the platform concourse.

Oakham (county town of Rutland) lies on the Midland Railway’s Syston to Peterborough line, opened in 1848. The Italianate station may have been designed by Francis Thompson or Sancton Wood. A renovation project in 2001 included demolition of an accretion of timber kiosks and restored empty accommodation to a lettable shell condition. However, it was not until 2006 that, as part of the Central Trains Stations Initiative, a tenant was found which took over and fully restored this accommodation.

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Considered to be the finest classical station faรงade in Britain, Huddersfield Station was designed by J P Pritchett, father and son, and opened in 1847 jointly by the London & North Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire Railways. Each originally had its own ticket office and the central block, now containing the ticket office, was originally an hotel. The station is unique in that the front building is owned by the local authority, which purchased it in 1966 to save it from demolition by British Rail. Subject of a number of restoration projects, a simple but effective scheme in 2000 was the floodlighting of the central portico and flanking colonnades, such that the Corinthian columns are dramatically seen in silhouette.

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3

1

4

2

5

1 Letter box at Shrewsbury Station (Great Western and London & North Western Railways Joint) 2 ‘Squirrel’ seat at Ulverston Station (Furness Railway) (see page 79)

3 Window detail at Oakham Station (Midland Railway) 4 Art Nouveau railings at Nottingham Station (Midland Railway) 5 Platform canopy column capital at Great Malvern Station. Each is different and depicts flora of the Malvern Hills (Great Western Railway)

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1

Jim Cornell

Graham Wilson

4

2

5

3

1 Detail of front of Gobowen Station (Shrewsbury & Chester Railway) 2 Platform column capitals at Middlesbrough Station (North Eastern Railway) 3 Letter box at Stamford Station (Midland Railway)

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4 Memorial (near Newtonle-Willows) to William Huskisson MP, fatally injured by the ‘Rocket’ at the opening of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway in 1830 (London & North Western Railway) 5 The world’s longest platform seat at Scarborough Station (North Eastern Railway)


Richard Horne

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was opened in 1876. Renowned for its great curved train shed consisting of three barrel vaulted bays, its elegant canopies,

stretching north and south of the train shed, are also of interest as the valances are made from cast iron. The canopies were reglazed and

the valances repaired or recast in a scheme completed in 2006.

Richard Horne

The North Eastern Railway’s great station at York, designed by its architect, Thomas Prosser, and engineer, T E Harrison,

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Richard Horne

The original 1849 three bay train shed at the North Staffordshire Railway’s Stoke-on-Trent Station (see page 53) was replaced by this elegant ridge and furrow glazed roof in 1893. Totally renovated in 2002, new light fittings were designed to complement it.

Chris Heaps

The train shed roof at the London & South Western Railway’s 1885 Bournemouth Station (see page 13) is the original. It was in a parlous state for many years and threatened with demolition, until a massive renovation scheme was decided upon which, on completion in 2001, totally transformed the station.

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The dramatic scenery of the Midland Railway’s Settle & Carlisle line, opened in 1876 (see page 52) is clearly shown here. Ribblehead Viaduct, at 440 yards the longest on the line (top) was deemed by British Rail to be beyond economic repair and the line was earmarked for closure. Events proved otherwise and the Settle & Carlisle is now a strategic route. Funding from a variety of sources not only contributed to the viaduct’s repair, but has helped with the restoration of the stations at Ribblehead (type 3, small) (left), Appleby (type 1, large) (see page 52), Horton-in-Ribblesdale (type 3, small) (opposite page, centre), Lazonby & Kirkoswald (type 2, medium) as well as Settle (type 1, large) (see page 30).

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The line has many miles of dry stone boundary walls and over the period 1998 to 2005 these have been completely restored by local craftsmen. An example, close to Ribblehead Viaduct, is shown (top and inset). A pleasing feature of the restoration work on the line has been the installation of

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new lighting at stations in lamps made to an MR design. An example, at Kirkby Stephen, is shown (see also page 30).


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One of five major railway accidents in 1928, that on the London, Midland & Scottish Railway at Charfield, Gloucestershire, was particularly poignant. Of the 15 people killed, 12 were burnt beyond recognition, including two children whose identities were never discovered. The LM&SR provided a mass grave in the nearby St James Church and the granite memorial remains in the ownership of BRB (Residuary) Ltd. The panel on it, commemorating the ‘two unknown’ together with the names, ages and home towns of the other ten victims, was becoming illegible and was cleaned in 2002.

Richard Horne

A unique survivor, the neoclassical crossing keeper’s cottage on Rectory Lane, Buckland (east of Betchworth Station) lies on the South Eastern Railway’s Reading, Guildford & Reigate line, opened in 1849. Leased to a railway employee, its accommodation was substandard and, in 2002, the cottage was renovated and an extension (replacing a grim timber lean-to) was added to provide proper bathroom and kitchen facilities.

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The West Highland Railway of the North British Railway was opened in 1894, passing through some of the most spectacular scenery in Britain. Most of the stations were built in an appropriately Swiss Chalet style and three (so far) have been renovated, at Bridge of Orchy (left, now a bunkhouse and café), Rannoch (the most remote of stations and now a tea room and museum) and Tulloch (now a bunkhouse).

Closed in 1969, the North British Railway’s romantically named Waverley Route from Edinburgh to Carlisle ran through sparsely populated country and was never financially viable. Completed in 1862, remote Shankend Viaduct, south of Hawick, is a brick and stone structure of 15 arched spans. Cracks having developed in one pier, repairs were undertaken in 2000 and the viaduct stands as a dramatic reminder of the area’s forgotten railway past.

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The Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway’s line from Doncaster to New Holland and Grimsby crossed the Trent in 1866 on a swing bridge at Althorpe. Increased traffic following the opening of Grimsby Docks by the Great Central Railway (successor to the MS&LR) in 1912, led to the need for a new bridge. Opened at a new crossing point in 1916, as a rail and road bridge, it was designed by James Benjamin Hall to details supplied by the Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Co of the USA. Following complete refurbishment in 2004, the Trust funded a bronze plaque, an exact replica of the original (stolen in the 1970s) which had been unveiled at the ceremonial opening, when the bridge was named the ‘King George V Bridge’.

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Iain Jacobs

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T M Penson designed Shrewsbury Station in a neo-Tudor Collegiate style to lessen its impact on Shrewsbury School and the castle, which are its immediate neighbours. Opened jointly by the Great Western and London & North Western Railways in 1849, it was extended in 1855 and, with a lowered forecourt, the

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station was underpinned and a new ground floor was inserted under it in 1903. A restoration scheme in 1986 included redesign of the ticket hall in a manner sympathetic to the original architecture. Further detail improvements to the faรงade were made just over a decade later and the frontage was subsequently floodlit.


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Looking for lineside signs marking summits, tunnels, distances, borders and the like is one of the pleasures of rail travel and many such signs remain. In 2001 Railtrack restored the signs on either side of the River Sark on the England/ Scotland border, near Gretna, on the West Coast Main Line. Signs had originally been installed here by the publicity conscious Caledonian Railway.

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In a somewhat more hostile environment are the signs at Corrour Summit and Druimuachdar Pass. The former lies north of Corrour Station on the West Highland Railway, opened by the North British Railway in 1894 (see page 69). The latter lies just north

of the now closed Dalnaspidal Station on the Inverness & Perth Junction Railway’s line, opened in 1863 and two years later becoming the Highland Railway’s main line. At 1,484 feet above sea level, it is now the highest point on the rail network. Network

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Rail provided these signs in 2006, utilising a robust design of the former London & North Eastern Railway (the signs they replaced not being the originals).


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John Dobson’s Newcastle Station was opened in 1851 as terminus (at each end) for the York & North Berwick and Newcastle & Carlisle Railways, but also with connecting tracks. These were covered by a graceful curved train shed of three arched vaults behind Dobson’s long neo-classical

frontage (see also page 2), to which Thomas Prosser added his magnificent portico in 1861. Under North Eastern Railway ownership from 1854, two further arched vaults were added by William Bell, the company’s architect, in 1894. Restoration of the roof, completed in 2000,

included removal of an ugly signalling relay room, that in 1954 had been inserted across the larger of Bell’s vaults, and provision of new end screens using state of the art glazing; a perfect foil to the bold Victorian structure.

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This view of Chester Station, designed in a Venetian style by Francis Thompson, shows less than half of its long frontage of 1,050 feet. Opened jointly in 1848 by the Great Western and London & North Western Railways, as the meeting point of six lines, its great length catered for terminating trains in bay platforms. The structure has undergone many changes, but since 1990 there have been a number of restoration and improvement schemes; a process that is on-going.

The self-confidence of the North Eastern Railway is exemplified by its 1906 Main Headquarters Offices in York, designed in Queen Anne style by the company’s architect, William Bell. Very much unchanged to this day, recent external repairs have included gilding the railings and weather vane and, internally, the entrance hall has been restored. The NER’s war memorial, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, is opposite (its shadow can be seen in the photograph) and it, too, was restored in 2000.

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Thornton (right) and Hewenden (below) Viaducts lie on the Great Northern Railway’s 1884 line from Queensbury to Keighley, itself a branch off the 1879 ‘Alpine Route’ that cuts across the Pennines from Bradford to Halifax. The line closed in 1963 but the two viaducts survived in reasonable condition. Sustrans undertook schemes to remove vegetation, repair stonework and drainage, and provide a tarmac surface so that Hewenden was opened as part of the ‘Great Northern Trail’ cycle and walkway in 2006, followed by Thornton in 2007.

Each end of Knucklas Viaduct (below) is guarded by twin crenellated towers, complete with arrow slits. Built in 1861, the 13 arched viaduct crosses the Heyop Valley on the Central Wales line of the London & North Western Railway. Repairs were required as early as 1906 but further significant repairs were carried out in 1998.

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Pensford Viaduct, 900 feet long with its 14 large arches punctuated by two smaller ones, crosses the River Chew. Built of local stone with brick arch soffits, it lies on the line south from Bristol to the coalfields at Radstock. Opened by the Bristol & North Somerset Railway in 1873, but operated and later owned by the Great Western Railway, the line closed in 1964. A major renovation project was completed in 2003.

Left and above: The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway’s branch south from Haltwhistle up the South Tyne Valley to Alston was opened in 1852 (see also page 25). Most elegant of the viaducts on the line is that at Lambley, tall (110 feet) and slim (single track), it has nine stone arches. Following closure of the line in 1976, part has been turned into a walking route and, following extensive structural and drainage repairs completed in 1996, Lambley Viaduct has become part of the South Tyne Trail.

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On the London & Brighton Railway’s main line, designed by the engineer John Urpeth Rastrick and opened in 1841, Clayton Tunnel is located south of Hassocks. Its southern portal is plain, but that at the north end approximates to a castle entrance, complete with crenellated towers. Incongruously located between these is a cottage, originally inhabited by either a railway policeman (signalman) or the attendant of the gas

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lighting which originally illuminated the tunnel. Emergency repairs were carried out to the cottage in 1995 followed by the repair and cleaning of the entire portal, completed in 1997.


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Two market town stations Ulverston Station, designed by Paley and Austin, was opened by the Furness Railway in 1873, replacing an earlier station of 1853. The red sandstone Italianate building is overshadowed by the clock tower, which sports clocks on three faces (all but the west, facing out of town). The track with two platform faces allowed easy interchange for the now closed Windermere Lakeside and Conishead Priory branches. Major restoration works were completed in 2002 and the Trust increased its contribution to provide seats to the FR’s distinctive ‘squirrel’ design (see page 62).

Paul Childs

Bury St Edmunds is a considerably larger town and its station proportionately so. Lying on the Ipswich to Cambridge line and also once a junction station, it was built by Thomas Brassey to the designs of Sancton Wood and opened in 1847 by the Eastern Union Railway (passing to the Great Eastern Railway in 1854). With twin Baroque towers flanking a three bay train shed (replaced by platform canopies in 1893), the station is an exercise in Tudor style brickwork with Dutch gables. A series of restoration schemes were undertaken from 1992 to 1995, but the station house, lying along the south side of the station, still remains with a derelict interior and desperately in need of a viable reuse that will see it restored and complementing the work already carried out.

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Construction of spectacular walkways either side of Hungerford Bridge, taking the railway across the Thames and into Charing Cross Station, was a Millennium project opened in 2003 by HRH Princess Alexandra and named the ‘Golden Jubilee Bridges’. The railway bridge, opened by the South Eastern Railway in 1864, giving it access to the West End, utilised two brick piers (much rebuilt) of an earlier suspension bridge designed by Brunel,

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Richard Horne

opened in 1845 and dismantled by 1862. The Trust joined in the Cross River Partnership funding the scheme and financed brick cleaning of the ‘Brunel’ piers together with reinstatement of the curved pediments on them (which latterly had been GRP replicas). The bridge is a dramatic link between its neighbours, Sir Terry Farrell’s development over Charing Cross Station and the London Eye.

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Stockport Viaduct, opened in 1842 by the Manchester & Birmingham Railway (which only reached Crewe where it joined the Grand Junction Railway) and designed by the company’s engineer G W Buck, is built of brick with stone parapets. Widened to four tracks by the London & North Western Railway in 1889, at 595 yards long and 111 feet high, it dominates the town centre. To a repair and cleaning project, lasting three years from 1987, floodlighting was added in 1989 to mark the centenary of the widening (see page 88).

Mansfield Viaduct, which similarly dominates the town centre, has also been floodlit in 2000, (see page 89), then repaired and cleaned over two years from 2001. Opened by the Midland Railway in 1875, when the line from Nottingham was extended to Worksop, it is built on a curve with 15 arches of rock faced ashlar.

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A delight of railway architecture is the wide range of different structures and water towers are but one. Margate Station (above) was opened in 1863 by the Kent Coast Railway (operated, then owned by the London, Chatham & Dover Railway). In 1926 the lines in Thanet were rationalised by the Southern Railway and the present station, seen in the background, dates from this period. The water tower, though, is a remnant of the LC&DR station and although disused was completely refurbished in 2000.

The very different water tower (left) is a standard Great Western Railway design. It is located at Kemble Station, on the line from Swindon to Gloucester opened in 1845, although a proper station was not built until 1872 (at the junction of the Cirencester and, later, Tetbury branches, now both closed). The tower was externally restored in 1997 and repainted in GWR colours.

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The Great Western Railway’s neo-classical station at Worcester Shrub Hill, opened in 1865, contains a quite remarkable cast iron waiting room complex on the east platform (opposite the main building). The single bay illustrated here shows that the cast iron framing holds

panels of decorative tiles. These clearly advertise the manufacturer, ‘Maw & Co of Broseley’, while the ironwork bears the name ‘Vulcan Iron Works, Worcester’. The building may well have been a promotional venture for the two companies and is believed to have been

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previously located at Droitwich Spa or Spetchley. The Trust funded a report into its original colour scheme in 1989, but a scheme to fully restore it is still awaited.


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The description on page 43 of the London & North Western Railway’s Hotel at Liverpool Lime Street Station refers to the stained glass rooflight over the grand staircase. These views clearly demonstrate not only its sheer size, but also the intricate design of the glazing.

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The original station at Aberystwyth was opened in 1864 as terminus of the Aberystwyth & Welch (sic) Coast Railway, which almost immediately passed to the Cambrian Railway. The station is distinguished by graceful ironwork to the canopies (left), but under Great Western Railway ownership a completely new neo-Georgian main building and concourse were constructed in 1924. Restoration of the original A&WCR building was completed in 1997 (left and above left). The main building and concourse (top), being effectively disused, were taken over by J D Wetherspoon plc which restored and transformed them in 2002 into the aptly named ‘Yr Hen Orsaf’ pub (‘The Old Station’).

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The fraught construction of the London & Birmingham Railway’s Kilsby Tunnel, under the supervision of Robert Stephenson, stretched over four years to 1838. One mile and 666 yards long, it contained 16 brick ventilation shafts and two huge main ones which, at 60 feet diameter, were wider than the tunnel itself. Crenellated and standing 50 feet high like castle keeps, the southern

one suffered severe damage to the parapet during a storm in January 1990. Following repairs to this (main picture and inset top centre and right), repairs were then carried out on the northern main shaft in 1993 (inset top left), particular attention being given to pinning the outer parapet to the inner one, as it had been built quite separately.

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The M&BR’s terminus, now Manchester Piccadilly Station (below), was rebuilt by the London & North Western Railway in 1866 and completely renovated and modernised by Railtrack from 1997 to 2002 (see page

12). A finishing touch, funded by the Trust, was floodlighting of the south façade.

Neil Attersall

The dramatic impact of floodlighting buildings and structures is clearly shown here. The Manchester & Birmingham Railway’s Stockport Viaduct of 1842 (above) was floodlit in 1989 (see page 82).

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r a i lway h e r i tag e t ru s t

Brunel’s Romanesque viaduct at Chippenham (left), on the Great Western Railway’s original main line from London to Bristol, was opened in 1841. Minor repairs in 2006 were supplemented by replacement of grim pedestrian subways under the roads to its north with grass and floodlighting of both the north façade and inside faces of the viaduct’s arches.

The Midland Railway’s 1875 viaduct over Mansfield’s town centre (see page 82) was similarly floodlit but, in places running behind buildings, the lighting was confined to the spandrels and soffits of the arches.

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Richard Horne

Top: Elsham Signal Box, Lincolnshire (Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway 1885) Centre left: Stow Park Signal Box, Lincolnshire (Great Northern Railway 1879) Centre right: Swindersby Signal Box, Lincolnshire (Midland Railway 1901) Bottom: Appleby (Lincs) Signal Box, Lincolnshire (Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway 1885)

Richard Horne

Signal boxes are invariably attractive but distinctively railway buildings, yet built to a wide variety of designs. Renovation and upgrading to provide modern working conditions for staff can, with care, be achieved without compromising their appearance. Retention of original features and rejection of the use of uPVC glazing is possible, as these examples of restored boxes (all listed Grade II) clearly show.


Richard Horne

r a i lway h e r i tag e t ru s t

Richard Horne

Top: Haltwhistle Signal Box, Northumberland (North Eastern Railway 1901) Centre: Hexham Signal Box, Northumberland (North Eastern Railway 1918) Bottom & bottom left: Canterbury West Signal Box (Southern Railway 1928)

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Opposite page: The original station opened at Hellifield on the ‘Little’ North Western Railway in 1849 and passed to the Midland Railway in 1859. Following arrival of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway from Blackburn and opening of the MR’s Settle & Carlisle line in 1876 (see pages 52, 66 and 67), the present

As engineer for the Chester & Holyhead Railway, Robert Stephenson had to design bridges over two major waterways, the River Conwy at Conwy itself and the Menai Strait between the mainland and Anglesey. A precursor for the larger Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait, opened in 1850, the bridge at Conwy was completed in 1848. Stephenson’s novel design for both bridges was to

carry the two railway tracks through parallel rivetted wrought iron tubes. The Conwy Tubular Bridge has a span of 400 feet. Overlooked by Conwy Castle, crenellated Gothic stone portals, in the manner of castle gateways, were designed for each end of the bridge by the C&HR’s architect, Francis Thompson. Cylindrical iron piers were inserted at each end in 1889 to give extra

station opened on a new site to the north in 1880. The small village increased with the growth of railway facilities and the station, a long island platform with bays (now disused) at either end, has an extensive sloping canopy with highly decorated filigree cast iron support brackets, bearing the MR’s initials and

support and reduce the span. In 1995 a scheme of minor repairs and complete repainting of the bridge were carried out, the colour being carefully selected to match the surrounding stonework.

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Wyvern symbol. The building and canopies had fallen into a poor state of repair, but were totally renovated in 1993 and 1994. Unfortunately, a use has not been found for much of the copious accommodation and the station is once again sorely in need of repair.


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Below: The architect David Mocatta’s Palladian terminus building at Brighton for the London & Brighton Railway, opened in 1840 (see page 28), suffered the indignity of losing the colonnade on its front to a Victorian iron and glass porte-cochère and was overshadowed by the new

train shed of 1883. The central clock of the building’s parapet has survived and, among a large number of improvement and restoration schemes at the station, the decorative surround to the clock has twice been restored, in 1986 and again in 2001.

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The most difficult challenge to Brunel in constructing the original Great Western Railway from London to Bristol was the construction of Box Tunnel, taking nearly five years to build. Opened in 1841, at one mile, 452 yards it was, at the time, the world’s longest railway tunnel. The east portal is of brick, but for that at the west end, visible from the

London to Bath road (now the A4), Brunel designed a magnificent Roman arch, 39 feet high and built of Bath stone ashlar. The legend that Brunel aligned the tunnel so that the rising sun shines through it on his birthday (9th April) may not be true, but it seems that this phenomenon does happen. In one of its first projects, the Trust contributed to the

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restoration of the portal in 1985. Brunel’s drawing (below) is one of those documents conserved by Network Rail (see page 8).


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The original 1851 frontage of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway’s Halifax Station. With its portico demolished and hidden behind canopies for over a century, it was surrounded by additional platforms until refurbishment of the station

allowed it to be re-exposed. Cleaned and with the portico reinstated, it is now part of Eureka! The Museum for Children; the operational station remaining behind it.

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Index Aberystwyth Station 86 Albrighton Station 37 Appleby (Lincs) Signal Box 90 Appleby Station 52 Aviemore Station 45

Norwich Station 2, 14 Nottingham Station 40, 62 Nuneaton Station 24

Balcombe Viaduct 2, 28 Bennerley Viaduct 56 Berwick-upon-Tweed Station 36 Betchworth, Buckland Crossing Keeper’s Cottage 68 Bilston Glen Viaduct 56 Birmingham New Street Power Signal Box 15 Blackfriars: Old SER Station 2 Bognor Regis Station 24, 60 Boston Station 26 Bournemouth Station 13, 65 Box Tunnel 94 Bridge of Orchy Station 69 Bridgwater Station 59 Brighton Station 24, 93 Bristol Temple Meads Station 2, 54 ‘Brunel Era’ Drawings Conservation 8, 94 Bury St Edmunds Station 79 Bushey Station 24

Paddington Station 12, 21 Paisley Gilmour Street Station 36 Pensford Viaduct 77

Cannon Street Station 32 Canterbury West Signal Box 91 Cardiff Station 59 Carlisle Station 27 Carnforth Station 38 Charfield Accident Memorial 68 Charlbury Station 52 Chelfham Viaduct 57 Chester Station 75 Chippenham Viaduct 89 Clayton Tunnel 78 Conwy Tubular Bridge 92 Corrour Summit Sign 73 Crystal Palace Station 42 Culham Station 8 Darlington Station 15, 24 Deptford, Resolution Way Arches 9 Druimuachdar Pass Sign 73 Dulwich, Turney Road Bridge 18

Oakham Station 60, 62

Richard Horne

Reedham Bridge 50 Ribblehead Station 66 Ribblehead Viaduct 66 Royal Albert Bridge, Saltash 15 Royal Border Bridge, Berwickupon-Tweed 22

Eastbourne Station 24 Elsham Signal Box 90

Kettering Station 33 Kilsby Tunnel 87 King George V Bridge, Althorpe 70 Kirkby Stephen Station 67 Knucklas Viaduct 76

Farnborough North Station 31 Forth Bridge 51 Glenfinnan Viaduct 23 Gobowen Station 7, 63 Goldilea Viaduct 39 Grange-over-Sands Station 46 Great Malvern Station 62 Gretna, England/Scotland Border Signs 72

Lambley Viaduct 77 Leeds Station 20 Leicester Station 14 Lincoln Station 46 Liverpool Lime Street Station Hotel 43, 85 Manchester Piccadilly Station 12, 88 Mansfield Viaduct 82, 89 Margate Water Tower 83 Market Harborough Station 37 Marylebone Station 5 Middlesbrough Station 10, 63 Middlesbrough, Albert Bridge 19

Halifax Station 95 Haltwhistle Signal Box 2, 91 Haltwhistle, Alston Arches Viaduct 25 Harlow Town Station 45 Hatch End Station 96 Hellifield Station 92 Hertford East Station 26 Hewenden Viaduct 76 Hexham Signal Box 91 Horton-in-Ribblesdale Station 66 Huddersfield Station 61 Hungerford Bridge 80

Newcastle High Level Bridge 48 Newcastle Station 2, 74 Newton-le-Willows, Huskisson Memorial 63 Newton-le-Willows, Mill Lane Viaduct 39 North Dulwich Station 18

Kemble Water Tower 83

Scarborough Station 27, 63 Settle & Carlisle Line Dry Stone Walls 67 Settle Station 30 Shankend Viaduct 69 Sheffield Station 58 Shrewsbury Station 62, 71 Skipton Station 13 St Erth Station 58 St Leonards Warrior Square Station 31 St Pancras Station 34 Stamford Station 30, 63 Stockport Viaduct 82, 88 Stoke-on-Trent Station 53, 65 Stow Park Signal Box 90 Surbiton Station 44 Swindersby Signal Box 90 Thornton Viaduct 76 Twerton Tunnel 57 Ulverston Station 62, 79 Wemyss Bay Station 47 Wolverhampton Station 9 Worcester Shrub Hill Station 84 Worksop Station 6, 24 York Main Headquarters Offices 75 York NER War Memorial 75 York Station 64

Above: Replacing a station built c1844 for the London & Birmingham Railway, the architect Gerald Horsley designed this new station at (by now suburban) Hatch End, for the introduction of the London & North Western Railway’s electric train service from Euston to Watford. A pleasing but rather opulent design, it included a weather-vaned cupola with a clock face mounted on all four sides. Following renovation work to the station, the clock was overhauled in 2004.

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Profile for Martins Kreicis

21 YEARS of the RAILWAY HERITAGE TRUST  

21 YEARS of the RAILWAY HERITAGE TRUST

21 YEARS of the RAILWAY HERITAGE TRUST  

21 YEARS of the RAILWAY HERITAGE TRUST

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