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JUNE 2018

Issue 243 £5.95

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THE BUSINESS RESOURCE FOR RAIL

Rail moves forward How the next generation of rail engineers are shaping up

HIGH-SPEED RAIL Predicting ground-borne noise

TRACK & TRACKSIDE Protecting bridge heritage

TRAMS The return of the tram


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WELCOME | JUNE 2018

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IssUE 243 £5.95

www.railpro.co.uk

THE BUSINESS RESOURCE FOR RAIL

editor’s note Rail moves forward How the next generation of rail engineers are shaping up

HIGH-SPEED RAIL Predicting ground-borne noise

TRACK & TRACKSIDE Protecting bridge heritage

TRAMS The return of the tram

PUBLISHER RAIL PROFESSIONAL LTD Hallmark House, Downham Road, Ramsden Heath, Essex CM11 1PU Telephone: +44 (0)1268 711811 EDITORIAL EDITOR SAM SHERWOOD-HALE editor@railpro.co.uk DISPLAY ADVERTISING CHRISTIAN WILES chris@railpro.co.uk KEV MOORE kev@railpro.co.uk BEN WARING ben@railpro.co.uk ADAM OVERALL sales3@railpro.co.uk RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING recruitment@railpro.co.uk MARKETING MANAGER AITANA BRETON aitana@railpro.co.uk SUBSCRIPTIONS subscriptions@railpro.co.uk ADMINISTRATION CHERIE NUGENT info@railpro.co.uk LISA ETHERINGTON admin@railpro.co.uk GILL DUNN office@railpro.co.uk KIRSTY CARTER projects@railpro.co.uk DESIGN & PRODUCTION MILES JOHNSTONE production@railpro.co.uk Rail Professional welcomes contributions in the form of articles, photographs or letters, preferably by email. Original photographs may be submitted, but, while every care will be exercised, neither the editor nor the publisher take responsibility for loss of, or damage to, material sent. Submission of material to Rail Professional will be taken as permission for it to be published in the magazine. ISSN 1476-2196 © All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the copyright owners. The views and opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher, nor does it accept liability for any printing errors or otherwise which may occur.

A

drian Quine recently wrote in a new paper for the Adam Smith Institute calling for a ‘complete rethink’ of how the country’s passenger rail services are structured. Rather than re-running tired debates between nationalisation and privatisation, the think tank advocates injecting more competition into the current franchise model by making it easier for Open Access (OA) Operators to compete on longdistance routes. He cited the fact that fares on Virgin’s East Coast franchise where it faces direct competition are 24 per cent cheaper than on its West Coast franchise where it doesn’t. Then, a few weeks after this report was released the news broke that rail services on the East Coast Main Line were being brought back under Government control. Operators Stagecoach and Virgin Trains will hand over control from June 24 and the Department for Transport will run the service until a new public-private partnership can be appointed in 2020. Just a few months ago, in the April issue of Rail Professional, Ben Blackburn, Account Director at Freshwater, considered the Commons select committees that had been set up to scrutinise the franchising process. The rail franchising model has been put under serious levels of scrutiny and the recent news will ensure the whole system will continue to be highly politicised. Paul Plummer, Chief Executive of the Rail Delivery Group, commented on the news by saying: ‘The private sector in rail, including Stagecoach Virgin on the East Coast route, has brought significant benefits but we have already been making the case to Government for reform. There is an opportunity to reform the franchising system for the long-term, so it can deliver more for customers, communities, taxpayers and the economy. We will work with governments to make a success of the East Coast partnership while also setting out a bold vision for the future of franchising to benefit Britain.’ I expect that there will be more commentary in the coming months and we will endeavour to bring you the best analysis on this subject in our next issue. Bringing it back to our June issue, we have several articles on high-speed rail. Quentin Macdonald, Systems Engineering Principal at HSUK, lets rip with his views on HS2. Mark Coleman of the National College for High Speed Rail believes the next generation of rail engineers will have to be experts in high-speed rail and explains what is being done to get them there. Kate Andrews of Loco2 looks at the potential for a high-speed link between London and Bordeaux and Jamie Kerr, Managing Director of HS2 Growth Partnership tells us how HS2 is as much an economic growth plan as it is a transport plan. We also have features on flood defense systems, heritage bridge protection, new signalling technology and Noel Dolphin from the Campaign to Electrify Britain’s Railway highlights the tangible benefits that can be generated from the electrification of the South Wales Metro. Finally, we have three interviews in this issue. I spoke to Mike Lambrou who heads the UK rail sector team at CellPoint Mobile about mobility and passenger service in a mobile environment, including possibilities for ‘mobility as a service’ (MaaS). We also have interviews with Andrew Swanson, recently appointed as Head of Engineering in the Rail team at Kier Group and with Irish Rail’s Electronic Repair Facility Manager, Ray Holden. Enjoy the issue and if you feel a strong desire to respond to any of the comments and claims made within these pages please feel free to get in touch. Sam Sherwood-Hale Editor


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| CONTENTS / ISSUE 243 / JUNE 2018

News

Employee Health

06

45

First electric train travels between Birmingham and Bromsgrove, Certification of 360 kph Overhead Catenary is latest step towards delivering Europe’s fastest railway, Resilience work begins as Network Rail invests £9.5 million to provide a better railway for Devon passengers, Plans submitted for Stirling station footbridge works, Safety improvements complete at Cambridgeshire level crossing, Historic milestone as first ever electric train runs into Blackpool, Cambridge North welcomes more than a quarter of a million passengers during its first year, Amey completes vital signalling work at Ashford International, Work progresses on automatic braking system for London Trams, Stadler and Merseytravel break ground on early milestone to deliver transformative new metro fleet for Liverpool City Region

In the passenger seat

17

David Sidebottom considers the record number of people taking the train and asks what can be done to help maintain this momentum

Delivering the goods

20

With the high-profile launch of the ‘Digital Railway’ plan on May 10, the needs of freight and the potential benefits to freight customers must not be overlooked

Laying down the law

25

Martin Fleetwood, Corporate Partner at Shoosmiths LLP, pores over the data companies have released detailing their gender pay gap

Ticket to the future

29

Rebecca Owen-Howes, Counsel at Dentons, gives her take on the ORR’s market study into ticket vending machines and automatic ticket gates

Women in Rail

33

Adeline Ginn, General Counsel at Angel Trains and Founder of Women in Rail marks the organisation’s fifth anniversary

The Cheek of it...

37

The demand for passenger rail services in the UK continued to fall throughout Autumn lastre

Private capital into Network Rail?

41

Andy Meaney looks at the reforms underway at Network Rail and asks some vital questions about what the future holds

Rail Professional

Dr. Steve Boorman, Director of Employee Health at Empactis, believes the rail sector must engage with employees to look after and improve their health

Rail Professional Interview

49

Sam Sherwood-Hale spoke to Mike Lambrou who heads the UK rail sector team at CellPoint Mobile

Fares Regulation

57

Paul Plummer explores the history of fares regulation and brings us forward to the modern world of ticketing

Health and Safety

61

The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health is raising awareness of the issue of asbestos. Its former Railway Group Chair, Keith Morey, looks at how exposure affects the industry

High-Speed Rail

65

Jamie Kerr, Managing Director of HS2 Growth Partnership and Business Development Lead at LCR, explains how HS2 is as much an economic growth plan as it is a transport plan


CONTENTS / ISSUE 243 / JUNE 2018

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5

What rail passengers want more than anything is to have a good overall travel experience – getting to the station and arriving at the destination on time INTERVIEW - Page 49

Track and Trackside

95

Dave Holland, Engineering Director at Mabey, discusses the new temporary works techniques being developed to deliver projects more quickly, safely and efficiently

Interview

102

Sam Sherwood-Hale spoke to Andrew Swanson, recently appointed as Head of Engineering in the Rail team at Kier Group

Cyber Security

105

James Barrett, Senior Director EMEA at Endace, explains why GWR should not be derailed following data breach

Signalling Transport Integration

69

Mike Wallace, transport and ticketing expert at PA Consulting Group, takes a look at the opportunities rail has to integrate with disruptive modes of transport

High-Speed Rail

73

Predicting ground-borne noise from high-speed trains

109

Lucy Prior explains why the complex but necessary shift in signalling technology is of particular interest to the Rail Alliance and its members

Signalling

113

The digital revolution has impacted music, TV and navigation, and many things in the modern world

Trams

High-Speed Rail

117

77

Electrification

Quentin Macdonald, Systems Engineering Principal at HSUK, lets rip with his views on HS2

High-Speed Rail

81

The next generation of rail engineers will have to be experts in high-speed rail, Mark Coleman explains what is being done to get them there

High-Speed Rail

87

Kate Andrews, Creator and Co-Founder of award-winning Loco2, explains how Britain’s demand for links to Europe can be satisfied by rail

Track and Trackside

91

Whilst flooding is usually portrayed in the media as impacting upon residents in their homes, the effects are much more far reaching

121

David Walmsley reports on the latest tramway developments around the country, based on reports from the LRTA Annual Officers’ Conference held recently in Edinburgh

Noel Dolphin from the Campaign to Electrify Britain’s Railway highlights the tangible benefits that can be generated from the electrification of the South Wales Metro

Business profiles

125

Elite Precast Concrete, UK Power Networks Services, Barkers Fencing, Cleveland Bridge, Rail Business Awards, Majorlift, Bridgeway Consulting, Forbo Flooring, AssessTech, Zetica, FP McCann, Zonegreen, Relec Electronics, Flexicon

People

150

Savvas Charalambous, Stanley Russell, Dr Dirk Nolte, Roger Neary Simon Babes, Mark Southwell, Cath Bellamy, Ian McGrane, John Robinson, Laurent Martinez

Rail Professional


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| NEWS

News in brief... TfL to operate Heathrow Connect Services ahead of Elizabeth line opening Since May 20 TfL have controlled the Heathrow Connect services between Paddington and Heathrow terminals 2/3 and 4 in another major milestone in the creation of the Elizabeth line. TfL also have control over the half hourly Great Western Railway (GWR) services from Paddington which terminate at Hayes & Harlington. These services will be operated as TfL Rail, which will become Elizabeth line services in December this year. Modernisation of Tube closer than ever after successful weekend of trial operation TfL staff operated and maintained the brand-new Thales signalling system for the first time during a trial last month. The successful trial means customers can begin to benefit from the new signalling on the first section of the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines later this summer.

First electric train travels between Birmingham and Bromsgrove The first ever electric train has travelled between Birmingham and Bromsgrove. The West Midlands Railway train made the historic journey on Sunday May 20 to test the newly installed overhead power lines, ahead of a full electric service being introduced later this summer. The upgrade and electrification of the railway to Bromsgrove by Network Rail is part of the Railway Upgrade Plan. When the work is completed, West Midlands Railway is to operate an extra three trains every hour. Currently the town has two trains per hour in the peak and just one train per hour off-peak. The testing also marks the permanent switch-on of the overhead power lines, which carry 25,000v of electricity, 24 hours a day. Local communities are being urged to be well aware of this additional safety hazard and the added danger it poses should anyone choose to trespass on the railway. Richard Brooks, Customer Experience Director for West Midlands Railway, said: ‘There is still more work to be done but the test train is a major step towards giving Bromsgrove the extra services the town needs. These are exciting times for the region. Rail travel in the West Midlands has never been more popular. ‘We are investing almost £1 billion to create more and better journeys, helping to shape and support the region’s economy and identity.’ Engineers from Network Rail and West Midlands Railway were on board the test train as it made three return trips between Birmingham and Bromsgrove.

New Metrolink zonal fares set to deliver simplicity, flexibility and better value Metrolink passengers could soon benefit from a simple and flexible zone system for fares and ticketing. The change would cut the 8,500 stop-to-stop fares currently in use to just 10 zone-based fares. Customers will be able to enjoy unlimited travel within their chosen zones, instead of one-off journeys between specific stops.

Enclosures from the smallest to the largest. ENCLOSURES

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CLIMATE CONTROL


NEWS |

News in brief... New research reveals lack of knowledge about railway dangers New research from Network Rail reveals over a quarter (28 per cent) of adults in Wales believe crossing a motorway is more dangerous than crossing a railway, despite the fact that trains are unable to stop quickly or change direction. The railway industry introduces its new summer timetable The new timetable brings into operation thousands of new services across the country benefitting hundreds of thousands of passengers – the culmination of years of investment in new infrastructure and new trains that forms part of the Railway Upgrade Plan – a five-year investment programme set to generate £85 billion in economic benefit across the country. Innovative ‘ticket free travel’ trial on Chiltern Railways route extended Even more Chiltern Railways customers are set to travel ‘ticket free’ as part of a market-leading trial of ‘post-pay’ technology which is this week being extended following a successful initial pilot. Chiltern Railways and their technology partner, SilverRail, have confirmed the trial of post-pay technology will be extended to two additional Chiltern stations and be extended until August of this year.

IT INFRASTRUCTURE

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Amey completes vital signalling work at Ashford International Eurostar trains have continued to stop at Ashford International Station from April 2018 thanks to new signalling upgrades installed by Amey. The upgrades include delivery of the French based KVB ATP (Contrôle de Vitesse par Balise Automatic Train Protection) Signalling System, which checks and controls the speed of moving trains to ensure their safe operation in the event of human failure. The new system was essential to keeping Ashford on the Eurostar route map as the previous train protection system used at the station was incompatible with the new Eurostar Class 374 rolling stock. Had the new system not been installed at Ashford, the new Eurostar trains would have had to bypass the Kent station and travel directly to St Pancras, which has used KVB since 2007. Amey provided a design solution for the safety system, working closely with a specialist French engineering company, Systra, who provided the data for the system based on Amey’s design. Amey also carried out the design surveys to calculate the exact positioning of the new equipment, in addition to producing a wide range of technical reports including the crucial safety case, which allowed the new technology to be permitted on Network Rail’s infrastructure for the first time in history.

Stadler and Merseytravel break ground on early milestone to deliver transformative new metro fleet for Liverpool City Region Merseytravel, Liverpool City Region and Stadler welcomed Metro Mayor of the Liverpool City Region, Steve Rotheram, to officially ‘break ground’ on the construction of a new £20 million state-of-the-art railway depot at Kirkdale, Merseyside. This is the latest major step in a £460 million project to deliver 52 new metro trains for the Merseyrail network. It builds on previous milestones, including the agreement for Stadler to take over the operation of Merseyrail’s existing depots. With construction being carried out by BAM Nuttall, the Kirkdale depot has been designed to drive the most efficient use of the new fleet by minimising the movement of stock within the facility. It will feature washing and stabling facilities, a maintenance shed with run-through tracks, office space, and a simulator suite. The design includes potential for the depot to be extended for 80-metre long trainsets. The depot works are due to be completed in 2019, in time for the arrival of new vehicles for testing. The new fleet will be fully in service by 2021. Liverpool City Region Metro Mayor, Steve Rotheram, said: ‘It’s great to see work progressing on the depot. New trains for our region will better connect 1.5 million people to training and apprenticeships, work and leisure. They’ll also boost the economy by £70 million a year and create around a thousand new jobs so this work is vital is to the success of the project.’

SOFTWARE & SERVICES www.rittal.co.uk


NEWS |

News in brief... Grand Central submits its application to operate additional services Following a period of consultation with other train companies and industry stakeholders, Grand Central has submitted its application to the ORR to operate more trains per day. The new services would run on its current routes as well as offer new direct journey opportunities for passengers travelling to and from Peterborough. If approved, the move will bring Grand Central’s current daily North East route operation to six return services (currently five) and its West Yorkshire route would see six trains to London and five returning from London throughout the day (currently four). South Western Railway joins the GTMC South Western Railway joins the GTMC as its newest industry partner, supporting the GTMC’s ongoing campaign for improved ground transportation links across the UK. The decision to join the GTMC comes at a time when South Western Railway commits to £1.2 billion investment plans by 2020 that will allow longer, faster and more reliable trains as well as an additional 52,000 seats. A greatly improved travel experience through better Wi-Fi coverage, charging points and a £90 million investment directed at stations, aims to attract the business travel passenger.

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Safety improvements complete at Cambridgeshire level crossing Shepreth level crossing on Station Road has reopened following a complete overhaul to improve safety. Network Rail made the improvements to the crossing over a tenday closure as part of its Railway Upgrade Plan to provide a safe, reliable and efficient railway. Engineers removed the old barriers which covered only half of the road and replaced them with a new full barrier system to deter motorists from driving around them when they lower for trains to pass. The full barrier system is operated by a signaller and is monitored by CCTV. At this type of crossing, drivers should: • Be prepared to stop at the crossing • Understand the warnings (lights, barriers, alarms) • If the warnings activate, stop - unless it’s unsafe to do so • Remain stationary until all the warnings stop • Check that the exit is clear before driving across. The improvements will improve safety and reduce delays to train services at the crossing which sees 166 trains a day which travel up to 65 mph. The current census data shows that nearly 2,300 vehicles pass over the crossing every day. Meliha Duymaz, Network Rail’s Route Managing Director for Anglia, said: ‘The new full barriers will make significant improvements to both safety of motorists and pedestrians and to the reliability and efficiency of the train service at Shepreth. We are committed to making our level crossings safer as part of our Railway Upgrade Plan and I’d like to thank motorists and passengers for their understanding while this important work was carried out.’

Resilience work begins as Network Rail invests £9.5 million to provide a better railway for Devon passengers Work to install a £9.5 million flood defence scheme to protect the railway line between Exeter and Salisbury has begun. Two 550-tonne underground bridge structures made of culvert sections (hollow concrete rectangular structures) will be installed underneath the railway line at Axe Valley on sites at Axe Farm and Broom Lane. The installation of these structures will reduce the likelihood of flooding from a one in five-year risk, to a one in twentyyear risk, based on Network Rail’s flood risk modelling. The line between Axminster and Crewkerne has been prone to flooding in recent years, causing significant delays and disruption to passengers. Rebecca Wells, Project Manager for Network Rail, said: ‘Flooding can be devastating for local communities and it’s crucial we do all we can to protect the railway and keep the train service moving. ‘This £9.5 million investment, part of our Railway Upgrade Plan, will significantly reduce the risk of the line flooding in the

Axe Valley, benefiting passengers and the local community for many years to come.’ More than a hundred members of Network Rail’s ‘team orange’ will be delivering the project over the next seven

months, with work due to be completed in December this year. During these seven months, more than 9,000 tonnes of soil will be excavated from the site to make room for the flood defence.

Rail Professional


Thursday 21 February 2019

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NEWS |

Certification of 360 kph Overhead Catenary is latest step towards delivering Europe’s fastest railway HS2 will become the first high speed railway in Europe equipped with overhead lines powering trains to operate at 360 kph. Marking a significant milestone in the electrification of HS2, the SNCF V360 design range, developed specifically for HS2, has been certified as an Interoperability Constituent under the European Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI). This builds on the experience of SNCF Réseau, who HS2 has been working with.  SNCF Réseau have previously achieved TSI certification for its Overhead Catenary System (OCS) design ranges for new high-speed lines in France at 350 kph, such as the extension of the Bretagne-Pays de la Loire line from Le Mans to Rennes and the extension of the South Europe Atlantic line from Tours to Bordeaux. To achieve this, the SNCF Réseau design team successfully balanced the tensile load between the conductors whilst maximising the distance between supporting structures. This means less steel and concrete will be used in the construction of the OCS than originally planned, reducing the overall cost and environmental impact.  Through its licence contract with SNCF Réseau, HS2’s Phase One contractors will be able to go to the components market to find the most competitive supplier, opening up opportunities for the UK supply chain to compete. HS2 Ltd track and power director Richard Watts said: ‘Certification illustrates our determination to deliver the highest standards of design and innovation on HS2. It is one aspect in delivering an extremely reliable railway upon which millions of people will come to depend. Our licencing agreement now gives flexibility for componentry for HS2 to be procured from the most competitive suppliers – opening the opportunity for UK-based firms to bid for contracts.’

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Cambridge North welcomes more than a quarter of a million passengers during its first year East Anglia’s newest railway station has welcomed 320,000 people during its first year. Cambridge North station, which opened on May 21, 2017, has been used by more than 6,000 people a week on average in its first year. It is now seeing more than ten thousand passengers a week, ahead of Greater Anglia’s growth targets. And as the station celebrates its first birthday, Greater Anglia has announced further good news for commuters – a Costa coffee shop is due to open soon. Jamie Burles, Greater Anglia’s Managing Director, said: ‘We are very pleased Cambridge North is proving popular with passengers with more than a quarter of a million passengers using it during its first year. ‘Cambridge is a growing city and a second railway station really helps. Cambridge North is perfectly situated for the science and research parks. We are looking forward to welcoming Costa Coffee to the station in a few weeks’ time.’ The station has three platforms with regular, direct services to Norwich, London Liverpool Street, London King’s Cross and is served by Greater Anglia and Great Northern, with more Great Northern services due to call there from next week, enabling direct services to Kings Lynn, too. In the 12 months that it has been open, 12 per cent of the station’s energy has been created by the solar panels on the roof of the cycle park. Built by Network Rail and designed by Cambridgeshire County Council, the design incorporates Cambridge’s hi-tech heritage, with cladding using the Game of Life pattern by Cambridge mathematician John Conway. The station gardens and tubs are tended to by one of Greater Anglia’s newest station adopter – Colin Benson, who volunteers his time to help care for the station. Trains began serving the station on 21 May 2017, followed by a formal opening ceremony with the Secretary of State for Transport Chris Grayling on August 7 2017. The station has 450 car park spaces – over 12,000 square metres – the size of two football pitches – and a thousand spaces for cycle parking.

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NEWS |

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Plans submitted for Stirling station footbridge works Network Rail has submitted a planning application for creating step-free access between platforms six and nine at Stirling station. Following a detailed review of the design, the application proposes converting the existing lattice footbridge into a fully accessible structure. This will allow Stirling to retain the heritage elements of the footbridge while making the station more accessible and creating space beneath the bridge for the electrification of the railway. The planning application requests permission for: • Refurbishing and raising the platform six / nine footbridge • Alterations to the roof canopy • Installation of a new lift on platform nine to provide step freeaccess • Demolition and reconstruction of the staircase on platform nine • Alterations to the area between the footbridge and the existing lift on platform three. Mhairi Mackenzie, Network Rail’s Senior Sponsor for the project, said: ‘These proposals will greatly improve accessibility at Stirling while also allowing us to modernise the railway in a way that is very sympathetic to the historic character of the station. ‘The electrification of our railway will allow us to run faster, longer, greener trains and cut journey times while increasing the

number of seats available for passengers. This application is a further step forward in our plan to build the best railway Scotland’s ever had.’ The planned enhancements will be delivered as part of the Stirling-Dunblane-Alloa (SDA) Electrification Project. Once planning permission has been secured, a temporary stepped footbridge will be installed and will be in use for around six months while the existing footbridge is taken away for repair and modification. Work is expected to begin in June/July 2018.

Historic milestone as first ever electric train runs into Blackpool An electric train has travelled to and from Blackpool for the first time ever as the transformation of the railway in the north continues. As part of the Great North Railway Project, the Pendolino, operated by Virgin Trains, was used to test the new infrastructure on May 14 along the 17-mile route between Blackpool North and from Preston ahead of Sunday’s timetable change. The new timetable will see train operators Northern and Virgin Trains introduce greener, quieter and more reliable trains to and from Blackpool. The train travelled from Preston to Blackpool North and back under the supervision of Network Rail’s Team Orange engineers who were on hand to check and inspect the route’s new overhead equipment. Martin Frobisher, Route Managing Director for Network Rail’s London North Western route, said: ‘The successful testing of the newly electrified railway is the latest step to provide customers with a better, more reliable railway.’ Michael Stewart, General Manager at Virgin Trains on the west coast, said: ‘We’re really excited to have reached this landmark by welcoming our Pendolino train to Blackpool North. This will allow us to test the infrastructure, as we prepare to launch our new electric services to and from the resort.’ In the last 18 months Team Orange has installed over 1,000 steel structures and

200,000 metres of electric wires, as well as replacing every moving part on the railway between Preston and Blackpool North. A new and improved track layout, modern

signalling system and electrification mean that passengers in Lancashire are set to benefit from better journeys on the Fylde Coast.

Rail Professional


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| NEWS

Work progresses on automatic braking system for London Trams Work has begun on the feasibility of introducing this system shortly after the tragic overturning of a tram at Sandilands in November 2016, as part of a wider programme that has already seen a permanent speed reduction across the tram network, more speed monitoring, enhanced signage at significant bends, and the installation of a driver protection device that alerts to any incident of fatigue, distraction or speeding. The new system will automatically bring a moving tram to a controlled stop if it were to exceed the speed limit at a designated location. The system would also automatically alert the operations control centre. The system will initially be configured to priority locations as suggested by the Rail Accident Investigations Branch (RAIB) but will have the flexibility to be introduced elsewhere on the tram network. Jonathan Fox, TfL’s Director of Rail and Sponsored Services, said: ‘Our thoughts remain with all those affected by the tragedy at Sandilands and we continue to do all we can to support them. This new braking system is just one of the additional safety measures we have been working continually on for the tram network to ensure that such a tragedy never happens again. ‘We continue to liaise with other tram operators across the country to assist them in addressing the RAIB recommendation for their networks.’ A contract notice has been issued through the Official Journal of the European Journal (OJEU), and TfL is inviting interest from companies who have innovative solutions to meet the specification. Following the qualification process an official Invitation to Tender will be issued in the summer with the contract due to be awarded by the end of the year. The ambition is that the system will be installed and in operation by the end of 2019, including a period of training and familiarisation with tram drivers ahead of it becoming fully operational. Rail Professional

RBF need prisoners for jail break! The Railway Benefit Fund has launched a brand-new event called Jail Break 160 and its open now to all rail employees. They need teams who will ‘escape prison’ and go on the run all to raise money for the industry’s charity! Now, the RBF fundraising team have some bonkers (and brilliant) ideas at times but we think you will agree this event is a perfect mix of fun and ambitious! They have included ‘160’ to reflect the charities 160th Birthday year and the aim is to get 160 railway people involved.

With Jail Break 160, teams can be made up of a mix of strategic thinkers, who plan and help the team navigate remotely and charmers who can smile their way into getting ahead. This event is all about teamwork and is open to all abilities. Whether you are cunning and clever or fast and fit there is a part you can play to be in the winning team!

They are calling out to all those who would love to take part in something a bit different. Think of it as a bit like Channel 4’s ‘Hunted’. So, what do they need you thrill seekers to do? Well, just break out of jail and go on the run! It is easy! Well…there are no trains, trams or tracks allowed! Oh, or any money! Ah yeah…and no help from friends and family! So yeah – easy peasy! The Fundraising team recently visited Rail Delivery Group HQ sporting some rather eye-catching outfits to spread word of this fantastic new event. RDG’s CEO, Paul Plummer claimed he might even take part himself – in his canoe! He said it was: ‘an interesting and different event for a worthwhile cause.’ Wanting to create something unique and a change from the more typical challenge events the charity feel Jail Break 160 offers just that! Not everyone can run a marathon or cycle hundreds of miles, and although these types of challenges are incredible achievements – it’s not everyone’s cup of tea.

With Jail Break 160, you are all on a level playing field - but who wins is up to you! The only essential kit you need is a good sense of humour! All prisoners to be set free on Friday July 6 2018. If you have a talented team to take part then get in touch: fundraising@ railwaybenefitfund.org.uk For more information please Email: ecooper@railwaybenefitfund.org.uk


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VIEWPOINT |

17

In the passenger seat David Sidebottom

Why not catch a train? David Sidebottom considers the record number of people taking the train and asks what can be done to help maintain this momentum

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ecent rapid growth in passenger numbers, which saw a record 1.7 billion rail journeys made in 2016-17, is starting to slow down. But why is this happening, and can this trend be reversed? Transport Focus’s latest report has looked into why people don’t currently use the train and if it could be made more attractive to those who use it less frequently or not at all. Recent signs suggest that growth is not just slowing but, in some instances, actually declining. That’s why we set about speaking to people who haven’t travelled by train in the last 12 months or do so more infrequently every six months or less. We wanted to understand their attitudes to travel and what might entice them to hop on a train sometime soon. As part of this we’ve previously looked at rail passengers’ priorities for improvement and we’ve now followed this up with new research ‘Tomorrow’s passengers: understanding how to make rail travel more attractive to infrequent and non-users.’

People with disabilities, younger passengers, frequent car users, older and retired people were the least likely to be rail passengers and could be specifically targeted by train companies to grow the number of potential passengers in future

What did they tell us? People with disabilities, younger passengers, frequent car users, older and retired people were the least likely to be rail passengers and could be specifically targeted by train companies to grow the number of potential passengers in future. Infrequent and nonrail users say they have concerns about value, reliability and cancellations and disruption, just like regular rail passengers.

In some instances, rail travel was cheaper than people’s regular form of transport, but they weren’t aware – this can’t be right! We have long said that industry needs to do more to tackle complex and confusing fares and this proves our point. We are now sharing this research with governments and industry so that rail travel can become an option for even more people. What this work suggests is that train Rail Professional


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| VIEWPOINT

Passengers want to see a simpler, more understandable and trustworthy system. While much progress was made under the banner of the recent Fares and Ticketing Action Plan, it did not ultimately address fundamental reform companies can broaden the appeal for those currently not using their services by focusing on the improvements identified by their current passengers. It will be critical for train companies to communicate these improvements clearly, as without the benefit of experiencing any changes, non-users are unlikely to know that any concerns have been addressed. End of the line for baffling rail fares? What is also clear is that existing rail passengers need a fares system they can trust and that suits the way they travel now. That’s why Transport Focus is making sure passengers’ views are heard as the industry works to reform its complicated fares system. Opening the debate on reform options

is long overdue. The ability to buy cheaper tickets for legs of a journey, so called split ticketing, is fast eroding trust in advertised fares. Passengers want to see a simpler, more understandable and trustworthy system. While much progress was made under the banner of the recent Fares and Ticketing Action Plan, it did not ultimately address fundamental reform. There is also strong pent-up demand for smarter ticketing. We believe that the benefits of this would be magnified if the fares structure was addressed at the same time. We need a fares and ticketing system that supports the way we now travel and want to pay for that travel. The current system of fares and ticketing and the regulation that underpins it has grown

up for understandable and often laudable reasons. However, the resulting fares jungle has become increasingly difficult for passengers to navigate and understand. The growth of split ticketing is also fast eroding trust in advertised fares. Reform does not, in our view, mean doing away with fares regulation. It means trying to find sensible, proportionate proposals that can underpin passengerfriendly change while preserving essential consumer protection. That’s why we are now working in partnership with the Rail Delivery Group on its planned consultation on reform. In addition, we will continue to seek passenger views. We are conscious that any reform and its implementation might well affect some passengers more than others. We are keen to ensure the overall passenger voice is heard in these debates and that any proposed options for change clearly identify the ‘winners and losers’. Transport Focus, building on our unique insight and advocacy in this area, will ensure the passenger voice is heard. Any future regulation must support sensible, proportionate reform which can underpin change while preserving essential consumer protection. David Sidebottom is Passenger Director at Transport Focus

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Delivering the goods

Chris MacRae

Digital railway and freight With the high-profile launch of the ‘Digital Railway’ plan on May 10, the needs of freight and the potential benefits to freight customers must not be overlooked

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n May 10 TransportSecretary Chris Grayling and Network Rail boss Mark Carne convened in York to launch the much-anticipated Digital Railway Strategy, which confirmed that the industry would benefit from ‘a plan, impetus and the funding’ to introduce the technology across ‘large swathes’ of the rail network over the coming years. Everything is now in place to launch the scheme. This has represented a huge learning curve for Network Rail about the amount of planning which needs to be in place to get to a launch. Network Rail acknowledges problems in past with this scheme and the need to learn from them. Mark Carne gave the main presentation which included the main points that:

A do nothing/do the same option with existing signalling is more expensive. Overall, more than half of the country’s currently analogue signalling systems, some of which still rely on ‘Victorian’ technology, will need to be replaced in the next fifteen years

• Commitments from DfT have enabled the vision to be taken forward • There is a fifteen-year road map to delivery of the Digital Railway • CP6 is about line of route • CP7 is about the regions • CP8 about joining the regions to cover circa seventy per cent of trips. Network Rail states that they have looked at all the major problems and have found solutions. This includes asking the following questions: • Is the technology ready? • Is it affordable? • Does Network Rail have the capability to deliver it? • Is Network Rail confident it can deliver this scale of transformation?

A do nothing/do the same option with existing signalling is more expensive. Overall, more than half of the country’s currently analogue signalling systems, some of which still rely on ‘Victorian’ technology, will need to be replaced in the next fifteen years. While a like-for-like replacement would reportedly cost around £20 billion and deliver ‘very little’ digital signalling offers a ‘cost-effective alternative’. This was all presented as a Network Rail scheme, with them owning the plan. With regards to freight, Network Rail’s Freight and National Passenger Operators’ Route and DfT Freight Enhancements Team are working on the rollout plan for freight locomotive retrofit of Digital Railway. Of course, we all know that what is branded ‘Digital Railway’ is largely about the implementation of the European Train


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Control System (ETCS) and associated European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) in Britain, albeit with extra elements such as passenger and customer information. ETCS level one replaces conventional lineside signalling and a trial already exists on the Cambrian lines. Level two moves signalling in-cab as per the TVM 430 signalling on Channel Tunnel Rail Link and HS1. Both levels one and two bring maintenance and safety benefits from not having to put staff on the ground and also bring greater in-cab Driver Advisory Systems. But it is level three that brings capacity benefits by being able to squeeze more capacity out of existing infrastructure via ‘moving block’ technology. This is very ambitious for the UK to aim to have this as while such technology does exist (for example on Docklands Light Railway) it has not been used on mixed traffic railways yet.

About FTA Freight Transport Association represents the transport interests of companies moving goods by rail, road, sea and air. Its members consign over ninety per cent of the freight moved by rail and over seventy per cent of sea and air freight. They also operate over 220,000 goods vehicles on road – almost half the UK fleet. The main UK rail freight operating companies belong to FTA as do the major global logistics service providers operating in the European and UK markets. Because freight has to be a ‘go-anywhere’ activity freight locos will have to be fitted ETCS – compatible from the start and there has been funding available for this. It is good to look forward to increased freight capacity on Britain’s railways. Just as important though are the potential benefits from this that can flow for customers of freight in terms of real-time train running and arrivals information.

For more information about FTA membership and FTA’s rail freight policy work and membership of FTA Rail Freight Council contact Chris MacRae as shown below. Chris MacRae, Head of Policy - Rail Freight Tel: 01892 552355 Mobile: 07818 450353 Email: cmacrae@fta.co.uk

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FEATURE | VIEWPOINT

Laying down the law

25

Martin Fleetwood

Gender pay gap – providing the right information Martin Fleetwood, Corporate Partner at Shoosmiths LLP, pores over the data companies have released detailing their gender pay gap

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n the weeks before April 4 2018, those organisations in the rail sector with more than 250 employees were busy collecting and publishing their gender pay gap figures. While most organisations in all industries did meet the April 4 deadline, some questions have since been raised as to how accurate some of the information is. A few organisations may have missed the deadline and not yet published their figures. The Equality and Human Rights Commission (the ‘Commission’) is the

If information has not been calculated in accordance with the regulations, then the Commission will treat the information as not having been published. This means that organisations with incorrect or statistically improbable data will be subject to the Commission’s rights to enforce compliance and potentially levy unlimited fines

equality regulator with responsibility for enforcing the Equality Act 2010 and the regulations relating to gender pay gap information. The Commission’s role is not only to enforce the publication of figures relating to the gender pay gap, but also to check the accuracy of those figures. Although the regulations requiring publication of the figures do not set out penalties for non-compliance, the Commission has emphasised that its own enforcement powers contain the right to impose unlimited fines on organisations that fail to meet their obligations. Issues with your data? The Commission has stated that it will be working though industry sectors, checking for non-compliance with the regulations. Non-compliance doesn’t just mean failing to publish information but includes publishing incorrect information. If information has not been calculated in accordance with the regulations, then the Commission will treat the information as not having been published. This means that organisations with incorrect or statistically improbable data will be subject to the Commission’s rights to enforce compliance and potentially levy unlimited fines. Some examples where information may be inaccurate are: • Casual workers or contractors paid on the

production of an invoice, if data relating to the actual dates worked and when the contractor was paid is not properly recorded • Lack of information on whether workers are UK workers or overseas workers • Complex company structures, particularly where workers are working for another company in the group and it is not clear that the correct employer has been used for calculating employee numbers. If an organisation discovers that there are any inaccuracies in its published information, it is very important not to just ignore the issue and hope to correct it in the next year’s statement. Once the error has been identified, the corrected information should be published in place of the old, inaccurate information. As this is the first year for reporting there is likely to be some sympathy on the part of the Commission, particularly with some of the more complicated areas. A letter from the Commission? If an organisation receives a letter from the Commission alleging non-compliance, it is particularly important not to ignore it. In its publication ‘Closing the gap: Enforcing the gender pay gap regulations’, the Commission specifically states that the more serious enforcement powers will only be used where Rail Professional


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If the organisation ignores or does not comply with the request, the Commission is able to launch an investigation into that organisation. The Commission has wide powers which can include imposing an obligation on the organisation to deliver up relevant documents to the Commission. This is all at the cost of the organisation under investigation employers fail to engage with it. In the first instance the Commission is looking to resolve the issue in a relatively amicable manner.

The Commission will: • Draw the organisation’s attention to its obligations under the regulations • Identify the non-compliance • Require the organisation to comply with its obligations within 28 days. This will require publishing new or corrected information • Require the organisation to comply fully with its gender pay gap obligations at the next reporting date • Monitor compliance to ensure that both the current year reporting and the next year’s reporting obligations are met in full. Where the organisation complies with all these requirements, no further enforcement action will be taken in respect of those reporting years. If the organisation ignores or does not comply with the request, the Commission is able to launch an investigation into that organisation. The Commission has wide powers which can include imposing an obligation on the organisation to deliver up relevant documents to the Commission. This is all at the cost of the organisation under investigation. Ultimately, if the organisation does not cooperate, the Commission can apply

to the courts to obtain an order forcing the organisation to publish the relevant information. In addition to the cost of complying with the court order there will also be the adverse publicity generated for that organisation. Doing the right thing As this is the first year of the requirements, the Commission will allow a level of leniency if information is not one hundred per cent correct, provided organisations show that inaccuracies are due to genuine error and not an intention to hide uncomfortable data. Every effort should be made to show compliance, particularly where data errors have been discovered. Correcting an error will generate significantly less adverse publicity than being called out for inaccurate figures, particularly for an industry which is still male-dominated. Martin Fleetwood is a Corporate Partner at Shoosmiths LLP Email: martin.fleetwood@shoosmiths.co.uk

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. It is recommended that specific professional advice is sought before acting on any of the information given.

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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

29

Ticket to the future Rebecca Owen-Howes, Counsel at Dentons, gives her take on the ORR’s market study into ticket vending machines and automatic ticket gates

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rain operating companies (TOCs) and suppliers will be interested in the outcome of the study into ticket vending machines (TVMs) and automatic ticket gates (ATGs) initiated by the Office of Rail and Road (ORR) in March this year. TVMs and ATGs are an important part of the retailing process. They comprise the physical equipment, as well as the operating software/systems and ancillary services, such as installation, maintenance and upgrades. What is a market study? Essentially, the ORR will want to identify whether a matter in relation to railways services may adversely affect consumers and, if so, what should be done to remedy

Essentially, the ORR will want to identify whether a matter in relation to railways services may adversely affect consumers and, if so, what should be done to remedy such adverse effects. The ORR will take into account regulatory and other economic drivers in a market, as well as patterns of consumer and business behaviour

such adverse effects. The ORR will take into account regulatory and other economic drivers in a market, as well as patterns of consumer and business behaviour. These are resource-intensive exercises for both the ORR and the parties concerned and can create significant burdens on industry. The ORR would expect to use its formal information gathering powers to require parties to produce specified documents and information and even witness evidence. The study must be completed within twelve months, when the ORR must publish its report. However, long before that, the ORR must give notice whether or not it proposes to make a much more in-depth Market Investigation Reference. Competition concerns According to the ORR’s statement, the market study focuses on three key themes, as follows: 1. Concentration and market shares: Do suppliers of rail TVMs and ATGs have market power by reference to the number and size of the businesses in the particular market(s) and their market shares? 2. Outcomes for customers (i.e. TOCs, TfL and Network Rail), passengers and the wider railway sector: Are suppliers giving customers value for money in terms of price and service quality? In regard to passengers, the question is whether they are benefiting from innovation 3. The reasons why the market works the way it does: This is always a good question and in this context the ORR will analyse in particular: • Issues in relation to purchasers (namely the TOCs and metro-transport operators such as TfL) awarding longterm contracts with highly aggregated service packages (i.e. where different requirements are bundled into fewer larger contracts). If only large suppliers

are capable of bidding for this type of contract, their market power may increase as a result. This in turn has an impact on the wider GB market for supply (and subsequent tenders) • The complexity of the accreditation process for bringing new retailing products/services to market inherent in the Rail Settlement Plan (RSP). In fact, the ORR conducted a review of the wider market for ticketing equipment and systems in October 2017. It considers that the supply of TVMs and ATGs currently may be causing an adverse effect on the competition for supply of such equipment. The information that the ORR obtained informally as part of the market review highlighted that: • There are few suppliers of TVMs and ATGs and limited new entry • There are barriers to new entry into the market(s) for the supply of TVMs and ATGs (including accreditation) • There may be harm to consumers in the form of higher prices, lower quality and reduced innovation. The ORR found that these competition concerns may be caused by the way in which purchasers award contracts and the accreditation process mentioned above. There is no specific focus on smart ticketing (which includes mobile tickets, e-tickets, barcodes and smart card tickets). However, smart ticketing may also be affected by competition for the supply of TVMs and ATGs and therefore impacted by the market study. For example, web and mobile (app) retail are also subject to RSP accreditation. Possible outcomes Market studies can lead to a range of


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outcomes, including the market being given a clean bill of health. Where the market is not working well, options include: • Enforcement action under competition or consumer law • Enforcement under sector-specific legislation, for example licence enforcement • Recommendation to government to change regulation or public policy • Self-regulation by the industry, for example a code of conduct • Market Investigation Reference • Accepting formal undertakings in lieu of a Market Investigation Reference. Conclusion It is difficult to predict the outcome of the market study at such an early stage. It is unlikely that the TVMs and ATGs market(s) will be given a clean bill of health, given the concerns that were raised by the 2017 market review, and the ORR is unlikely to have committed itself and its resources if it did not already believe there were problems. Other earlier studies into TVMs and ATGs have also raised concerns about the equipment. For example, the 2016 Retail Market Review led the ORR to recommend that TOCs have stronger incentives to

law. The ORR may make a Market Investigation Reference if it has reasonable grounds to suspect that any feature(s) of the market(s) prevent, restrict or distort competition and a market investigation is appropriate and proportionate, having regard to its statutory duties. A market investigation would be appropriate where the market failure is due to the structure of the market, or the conduct of the suppliers or purchasers operating on the market, or their customers, rather than the behaviour of individual firms. Limited evidence of consumer detriment may mean an investigation would not be suitable. There is a history of self-regulation by the industry in relation to TVMs. In 2015, for example, the industry developed TVM design guidelines for the graphical user interface of TVMs to reduce the risk of passengers purchasing the wrong ticket. An industry-led solution may therefore be the most likely outcome, although it is noteworthy that implementation of the 2015 guidelines is still ongoing, some three years later.

introduce new products and that TOCs do not suppress the potential for innovation from technology providers of TVMs. Arguably, the 2016 recommendations have not been successful, as the market study refers to stifled innovation and passengers benefiting from improved market outcomes through access to more innovative equipment (and through improved value and efficiency in the rail industry). More stringent measures may be required. Competition law enforcement will be an option only if the ORR finds evidence of anti-competitive agreements between the market players, or abuse of dominance by one or more players. Long-term agreements that cover a large proportion of a purchaser’s requirements can be problematic under competition law, particularly if the supplier has market power, as they can exclude other suppliers from the market. The restrictive effect is greater if there is a network of similar agreements across the industry. There is no suggestion in the market study of breach of competition law by individual firms operating on the market. The ORR has explicitly stated that it is not reviewing any purchaser’s tendering procedure or compliance with procurement

Rebecca Owen-Howes is Counsel at Dentons

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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

Women in rail

33

Adeline Ginn

Women in Rail hosts inaugural awards ceremony Adeline Ginn, General Counsel at Angel Trains and Founder of Women in Rail brings us the highlights from the organisation’s awards ceremony

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n Thursday, April 19 Women in Rail hosted its first ever awards ceremony. The event was opened by Jo Johnson, Minister of State for the Department for Transport, and hosted by Rachel Riley. The celebrations took place

Throughout proceedings, we were able to look at some amazing role models – inspirational men, women, teams and organisations – that truly understand that the best way to progress the industry is to have a workforce that is reflective of the population

underneath one of the world’s most famous theatres, The Globe and was widely attended by men and women of all grades and roles in the UK rail industry. The evening celebrated Women in Rail’s core values, showcasing the inspirational colleagues, peers, managers, teams and organisations that have been working hard to improve gender balance, diversity and inclusion in the industry. Throughout proceedings, we were able to look at some amazing role models – inspirational men, women, teams and

organisations – that truly understand that the best way to progress the industry is to have a workforce that is reflective of the population. It’s clear that the future of the rail industry looks bright and there is a real sense of recognition at all levels across rail that increasing diversity in the workforce is how our sector will grow and prosper. At the Women in Rail awards, we were proud to stand as one united team, with the same goal and passion, to drive the industry forward by fostering the most diverse talent Rail Professional


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pool possible. The nominations list covered a spectrum of truly inspirational stories, from rising stars and young female apprentices becoming passionate ambassadors for rail, to the teams working tirelessly to develop and promote female talent within their organisations. The companies finding innovative ways to ensure returners feel welcome and supported when getting back to a work routine. Those men and women who, in their job, had to deal with human tragedy and demonstrated tremendous courage in the most challenging situations. It was inspiring reading about the wide range of innovative, and embedded, initiatives devised by teams to make a real difference within the workplace, as well as learning about those who are established within the industry such as as Bernadette Kelly, Permanent Secretary at the DfT, and Mark Carne, CEO of Network Rail, using their position to drive forward change and diversity within rail. In the five years since Women in Rail was established, the charity has grown tremendously. The organisation now has around a hundred volunteers across the country that work tirelessly – alongside their day job – to push forward the Women in Rail

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agenda, over four thousand members and a combined social media following of well over five thousand. We hold regular networking events and empowering workshops all over the country, carry out surveys to evidence the business case for gender balance, issue reports showcasing role models, highlight the wide range of roles undertaken by inspirational men and women in the industry, comment in the rail and national press on how exciting the railway industry is and partner with like minded organisations and the government on joint initiatives.

The inaugural Women in Rail Awards allowed us to celebrate the charity’s achievements over the last five years and, more importantly, it allowed us to showcase and thank all the inspirational and hardworking men and women from our sector we have come across in the last few years and who work passionately alongside us and support us in driving an inclusive agenda for UK rail. A very big thank you to you all! To find out more about the awards and see a full list of the winners please visit: http:// womeninrail.org/awards/


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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

37

The Cheek of it... Chris Cheek

Rail demand continues downward trend The demand for passenger rail services in the UK continued to fall throughout Autumn last year as eight TOCs suffered declines in demand, but twelve kept on growing

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s the continued impact of terrorism, industrial relations problems and deteriorating punctuality drove passengers away on eight of the UK’s train

operators. Overall, demand fell by one per cent during the final quarter of 2017, according to National Rail Trends statistics, published by the Office of Rail and Road (ORR). The reversal is primarily due to a 1.5 per cent fall in demand in London and the South East. The provisional figures were published

It was not all bad news, though: long distance InterCity services saw a 1.4 per cent rise in passenger journeys. The Cross Country TOC led the growth with 4.2 per cent, whilst Virgin West Coast patronage was 2.1 per cent up

last month, and cover the third quarter of fiscal year 2017/18, finishing at the end of December: across the network, 437.3 million passenger journeys were made during the twelve-week period, down from 441.8 million in 2016. Between them, they covered 16.7 billion passenger kilometres, one per cent ahead, and paid a total of ÂŁ2.5 billion in fares, 3.1 per cent more than in 2016. It was not all bad news, though: long distance InterCity services saw a 1.4 per cent rise in passenger journeys. The Cross Country TOC led the growth with 4.2 per cent, whilst Virgin West Coast patronage was 2.1 per cent up. On the East Coast, growth was slightly lower at 1.4 per cent. Other long-distance routes are operated by East Midlands Trains, who saw overall growth on all their routes of three per cent. Great Western, also very much a mixed franchise, saw a small 0.9 per cent fall. In the regional sector, demand fell

compared with the previous year by 0.5 per cent. The decline was primarily driven by the two franchises suffering from industrial action, with Merseyrail seeing a 10.1 per cent drop and Northern a 5.8 per cent drop. These hefty falls were offset by growth elsewhere, headed by TransPennine on 5.9 per cent, Arriva Trains Wales on 3.6 per cent and ScotRail on 2.4 per cent. In London and the South East, though, patronage was 1.5 per cent down. The biggest quarterly falls came at South Western, down by 6.9 per cent (4.2 million journeys) as industrial action by RMT members got under way. Other falls occurred at Liverpool Street suburban operator TfL Rail (4 per cent), Southeastern (3.4 per cent) and London Overground (1.3 per cent). Other operators saw growth, though, once more led by Chiltern (7.9 per cent), c2c (5.2 per cent), West Midlands Trains (2.3 per cent), Govia Thameslink (1.5 per cent) and Rail Professional


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| VIEWPOINT

Anglia (0.5 per cent). In terms of passenger kilometres, the biggest rise was InterCity routes, 2.6 per cent ahead. The increase in London and the South East was 1.5 per cent and on the regional routes just 0.5 per cent. Revenue rose this quarter, though, reversing the shrinkage seen in the last couple of quarters. Overall, revenue was up by 3.1 per cent, driven by growth of more than four per cent on the InterCity and Regional routes. In London and the South East, revenue growth was limited to 2.1 per cent. Rolling year figures As we have noted before, short term effects can affect a single quarter’s figures, so it is often better to look at the figures over a rolling year. Here, there was still a fall in passenger numbers, but kilometres travelled and revenue both maintained their upward trajectory – until, that is, revenue is adjusted for inflation. The national totals for the twelve months ended December 31 2017 show the number of passenger journeys falling by one per cent to 1.7 billion. Passenger kilometres travelled rose by 1.2 per cent to 65.8 billion, whilst passenger revenue was 2.6 per cent higher at £9.6 billion. The latter was not sufficient to deliver real-term growth: after allowing for

Rail Professional

inflation, revenue was 0.3 per cent lower in real terms. Looking at the individual sectors, passenger journeys on the London and South East routes fell by 2.2 per cent, with passenger kilometres down by 1.1 per cent. On the InterCity routes, annual growth was 2.2 per cent in terms of passenger journeys, whilst the growth in passenger kilometres was 3.5 per cent. On the regional routes, there was a 1.5 per cent increase in the number of journeys, whilst the number of passenger kilometres was 3.1 per cent ahead. Revenue yields were up by 2.2 per cent in cash terms. There were increases in all three markets, with regional services leading the way on 1.5 per cent, followed by InterCity (1.2 per cent) and London and the South East (1.1 per cent). After allowing for inflation, yields fell in real terms in all sectors and the overall reduction was 1.6 per cent. Comment These figures confirm the trends of recent months, namely that the railway is divided into those franchises which are suffering industrial action and/or major engineering works and those which are not. In London and the South East, the four operators showing reductions were all affected to some extent by ongoing

engineering works or industrial relations problems or both. The return of growth at Govia Thameslink will be welcome news for Government and Go-Ahead Group, whilst the fact that Greater Anglia achieved growth despite some strikes is perhaps a tribute to their robust contingency planning. The same is true in the regions – strikes at Merseyrail and Northern (the latter also hit by the closure of the Blackpool routes) cost them two million passenger journeys combined, whilst the Scottish, Welsh and TransPennine TOCs won just over a million extra journeys. With the London Bridge project completed last December and Thameslink almost there, the long saga of disruption from these works should be coming to an end. The $64,000 question is what happens to these markets then. Will growth return or has the disruption that everybody has suffered over the last few years done permanent damage to public perceptions of railways? The generalised cost modeller would say that, provided the base demand for travel is there, customers will in the end choose the fastest and cheapest mode – regardless of sentiment. For the sake of all those franchisee financial models, everybody will have to hope that they’re right.


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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

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Private capital into Network Rail? Andy Meaney looks at the reforms underway at Network Rail and asks some vital questions about what the future holds

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he Government is seeking to reform Network Rail by providing alternative delivery mechanisms for its activities. What is the Government trying to achieve, and what are the chances of success? Two significant reforms to the activities of Network Rail are underway. Franchise competitions are requiring the successful

If these proposals were in the health sector, they might be criticised as ‘privatisation by the back door’. Instead, in rail, where there is an expectation by many people of private-sector participation, these reforms could be viewed as giving the potential for innovative solutions to operational or capital requirements

operator to take responsibility for delivery of infrastructure developments – most notably digital rail systems in the recent Southeastern competition – and to develop new governance approaches in conjunction

with the local Network Rail Route. Meanwhile, the Department for Transport is encouraging ‘Market-Led Proposals’ from industry participants and third parties who want to bring forward


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enhancements to the rail infrastructure. These would either be wholly privatesector schemes, with the Government playing an enabling role, or else use a mixture of Government and private-sector financing and/or funding. If these proposals were in the health sector, they might be criticised as ‘privatisation by the back door’. Instead, in rail, where there is an expectation by many people of private-sector participation, these reforms could be viewed as giving the potential for innovative solutions to operational or capital requirements. There will be a number of challenges arising from these proposals, though. First, the search for a sustainable passenger rail franchising model goes on – not least with recent news about East Coast being taken over by the operator of last resort – and adding infrastructure delivery into the risks that TOCs are facing seems unlikely to make the private sector any more interested in bidding (some readers may recall that on occasion recent franchise competitions have ended up with only two bidders). In my mind, there are two potential solutions to this: • Being open to bids coming in for the new franchises that require higher profit

margins than the industry is used to – more risk requires more of a cash buffer, and higher reward for investors • Lessening risks elsewhere in the franchise, such that the package becomes more balanced – extensive exposure to uncontrollable demand risk (especially when volumes are growing much less than expected) is not an enduring contracting model and reducing TOC exposure (and being honest that this means less certainty for the client body during the franchise) might tempt them to take on infrastructure risk. Second, if market-led proposals are to be really successful, Government will need to be as open to spending its resource (operating subsidy) budget as much as it will be keen to find money for capital spend (in situations where a proposal requires Government support). Government spending is pervaded by a bias in favour of capital over operating solutions, but it may be the case that market-led proposals find the cheapest solution is an operating one. Defining success from a market-led proposal should include spending the least amount to deliver the greatest effect,

regardless of which budget the spending comes from. This is the approach now being taken in the water and energy sectors, with infrastructure firms being allocated a total expenditure amount, intended to alleviate previous biases towards capital, as opposed to resource expenditure. Finally, market-led proposals will have to face up to the elephant in the room of a possible change in Government at the next general election, which may well seek to end private-sector participation in the sector. Deals that are complete, with high exit costs and concrete being poured are most likely to be seen as achievable by both Government and the private-sector investors. However, those that need extensive lead times for design and planning permission may need to rely on political commitment to make significant progress in the near future and take their chances in the aftermath of the next time the nation goes to the polls. Given the current political uncertainty, the date of the next election is hard to call. I hope the new reforms are successful, finding new ways to deliver rail services, and I’m looking forward to them being designed carefully to ensure users benefit from them.

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EMPLOYEE HEALTH |

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A proactive approach to improving employee health Dr. Steve Boorman, Director of Employee Health at Empactis, believes the rail sector must engage with employees to look after and improve their health

W

hen thinking about employee health in the rail sector, it’s natural to think that health surveillance and working in high risk environments comes to the fore. However, whilst the demands of health screening for some occupations would tend to select towards healthier individuals, the reality is that train operators face the same health challenges as most other large organisations. Safety performance has steadily improved across industry sectors. Unfortunately, the same trend has not been seen in employee health. Poor health behaviours have increased risk factors for chronic conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and others. Add in a demographic shift towards older workers and the truth is that there is a rise in the number of people working with at least one long term chronic health condition. Poor employee health presents employers with significant challenges, particularly in the rail industry, where there are safety critical tasks and where continuity of service relies on good levels of attendance and reliable performance. Sickness absence, in particular short-term absence, may be unpredictable and hard to cover. Sick presence (being at work coping with either symptoms of a medical condition or the effects of its treatment) may be just as difficult and damaging for an employer. Researchers estimate that sick presence costs two-and-a-half to five times the cost of sickness absence. Prevention beats cure So, while health surveillance may be needed for statutory compliance and to screen for conditions, there is a need to think more proactively about employee health. A 2011 review published by the Office of the Rail Regulator, highlighted how little was known about the overall health of rail workers. Statutory reporting captures some health conditions and health surveillance can monitor some non-reportable medical problems. But worryingly, the underlying health status of the workforce is often unknown.

Data from many sickness absence monitoring systems can give an inaccurate picture (both in terms of numbers and in terms of conditions). The 2011 report also noted that many operators approached health issues ‘reactively’, dealing with health issues once an individual became ill or needed time off. This is interesting, because when it comes to the infrastructure of running a railway, the premises, the tracks, rolling stock and computer systems, it would be regarded as negligent to fail to maintain and invest in measures to prevent failure. Yet we seem to think of employee health differently. We expect NHS care to fix their problems and so we leave it to individuals to manage their own health (and even worry that it may be an invasion of privacy to want to ask about a health issue).

We know that poor diet and sedentary work (which can include driving and other rail operations), will also increase the risk.

The recent Stevenson & Farmer review presented to the Government, highlighted the major impacts of mental ill health on individuals, the economy and employers. It challenged employers to put in place simple measures to support employees, raising awareness of mental health issues, avoiding stigmatisation and supporting employees by signposting sources of support and reducing risks to health. Previous reports have similarly highlighted the ill health burden created by poor physical exercise and rising obesity.

Raising awareness Health promotion and health improvement is about raising awareness and giving individuals the opportunity to make informed choices that influence their own health. There is compelling evidence that in general terms men are less likely to have this information and more likely to take risks with their health. For example, certain types of skin cancer are more common in women (due to the fashion to have a strong tan, encouraging exposure to sun or artificial UV), yet more men die from it. Men tend to ignore for longer and present later in the disease when treatment becomes less successful. Understanding facts like this is helpful. It gives us knowledge of the needs of a workforce. In the example quoted, ensuring men know the consequences of not getting a skin lesion checked, can help encourage early Rail Professional


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| EMPLOYEE HEALTH

advice from a doctor or pharmacist. As employers, rail operators do not have accurate or up to date information on what causes their employees to be ill or need to stop working. The extent to which this information is analysed and used to identify avoidable causes of ill health is variable, and many do as yet not recognise the benefits of this approach. It is a simple fact that happy, healthy people work better and more reliably. Productivity, efficiency, quality and costs are all areas that good quality reviews and research have shown are improved in healthier staff. Recognising the problem Nationally and across all industries, 300,000 employees become too ill to continue at work and many will not work again. Early recognition and intervention can prevent this. Helping staff understand where and when to get help, helping managers recognise when a team member is having problems and encouraging the very simple question ‘are you OK?’ is often not seen as important but will make the difference. Many safety conscious industries have clear and well publicised approaches, encouraging all their workers to recognise and not ignore safety risks, and very clear ways of dealing with them if found. But

given all the sources of help, when it comes to health, which more commonly results in harm or disability, many businesses prefer to ‘bury their heads’ and leave it to chance. It may surprise you that in 2018, life expectancy in the UK can vary by as much as tens of years. For each stop on the Argyle line travelling East across Glasgow, male life expectancy drops by 1.7 years and female by 1.2 years (for the residents not the passengers!). What many also don’t know is that work can make a real difference to this and particularly good work. Organisations can create health promoting workplaces and work that both maintains and improves health. There is increasing awareness that this is beneficial to all, a genuine win / win / win for the employer, the employee and for the economy. My simple message is don’t wait for something to happen! Raise awareness about the actions that prevent poor health and implement tools that allow you to be proactive. Act quickly on the early signs and put in place measures to improve recovery. These will lead to improvement for all concerned and a healthy high performing workforce.

My simple message is don’t wait for something to happen! Raise awareness about the actions that prevent poor health and implement tools that allow you to be proactive

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employee health at the heart of the workforce strategy. Empactis integrates all aspects of employee health into the fabric of a business, giving business leaders and managers the insight and capability they need to apply common sense consistently, apply policy and engage and support employees. Dr. Steve Boorman is Director of Employee Health at Empactis

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INTERVIEW |

49

Mike Lambrou

Sam Sherwood-Hale, Editor of Rail Professional magazine, spoke to Mike Lambrou who heads the UK rail sector team at CellPoint Mobile

What does the mobile-first approach to booking, ticketing, and payment entail and what impact do you expect it to have on rail? First, I would emphasize that for rail stakeholders, taking a ‘mobilefirst’ approach to booking, ticketing and payment is not about finding a ‘magical’ technology solution. Rather, it’s about thinking strategically about mobility and passenger service in a mobile environment, including possibilities for ‘mobility as a service’ (MaaS) and a more seamless intermodal travel experience. What rail passengers want more than anything is to have a good overall travel experience – getting to the station and arriving at the destination on time. Nevertheless, operators must go beyond on-time service and proactively make the journey a more convenient and less stressful experience. From their mobile devices, passengers should have the convenience of doing whatever they need to do, whether booking a ticket, purchasing a newspaper, getting delay alerts, receiving automated compensation for delayed journeys or skyping in (late) to the office. With the right mix of mobile solutions, UK rail operators can keep passengers more comfortable, better informed and actively spending.  Ultimately, the mobile-first approach requires less of a ‘solution’ and more of a vision – for a truly digital and mobile railway across all business areas. Citizens and passengers have as much of an economic stake in rail as owning groups and operators. The shift to mobile-friendly business models is partly about empowering passengers to contribute to rail’s innovation, revenue generation and problem-solving. There is virtually nothing that passengers cannot do from the convenience of their smartphones. To be more profitable, rail owning groups and operators must invest in their most important asset: the mobile passenger.    How have attitudes towards legacy payment systems changed in recent years?  There seem to be two ‘camps’ in the rail sector around whether evolution or revolution is required to build a railway

for the future. Unsurprisingly, those from ‘outside’ the industry are far more ambitious in their vision for what is required in the sector. One necessary attitude shift will be seen around the idea of collaboration: how can we improve services by working together more efficiently? This is a real challenge for what has become a very fragmented rail sector.  CellPoint Mobile can help operators address some of these challenges. We can bring in best practices from other travel sectors, helping facilitate genuine innovation in booking, payment and related services. Our platform’s flexible solutions enable a stepped, modular approach to delivering enhanced passenger services, and our platform can interface with existing suppliers and legacy booking and payment systems in the sector. The problem is not only legacy payment systems but a legacy mentality that keeps out new ideas and solutions. New payment systems are a great start, but payments also need to be integrated into a more holistic approach that provides an innovative service on the passenger side, making service more convenient and efficient. This will ensure that the large-scale investments (e.g., HS2 in the UK) currently being implemented will maximize the return on investment (ROI).    In our Asia Pacific magazine earlier in the year, we covered MTR’s introduction of QR code tickets in Hong Kong – which companies in the UK should the industry look to as an example? 

QR tickets are already widely available in the UK. Operators like Virgin Trains, Virgin Trains East Coast, Cross Country, Abellio Greater Anglia and others have been working with technology companies and Ticketing Issuing Systems to make more journeys mobile ticket enabled. This now includes some flexible ticket types and interoperable journeys and isn’t just limited to point to point Advance Purchase fares. Operators like Virgin Trains now make it possible to load a QR code ticket into Apple Wallet. So, whilst the technology is available, and adoption is growing fast, it’s inhibited by slow rollout of gate line QR code readers, and operators not updating their mobile applications to facilitate QR tickets. What needs to be done to bring stations up to speed? Mobile solutions can be an effective way to cut down on customer service costs at the station, as passenger self-service through mobile apps improves convenience and efficiency throughout the journey.  As the rail sector invests in digital signaling and other intelligent mobility solutions, owning groups and operators

What rail passengers want more than anything is to have a good overall travel experience – getting to the station and arriving at the destination on time. Nevertheless, operators must go beyond on-time service and proactively make the journey a more convenient and less stressful experience Rail Professional


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INTERVIEW |

should not overlook the critical importance of passenger mobile devices for solving pre, during and post journey challenges – such as reducing the time it takes for passengers to get through a station – while also generating ancillary revenue through the mobile channel. Many of the UK’s busiest rail stations are dominated by large metal boxes, i.e., barriers, gates, ticket vending machines, signage and ticket desks. All expensive to buy, operate, maintain and update! If we were building a modern railway from scratch many of these boxes would be redundant. Today, journey planning, shopping, ticketing, service updates and even signage can be migrated to the customer’s mobile device. This would enable better passenger flow and allow more space for retail and other services to make the passenger experience more pleasant. The adoption of mobile ticketing in the UK has been slow in part because of the cost of enabling gate lines to read barcodes. Geolocation, Bluetooth and other emerging mobile technologies can significantly reduce the cost of deploying truly modern ‘ticketing’ solutions.  Digitising the railway infrastructure and digitising the customer experience (CX) are often treated separately. But by planning both in tandem, rail operators could alleviate some common issues around capacity and customer experience. UK railways are datarich in some areas but less so in others, particularly when it comes to drawing deep meaningful insights into their customers. If rail operators do not fully understand their existing and future customers and what they want/expect from a modern railway, that could drive poor investment decisions now and in the future, whether for ticket issuing machines or other systems meant to bring stations up to speed.  Many TOCs have historically outsourced their customers’ digital experience, and as a consequence haven’t really harvested the data and insight needed to make

fully informed decisions on what their customers want in a modernized station. It’s unfortunate, but in the 21st Century, many travelers simply don’t trust rail operators to make travel easy for them: to make ticket purchasing accurate and convenient, to keep them updated about their journey, to compensate them quickly and efficiently when things go wrong.  I would like to see deeper discussions on how the rail sector can make it easier for SME technology partners to work with different industry stakeholders to drive innovation. And I would include smaller companies in the discussion. Innovation is not about company size, but about knowing the rail sector’s pinch points and helping solve them efficiently and cost-effectively.    How can new technology on the passenger side help operators incentivize off-peak travel?  The public perception of rail has turned

51

negative due to increasing fares, peak time overcrowding, constant delays and breakdowns, and overall frustration with quality of service or mismanagement. It is becoming clear to all industry stakeholders, including Government agencies, owning groups, bid teams and train operating companies, that new rail infrastructure by itself will not be enough. The future of mobility in the UK also depends on increasing efficiency and capacity on existing infrastructure, a challenge which remains the industry’s biggest pinch point. Fortunately, rail capacity is only strained during relatively short peak periods. The problems that passengers face are primarily matters of convenience and efficiency and not lack of railway infrastructure. Fixing these passenger-level problems will depend almost entirely on better mobile solutions. When it comes to utilisation of spare capacity in off-peak times, this is a ‘holy grail’ for most operators. Until now, the only viable tactic they have had is incentivising off-peak travel through cheaper fares. Mobile solutions would enable operators to offer more profitable (and personalised) discounts. For example, ‘your train is very busy, why not get a coffee, take a later train and for £5 extra you can travel first class.’    With increasing numbers of people working remotely, is off-peak travel under-utilised?  Today’s changing work patterns represent both an opportunity and a threat to the industry. A study on flexible working undertaken by Timewise last year revealed that almost nine in ten adult workers in the UK either currently work flexibly or aspire to do so, and millennials in particular are increasingly deciding whether to travel at all for work rather than how to travel.

Rail Professional


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| INTERVIEW

Yet regulated fares such as season tickets have been increasing faster than wage inflation, indicating that the industry may not truly understand the price elasticity in the commuter sector. With new technology on the passenger side, including support for mobility-as-aservice, operators can get passengers to travel outside of peak periods through real-time discounts, rewards and other incentives. This would help to ease congestion, optimise existing rail capacity and make UK rail a world-class example of passenger transport in an age of mobile devices.  Fare conditions often create the impression of poor value – for example, ‘my meeting overran so I missed my train, and my ticket is now not valid as it was off peak.’ Rail operators must have the ability to offer mobile passengers the inapp option of paying a supplement and

Pay, though in the UK mobile payment adoption has been somewhat hindered by contactless cards, including Transport for London’s adoption in 2014. However, Asian APMs, particularly the Chinese Alipay and WeChat Pay, enjoy much higher penetration and activity, and these consumers/users travel widely. 100 million Chinese travel abroad every year, and 64 per cent of foreign expats in China use WeChat Pay for their daily needs. It’s becoming more important for UK rail operators and travel merchants in general to support these global APMS, in addition to more regional APMs.  Just last year, 2,100 taxis in Las Vegas began accepting Alipay as fare payment, and 14,000 taxis in New York City are expected to do so this year. More than a thousand taxis in Hong Kong now accept WeChat Pay. The sheer fact that taxi operators – not generally known as innovators when it

affordably taking a later train. This approach to customer service would significantly improve the perceived value of rail service.  Operators could also offer flexible ‘season ticket’ type products through the mobile channel, using a strategy of fare capping or price incentivising for off-peak travel. This sort of product is becoming increasingly relevant as the workforce becomes more mobile and people work from home or use flexible office space. There is also a social and environmental benefit to smoothing out peak demand – it helps ease the pressure that ‘rush hour’ places on other transport infrastructure, such as roads or traffic, a significant advantage for rail over Uber and other road-based MaaS companies.    What are some of the best alternative payments methods currently in use? What should we be looking out for in the future?  The most popular and most widespread APMs are Apple Pay and Google

comes to technology – are embracing these key payment methods, speaks volumes about the importance of China’s alternative payment methods (APMs) for global travel, transportation and hospitality sectors. Recognizing the size of this opportunity and the importance of this market to the travel sector, CellPoint Mobile supports Google Pay, Alipay, WeChat Pay and other APMs across all e-commerce platforms (web, mobile web and native app), and can quickly and cost-effectively integrate new APMs into travel merchants’ existing payments infrastructure. Additional APMs – including Apple Pay – can be supported or added later, as well as additional sales or payment side solutions for mobile commerce.    How do you see customers reacting over the coming years if the rail industry doesn’t innovate in this area?  While rail certainly seems indispensable in some regions, including the UK where it is very much a part of the fabric of daily

Rail Professional

life, we might have said the same thing about New York City yellow cabs fifty years ago. Point being, no industry is immune from disruption, and if rail operators don’t give passengers the level of convenience they can get from competing transport services, they may well become as obsolete as the taxi in the age of Uber.  Innovation will be key to keeping rail relevant as a transportation mode – and there will be no growth without innovation. Taking control of customer data must be a priority for rail operators moving forwards so that record levels of investment can generate an ROI for operators and the UK taxpayer. Having a clear-eyed approach to growth is important to all players in the industry. They also need a gradual strategy for adding new digital and mobile capabilities such as alternative payment methods (APMs). The end result will benefit rail owning groups and operators as they can be more proactive and less reactive when it comes to solving business and revenue challenges. Passengers would benefit in the form of more convenience, and better fare structures linked to mobile wallets, MaaS apps, online booking engines, alternative payment methods, travel management apps, mobile tickets and documentation, station information, route planning and more.    How, in your opinion, is the rail industry perceived by tech savvy people or ‘digital natives’?  Most rail passengers are mobile users, and not just millennials but also older passenger groups. They regularly consume travel products and services on-the-go, even if they are only in the research phase (checking train time tables, for example, or looking at flights). They increasingly expect a mobile-first experience across all commercial relationships, including their relationships with travel and transport operators. Unfortunately, the rail industry does not always live up to these expectations.  Smartphone users have little time to waste on the path to purchase. They expect fast and secure integration between mobile content (fares, passes, ancillary merchandise) and alternative payment methods (Apple Pay, Samsung Pay, Google Pay). These users also expect to manage their journeys and access real-time information directly from their personal devices (not at a kiosk). These sorts of user experience (UX) factors are not being adequately addressed by rail operators’ existing mobile solutions – which are often little more than desktop booking engines adapted for mobile browsers, without providing a truly mobile UX.  Third-party rail retailer Trainline is even extending mobile possibilities beyond booking, ticketing and payments and using ‘mobility as a service’ strategies to improve


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If rail operators can leverage passenger smartphones to first improve the speed and convenience of frequent and recurring transactions such as ticketing and payments, it will ultimately benefit other business areas. It will help increase mobile bookings and cut ticket retailing costs at the station, while passengers with smartphones will be less dependent on station agents UK rail. The company is using crowdsourced mobile data to advise passengers where they can best find a seat on the train, similar to how Uber uses GPS to connect drivers and passengers. Trainline also makes it easy for passengers to compare fare price and availability online for greater commercial transparency.  If rail operators can leverage passenger smartphones to first improve the speed and convenience of frequent and recurring transactions such as ticketing and payments, it will ultimately benefit other business areas. It will help increase mobile bookings and cut ticket retailing costs at the station, while passengers with smartphones will be less dependent on station agents for information or transactions.  This is the kind of traveler experience that today’s digital natives want and increasingly expect. In other sectors such as air, operators have come to the realisation that if they don’t commit to offering the best mobile experience, then third-party distributors will become the default channel for buying their products.   Where should the industry be looking to help solve this issue of legacy ticketing?  As mobile technology makes it easier for passengers to travel more frequently and plan dynamic journeys, rail operators should revisit their mobile strategies and consider adding new capabilities to address the evolving expectations of mobile users. The goal is not just to sell passes and tickets but to ‘sell’ rail transportation itself as being modern, affordable, efficient and responsive

to customer wants, needs and technology preferences, including the widespread preference for mobile ticketing and payments.  CellPoint Mobile can help rail operators in the U.S, U.K and Europe take incremental steps in providing a better mobile experience for their clients. That could take the form of new ticketing and payment options, utilising geofencing for marketing and disruption management, driving ancillary sales or delivering relevant, rich mobile communication. These can all drive revenue, help improve customer service and provide valuable insights into consumer behavior to better inform product and investment strategies.  The first place to start is to recognize that legacy challenges will not solve themselves and there is no magical technology coming – the shift from legacy systems to ‘mobility as a service’ is about finding incremental solutions that can scale as needs grow and evolve. Rail operators would benefit from a technology partner that understands the rail sector, its pain points, and the larger opportunities for mobile commerce and digital travel planning.    What sort of service does CellPoint Mobile provide?  CellPoint Mobile provides the U.S, U.K and European rail sectors with flexible, configurable solutions that help them collect revenues from the mobile channel and profitably manage interactions and transactions from both the selling side and the payment side. Dedicated to a client-first, mobilefirst culture since 2007, CellPoint Mobile provides companies with the fintech and traveltech solutions they need to get to market quickly: booking, payments, alternative payment methods, ancillary sales, loyalty transactions, communications, stored payment capability, realtime reporting, reconciliation, connections to payment service providers (PSPs) and acquirers, and more. Serving companies on five continents, C AND S.indd 1

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CellPoint Mobile has locations in Miami, London, Copenhagen, Dubai, Pune and Singapore. From the very beginning, CellPoint Mobile has been focused on the specific needs of rail and other ground passenger transportation operators – starting in Europe and now in the U.S. It’s always been our mission to make travel easier for both passengers and operators. What this means in practice is making it easier and more convenient for rail and other ground transportation operators to get passengers from point A to B.  We provide flexible solutions for both ticketing and payment, and we are also a payment gateway provider ourselves. We can also provide solutions on the front end and integrate to legacy systems. On top of this we operate with SDKs and APIs, which is exactly what rail operators need to migrate toward end-to-end solutions that can support mobility-as-a-service, even if implemented only gradually.  CellPoint Mobile clients can link our services to their existing services and use our added services as building blocks to a total solution – or even use our full portfolio of mobile solutions for ticketing and payments.

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Rail workshops have long used the WALLRail workshops have long used the WALL-MAN® MAN® and LIFTMAN™ pneumatically powered and LIFTMAN™ powered platforms whichpneumatically are well-accepted as standard platforms are well-accepted standard practice forwhich accessing carriages andas wagons at practicefor forprep. accessing carriages and wagons at height and painting. height forsometimes prep. and painting. A feature requested is a platform A feature sometimes requested is a platform to carry two persons for when more than to carry two persons fortowhen than two two hands are required carrymore out the task. hands arenow required to carry out the task. We We have introduced the WALL-MAN® arewhich now introducing WALL-MAN® XL will lift two the people up to 6.0XL m which will liftground two people upthan to 6.0adequate m abovefor ground above – more rail – more than adequate for rail applications. applications. Readers wishing to know more are invited to contact us below but briefly these units areentirely entirelyair-operated air-operatedand andmeet meetall all are international standards and regulations for 30 years of experience personnel lifting. The 25 of serving the rail sector is offered to help solveyour yourworking-at-height working-at-heightprocedures, procedures, solve safely and efficiently, with less operator strain, quicker job turnaround and a better paintfinish. finish. paint WhilstWALL-MAN® WALL-MAN®isisusually usuallyaafixed fixed Whilst installation inside a paint booth; the system can also be erected in an open work area for prep.applications applicationsusing usingpurpose purposedesigned designed prep. steelwork.LIFTMAN™ LIFTMAN™isisaafree-standing, free-standing, steelwork. steerable platform which allows work areas to be kept free of obstructions. Operators canmove moveeasily easilyfrom fromlocation locationto tolocation location can withouthaving havingto toreturn returnto tofloor floorlevel. level. without Working height at shoulder is approx. 4.5m.

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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

57

Why fares regulation needs reforming Paul Plummer explores the history of fares regulation and brings us forward to the modern world of ticketing

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ravel by train any day of the week and the chances are most people will be glued to a smartphone, reflecting our changing lifestyles. Yet few if any rail customers know that the rulebook underpinning what fares they can buy dates back to when fewer than one in five people owned a mobile phone, and there were 1.2 million or 26 per cent fewer people who were self-employed. Clearly, these well-intentioned but ultimately frustrating regulations have failed to keep pace with technology or how people work and travel today. This is why the public and private sectors in rail are working in partnership to grasp the nettle and call for the fares system to be dismantled and re-engineered. We want to make it fairer and simpler for customers

Working with governments we have already taken steps to improve things where we can. On top of running more services, operators have delivered innovations that have benefited customers, such as advance tickets, special offers and mobile ticketing. We have also been delivering a fares action plan to improve the buying experience for customers and continued the roll-out of smart ticketing

while enabling continued long-term investment in a bigger and better railway, and we’re launching a public consultation to do just that. An outdated system Fares regulations are laid out in the 1995 Ticketing and Settlement Agreement which spells out how fares should be set and sold. It assumes customers will buy their ticket by visiting a ticket office and sets out in detail how customers must be able to buy a ticket from each of the 2,500 stations in Britain to every other station in the country. These regulations were based on the fares structure inherited from British Rail, and since 1995 further layers have been added through requirements in franchise agreements, which assume this underlying

structure, with little or nothing taken away, produces around 55 million fares. As a result, long-standing anomalies are becoming bigger problems for our customers today, impacting on businesses and the communities served by rail. A study commissioned by Britain’s partnership railway and conducted by KPMG shows the scale of the challenge. Only one in three rail customers are very confident that they bought the best value ticket for their last journey. Fewer than one in three were very satisfied with the experience of buying a ticket. This is despite the industry making improvements where it can, cutting jargon and improving the availability of information about peak times and how people can use their ticket.


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Working with governments we have already taken steps to improve things where we can. On top of running more services, operators have delivered innovations that have benefited customers, such as advance tickets, special offers and mobile ticketing. We have also been delivering a fares action plan to improve the buying experience for customers and continued the roll-out of smart ticketing. These initiatives are part of the plan launched by the partnership railway last October where we committed ourselves publicly to boosting the economy, improving customer satisfaction, supporting our communities and creating more and better jobs. But this is just the start. We want to work with the country to create a clear roadmap for reform so that we can make the right changes for the long-term. Ways to improve There are some key principles which could underpin a fares system fit not only for today but also for the future, driven by what customers and the country need from the railway.

These include: • Being transparent, predictable, fair, trusted, easier to use and value for money for customers • Offering integration with other modes of transport • Offering personalised, flexible fares which best serve customers in different markets. To strengthen the railway’s contribution to the economy and free up taxpayers’ money, the fares system of the future must also enable growth, innovation, efficiency and choice while providing funding for investment and avoiding the need for additional taxpayer subsidy. But while we are calling for root and branch reform, we are consciously not setting out what we believe that should mean in detail. We want our customers, consumer groups, business users, politicians, retailers, our employees and campaigners pushing for more accessible public services to engage with us in what they believe is required. That is why we have launched a public consultation with Transport Focus, the independent watchdog, in June, running through the Summer. This will help the

industry to inform government about potential changes in fares regulation and implement improvements to benefit customers and taxpayers. To be clear, the consultation is not about how much customers will pay in aggregate. Any reforms proposed by the industry will be designed to be neutral in overall revenue terms with no change in average fares and therefore not requiring any additional taxpayer support for the railway. A fares system which is far more trusted, though, has the potential to attract more people to travel by train which would support investment in rail or give governments the option to change the balance between farepayers and taxpayers for funding the railway. Unpicking the regulation of a £10 billion-a-year fares system so critical to our country’s infrastructure and prosperity won’t be easy, and there are no straightforward solutions. It will require partnership working between governments and the industry. But our customers and the economy deserve better. It’s time to deliver the modern, fit for purpose fares system Britain needs.

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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

61

Asbestos exposure and the industry The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health is raising awareness of the issue of asbestos. Its former Railway Group Chair, Keith Morey, looks at how exposure affects the industry

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f you mention asbestos to someone, the chances are they will have heard about it and know about the risks it poses. Around the world, huge numbers of people are suffering from an asbestos-related disease, many of them terminal. But, with asbestos banned in the UK since 1999 and in 61 other countries around the world, we don’t have to worry about it anymore, right? Think again. A 21st Century problem Asbestos is not an issue of the past, it is very much an issue of the present. Every year, 125 million people around the world are being exposed to the mineral at work, putting them at risk of contracting terrible

Asbestos is not an issue of the past, it is very much an issue of the present. Every year, 125 million people around the world are being exposed to the mineral at work, putting them at risk of contracting terrible lifelimiting illnesses like mesothelioma and other cancers

life-limiting illnesses like mesothelioma and other cancers. That is why The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) is focussing on asbestos in the latest phase of its ‘No Time to Lose’ occupational cancer campaign. The institution has produced a series of free resources which can help organisations identify if their premises contains asbestos and, if so, provides guidance on how they can manage it to prevent employees from being exposed. So, what is asbestos? Asbestos is the name used for a group of naturally occurring minerals that due to their natural properties, including flexibility, high tensile strength, incombustibility, low thermal conductivity and resistance to chemical attack, are used in range of different commercial and domestic applications. Asbestos fibres are invisible to the naked eye and, if breathed in, can become stuck in the lungs and can cause serious illnesses over time, including fatal cancers

such as mesothelioma, as well as asbestosrelated lung cancer, asbestosis and pleural thickening. Asbestos can be found in spray coatings and lagging, insulating boards, ropes, yarns and cloth, millboard, paper and paper products, asbestos cement products, bitumen felts and coated metals, flooring materials, textured coatings and paints, mastic, sealants, putties and adhesives, reinforced plastics. In the rail industry, asbestos is everywhere. It is in locomotives – it was used extensively around boilers and cylinders up until the late 1960s, so is present in many non-working locos. It is also in insulation in coaches. Buildings across the industry also contain asbestos, for example in substations where it has been used for fire prevention purposes. It also appears as roofing and flooring in other buildings such as equipment rooms and signal boxes. And on trackside, it is present, having been used as pipe protection


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for cables. We also have the additional problem that in the 1960s many stations and other buildings were demolished, and the materials buried, which means we have land that has been sold off or is being sold off that is contaminated. So, we know where asbestos is. But how dangerous is it? The answer: very dangerous. Exposure to even the tiniest amount can be fatal, even though the effects may not manifest themselves for two or more decades. What then can organisations do to protect employees? A key starting point is to carry out a survey to establish if asbestos is present. If it is, a record must be kept of where it is along with a management plan. It is crucial you manage your asbestos properly, have competent resources in place and know what to do if the worst happens; just completing a survey is not enough. Workforce protection At Network Rail, we are a pledge signatory for IOSH’s No Time to Lose campaign. This means we have pledged to do everything we can to discover if there is a likelihood our employees could be exposed to a carcinogen like asbestos and, should we discover something, put robust management plans in place to ensure those workers are protected. Network Rail takes its responsibility

around workplace carcinogens seriously. For example, we have produced our own guidance on asbestos for use by employees who could come into contact with it while working on our infrastructure. It also aims to assist managers and those who control site safety and access, by showing them where asbestos containing materials may be. We always remind employees not to take anything for granted. The guidance notes state that ‘you should always assume that an asset will contain asbestos unless it has been inspected/surveyed and recorded on Network Rail’s Asbestos Risk Management System’.

Sadly, it is likely workers in our industry and all others will have already been exposed and won’t know about it until they show the symptoms of asbestos-related illness years down the line. If we are to ensure that today’s employees can look forward to a healthy future, it is crucial to prevent exposure to asbestos. Employers have a duty of care, after all. For more in depth assistance on preventing asbestos exposure, visit www.notimetolose.org.uk Keith Morey is former Chair of the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health’s (IOSH) Railway Group and CDM Integration Manager at Network Rail

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HIGH-SPEED RAIL |

65

A partnership for high-speed growth Jamie Kerr, Managing Director of HS2 Growth Partnership and Business Development Lead at LCR, explains how HS2 is as much an economic growth plan as it is a transport plan

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t a time when local government is facing unprecedented pressure on its finances, and a growing and ageing population is putting the UK’s existing infrastructure under increasing strain; public-private partnerships are ever more crucial in delivering on the Government’s agenda for homes, jobs and economic growth. Whilst we look to the private sector to shoulder the risk and in some cases front-load the finance needed to deliver development; it’s also important that we recognise the vital role the public sector, working together, has to play in the regeneration story. A step change in rail connectivity is taking place in the form of major investment

in infrastructure. HS2 will provide a highspeed rail link from London to Birmingham (Phase One by 2026) and to Manchester and Leeds (Phase Two by 2033). Together with HS2, Northern Powerhouse Rail (NPR), will transform rail travel across the North by connecting its seven main cities – Hull, Leeds, Bradford, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle and Sheffield, and other economic centres such as Warrington and Manchester Airport. Regeneration initiatives These Government-sponsored transport initiatives are not only improving rail connectivity across the UK, they are opening up opportunities for a wide range of places in the form of regeneration in and around

existing and proposed stations. Furthermore, devolution of greater powers over funding regeneration is giving local authorities and transport agencies more control over development projects centred around rail, whilst being able to borrow against future business rate generation. This is good news, given that the UK will need to be ready to accommodate the growth expected from this significant investment in rail. In true collaborative spirit, the public sector is seizing these opportunities and maximising the benefits of HS2 and NPR’s arrival. Local authorities, Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) and transport agencies have come together under the umbrella of ‘combined authorities’ such as in the West

Rail Professional


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Midlands, to establish various models or special purpose vehicles to plan for future development and regeneration. These include Urban Growth Companies such as the one set up by Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council to promote development around the HS2 station, the existing Birmingham International Station, the NEC and Birmingham Airport; and Joint Station Boards such as at Leeds – bringing together partners to realise the full economic potential of the area. LCR is working with local authorities to develop growth strategies and to identify opportunities to unlock regeneration in and around station sites. These growth strategies set out how regions will work with the Government, partners and communities to maximise the benefits of HS2 and other projects – responding to the priorities set out in the Government’s Industrial Strategy to ‘build a Britain fit for the future’. Supporting local authorities LCR is exploiting our position on the cusp of the public-private sectors, and our embedded commercial and development experience, to provide practical support to local authorities to put this concept of growth into action. Leeds is a perfect example of this collaboration. More than 100,000 passengers a day pass through Leeds Station, making it the busiest in the North. By 2035, passenger numbers are expected to increase by 134 per cent, with a significant factor for this rise, the incoming rail-infrastructure in the form of HS2, NPR and other projects. Large cities will need to future-proof to accommodate this growth and Leeds is one of those leading the way. The City Council, working with LCR and other partners, has developed a masterplan for Leeds Station to be delivered by 2050. The masterplan integrates HS2, Northern Powerhouse Rail, the Trans-Pennine Route Upgrade and Northern Rail into a distinctive modern Rail Professional

destination and national transport hub. The station is also at the heart of the South Bank, one of the largest city centre regeneration sites in Europe, with the potential to create around 35,000 jobs and deliver 8,000 homes. With the station acting as a catalyst, the South Bank could double the size of Leeds city centre – creating a world class destination for investing, living, learning and leisure – with the potential for the joint Leeds and Bradford economy to become the second largest in the UK. A strategic outline business case for the integrated station proposals is now being presented to government and the next stage will be to promote and secure best value for the comprehensive redevelopment. This positive process is being replicated elsewhere. Sheffield City Council is developing an investable and deliverable regeneration framework for Sheffield Midland Station and the surrounding areas. This work is a key strand of the City Region’s Growth Strategy, which aims to maximise growth in terms of jobs, homes and the economy. As in Leeds, LCR is commissioning a masterplan for Sheffield which is due to be completed in spring 2019. LCR is also developing strategic relationships with a host of other local authorities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) to identify development opportunities associated with major infrastructure projects. These include the West Yorkshire Combined Authority, Nottinghamshire County Council, Lancashire County Council, the D2N2 LEP, Cheshire East Council, Stafford County Council, Stoke City Council and Dacorum, Wigan, Bolton, and Warrington Borough Councils. At the same time, transport agencies are exploring partnership working to maximise the value of regeneration in and around their assets, namely conventional stations on the existing rail network. Key relationships are being built with agencies such as Transport

for the North and Transport for Greater Manchester, to seize on these opportunities. Homes England (the former Homes and Communities Agency), Network Rail and LCR are supporting this by looking at sites that could be delivered quickly, and conversely, sites that are complex to unlock whether through operational constraint or otherwise, and therefore require specialist intervention to be able to redevelop. These initiatives, alongside investment from the private sector, are essential to the UK not only because they will support the much-needed additional capacity and increased connectivity that HS2 and NPR will deliver, but as they will play a vital role in boosting jobs, skills, growth and regeneration – enabling the regional economies to grow. Company profile LCR is a government-owned property and regeneration company specialising in the development, management and disposal of property assets within a railway context and in particular, property assets associated with major infrastructure projects across England. LCR’s positioning on the cusp of the public-private sectors and the organisation’s embedded commercial and development experience, enables it to work effectively with both private sector developers and other public bodies to deliver best value for the taxpayer. Jamie Kerr is Managing Director of the HS2 Growth Partnership, a collaboration between LCR and HS2. He is responsible for forging new relationships with local authorities to unlock key regeneration sites in around stations. He is a Chartered Surveyor with over 25 years of experience in property development and finance.  Most recently, he was a Director at John Laing Investments, where he was responsible for rail, education, health, housing and property partnerships with the public sector.


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TRANSPORT INTEGRATION |

69

Keeping up with other transport modes Mike Wallace, Transport and Ticketing Expert at PA Consulting Group, takes a look at the opportunities rail has to integrate with disruptive modes of transport

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ail companies in Britain have transformed dramatically since the golden age of rail when shorter journey times and the lower cost of travel meant rail became accessible to the mass market. Yet since then, the nature of rail travel itself has remained relatively unchanged. There has been investment to make trains more comfortable and to increase their speed (especially on intercity routes) as well as to provide more routes, but much less has been invested in incorporating new technologies into the sector which could make rail travel more attractive. There is a real need now to look at how rail travel can play a bigger part in meeting the nation’s transport needs. This is particularly important in the light of policy

There is a real need now to look at how rail travel can play a bigger part in meeting the nation’s transport needs. This is particularly important in the light of policy developments such as the Government’s plans to ban the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2040 to reduce the health risks caused by pollution

developments such as the Government’s plans to ban the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2040 to reduce the health risks caused by pollution. Equally, with many cities clamping down on the use of polluting vehicles by charging users high fees or imposing outright bans, drivers will be looking for alternatives. These developments are clearly going to drive change in the transport sector and they will be reinforced by wider social change such as changing attitudes towards car ownership (particularly for millennials). This creates a real opportunity for rail

companies to respond and transform the service they offer to meet changing needs. However, if rail travel is to provide a viable alternative to the car it needs to be integrated with other modes, easy to use and be responsive to customer needs. One technology that can help do this is smart ticketing. The technology to do this was first introduced 15 years ago and can provide customers with a way to travel without a paper ticket and to simplify how people plan, pay for and make journeys. Yet, despite this and the demand for a contactless system, passengers have seen Rail Professional


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little progress in being able to access these kind of user friendly systems across the rail network. Yet there are examples of how it can be done successfully. These include the flexible ticketing schemes introduced by South East Flexible Ticketing Programme and Transport for West Midlands, which have made the necessary changes to their infrastructure to make the systems work. These schemes have put in place essential back office systems that have enabled train operators to offer new electronic tickets to their customers. Disrupting modes of travel One of the reasons these new technologies have been adopted slowly is that the transport sector has long been seen as a rather traditional business which does not embrace new ways of doing things. That is all changing, and now we are now seeing the arrival of a range of providers who can disrupt conventional approaches and business models. A number of new operators have emerged, seemingly from nowhere, backed by significant investment and they seem to have more ambition to do things differently than the existing operators. Some of these developments can be seen in bike rental in major cities. The ‘Boris Bikes’ have a monopoly in London, but competitors are beginning to emerge in other cities. Oxford, with one of the largest numbers of cyclists in the country, has many innovative ways of pedalling around the city. An example is ‘Mobike’ – which is a pay-peruse bike hire scheme that requires no fixed infrastructure to dock the bike. However, it is in taxi services where the most dramatic market disruption has occurred. Walking through Leicester Square at 5pm provides a very clear illustration of how quickly the dominance of ride sharing services like Uber has emerged. There are also new developments where travellers can use an app that also accepts digital payment, providing a new convenient way of planning and paying for journeys. One example is Trainline which has developed at pace recently to provide a more seamless experience to users. Even a quick journey plan using the Citymapper app in London allows users to choose a ‘Smart Ride’ – a ride sharing initiative that is more like dial-a-ride than a conventional bus or taxi. What is critical to the development of these new providers is the way they are responding to the fact that we now have easy access to so much more information about our journeys. Users can easily calculate the distance, cost and time of their journey using their smart phones. That has altered customer expectations and demands and this shift in behaviour needs to be addressed in the public transport sector if it is to compete. That is difficult because traditionally, public transport authorities have been slow to respond to change. In particular, they have found it hard to provide the right Rail Professional

regulatory approaches that enable new services to be provided while ensuring they are safe. There are real challenges here and the authorities will need to put the right infrastructure and management in place to guarantee the traveling public are as safe in an Uber as a black cab and that our city centres are not flooded by excess hire bikes, as seen in Beijing recently.

approaches to public transport. As the only truly national transport network, rail should be at the leading edge of this work. There is significant potential for revenue growth by supporting better integration. One way to do this is by making payments easier and the experience of the Oyster payment system in London shows that it can lead to increases in usage.

Rethinking the passenger experience A major challenge for rail operators is modal-integration. Most train stations have a taxi rank and a bus stop, but the integration stops there. The emergence of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), where different modes of transport are combined together as a pre-paid bundle of services has the potential to drive integration via third party applications, disruptive modes and public transport services. Development of this innovative new model should be considered a critical task for transport authorities and operators. MaaS can provide huge benefits: travel will become more affordable, accessible, less polluting, this list goes on. The principle is simple, and much akin to how many people pay for their mobile phone service; each user can pre-pay for a package of services (that could include for example, a number of bus rides, a set number of hours of bike hire, carsharing journeys, or even a number of taxi rides). An app then allows the user to make use of these services throughout the month – all with the confidence that they will not exceed their monthly transport budget. From the Department of Transport to the operators in our towns, cities, and regions, there is a real need to put in place the commercial and regulatory arrangements that will drive these new

Closing the information gap The challenge now is to support innovation and new ideas but ensure that the industry does not adopt a fragmented or even contradictory approach which creates confusion and damages customer experience. This means that integrated journeys will only be possible if there is collaboration between policy makers and local transport authorities. There needs to be a clear flow of information between them and there is a clear lesson form the development of Oyster cards in London which was only possible because the city has a single, controlling authority across all transport modes. MaaS can revolutionise the transport sector but only if it is seamless. The first and last mile are key, where travellers need to make a choice about what mode of transport to use to take them to their final destination. If that journey involves rail there is a real opportunity for train operators to provide passengers with attractive options that provide an easy way for them to complete their journey. What is needed is a willingness to invest in and adopt the new disruptive approaches that are being seen across other modes of transport. Mike Wallace is a Transport and Ticketing Expert at PA Consulting Group


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Predicting ground-borne noise from high-speed trains ACCON UK is an independent consultancy specialising in noise and vibration, air quality and other environmental disciplines

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CCON UK and its principal noise experts Steve Summers and Graham Parry have been involved with noise and vibration issues on many significant railway projects, including Crossrail and High Speed Two (HS2) (Rail Professional, April 2016). The company has been carrying out in-house research since 2016 to develop methods of predicting ground-borne noise and vibration from high-speed trains, building on earlier work on temporary construction railways. The aim of this is to develop a method that will provide a tool for the quick prediction of ground-borne noise from railways such as HS2. The Pipein-Pipe (PiP) model ACCON UK is utilising for this task is simple and very quick to use in comparison to finite element models and similar complex modelling methods. When a train passes through a tunnel the action of the train on the track induces vibration in the rails, the rail mountings and the tunnel which then propagates through the ground. The vibration may be felt within houses or other buildings above the tunnel. However, building occupants are typically more likely to hear a low frequency rumble than feel any vibration from the train passing by. This rumble is a form of groundborne noise where the vibration from the train in the ground is transmitted via the foundations into the building structure and is re-radiated as low frequency airborne sound.

construction railway used in construction of the Crossrail Western Tunnels. The PiP model is configured for trains running on a floating slab track. The Crossrail commission involved developing methods to adapt the model to enable predictions of other track forms including

resilient rail pads and ballasted track on a ballast mat. In 2016 ACCON UK undertook vibration measurements above High Speed One (HS1) tunnels at various locations in Kent and used this data to carry out an initial study to validate the use of PiP to predict ground-borne noise from high-speed

Pipe-in-pipe The PiP model was developed at the University of Cambridge by Dr Hugh Hunt and Dr Mohammed Hussein, principally to consider different options for reducing ground-borne noise for metro type railway tunnels. The model was successfully utilised by ACCON UK to predict vibration and ground-borne noise from the temporary Rail Professional


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The purpose of this research was to determine whether the PiP model, as adapted by ACCON UK, can be used to reliably predict groundborne noise from high-speed trains in tunnels. To this end the measured and predicted ground-borne noise levels were compared to carry out a full validation of the prediction methodology following the guidance given in ISO 148371

trains. This initial study has now been extended by carrying out further vibration monitoring at tunnel locations on a high-speed railway route in Germany. Before selecting the survey locations on the Munich to Nuremberg line in Bavaria, a desktop study was carried out to identify possible locations in various European countries meeting a number of technical requirements. France and Spain were the other possible contenders. However, identifying reasonably accessible locations where high-speed lines run through tunnels was the key factor that made the German location the most suitable. Vibration measurements This location had an additional advantage as ACCON GmbH is based in Bavaria and the German office was therefore able to provide some logistical support. The vibration surveys were carried out over Rail Professional

three days in March 2017 by a team of three ACCON UK staff, led by Steve Summers. On site the survey involved taking vibration measurements over several hours at each location. Highly sensitive accelerometers were uses with one installed directly above the rail line, and additional monitoring positions offset by up to 15 metres each side. The speeds of the trains were measured using a radar speed gun from a location close to the tunnel portal which was typically close to the vibration monitoring locations. ICE2 and ICE3 type trains run on the Munich to Nuremberg railway at speeds of up to 300 kph. Measurements of vibration were made at four tunnel locations. These consisted of three locations above bored tunnels of varying depth and one location above a section of cut and cover tunnel. The results of these vibration measurements, along with the HS1 results, were compared against ground-borne noise predictions carried out using PiP. The input data required by PiP includes the unsprung mass of the train, speed of the train, the mechanical properties of the track, the track mountings and the tunnel, along with the soil properties of the ground above the tunnel. Obtaining this data was not straightforward: in the case of unsprung mass data, for example, there are few sources of published information, some of which provide conflicting information. The purpose of this research was to determine whether the PiP model, as adapted by ACCON UK, can be used to reliably predict ground-borne noise from high-speed trains in tunnels. To this end the measured and predicted ground-borne noise levels were compared to carry out a full validation of the prediction methodology following the guidance given in ISO 148371. From the data used in the study, the most accurate predictions were obtained for the HS1 trains running in bored tunnels. The results for ICE3 trains operating in bored

tunnels were less accurate, although this was potentially affected by uncertainty in some of the mechanical data for the track mountings. ACCON UK’s analysis also showed that the mechanical properties of the train and the type of track mounting have greater influence on the predicted level of ground-borne noise than the operating speed of the trains. It is understood that the maximum running speeds on HS2 will be 360 kph. On the basis of this and the successful predictions for trains operating up to 300 kph, ACCON UK is confident that the adapted PiP methodology can be used to predict ground-borne noise from trains operating on HS2 or other high-speed railways at speeds of up to 360 kph. A paper was presented on this work at a major international sound and vibration conference last year (ICSV24). Steve Summers will also be speaking at a conference in Chicago this year presenting some further analysis that has recently been carried out. Steve Summers is Associate Director at ACCON UK

Tel: 01273 573814 Email: steve.summers@accon-uk.com Visit: www.accon-uk.com


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The case against HS2 Quentin Macdonald, Systems Engineering Principal at HSUK, lets rip with his views on HS2

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n evidence to the House of Commons HS2 Select Committee on November 30 2015, Professor Andrew McNaughton (then Technical Director of HS2) described the aim of the project: ‘The aim of the HS2 project is to deliver hugely enhanced capacity and connectivity between our major conurbations.’ That is a very desirable aim and if HS2 can deliver it, why should anyone challenge HS2? However, people from all walks have challenged HS2 very vigorously. The six principal challenges are Need, Cost, Scope, Capacity, Connectivity and Environment. Challenge one – the need for HS2 For 68 years, overall passenger carryings on the UK rail network had declined steadily and by 1982 had reached a 20th Century all-time low of 630 million passengers per annum (Mppa). At that point rail’s fortune changed as passengers began to return, peaking at 822 Mppa in 1989, a rise of thirty per cent in seven years. Just when things were looking positive, the six years to 1995 saw a decline of 11 per cent to 735 Mppa. But then rail’s fortunes were transformed. Apart from a minor fall of 0.7 per cent in 2010, every one of the 22 years reported since 1995 has seen continuing growth. By 2013-14 numbers had reached 1,559 Mppa passing for the first time ever, the historic all-time high of 1,543 Mppa reached in 1914, a hundred years earlier. The passenger figures for 2016-17 at 1,729 Mppa are up 135 per cent since 1995 and 174 per cent since 1982. Given the very different worlds of 1914 and 2014, there is an interesting doctoral thesis waiting to be written on rail’s revival. The critics are wrong. The network had become overloaded and capacity growth was essential. Those figures form part of the backdrop which led the Government, in 2009, to announce its intention to build HS2; a new high-speed railway network for Britain.

Challenge two – the cost of HS2 In the public mind the cost of HS2 is already ‘exorbitant’ with no sign of it being under control. The project is unpopular because the public believes that the money should instead be spent on the NHS, schools, housing etc. HS2 will cost billions more than most people believe that it should, particularly when comparing the average cost per mile with schemes abroad. On December 21 2015, in response to Parliamentary Question HL4189, the cost of HS2 Phase One was £156 million per double track mile calculated from the Government Funding Envelope figure quoted in the reply. The Government commissioned an independent estimate but gained no comfort when it reported in early 2017 that the cost would be £339 million per double track mile. That more than doubled the cost at a stroke, torpedoing HS2’s already shaky business case. A number of the reasons for the high cost of HS2 emerge in part two of this article. Challenge three – scope Objectors are often heard to complain that HS2 will be of no use to them. This appears to be true for the majority of the UK population, particularly for the 30 million people who live near enough to the proposed route to have a reasonable expectation that they might find HS2 beneficial. The problem stems directly from the current choice of the HS2 route and the kind of railway that HS2 is choosing to build. HS2 Ltd believes that it needs to create: A stand-alone line not integrated with the existing network to any meaningful extent. This is to ensure that operational perturbation on the existing network has no effect on HS2. They have failed to understand the value of creating and operating a single integrated national network with a fully integrated timetable. This is what the population as a whole wants and needs; not a separate stand-alone

railway serving a handful of stations. If passengers can catch high-speed trains from their existing local hub stations they will flock to use them. A very high-speed line with a design speed of 400 kph; faster than any other railway in the world. This is said to be needed for ‘future proofing’ – against what one asks? A 400 kph line requires a minimum radius of curvature of 7,800 metres. That dimension alone makes it very difficult to fit the new line into the landscape without significant consequential damage to housing and countryside alike. A line built to UIC GC gauge with rolling stock to match. This means that the trains will be too wide and too tall to run on most of the existing UK intercity passenger network. The result is that a second fleet of Classic Compatible trains will be required to reach a limited number of ‘off network’ destinations. This is a completely unnecessary complication which responsible railway operators would avoid at all costs given the chance and is entirely against the interests of passengers. Phase One of HS2 is to be built entirely in England. Excluding small states with fewer than ten million people, the population density of England alone (calculated separately from the overall UK figure) ranks it as the fifth most densely populated country in the world after Bangladesh, Taiwan, South Korea and Rwanda, making England the most densely populated country in Europe bar none. Apart from HS1, the current maximum speed in the UK is 200 kph. Very respectable journey time reductions will be obtained by using a maximum speed of 300 kph and the railway will fit into the landscape of our crowded island far better, linking our closely spaced conurbations effectively. Despite the claims, HS2 Ltd does not seem to be interested in creating a network to serve the majority of our conurbations or our people. Instead, HS2 Ltd apparently sees its brief to be to design a railway more suitable for the Rail Professional


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The purpose of better Connectivity, in the author’s mind, is to make rail journeys as attractive as possible in order to get people out of their cars, to keep their cars off the road and to make a significant contribution towards CO2 reduction as mandated by the 2008 Climate Change Act. We can probably all agree with that general concept

wide-open spaces of North America, Asia and Australia where conurbations are widely spaced with few living in between. When the motorway network was conceived it was designed as a high-speed supplement to the existing road network with vehicles able to switch from one network to the other at regular intervals. Had it been suggested that the motorways could only be used by vehicles which were captive to them and having no access to local roads, there would have rightly been an outcry and yet that is exactly the madness that HS2 Ltd is proposing. Nowhere does that happen with high-speed rail networks in other countries.

would not be proposing the monster that is HS2.

Capacity and connectivity HS2 Ltd seems never to have stood back from its remit to ask itself what kind of railway system it should design in order to achieve Andrew McNaughton’s vision. For example, just what did he mean by ‘hugely enhanced capacity and connectivity’? Just how big is ‘huge’? Does HS2 Ltd understand exactly where such enhancements will be most beneficial and have they developed tools to measure how well any given proposed design might deliver the benefits? It seems not, or they

Challenge four – lack of capacity HS2 Ltd states that their two-track highspeed line will be capable of delivering 18 high-speed train paths per hour (18 tpph) in each direction. This is a technically credible and reasonable claim. However, what is not reasonable is that all 18 paths had already been allocated by HS2 Ltd without a spade hitting the ground. This leaves absolutely no room for future growth, either of the proposed services or for new services. HS2 will be born wearing an 18 tpph straightjacket.

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Operationally, 18 tpph means a train every three minutes twenty seconds. With all 18 paths in use then even a minor perturbation will have very significant knock-on effect on the service. Whilst technically 18 tpph can be provided on a single track, that is simply not enough paths to deliver all the expectations and promises. Building the line with four high-speed tracks rather than two for the Phase One London stem will be essential to meet all the demands which will be made on it. Challenge five – lack of connectivity The purpose of better Connectivity, in the author’s mind, is to make rail journeys as

   

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attractive as possible in order to get people out of their cars, to keep their cars off the road and to make a significant contribution towards CO2 reduction as mandated by the 2008 Climate Change Act. We can probably all agree with that general concept. Expectantly, the author searched in vain for a definition of Connectivity but, finding none, was left wondering how the whole of the transport ‘chatterati’ can be forever talking up the Holy Grail of Connectivity without defining it in the first place! It seems that Connectivity is no better defined than the Holy Grail itself, ‘which expression is often used to denote an object or goal that is sought after for its great significance. Different traditions describe the Holy Grail as a cup, dish or stone with miraculous powers that provide happiness, eternal youth or sustenance in infinite abundance.’ (Wikipedia) That definition seems to define perfectly the HS2 Connectivity of most people’s dreams and expectations! Despairing, the author felt he had no alternative but to write his own definition which is offered here for comment. Connectivity is the ability to make a journey between any two stations on the rail network as quickly as practicably possible with the minimum number of changes of train; preferably none. By adopting a formal definition, a scoring system for measuring Connectivity can then be created so that the value of competing designs can be compared. The author long

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ago concluded that ‘significantly reduced journey times’ will be essential in order to obtain major improvements in national Connectivity. In turn, ‘significantly reduced journey times’ can only be achieved by constructing some new high-speed line and upgrading some existing lines to 100 mph, and more where feasible. The whole of the new network will need to be designed as a supplement to the existing network allowing existing stations to be used for the most part along with existing local transport links. The new high-speed rolling stock to operate on the new high-speed lines will need to be built to a loading gauge suitable for operating on the whole of today’s UK intercity passenger network. An independent, in-depth, study of HS2’s ability to ‘deliver hugely enhanced capacity and connectivity’ has been undertaken which shows that HS2 will not even get close to achieving that aim. As noted above, the designers of the HS2 so called ‘network’ appear to have no idea of the kind of new high-speed railway which they need to design in order to deliver Andrew McNaughton’s vision for the project. As a result, they have failed dismally. That is the conclusion of the independent study into HS2 Connectivity which considered a basket of all 496 possible journeys between 32 existing centres; home to over thirty million people or about sixty per cent of the English population. The simplest scoring system possible was used.

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Three totals were compiled, i.e. the journeys improved, the journeys unchanged and the journeys made worse, by building HS2 when compared with journeys on today’s network. The study found that HS2 speeds up 88 (18 per cent) of the 496 journeys, makes no difference to 314 (63 per cent) journeys and actually makes 94 (19 per cent) journeys worse than today. HS2 Ltd asks us to take it seriously as the great rail network intervention for the 21st Century whilst making more journeys worse than it improves. Why should the Government spend even £1 to make journeys worse? As a project, HS2 is a ‘complete turkey’; a very controversial project indeed. The 16 page Executive Summary of the independent study describing the failure of HS2 to deliver its promises can be found at http:// www.highspeeduk.co.uk/wp-content/ uploads/2017/01/17-01-16-HS2ANExecutive-Summary.pdf and the full 392 page report is also available on www. highspeeduk.co.uk/ In the concluding part of this article Quentin Macdonald explores Challenge 6, the totally unacceptable and unnecessary environmental vandalism of HS2 which can be largely avoided. Quentin Macdonald is Systems Engineering Principal HSUK and a Chartered Electrical Engineer with 52 years’ continuous experience in the Railway Industry

Please contact him on 01904 339944 or 07771 995504 or quentin@highspeeduk.co.uk Please visit www.highspeeduk.co.uk Rail Professional


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Investing in the country’s future workforce The next generation of rail engineers will have to be experts in high-speed rail, Mark Coleman explains what is being done to get them there

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ith the UK rail and engineering industries facing critical skills shortages at a time of major plans for investment and growth over the next few decades, businesses are being asked to help engineer the UK’s biggest industrial recruitment drive since the 20th Century. The opportunity for new rail engineering talent is vast – at least 7,200 engineering and technical workers will be needed to work in high speed-rail in the UK by 2020. It is further estimated that there will be more than 100,000 job opportunities across Britain’s railways by 2027, with HS2 alone set to create 25,000 new jobs. This provides a challenge, with an estimate that businesses in Britain will need around 203,000 new engineers every year until 2024. Right now, we’re falling short by around 49,000 engineers a year. The rail industry in particular faces even further skills shortages, with one in five rail engineers currently over the age of 55. As you would expect from an industry that is preparing for such a fast-moving future, mechanisms to overcome these challenges are being put into place with major projects such as The National College for High Speed Rail. This is the largest of five national employer-led colleges that has been created by the Government to help British students develop world class skills. Demand for learner placements and apprenticeships at the college is growing, fuelled by the reputation it is gaining from its brand new, state-of-the-art learning facilities, as well as its strong strategic partnerships with highprofile rail industry employers. As a specialist education and training institution, the National College for High Speed Rail is looking to attract a wealth of highly skilled individuals from a diverse range of backgrounds to help plug the growing engineering skills gap. It is gearing up to produce a new-generation of highlyskilled engineers, managers and technicians. The first year The college’s two campuses based in Rail Professional


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Doncaster and Birmingham opened in Autumn 2017 and its first cohort of learners and apprentices have already been upgrading their skillsets with the backing of more than thirty businesses who have committed members of their staff to share expertise with learners at the college. The college’s first full entry of learners are set to enrol this September, with numbers set to grow over the next few years, reaching capacity at 1,200 learners per year. Rail Professional

The support provided by businesses so far has included the donation of more than £9 million-worth of kit and equipment including two Eurostar power cars provided by Alstom, and 400 metres of track from British Steel. The college has also developed its own Industry Advisory Group, to share advice on the latest developments and ensure their practices reflect what is needed in training. Support from the government, the

Department for Education, the Department for Transport, the Skills Funding Agency, HS2, Birmingham City Council, Doncaster Council, Greater Birmingham & Solihull LEP and the West Midlands Combined Authority has resulted in a total capital investment of £52 million into the two new buildings. But as the demand for apprenticeships continues to outstrip supply, leaders at the National College for High Speed Rail are appealing for more businesses to get on board. New partnerships Clair Mowbray, Chief Executive of NCHSR, said: ‘The National College for High Speed Rail is a gateway for learners to gain the skills that will be needed to take up a oncein-a-generation opportunity. ‘We are relying on business partnerships and a steady supply of apprenticeship opportunities with those businesses, to ensure the college can enable people across the country to acquire skills that will be needed to compete in the UK’s growing rail and engineering industries.’ Mrs Mowbray adds: ‘The learning experience at the National College for High Speed Rail is like no other on offer in Britain. Our learners engage and interact with fellow students and mentors using 4K touchscreen whiteboards, virtual and augmented reality headsets, and other digital learning aids. ‘This state-of-the-art learning experience


Helping to make a difference. If need, hardship or distress should arise, TBF is here to support its members, helping them to keep the wheels of the public transport industry turning. A wide range of financial, health and welfare benefits for those working in the public transport industry, helping to improve members’ work-life balance and reduce staff turnover for the employer.

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is enhanced further still through training on cutting-edge real-life equipment which is being supplied by leading businesses in the sector. ‘With the ability to learn in a real work environment on a former Eurostar power car which is set within a dedicated workshop consisting of rail track, railway bogies and overhead land equipment, learners can combine traditional learning techniques with the very latest digital technologies. ‘The industry is changing quickly and we’re offering a learning experience that can adapt to those changes.’ Employers linked to the college provide support in a variety of ways; by offering placements and apprenticeships; providing mentors; offering visits to their sites and depots for college learners; donating equipment; delivering guest lectures and sharing expertise to give learners at the National College for High Speed Rail access to the very latest thinking in the industry. All of this activity and more is allowing industry businesses the opportunity to equip and shape their potential future employees.

set by an independent trailblazer group and have been approved by the Department for Education. The apprenticeships offered by the college provide a unique route into the industry; one that develops skills relevant for today and readies people to work on high-speed rail. Attracting new young people into the industry is vital but through the training offered, support is also provided to those looking to retrain or up-skill. Increasing workforce diversity Compacting the exiting skills shortage, there is also a notable lack of diversity across the rail sector in particular. This is something the college will be working to address over the coming years. Currently women account for just nine per cent of the UK’s engineering workforce and the college is calling for further action to help tackle this issue and help attract more young female engineering talent into the industry.

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In these early stages, the college’s efforts are already seeing success, with more than thirty per cent of applications coming from women. The National College for High Speed Rail is targeting both young female and male school leavers as well as people looking to change their career and those looking to re-skill such as army re-settlers. It is keen to be recognised as the gateway to a once in a lifetime career opportunity to help create the future of the British rail network. As Britain embarks on revolutionising the rail industry with high-speed rail, this is a unique opportunity to collaborate with and reap the rewards of being involved in an institution which is pioneering this incredible journey. The National College for High Speed Rail heralds a new era in technical education and training and involving employers and businesses is pivotal to ensuring the UK has a workforce highly skilled enough to deliver HS2 and other major infrastructure projects. British Steel described their partnership with the college as giving them, ‘a great sense of pride’, and has committed to developing its association during a new dawn for the rail industry. Launching the National College for High Speed Rail from the Doncaster campus last October, former Secretary of State for Education, Justine Greening, emphasised the drive to transform technical education and develop the skills of the next generation and existing workforce. The National College for High Speed Rail is set to take the industry lead on this, giving employers the opportunity to help solve the skills gap the UK faces in engineering, construction, manufacturing and design. A dilemma which Britain cannot afford to ignore as it bids to invest billions in modernising its rail network. For more information about the National College for High Speed Rail visit www.nchsr.ac.uk

A comprehensive approach As the college offer develops over the next few years, there will be learning opportunities that span the disciplines of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM), in addition to specialist skills programmes and training. Courses will range from Level Three HE Diplomas in Engineering to Level Seven Masters Apprenticeship in Rail Engineering (Principal Engineer). At present, the college is particularly looking to partner with and support more businesses through its delivery of Level Four Higher Apprenticeships in High Speed Rail and Infrastructure, and Level Five Apprenticeships in Operations and Departmental Management. These apprenticeship standards have both been Rail Professional


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The near future of European Rail Kate Andrews, Creator and Co-Founder of award-winning Loco2, explains how Britain’s demand for links to Europe can be satisfied by rail

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ust ten years ago, booking anything but the simplest European train journey was complex and timeconsuming. Compared to flights, online rail booking was needlessly complicated, requiring inside knowledge (and a stiff drink!) to get right. Fast-forward to 2018, and thankfully for travellers, all that has changed. Travelling internationally by rail is now easier than ever. Customers can search online or on mobile apps, book, pay and download tickets via a simple user interface that works in the same way anywhere in Europe. With sleek, fast trains linking more city centres in hours, rail has become one of the fastest-growing travel sectors in Europe, with new operators and online competition driving prices down for customers.

With the direct service to Amsterdam launching in early April this year, the obvious next step is for Eurostar – or another train operator – to build new connections to other popular destinations for British travellers and holidaymakers

Improved European rail services With the direct service to Amsterdam launching in early April this year, the obvious next step is for Eurostar – or another train operator – to build new connections to other popular destinations for British travellers and holidaymakers. I envisage European rail connections will be developed even further in the next few years and will only continue to improve, making travel by train more popular. The convenience of a direct train is a huge incentive for first-time international train travellers, young families and seniors – many of whom are put off by journeys that include changing trains. Many travellers going through Paris currently opt to take the London-Lille route to bypass the French capital but for destinations in France’s south-west, that usually means a longer journey.

London to Bordeaux Recently, there have been rumours of a direct service from London to Bordeaux; an exciting prospect for British travellers visiting Southwest France by rail. Apparently, four infrastructure operators have met to discuss new high-speed rail links using the Channel Tunnel. The planning for this proposed route involves four international railway operators; SNCF Réseau, the infrastructure owner in France, corresponding to Network Rail; and Lisea, the firm which owns the new 188-mile highspeed line from Tours to Bordeaux, which opened in 2017. In terms of taking on the proposed route,

Rail Professional


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the most likely candidate is Eurostar but HS1 has been clear that it doesn’t have to be. The ‘Advance Planning’ consultation that’s currently underway hopes to identify an operator that can ‘get the route up and running in a couple of years’ so a pragmatic approach is what is needed to realise that ambition. Whichever operator does take on this route, it should be careful to learn from the lessons of TGV Lyria’s Lille-Geneva direct route that was launched in 2015 and axed just a year later. Although this service ran only to Lille, rather than continuing on to London, there were good connections tailored to Eurostar passengers travelling to/ from the UK. It fell down, in part because it was scheduled to run just four times per week, instead of every day, and subsequently failed to get onto the radar of travellers. Any London – Bordeaux operator should carefully consider scheduling and seasonality to make a real success of this fantastic opportunity. The fastest L’Océane TGVs on the highspeed line to France’s southwest run nonstop between Paris and Bordeaux. So, if speed is of the essence, a direct train makes the most sense. But if the goal is to entice British holidaymakers, the operator of any new service could consider intermediate stops in Tours for exploring the Loire Valley region, Poitiers for connections to La Rochelle (38 minutes), or Angouleme and the vine-covered countryside around Cognac. Since 2017, Bordeaux is just over two hours away from the French capital, with trains almost every hour in both directions. Linking this recently renovated high-speed line with London is a progressive and innovative approach from international rail operators that will soon make it even easier for passengers to get from A to B. The new proposed route would take just under five hours. Most travellers will be keen to see the price of the direct London to Bordeaux service, as this will play a large factor in making the decision on the type of transport mode they will choose. I’ve done my research and dug out some comparable fares for this journey below. • French Connection to Bordeaux that bundles Eurostar/TGV: £62 one-way, £100 return • French Connection to Lyon that bundles Eurostar/TGV: £62 one-way, £100 return • London to Amsterdam direct: £35 oneway • London to Lyon direct: £51 one-way, £90 return • London to Avignon direct: £55 one-way, £98 return. The journey from London to Bordeaux is around 500 miles, a similar distance from London-Lyon. So, I think that passengers could expect a fare that’s comparable to the London-Lyon direct service currently offered Rail Professional

by Eurostar. In the region of £51 one-way, £90 return. It’s much longer than the 250 miles to Amsterdam, so I wouldn’t expect to see £35 one-way fares to Bordeaux any time soon. Eurostar’s London-Amsterdam service was in the offing for ten years before it finally launched earlier this year. There is real demand from British travellers for these new international connections, so let’s hope this project comes to fruition more quickly. If operators can strike a deal to make the border and customs process less tedious on the return journey, this has the potential to become an exceptional way to visit the wine capital of the world.

Linking this recently renovated highspeed line with London is a progressive and innovative approach from international rail operators that will soon make it even easier for passengers to get from A to B. The new proposed route would take just under five hours Potential European destinations via rail HS1 has already suggested Geneva and Frankfurt as possible contenders for direct routes but my instinct is that they lack appeal for tourists. TGV Lyria’s previous attempt to link Lille and Geneva failed, and I’m still not convinced that it would work a second time around. There aren’t huge numbers of leisure travellers taking the train to Geneva as it is – skiers yes, during winter, but they’re headed further afield and already have the option of a direct train (during the day or overnight) during the ski season. Similarly, while Frankfurt certainly has some charm for tourists, it’s generally a business centre. Perhaps the route could be briefly sustained by the exodus of the financial sector from London (joke), but I don’t think it’s got the appeal to attract enough tourists to make the route sustainable. I’d argue for a direct service to Strasbourg, taking advantage of the existing LGV Est line. That high-speed route was extended to Vendenheim, just outside Strasbourg, in 2016 and halved the travel time between Paris and Strasbourg. That

journey is already just five hours 12 minutes with a chance of trains in Paris, so a direct train could perhaps bring the journey to four hours or less, making it a contender for a weekend break. Tackling the stigma of ‘train travel’ For many people in the UK, their experience of train travel is limited to the chaos of commuting – packed carriages, peak times, and high prices. This means that one of the challenges that we face at Loco2, as advocates of rail for leisure as well as the day-to-day, is changing this perception of train travel. Despite the advancements made to online rail booking, many people still choose air by default – going on holiday has become synonymous with taking a flight – but it doesn’t have to be that way. And thankfully, when it comes to comfort and convenience, the train wins hands down. With rail, your holiday starts as soon as you get onboard, and you can say goodbye to long queues, early check-ins, luggage limits and tedious security. We are promoting a ‘slow travel’ message in which we encourage travellers to relax and enjoy their entire rail experience, starting from the moment they step onto the train. Experienced travellers will agree that thanks to Eurostar, the train is the only civilised way to reach Paris or Brussels. Beyond those destinations, we’re competing with airlines. But now, thanks to new high-speed rail links across Europe, faster trains (with WIFI), better connections and easy online booking, rail is becoming the default option for more and more routes. As part of delivering this message, we have just published an industry-first report, entitled ‘The Great Train Comparison’. The report has been designed to showcase the fantastic facilities available on trains for all different types of travellers and is a celebration of the top performing train operators across the UK and Europe, based on the passenger experience they provide. The Great Train Comparison focuses on high-speed, long-distance daytime trains with journeys of at least 248 miles. We surveyed 16 European train companies which meet these criteria, gathering data on the range of facilities and services that each company offers to various categories of traveller. I must admit, whilst compiling this report, I’ve been impressed by the many innovations touted by a broad range of operators, each with the customer at its heart. These operators are really going the extra mile to accommodate their passengers, making them great ambassadors for rail. We hope by raising awareness of the benefits of train travel, we can encourage people to consider rail. Kate Andrews is Creator and Co-Founder of award-winning Loco2 – the UK’s only search and booking engine for domestic UK train travel that also covers Europe


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The impact of flooding on the UK transport system Whilst flooding is usually portrayed in the media as impacting upon residents in their homes, the effects are much more far reaching

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looding can create devastating consequences for infrastructure and transport systems. Travel is affected, impacting on both businesses and individuals and unfortunately the impact is not necessarily limited to the length of the flood, but can cause damage which takes months to repair. Overdevelopment Historically, railway lines were often constructed on low lying land which makes them particularly susceptible to flooding. This is further exacerbated by building on land near railways, reducing available drainage, resulting in water running off hardstanding and on to the lines. Careful review of planning applications is necessary to assess impact of such building. Floodwater can damage trains, cause electrical faults and destabilize the lines due to ballast washing away. Repair works bear on recovery time of rail networks, affecting the economy and hindering both businesses and the public. In the floods of 2014, the only rail line connecting the Southwest was severed at Dawlish, casing suspension of rail transport to the west of Exeter for more than two months. This not only caused more traffic on the roads, testing its capacity, but also caused concern for the West Country which could have been cut off should road flooding also have occurred.

and the majority of public transport was cancelled. Drivers were forced to abandon their cars either due to road closures or running out of fuel after severe hold ups. Not only were many homes flooded but £8 million of damage was caused to roads and pavements. A 2005 Department for Transport report estimated the road network was worth £62 billion, making it the country’s most expensive asset. Economic impact A 2014 report estimated that at peak times, flooding costs the economy around £100,000 per hour per major road affected. Not only is the economy affected directly by flooding of infrastructure, but indirectly too as disrupted traffic flow causes problems to businesses and increases emissions into the environment. A 2016 report on the London Underground states that 57 tube stations are at high risk of flooding, including some of the busiest such as Kings Cross and Waterloo. The London tube network facilitates more than 3.5 million passenger journeys daily across 270 stations, making it one of the busiest in the world. Flooding caused by heavy rain or burst water mains, poses safety risks for passengers and

employees not to mention the significant financial implications both to the tube and the wider economy. Tubes are often delayed by rainwater flooding and 2015 saw rainwater flooding cause line closures. Burst water mains reportedly cause problems an average of five times a year. A particularly expensive example occurred in 2012 when the Central line was closed between Mile End and Stratford, for 26 hours, costing £4 million when three million litres of water was sent down a ventilation shaft. Flooding effects are not restricted to the road and rail network. Airports may also fall victim to flooding. Gatwick Airport experienced disruption due to flooding of one of the terminal buildings affecting critical power and IT systems. Forced closure of the Port of Immingham occurred in December 2013 due to an east coast tidal surge overtopping the main dock gates, causing flooding to the port area. This too caused damage to essential electrical and IT installations disrupting operations for several days whilst repairs were carried out. According to The Environment Agency, the disruption caused by the 2012 floods to utility, transport and communication links, cost the UK economy

Proper drainage Flash flooding is the main cause of weather related problems affecting transport. This is particularly evident in built up areas where greater numbers of impermeable surfaces reduce drainage capability. Drains are unable to cope with surface water and often become blocked with debris, exacerbating the problem. On June 28 2012, 50mm of rain (equivalent to the average for the month) fell on Newcastle-upon-Tyne in a two-hour period, late afternoon when roads were busy with commuters and school collection. Some roads became unpassable, others experienced hours of slow moving traffic Rail Professional


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£82 million. They estimate the total cost of the 2012 floods to the UK economy to be nearly £600 million, £200 million of which came from the impact on UK businesses. Future flood risks The UK’s threat from flooding is likely to increase, with factors such as climate change, population growth, future development, and the way in which we manage our lands, all accelerating the issue. Transport networks are essential to both a national and global economy dependent on the movement of people, information and goods so measures need to be taken to minimise disruption and economic and social distress which flooding causes. Flash flooding inevitably puts extra demands on the emergency services who are required to deal with rescue and recovery operations, health and welfare, traffic disruption and may be restricted in their ability to reach emergency situations and expedite those in need to medical care. Whilst these extreme weather events appear ever more likely, it is important to ensure resilience measures are put in place to lessen the disruption. Being prepared is essential. Identifying potential flooding areas and having easily accessible and deployable resilience equipment, can reduce the damage flooding causes and improve flood resilience.

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Well trained responders need access to weather and flood alerts in the appropriate vicinities to ensure swift action. The importance of safeguarding electrical and IT installations is critical, either raising them to higher ground or protecting them with flood barriers, or defence schemes. Rapidly deployable flood barriers, such as the Water-Gate barrier can be used to help protect assets. Drains require regular monitoring and clearing, particularly in the autumn to ensure free drainage of water. Pumps or pumping stations may be necessary to remove or redirect water. As flooding has become more of a widespread issue, future construction projects should be carefully thought out to ensure they do not negatively impact upon the transport network, and where possible, future road and rail networks and electricity substations should be on higher ground. Flooding is the biggest threat the U.K faces as a result of climate change, but despite this, it is regularly overlooked or ignored. There hasn’t been a large-scale flood in the U.K for a few years now, resulting in funding being cut. This may mean awareness of flood risk will reduce even further. It is important that flooding remains high on the agenda, it can have huge social, economic and environmental impacts for all of us. Going forwards, we must work hard to raise awareness of flood risk, and better protect

our transport networks from the disruption flooding causes. About the Water-Gate The Water-Gate flood barrier is a temporary system which is unique in the way that once rolled out, it self deploys. It uses the weight of the water to hold the water back. The water lifts the top of the barrier whilst at the same time weighing the base down, forming a seal. By utilising this unique selfopening method, it reduces the time, effort and number of people required to install it, making this a truly rapid flood or water diversion barrier. Simon Crowther is the Founder and MD of Flood Protection Solutions, the UK’s sole distributor of the Water-Gate flood barrier

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Protecting bridge heritage Dave Holland, Engineering Director at Mabey, discusses the new temporary works techniques being developed to deliver projects more quickly, safely and efficiently

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any of the bridges, tunnels and viaducts that make up Britain’s railway network are from the Victorian era. Protecting and maintaining this rich and world-famous heritage is challenging, increasingly so in a rapidly changing and modernising nationwide rail system. In the last twenty years, the number of people travelling on the rail network has doubled, and maintenance improvement works on the network’s sensitive, critical structures is compounded by the need to conduct works promptly and with minimal disruption to passenger journeys. This is why that since 2017, Network Rail is spending £130 million every week on its Railway Upgrade Plan. Forming part of this national plan, Network Rail has monitored its bridges, tunnels and viaducts to assess structural integrity and confirm if repairs are required. One such historic structure – the 150-yearold River Artro viaduct in Gwynedd, Wales – was found to need immediate repair. The 100-metre-long timber viaduct comprises 16 spans on 17 trestles to support a single-track railway on a curved alignment. The works were needed to replace one of the viaduct’s old timber crossheads and accommodate growing passenger numbers on Cambrian coast’s Aberdovey to Pwllheli line. A new bridge lifting technique A new technique to replace this one-tonne timber crosshead beam was designed and successfully deployed to help speed up repair works and minimise disruption to the busy train service. Initially conceived by civil engineering and construction contractor Alun Griffiths, the technique was developed through a close partnership between Network Rail IP Engineering, their designer Cass Hayward, main contractor

Alun Griffiths, and the engineering team here at Mabey. The innovation sees an on-track temporary works system support the deck either side of the trestle (or bridge support) that contains the faulty crosshead. The system then lifts the deck, which is the surface of the bridge, so the crosshead can be removed and replaced without the complicated and time-consuming process of completely removing the track and deck structure. This also removes the need for any heavy lifting plant from either the river below or the track itself. The deck lifting system is made up of a series of upwards and horizontally spanning beams uniting various jacking and lifting arrangements, all easily and quickly manoeuvred into the required site.

The system is then driven into place with a road-rail vehicle to remove the loading from the defective trestle. This means the crosshead can be replaced with equipment that is no more complicated than chain blocks, beam skates and a floating pontoon. It’s all in the testing To ensure the new system worked without a hitch, Alun Griffiths commissioned a 3D scale animation based on computer-aided drawings. This both confirmed that the method from Mabey was clearly understood by all involved, and allowed for clash detection, so that any issues or potential clashes between trades could be rectified before the project began. The entire system was tested at Mabey’s facility in Garswood, near Wigan – we used ground anchors to simulate the deck and Rail Professional


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load indicators to check beam deflection based on expected deck weight. The crosshead replacement was a true success. Through testing and measurements, it was soon established that the system could easily be utilised to replace crossheads on similar viaducts in as little as a 54-hour weekend, so with minimal disruption to key week day trains. Future refinements to the system are already being discussed, which should allow replacement of piles as well as crossheads.

The success is perhaps most evident when you compare how complex and timeconsuming the works would have been if we had used more traditional methods. This would have required temporary works supported from existing piles that were then more likely to find themselves submerged by tides. It would also require a large excavator, or similar, adjacent to the structure to replace the crosshead. In the case of this viaduct, the excavator would need to be positioned in the water and the crosshead replaced during low tide due, so plenty of factors outside the team’s the control. An older technique would also have necessitated the use of a large 800/1000te nearby crane, which along with construction of a suitable site haul road and outrigger foundations, would have massively increased the project repair costs. The bridge lifting system not only negated this, it also near eliminated the risk of the operation not going ahead in the event of severe weather. The entire viaduct improvement works were conducted during a ten-day shutdown in October last year. As well as crosshead replacement, a further thirty structural timber members, a hundred new stainless steel structural straps and the abutment back-of-wall timbers were all replaced without issue or track removal.

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Defining the future Although the oldest and most congested in Europe, Britain’s network plays a vital role in everyday life, keeping families, friends and communities connected. As Network Rail submits its plans for the next five years, the system developed for the River Artro viaduct has paved the way to replacing crossheads on similar heritage structures throughout its timber bridge network. Perhaps most notably, it is now being considered for wider applications, including the upcoming refurbishment of Barmouth viaduct, the longest viaduct in Wales, where the savings in time and cost from using this system will be significant. Through collaboration, adaptive thinking and an innovative approach to engineering, this project shows how construction works can be delivered more quickly, safely and efficiently. Chartered engineer Dave Holland has been at Mabey for almost twenty years. In his role as Engineering Director, Holland is responsible for maintaining standards and aligning Mabey’s engineering services across six areas: groundworks, major projects, contract services (temporary bridging, building refurbishment and civils), development, instrumentation and digital engineering.


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Irish Rail With over 12 years’ experience under his belt, Irish Rail’s electronic repair facility Manager, Ray Holden talks about his views on internal maintenance and overhaul of electronic rolling stock systems. He also gives advice to newcomers and education providers and tell us what his experience with ABI Electronics’ test and repair systems has been like so far What can you tell me about your background in the rail industry? started in 2006 as a commissioner engineer with CAF, the Spanish rail manufacturer. I worked there for a year and a half, two years maybe. That project was finished and then I moved on. Irish Rail offered me a job where initially I would just do electrical fault finding as I knew all the systems from working with the manufacturer. So, it was a kind of an easy transition. We have come a long way since the time when I joined the company.

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Rail Professional

I understand that you set up the electronic repair facility at the Irish Rail. When and how did that come about? We had a big problem with parts availability back in 2007/08. Removing a failed part or component from a train meant it would be sent away, and you would not get that back for six to nine months. In the meantime, you wouldn’t have enough stock available, so trains were taken out of service. This was a very popular practice; to remove parts of one

train and put them into another to send that train into service. When you fill your day doing that, it’s soul-destroying. You learned to fix things and you know that’s not the way to go. So, what we started doing was getting our hands on parts, sometimes expensive parts, that were basically thrown in the bin or on the way out for external repair to see what we could do using our knowledge. Just as a part-time thing, mainly on nights. That process evolved over time. We started to see parts becoming available


INTERVIEW |

and, within a year, there were no parts being robbed from one train into another to send into service. Things grew from there. I put together a business plan and it was supported wholeheartedly by the Chief Mechanical Engineer and the fleet managers. They have totally bought into it. Why do you think internal repairs provide a better value for money for rail organisations and can you think of some examples? One thing about doing internal repairs is, number one, you’re going to get the components back in a timely manner. It’s far more cost-effective! But we’ve found out, as an added bonus, the more in-depth we were getting into every system, we were coming up with suggestions that actually make things better or create preventive maintenance routines based on some common failures that would have happened before. That was never, never done before. Usually, if something was failing, it was replaced at a huge cost. Now the cost has come down. We have a rolling average on our SAP system for our stores’ inventory and year on year that figure is coming down.

Looking to the future, how do you see the future of electronic repair in the rail sector? It has to get huge because obsolescence is always the issue. Supplier support, or lack of it, is always another big issue. So, it’s up to people to try and take this on themselves and do some internal repairs. There’s a big emphasis now, particularly at Irish Rail, to reverse some of the mentality from years ago where everything was outsourced. There’s a big push on trying to do more things internally now. At the end of the day, this will offer better value to the taxpayer. It makes complete sense to keep some things in house. As far as broadening the scope, I don’t see any reason to limit it but to expand it. But expand it with a view to improving what’s already there. That’s where the real business is. As far as electronics in the rail industry is concerned, we need to focus on improving what exists already. You are a big believer in giving chances to young people and developing new talents, what would be your advice to education providers

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We’ve found out, as an added bonus, the more in-depth we were getting into every system, we were coming up with suggestions that actually make things better or create preventive maintenance routines based on some common failures that would have happened before Rail Professional


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INTERVIEW |

I came from an electrical background and mechanical, and then electronics. All my previous experiences are used today in railway because there’s every facet of all those trades in this industry. So, I think it’s very important for a new apprentice coming into the business to have a very good understanding of electronics because that’s where the future is

and electronics students with regards to opportunities in the rail industry? The rail industry changed an awful lot. From your base trades, electricians to fitters, mechanics, body makers, it’s dramatically changed now. Companies prefer the ‘all-in-one’ type of technician, that’s the future. But more so now than ever, it’s quite important to get in and have a hands-on approach to electronics. I found that myself. I came from an electrical background and mechanical, and then electronics. All my previous experiences are used today in railway because there’s every facet of all those trades in this industry. So, I think it’s very important for a new apprentice coming into the business to have a very good understanding of electronics because that’s where the future is. You’ve been here at ABI Electronics for four days now, working hard going through our training. What has been your experience with ABI so far and can you tell me what led you to choose our test and repair systems? You know, this week has been a real eyeopener. We bought ABI’s BoardMaster and RevEng at the end of 2017. We have used

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it to only a very limited scope so far. We saved €20,000 thanks to the BoardMaster and that’s considering the PCBs that we repaired over the last two weeks alone. I have to say that after the training, I see a world of possibilities that are available to us. We are very, very enthusiastic about going back and creating something special using this equipment because we know its capability is absolutely colossal. We want to get the best out of it. A year ago, and after successfully using the ChipMaster for years – I love it by the way – I learned about the high-end products from ABI through LinkedIn, YouTube and your contact with the guys in the main office. I was blown away. The more research I did into ABI’s range, the more possibilities it presented. Can it do this… can it do that…? We intend on using the BoardMaster and RevEng as an integral part of all our repairs, using the SYSTEM 8 TestFlows and software to drive all our new repair in the future. Are you happy with the choice that you made? Delighted, absolutely delighted. And from here on out we go onwards and upwards. Rail Professional


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| INTERVIEW

Signalling the way ahead Sam Sherwood-Hale spoke to Andrew Swanson, recently appointed as Head of Engineering in the Rail team at Kier Group

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Tell us about your background in rail. have worked in rail signalling for 27 years, having started my career in South Africa and then moving to the UK in 2001. Most of my time I have spent managing signalling design, looking after a highly skilled and passionate team of design engineers. I have also been responsible for cross disciplinary interfaces which is vital for the success of any project. I am fully aware of the exciting future for the UK signalling industry and I want to remain at the forefront of it. Kier has ambitious growth plans for CP6 and having the correct structure and processes in place, enables us to meet demand. I wish to lead the way in maximising

efficiency and working more effectively across all disciplines. What excites you about the industry and its future? The rail industry has offered me a fantastic career, every day is different and provides individuals the opportunities to learn and develop. From the challenges of CP6 to maintaining and enhancing the existing infrastructure, through to the introduction of Digital Railway and the eventual rollout of Traffic Management Systems (TMS) and European Train Control Systems (ETCS), it continues to evolve. The Railway Upgrade Plan set out by Network Rail is the biggest investment programme in the railways since

Victorian times. Network Rail’s Chief Executive recently stated: ‘Not since the railway transformed from steam to diesel in the 1960s has a technological breakthrough held such promise to vastly improve our railway for the benefit of the millions of people and businesses who rely on it every day’. Digitisation is at the forefront of the rail agenda and I for one want to be a part of this pioneering chapter. Tell us about your role at Kier? My role as Head of Engineering for Kier is to manage cross-discipline interfaces and lead innovation to increase efficiency. We are already well-established, but we want to grow and we have some ambitious targets in place. The next Network Rail Control Period (CP6) presents some fantastic opportunities to grow our signalling business in conjunction with our power business thanks to additional capabilities from Kier’s recent acquisition of McNicholas. My role is to help staff achieve their personal goals and to meet our ambitious business targets. What’s more, I want to be part of an industry that is building and increasing network capacity through signalling solutions to help members of the public travel as effectively as is possible. Working with a highly motivated and passionate team that includes design, install, test, project management and project engineering, we can offer a complete solution to any railway signalling project. What do you consider the key elements to delivering a great signalling project? For me, the absolute fundamental element of delivering an excellent project, is always great teamwork. However, a great team needs leadership and within that is a clear definition of roles and responsibilities. The client is always key to successful

Rail Professional


INTERVIEW |

delivery with a clearly defined and agreed scope alongside a team that wants to be with you all the way to completion. Within signalling we are blessed with a discipline that is extremely varied and provides a constant source of learning and development. What kind of signalling projects has Kier worked on over the last few years? Kier has a strong, well-established signalling team that have an excellent record of tackling complex and technically challenging projects. We have primarily focused on minor signalling in the UK. Our range of expertise starts in GRIP3 project feasibility and extends right through to full design and build programmes concluding in GRIP8. We have considerable experience in signalling project management, design, build and value engineering from feasibility through to testing and commissioning and project close out. We have the competence to produce designs for all signalling disciplines within Network Rail. We also have experts in route relay interlockings (RRI), solid state interlockings (SSI), and all types of mechanical interlockings. Project successes include the East Suffolk Re-signalling, which replaced the RETB system with track circuit block, and the Balcombe Signalling Upgrade which was the replacement of the signal heads in this area and the provision of bi-directional signalling on both lines. How do you see the industry meeting the challenge of delivering extra network capacity through the existing infrastructure? We have an ever-growing passenger population and there are no signs of this

slowing down. Therefore, we have to be able to meet the demands of the modern-day rail traveller – so we need to ensure better connectivity and we have to enable more trains to run. The only way to do this is to work together as an industry – all stakeholders must join together and provide a collaborative approach that chooses the right solutions for each individual route. To do this, I believe benefits can be gained from a life extension approach to deliver a conventional signalling solution that provides acceptable cost benefits, reliability and maintainability. It’s key to find the right traffic management system (TMS) in all areas, to allow technology to assist with the operationally workload, particularly in times of perturbation. However, on the networks busiest routes it is also apparent that the Digital Railway has a huge part to play here, and it is exciting for the UK to finally want to roll out ETCS Level Two where needed, hopefully eventually moving to the huge capacity benefits of ETCS Level Three. The TOCs clearly want a signalling system that matches their time table aspirations, and we are seeing huge investment in new rolling stock. Signalling in the UK must keep up with this demand. Given the specialist nature of signalling, how do you see the industry being able to keep delivering projects through CP6 and beyond with a maturing workforce? It is true that we have a skills crisis facing all UK signalling companies. This is largely a result of an ageing workforce. Passing on what we learn through our own careers to the new generation is fundamental in order to preserve and pass on knowledge and skills.

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Rail is a fascinating industry and we have to attract more people in to it, with the correct focus on talent, inclusion and diversity being at the heart of this. Kier has long been an advocate of apprentice schemes, and our Rail team has benefited from drawing on this established programme by recruiting specialist apprentices such as Signalling Installers and Trainee Signalling Designers. To meet the resource demands of the future, by investing in early careers Kier launched its award-winning Shaping Your World™ campaign last year that aims to inspire generation Z (11 to 15-year olds) to work within the built environment. As part of this campaign, one per cent of our entire workforce will engage with 10,000 schoolchildren over 12 months. The response to the campaign has been exceptional, even Ministers have referred to it in speeches. BBC Radio 4 interviewed our Chief Executive about the report we commissioned to launch the campaign and we have thousands of visitors to our www. shapingyourworld.co.uk microsite that is full of interactive elements and details about working within our industry. Once we have the right people, leadership is absolutely at the heart of ensuring we retain first-class talent and given opportunities to develop and flourish and make a very real impact to the UK rail lines and the world we live in. To listen to our signalling careers podcast visit https://kier.uk/signallingcareerspodcast Andrew Swanson is Head of Engineering in the Rail team at Kier Group.

For more information on Kier’s rail capabilities, visit www.kier.co.uk/rail Rail Professional


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CYBER SECURITY |

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Data breaches and defenses James Barrett, Senior Director EMEA at Endace, explains why GWR should not be derailed following data breach

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he value of the UK’s rail industry has been a source of national debate since the system was built as a patchwork of local links operated by small private railway companies in the late 18th century. For some, it represents everything good about our industrial heritage, a manifestation of a world defining movement that has stood the test of time. For others, it is an unreliable, expensive and archaic network unfit for today’s socially-driven way-of-life. Yet, like it or not, it’s ours and, alongside the road network, is the entire system through which the lifeblood of UK plc. flows. Little surprise then that something so fundamental to our national livelihood has emerged as a target for global cybercriminals. For the sinister and disruptive, the opportunity to cripple an entire country is too good to resist and targeting national critical infrastructure is

how they’ll do it. The potential for damage in the rail industry alone is enormous – cost to the economy, the interception of sensitive information and individual safety for passengers. Make no mistake, a major breach could bring the UK to its knees. The greatest threat In order to best prepare for an attack we need to have some idea as to where it is going to come from. If we look further afield there are obvious potential threats. Recently, with tensions between Russia and the wider world continuing to escalate, UK intelligence services, the FBI and US Department of Homeland Security took the unprecedented step of publicly issuing a joint warning about a massive cyber campaign by Russian-backed hackers. But is this a surprise? For more tha a decade now, Putin’s regime has been

If we look further afield there are obvious potential threats. Recently, with tensions between Russia and the wider world continuing to escalate, UK intelligence services, the FBI and US Department of Homeland Security took the unprecedented step of publicly issuing a joint warning about a massive cyber campaign by Russian-backed hackers

associated with an increasing weaponisation of the Internet. Russia is not drinking alone in the bar of disrepute. For some years we’ve been seeing attacks such as the Shamoon attack on Saudi’s Aramco and Qatar’s Rasgas in 2012 which was suspected to have originated in Iran. And there is ample evidence of signficant state-sponsored hacking by countries including China, Syria, Iran and North Korea too. The sad truth of today is that attacks can originate from anywhere. Nor are targeted attacks by nation-state backed hackers the only danger to critical infrastructure. News of GWR’s breach comes less than a month before the anniversary of the WannaCry attack on May 12 2017 which, though not specifically targeted at the NHS, caused severe disruption there. More than a third of England’s NHS trusts were disrupted, with more than 6,900 NHS appointments cancelled. This graphically illustrates the chaos that can ensue from attacks on critical infrastructure and services. In the case of WannaCry, the disruption was an accidental byproduct of activity from attackers intent on other objectives. Similarly, the objective of the NotPetya virus originators of last year, which impacted parts of Ukraine’s infrastructure and damaged computers at banks and shipping firms, among others across the globe, was to obtain money by extorting money from its victims. In short, threats to critical infrastructure companies come from all angles. Detecting and defusing these threats is critical to protecting against the chaos that can ensue Rail Professional


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What makes the GWR case so interesting is its timeliness with respect to GDPR, which comes into force this month. As part of its response, GWR notified the information commissioner’s office and was proactive in notifying its customers by sending out an email – a tactic that has since been mistaken, somewhat ironically, as phishing from a successful attack – whether deliberate and targeted, or accidental. GWR: the poster child of data breach defense and response Unlike other high profile and well reported cases, where hackers have gained entry via outdated security systems or poorly chosen passwords, in the case of GWR the hackers took username and password combinations leaked from other hacked websites and services and used them to log into GWR.com accounts where the user had reused those same credentials. This is a common attack known as credential stuffing. A huge problem that many infrastructure companies face, which often makes them less effective in fighting against cybercrime, is that they are often dependent on legacy technology with complex dependencies. It is only in recent years that old manual systems have been ‘digitised’ and interconnected. Many of these systems were designed before the concept of a connected internet even existed and were certainly never designed with cybersecurity in mind. Critical infrastructure companies have mostly focused far more on physical security than cybersecurity. Which means they are often a long way behind companies in industries such as banking and retail when it comes to securing their systems from cyber-attack. And that is what makes GWR’s response to this breach more impressive. Only around one thousand accounts out of a possible one million were ‘directly affected’ by the attack. For the sake of clarity, that’s 0.1 per cent of GWR’s customers. This is because GWR was quick to recognise the fact that there was an automated login system trying out different passwords on its network. This is an example of high-quality security technology in action Rail Professional

– i.e. just enough activity to sound the alarm, which gets identified, investigated and the attack is shut down immediately. While not privy to the security solutions GWR is using, it seems likely it might include an AI-based system. The new normal What makes the GWR case so interesting is its timeliness with respect to GDPR, which comes into force this month. As part of its response, GWR notified the information commissioner’s office and was proactive in notifying its customers by sending out an email – a tactic that has since been mistaken, somewhat ironically, as phishing. I guess sometimes, you’re damned if you do and you’re damned if you don’t. GWR clearly used this opportunity to road test its GDPR response, which can only stand it, and its customers, in good stead moving forward. The fact still remains that despite being open, honest, and having not been at fault in this case, GWR is now in the public record as having suffered a breach, which will be the new normal for companies. Soon, consumer trust in businesses won’t be based on those that have been hacked versus those that haven’t. It will instead be driven by which companies best handled their response to an attack. Case for the defence What this means for the rest of the UK’s infrastructure is clear. There’s no way to block every potential threat at the perimeter. Trying to do so will just result in security analysts becoming overwhelmed by the sheer volume of monitoring systems they need to deploy and floods of false positive alerts that mask real issues. This means there is an urgent need for an early warning system that can actively feed on intelligence sources and systematically, in an automated fashion, carry out measures to reduce the risk of intrusion and the chaos that could result. Today, organisations must accept that traditional defences like firewalls and anti-virus software are simply not enough. Emphasis needs to shift from focusing on trying to block attackers to recognising protection simply can’t always be one hundred percent effective. What’s needed is intelligent and rapid detection, containment and mitigation that starts as soon as an attack begins. That means having first class, automated threat and security intelligence capabilities that can manage the deluge of potential problems – sorting real threats from the background noise of systems and network operation; freeing up security analysts to deal with the real problems as quickly and efficiently as possible. It is also critical to collect and analyse the data that security teams need to accurately detect, investigate and respond to attacks. One of the most valuable sources of data comes from ‘packet capture’ – namely intercepting data that is

crossing or moving over a specific computer network. Many organisations use packet capture in an ad-hoc manner, initiating packet capture after an event – such as a network slowdown or some suspicious activity – has happened. The hope is that this will capture further evidence of what has taken place. But in a security context that’s simply not sufficient. In a smash-and-grab attack, the attacker can be long gone before packet capture is set up. Ensuring that the packets relating to an event are captured as that event happens requires what is known as ‘full’, or ‘continuous’, packet capture. With full packet capture in place on the network, organisations effectively have a black box recorder for their network. Should a breach occur, that black box data can provide insight into when it occurred, how it happened, where the attackers broke in and what they took. Having visibility into, and understanding of, this type of information is also critical in closing down any network vulnerabilities and preventing further damage in the future. After all, how rail companies update defences quickly to meet new threats will be one of the key weapons in the fight against cybercrime. One of the reasons our infrastructure is so at risk is a lack of qualified security personnel and historic underinvestment. Within two years there will be more than one and a half million security jobs unfilled globally, meaning that there simply aren’t enough resources in the UK to cope with the growing threats facing our critical infrastructure. Before the digital era, it was relatively simple to prevent and stop attacks, but now it’s much harder. Especially so given the volume and variety of threats. Are we on track to protect our rail infrastructure? The politicisation and weaponisation of cyberspace has been inevitable. While a concerted national strategy to ensure resilience is underway, we cannot escape the fact that our lives are now so dependent on digital systems of all kinds that a successful cyber attack could pose a significant risk of disruption and damage. And this is where the rail industry can write itself a new chapter in its history. It’s safe to say an attack is coming. The industry can prepare by putting in place intelligent defences to contain the threat, minimise damage and prevent repeat attacks in the future. Or, it can be caught flat-footed, facing the prospect of rectifying massive damage and disruption. Once again, the image of UK’s rail industry can be a symbol of national pride or just another failing for those doubting the capability of the industry to evolve and embrace change. James Barrett is Senior Director EMEA at Endace


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SIGNALLING |

The Digital Railway: the major project Lucy Prior explains why the complex but necessary shift in signalling technology is of particular interest to the Rail Alliance and its members

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o over simplify, the concept of a digital railway refers to the shift from trackside to onboard signalling systems that in turn will increase capacity and thus enable more vehicles to move more people and goods. To go deep into the depths of the digitalised railway, the theory behind and the practicality in its rollout requires us to step out of our local or direct supply chain and recognise that this is an international opportunity. An opportunity that is about much more than running a greater number of trains; the digitalised railway has the potential to impact upon all of our lives with far reaching socioeconomic consequences. A major project At the international level the digital railway is a pan-European project and opportunity and is also already well established internationally with scope to be a genuinely global project in time. The UIC (The Worldwide Railway Association / Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer) sets it out beautifully: ‘European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is an EU major European industrial project to enhance cross-border interoperability and signalling procurement by creating a single Europe-wide standard for railway signalling with the final aim of improving the competitiveness of the rail sector.’ The rail sector is awash with acronyms and it is far too easy to interchange and thus confuse one abbreviation for another – for those of you reading this that are not fluent with signalling jargon the relationship between ‘layers’ of ERTMS, according to the UIC, is as follows: 1. GSM-R: Global System for Mobiles – Railway. The shift from analogue to digital driver/signaller communications 2. ETCS: European Train Control System. Shifting trackside signalling into the driver

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cabin, this is the train-control element of ERTMS and includes Automatic Train Protection (ATP), a key benefit being that the driver can concentrate on core tasks 3. ETML: European Traffic Management Layer - the operation management level intended to optimise train movements by the ‘intelligent’ interpretation of timetables and train running data, helping us truly achieve ‘smart mobility’. Safety in signalling The importance of this to us in our everyday lives is the intrinsic link between signalling and human safety. Network Rail is rightly proud of the fact that we in the UK have the safest railway in Europe, and to fully adopt and adapt to ERTMS will arguably only bolster our safety records further. In June 2017 at the Single European Rail Area (SERA) Convention in Brussels the EU Transport Commissioner, Violeta Bulc emphasized that: ‘ERTMS is a cornerstone of digitalising the rail sector and essential for achieving a single and safe European Railway Area.’ At a recent Rail Alliance networking event that I chaired I was honoured to speak alongside senior experts from across the UK rail signalling market. One of the keynote presentations was given by Stuart Calvert, Group Digital Railway’s Technical Services and Supply Chain Director, at Network Rail. We delved in to the need and technology of ERTMS and Digital Railway but what struck me was the human benefit of the technology. Stuart explained that: ‘Not only will digital train control improve safety for passengers, it will make working conditions safer for operational and maintenance staff too. Removing much of the maintenance heavy lineside infrastructure will reduce the amount of time workers spend trackside in all weathers, often in dangerous conditions.’ The diagram below, delivered at the same event by Digital Railway, perfectly illustrates the symbiotic relationship between technology and human safety and capability. Digital Railway and the three sublayers of ERTMS are all represented in their individual capacities and the importance of skills and capability enabled by telecoms and data provide irrefutable evidence that ERTMS is about much more than ‘just’ capacity. Even without listing statistical evidence (of which there is plenty at unife.org and ertms.net) it is evident that the benefits of digital railway control within ERTMS is far reaching in terms of the safety of passengers and railway workers, but that the digital railway also offers many direct and indirect socio-economic benefits. The wider opportunity To reinforce the above assertion is the simple fact that ERTMS is deployed well outside the geopolitical boundaries of the EU. This ‘major project’ has the potential to drive economic growth through improved Rail Professional

freight journeys and enhanced connectivity between regions and cities, supporting the drive for better social mobility regionally and internationally. The Rail Alliance recognises that as well as capacity and connectivity that safety is a crucial element and immediate benefit of digital railway control. We are therefore working closely with Network Rail’s Signalling Innovation Group (SIG) again to demonstrate the latest technology and collaborations in the UK signalling supply chain at Rail Live in June (20-21). With over thirty key companies, listed below, from across the international railway signalling supply chain Rail Live will enable the wider rail community to engage with and learn first-hand about the need for and capability of the digital railway. Rail Live and the SIG are keen to welcome all interested parties to come and learn more about the step change that is happening in our railways right now. For more details please visit raillive.org

About the Rail Alliance The Rail Alliance is the UK rail sector’s largest dedicated business to business networking organisation and it excels in and thrives upon bringing customers, suppliers and supply chain opportunities together. Its broad spectrum of membership extends way beyond pure rail and positions the Rail Alliance as the go-to membership organisation in the UK to nurture diversity, ingenuity and innovation across the rail sector and cross-sector.


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SIGNALLING |

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Digital Rail – factoring in the humans The digital revolution has impacted music, TV and navigation, and many things in the modern world

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ow it is the turn of the railways. Not only is digital rail the ‘next big thing’ in the UK’s rail network, it marks a new era that could see unprecedented levels of reliability, efficiency and safety. The technology is being used to make significant and substantial improvements to the operation of the UK’s railways, and do away with the analogue challenges of the past. But, as with any changes in technology, the impact on people will be significant, and to maximise the benefits it is important to gain an understanding of how those changes will impact on the humans that operate the system. The impact of digital rail will be on four key areas:

New organisations/ structures always need to be communicated carefully to the people they impact; it is essential to involve them in the creation of that structure to create a sense of buy-in and genuine excitement about the potential of the technology to support what they do

• • • •

Train planning, resourcing and pathing Traffic control Signalling Incident and failure management.

The impact matrix Whilst digital railway technology will be the enabling technology to support the four areas, there are additional technologies related to train protection systems (ETCS) and others that will provide the building blocks on which to base the Traffic Management System. The successful implementation will allow increased network capacity and time efficiency, reduce operational delays and costs and improved safety and incident management over the network. This should mean an efficient and affordable rail system with increased passenger satisfaction and profitability. One of the key issues is to appreciate that this is a system that includes both technology and people, and success will come from understanding how they can best work together. Although there are standard systems and products available, it seems that each implementation of digital rail is bespoke for the area or country. So, there is no ‘handbook’ for the way in which the ‘man and machine’ can be harmonised to best effect. Whilst the implementation of digital railway will vary, understanding and designing systems to support the role of people in the system can be addressed through standard human factors methodologies. Of course, the picture is made more complex because many of these issues are interrelated, so the ‘matrix’ of impacts need to be addressed from the start. The earlier human factors thinking is incorporated into the Concept of Operations, the more likely there is to be a successful outcome.

Signalling success There are many areas where human factors will determine the success of the rollout of digital railway that operators need to consider. First is the TM Operator Organisation. TMS is usually accompanied by a new organisation or structure and accompanying role changes. New organisations/structures always need to be communicated carefully to the people they impact; it is essential to involve them in the creation of that structure to create a sense of buy-in and genuine excitement about the potential of the technology to support what they do. Any changes to the signaller role needs careful consideration; expectation of their responsibility varies from TM system to system. In all cases, they have a safety of the line duties. But in some systems, train regulation becomes the responsibility of a ‘Dispatcher’, and the signaller takes no part in planning. The HF issue to be considered is who negotiates and resolves in the Plan the views of all parties (Ops, RUs, Maintenance). To maximise TM benefits, the area of control needs to be on a network level rather than a small area. Small areas have the potential to create problems at the boundary either with an area with a different TMS or an area with no TMS. Another human issue is that if the area is sufficiently simple, so the user can manage without using the TMS, then overriding the system can become the norm. Concerning TM Migration, the implementation of any new system in any organisation is always difficult as people must be trained and become skilled in how to use the system to its best effect. TMS is usually introduced line by line or by adding areas, so initially the demand on the TM organisation is unrealistically low, and the ‘Tipping point’ can creep up unexpectedly, with a manual approach continuing to be Rail Professional


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Key issues Signalling staff – what is their role and function; how do you get them to buyinto the new system, and how do you train them to maximise the benefits of TMS Transitions – how do you manage the process of transition to build understanding, trust and engagement Workload – how do you ensure that there is sufficient resource for the ongoing workload, as well as ensuring there is capacity in times of critical incident Building trust – what steps are required to create trust in the new system from the outset Structure - what structure is required and how do you transfer staff to new roles and what new skills are required

used and the TM not being exercised to its full potential at the point at which it would become useful. When it comes to automation the question to ask is: ‘Is the centralised TM plan understandable by everyone who needs to understand it?’ Again, the signaller is central to this; if

the TM plan has been de-conflicted prior to the trains entering the signaller’s area of control, it is important that they can see the merits of the plan and let the ARS route the train according to it. Working models Predicting workload is very difficult, so the new organisation roles need a capacity statement with TMS demand defined and roles allocated. Normal working demand will be determined by traffic density, infrastructure capability and train performance, but this will vary enormously when there is a critical incident. The challenges for human factors include the need for sizing control rooms and workplaces at an early stage of development, also the planning of migration and training of staff. TM uses a dynamic model to predict the effect of changes to the plan. Using ‘what-ifs’ may well be a valuable tool in gaining timely stakeholder agreement about the causes of conflicts and finding and agreeing on the best solution Finally, consider TM Acceptance and Validation. TMS solutions need to be feasible and trusted, and results in line with predicted outcome quality. This revolves

around the quality of data, poor data reduces trust and encourages TM operators to go manual and in doing so, deviate from the plan. TMS technology covers a wide range of functions, and the implementations differ considerably. The challenge is that too often the Operations Concepts do not include many of the human factors issues. If the investment in TM is to be worthwhile, operators need to give the system a chance to operate as intended. CCD’s experience shows that to optimize technology, people and processes, HF implications need to be stated clearly in Operations Concept from the outset.

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TRAMS |

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Return of the tram David Walmsley reports on the latest tramway developments around the country, based on reports from the LRTA Annual Officers’ Conference held recently in Edinburgh

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here are currently seven modern tramways in Britain, in Manchester, Sheffield, West Midlands, Croydon, Nottingham, Blackpool and Edinburgh. Together with the two light rail systems in Tyne and Wear and London Docklands, they carry 274 million passengers a year, about sixth as many as the entire rail network. Modern tramways have proved very effective in France, Spain and other countries, and in Dublin the Luas tramway goes from strength to strength. Transport professionals recognise that trams provide fast, frequent, high-quality public transport that shifts large numbers of people in busy urban corridors. Surveys show that around twenty to twenty-five per cent of the passengers on a tram are former car travellers, so trams are good at attracting people from their cars, much more so than bus rapid transit. Trams are accessible to mobility-impaired passengers. They do not produce pollution in the street, neither from exhaust emissions nor from the mixture of brake, tyre and road surface dust produced by all rubber-tyred vehicles. Trams can contribute to a pleasant, car-free cityscape (as in Grenoble and Bordeaux), they attract investment and can provide a catalyst for urban development and regeneration (see London Docklands or Salford Quays), and they provide a permanent statement of a city’s political will and confidence in itself. Trams have fewer accidents than cars. One cannot ignore the horrific incident in Croydon in 2016 when, due to a lack of awareness by the driver, a tram took a bend much too fast, derailed, and seven passengers lost their lives. But it should be remembered that these were the first passenger fatalities on any modern tram system in the UK. As with all train and tram accidents, the Croydon accident has been thoroughly investigated and lessons learned

to ensure that, as far as humanly possible, it does not happen again. So, what’s not to like? Well, tram systems are undoubtedly expensive and require considerable investment in infrastructure. Their substantial fixed costs mean they work best in busy urban corridors with large flows of passengers. Sometimes tramways are over-engineered with heavy, rail-like construction, and it is also true that the construction phase of a tramway is disruptive to traffic, but so are most major city-centre construction projects, and the effect can be reduced by careful design and management.

New battery technology Some say: why have a tram when a bus will do the job just as well? Buses are effective over a wide range of scenarios, but on a busy route buses are limited to about three thousand passengers an hour, whereas a tram system can carry ten thousand an hour or more. Trams also last two or three times longer than buses. So, buses and trams are both components of an efficient public transport system. A number of technical developments are emerging which might reduce the cost of tramways and encourage their wider use. One of these is tram-train, whereby a vehicle

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can run on-street like a tram or on the railway like a train. There can be problems of course, but they are not insurmountable. There is a pilot scheme under way in Sheffield to link the existing Supertram network over the railway into Rotherham. The new vehicles are in service now and will run into Rotherham later this year. New forms of propulsion are becoming available. Battery-powered trams operate in a number of European cities, such as Nice and Seville; they use conventional overhead wires in the suburbs, and switch to batteries in the historic city centre where wires might not be acceptable. In Bordeaux, the same effect is achieved with APS (alimentation par sol), a ground-level electricity supply which is only energised when a tram passes over it. Other technologies such as supercapacitors and hydrogen fuel cells are being developed. What developments might we see in British tramways over the next ten years or so? Here we see an interesting difference: almost every existing tramway is successful and extending its network, but in spite of plans in many other cities, there are no definite developments. We start with the existing networks. Manchester Metrolink has recently completed its ‘Big Bang’ expansion and now has nearly 62 miles of track. An extension to the Trafford Park industrial estate and Trafford Centre is under construction Sheffield Supertram will shortly open its extension to Rotherham West Midland Metro has ‘Big Bang’ plans of its own. The extension from Birmingham Snow Hill through the city centre to Grand Central (New Street station) is being further extended to Centenary Square and on to Edgbaston. Trams will use battery power on the first section. In Wolverhampton, the line is being extended to the railway and bus stations. Further extensions to Birmingham Eastside (to link with HS2), to Birmingham International and the airport, and to Brierley Hill from Wednesbury, are planned London (Croydon) Tramlink has several possible routes for extensions, as envisaged in the Mayor’s Transport Strategy. The likely first development is a line to Sutton. Nottingham Express Transit has recently opened two major extensions, one to Beeston and Chilwell, and one to Clifton, more than doubling the track length to just under 19 miles. An extension of the Chilwell line to an HS2 interchange at Toton is under consideration. There are proposals to extend this line into Derby via Pride Park, and a future link to East Midlands Airport is possible. Blackpool Tramway, which dates from 1885, was completely renovated in 2012 with new infrastructure and vehicles. Two new vehicles have recently been purchased to meet rising demand, and a half-mile extension to the town’s main railway station is under construction. Some of the former historic vehicles have been retained and provide a popular heritage tour service. An Rail Professional

extension to Lytham St Annes using tramtrain vehicles is proposed. Edinburgh became the first Scottish city with a modern tramway in 2014. Plans for a three-mile extension to Leith and Newhaven are expected to be approved during 2018. As far as new tramways are concerned, there are various proposals in many other cities, but in the current economic climate probably only a few will be built over the next ten years. Below we summarise the most promising possibilities covered at the Edinburgh Conference. New prospects Leeds, Liverpool and Bristol are among the largest cities in Europe without trams. Currently, only improved bus services are under discussion. A promising proposal in Leeds is for tram-trains to operate from the city centre onto the railway to Leeds/ Bradford Airport and possibly to Harrogate. Bristol is currently developing a ‘Metrobus’ bus rapid transit solution. There is a plan for a tramway in Bath with a link to Bristol. On thesouth coast there is a proposal to introduce light rail or tram-train on the Southampton to Eastleigh corridor, and to Fareham, which could be extended into Portsmouth. On the Isle of Wight, South Western Railway is considering replacing the ex-Underground vehicles, possibly with light rail stock with street-running in Ryde. Northwest England has proposals for a tramway in Preston using light vehicles, and one in Warrington with possible links into Liverpool and Manchester. Glasgow already has extensive suburban rail, and its subway is being modernised. The Glasgow Airport Rail Link (GARL) is planned to connect Glasgow Central via Paisley to the airport with tram-train vehicles. Cardiff has plans to convert the Valley Lines rail

network to Metro-style operation. London is well served by public transport. The Docklands Light Railway and the Overground have been enormously successful, and Crossrail and Northern and Bakerloo line extensions are in the pipeline. But London still needs local highcapacity transport. Oxford Street is one of the busiest and most polluted streets in the country and buses are slow. A tramline could transport people more swiftly and create a pleasant, safe pedestrianised environment. The Cross-River Line proposal, sadly not being pursued, would have seen trams along the busy corridor from Waterloo to Euston and Kings Cross. London also has a number of district centres similar to Croydon which are transport, shopping and employment centres in their own right, such as Stratford or Richmond/Kingston, where a tramway could be effective. Many other cities have plans for tramway and light rail lines, but the current economic climate is not favourable. However, with the increasing devolution of transport planning powers to local partnerships and combined authorities, and increased involvement of private funding, more local funding could become available. The next decade might see some of these schemes coming into operation. David Walmsley is an LRTA Council Member and a member of the tramway industry body UKTram. He represents the United Kingdom on the European Urban Tram Forum and was formerly Fixed Track Executive at the Confederation of Passenger Transport.

The Light Rail Transit Association (LRTA) is an international organisation which campaigns (as TramForward) for better fixed-track public transport, in particular tramways and light rail.


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ELECTRIFICATION |

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Electrification and the potential for South Wales

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he outcome of the Wales and Borders Franchise is hotly debated in Wales. From the initial announcement by the Welsh Government of the franchise, then the formation of Transport for Wales in early 2016, the announcement of four bidders in late 2016 only to lose two bidders along the way, each step is met with growing interest. We are now days away from hearing who the new bidder will be. Uniquely to franchises in the UK, the Wales and Borders Franchise winner specifies what infrastructure improvements will be delivered and how the South Wales Metro will be shaped. So as the winner is announced the public in South Wales will also learn what they can expect from their future metro. Also, those in Swansea and North Wales will understand a bit more what they can expect from future similar Metro deals. Electrification has barely been out of the news since the inception of the UK’s national electrification programme and the subsequent delays and spiralling cost on Great Western. What has been less clear to the public is the local benefits electrification can bring. With a new train operator soon to be announced in Wales, we believe that now is the time to reiterate what can be achieved through electrification and what lessons can be learnt from Great Western electrification. Electrifying the Valleys If you travel through the Cardiff Valleys by road or by rail, you will notice that there is a huge demand for transport. People travel between the region’s universities and colleges, to big industry such as GE’s large facilities in the area, or to the media hub and Welsh Government on Cardiff Bay. The Valleys are constrained by topography and act as natural funnels down to Cardiff; this means in the morning and evening peak there are long traffic jams on the roads and

crush loading on the trains. This constrains economic development and is a drain on human potential. There is a clear and palpable feeling in South Wales that things need to improve in order to increase the region’s connectivity and improve its economy. In May, as part of the work of the Campaign to Electrify Britain’s Railway I spent some time on the platforms of Taffs Wells Station on the Merthyr Tydfil and Aberdare branches. I saw how busy the platforms were all day long despite Taffs Wells only being a small town. I also watched the slow diesel Sprinters chugg their way by, picking up passengers as they ambled along. In the past year, I have met businesses and employees from all over South Wales and the Cardiff Valleys. From companies using additive manufacturing machines to create human medical implants, Chinese IT companies setting up UK offices in South Wales, aviation companies and of course railway companies. These hi-tech industries hope to transform South Wales, what a contrast with the current diesel Sprinters making their way across the Cardiff Valleys. Ken Skates, the Cabinet Secretary for Economy and Transport, wrote to me last month confirming that there was £120 million set aside for electrification of the South Wales Metro in a rolling programme. If ever there is a project that might succeed it is one that is based on a steady rolling programme. If we compare the difficulties of Great Western to the Scottish electrification programme, we can see the stark contrast. In Scotland, they have been quietly and steadily building electrification and delivering benefits for passengers. Scotland is approaching the magic ratio of £1 million for every thousand metres of electrification that the original business case for a national electrification programme was based on. Compare this to Great Western, which

had an ambitious programme deadline and has been chasing time ever since, resulting in rising costs. The scale and difficulties that the Great Western programme has overcome are immense, but it has come at a cost. The benefits will be there for passengers now and in the future, but right now it leaves a bitter taste. There is still a business case for electrification; the resent National Audit Office report confirmed this. Electrification projects had been cancelled due to cost not due to diminishing benefits. Now is a good time to reiterate those benefits: Environment: tackling local air pollution issues, but also support wider climate change goals Reliability: electrification has improved reliability compared to diesel trains, and reduces wear on track Metro Service: new services require faster trains, faster acceleration, more frequent trains for a new timetable these can only be delivered by electric trains Reducing road use: modern, fast, frequent and reliable trains attract people out of cars.

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Universal benefits The benefits are not just limited to local passengers. As I stood at Taffs Wells Station, I saw lorries from local fabricators carrying electrification gantries heading towards Great Western. Those local fabricators are looking for the next project after Great Western. I also travelled to Coleg y Cymoedd, the phenomenal local college in the area. While there I visited their state-of-the-art electrification training centre, waiting to train the next generation of apprentices for installation and also maintenance. Money spent on upgrading infrastructure through

UE G W! LO O TA E N A C L EE LAB R F AI AV

electrification is generally spent locally. As I travel around the UK I am often asked about how we can prevent cost increases on Great Western reoccurring elsewhere. I look to success stores around the UK and Europe. I have discussed both with teams in Scotland but also a dozen electrification companies around Europe and common themes have arisen. Most European electrification is delivered cost-effectively by counties that have a slow and steady rolling programme of electrification. This means managers, engineers and installation teams build skills steadily and lower unit costs year-by-year. Experience and knowledge take years to develop but evaporate in the boom and bust cycles of UK electrification. South Wales Metro electrification programme be delivered cost-effectively, by

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following the lessons learnt of hundreds of other successful programmes across Europe: • A steady rolling programme; sensible dates, sensibly planned • Chose technology that is appropriate for the Valleys, discontinuous electrification needs to be considered for those areas that would otherwise drive higher costs • Train local people to build and then subsequently maintain the railway • Rationally sequence work once the final plan for the Metro is known • Align the goals of the TOC, the infrastructure companies and Transport for Wales. We believe that South Wales Metro can be a beacon for the region and the world. A modern metro can provide the economic spark for the region. Electrification can bring real tangible benefits for the passengers and the region. About the Campaign to Electrify Britain’s Railway The Campaign to Electrify Britain’s Railway is campaigning to create a rolling programme of electrification on Britain’s Railway in order to double the percentage electrified by 2040. For more information, please contact them by email: info@railwayelectrification.org


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Proven Capability Eldapoint specialise in the manufacture of Re-Locatable Equipment Building’s (REB’s) all manufactured to the BR1615D specification or bespoke to meet your specific requirements. We also manufacture Specialist Housings, Fire Rated Cabins, Blast Resistant Units, Welfare Units, Shower Blocks, Toilet Blocks, Canteen/Mess Units, Secure Stores, Changing Rooms, Modular Buildings, Sleeper Units and Portable Accommodation, all the above can be manufactured to our standard specification or your own corporate specifications. We are an accredited ISO 9001 2015 company and RISQS approved for the supply of REB’s to the Rail Sector.

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Eldapoint, specialise in the manufacture of Re-Locatable Equipment Building’s (REB’s) all manufactured to the BR1615D specification or bespoke to meet your specific requirements.

We also manufacture Modular Equipment Housings (MEH’s) Specialist Housings, Fire Rated Cabins, Blast Resistant Units, Welfare Units, Shower Blocks, Toilet Blocks, Canteen/Mess Units, Secure Stores, Changing Rooms, Modular Buildings, Sleeper Unit and Portable Accommodation, all the above can be manufactured to our standard specification or your own corporate specifications. We are an accredited ISO 9001;2008 company and RISQS approved for the supply of REB’s & MEH’s to the Rail Sector.

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BUSINESS PROFILE |

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Flood defence wall made from Legato blocks In November 2017 Elite was contacted by Glyn Ellis, Field Team Leader at the South Ferriby Depot of the Environment Agency (EA) with a request for a large number of Legato blocks

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he EA had a need to construct a temporary flood defence wall in North Lincolnshire and it was looking for companies who could supply high quality, high strength blocks which didn’t contain any recycled materials. However, the EA needed over 500 blocks to be supplied within a matter of days which would be used to protect the properties in North Lincolnshire from flooding. As Elite keeps over 800 blocks in stock and is experienced in delivering large amounts of blocks over short periods of time it was the ideal choice. As soon as the order was placed Elite began to dispatch the blocks to the EA’s yard in South Ferriby and Glyn’s guys were reported to be some of the best at offloading blocks that Elite’s drivers had ever seen. The whole off-loading process is made safe and simple by the fact that each block has its own cast in lifting pin anchor – so for off-loading all that is required is a suitable machine with a chain and hook. Once all 500 blocks had been delivered, Glyn’s team set about placing the blocks in strategic locations designed to prevent flood waters inundating local houses and businesses.

Then, just a few days the later the walls were in place and ready for the late autumn storms that were set to batter the Lincolnshire region. As Elite’s blocks are so durable – the company will be ready to deploy at a moment’s notice for any other EA requirements in North Lincolnshire and Elite is on permanent standby for any other requirements anywhere else in the UK. Elite Precast Concrete offers a wide choice of blocks and barriers for a huge variety of applications. Tel: 01952 588885 Email: sales@eliteprecast.co.uk Visit: www.eliteprecast.co.uk Rail Professional


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Safety should always come first Philip Heathcote, Bid Director at UK Power Networks Services explores the different factors that are essential to safety

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afety is the most important element of any project; however, it can only be achieved through unrelenting focus, extensive programmes and training for colleagues and clients and a culture where safety always comes first. Safety is at the core of UK Power Networks Services. The company designs, builds, finances and maintains electrical infrastructure, which presents inherent risks to the safety of its people, clients and the public who use those services. Not only does UK Power Networks

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Services manage the risks associated with working with electricity, but it also delivers for clients in the most complex and challenging environments every day. The company has achieved an exceptional safety record whilst working on Europe’s busiest runways, trackside on the UK’s fastest mainline railway, at nuclear sites and at military facilities. HS1 UK Power Networks Services shows leadership in health and safety. The achievement of over two and a half million working hours across the business, and

more than seven years providing the traction power to High Speed 1 without a single lost time injury proves the company’s commitment and relentless focus on safety. UK Power Networks exceptional safety record on High Speed 1 and across the rest of the business isn’t down to luck – it is a result of robust electrical safety rules and procedures, sophisticated safety programmes and a safety-first culture that permeates everything the organisation does. UK Power Networks Services’ innovative design of the power distribution systems on High Speed 1 included system resilience to allow planned maintenance to be


BUSINESS PROFILE |

undertaken during the working day. This has reduced risk and improved safety outcomes, contributing to maintenance goals and achieving a culture of safety through continuous improvement and learning.

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Safety status quo The organisation’s Stay Safe programme is designed to challenge beliefs about safety, helping individuals and teams to make better choices. This programme also encompasses clients in the development of plans which can improve the safety performance in their organisations, ensuring a safety-first culture extends throughout the ecosystem of clients and contractors. Continuous improvement has tackled safety through design, implementing rigorous safety practices and learning from incidents, hazards and near misses. In order

UK Power Networks Services implements the ‘Your Energy’ programme to focus on the consequences energy levels can have on performance and safety. The programme brings tools and techniques which are pragmatic and accessible and help teams to improve energy levels and exercise safety through improving physical and mental fitness, diet, hydration, rest and recovery for safety programmes to be successful, managing health and wellbeing must also be addressed. UK Power Networks Services implements the ‘Your Energy’ programme to focus on the consequences energy levels can have on performance and safety. The programme brings tools and techniques which are pragmatic and accessible and help teams to improve energy levels and exercise safety through improving physical and mental fitness, diet, hydration, rest and recovery.

These programmes and procedures are underpinned by a culture that prioritises safety above anything else. UK Power Networks Services has created a blamefree environment where all issues are taken seriously, investigated thoroughly and mitigations are put in place to prevent future hazards. This culture of continuous improvement has allowed UK Power Networks Services to embed safety as everyone’s priority – not only for field staff, but contractors, office staff and clients. This impressive safety performance is a direct result of the dedication shown by its people, who keep safety their top priority when they come to work each day, ensuring

their colleagues and clients go home to their families each evening. The design, build and ongoing maintenance of national rail infrastructure projects brings significant challenges to those teams working on these projects. Safety should not be one of those challenges. Future projects have the opportunity to be the safest projects in the UK’s history. This ambition can be realised through innovative processes and programmes, and a culture where safety always comes first. Email: enquiries@ukpowernetworks.co.uk Visit: ukpowernetworksservices.co.uk Rail Professional


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Securing Network Rail infrastructure From its centrally located base in the heart of the country Barkers Fencing has been designing and manufacturing perimeter security solutions for more than fifty years

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uring that time Barkers Fencing has developed an extensive range of products for every application including boundary demarcation, safety, multi-use sports enclosures, high security CNI fencing incorporating Hostile Vehicle Mitigation to PAS68. Understanding the importance from safety to high security in today’s world, Barkers Fencing now provides a wide and varied range of perimeter systems and can ensure clients confidentiality on all projects. Regularly commissioned to perform

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effective delivery of perimeter security systems, Barkers Fencing is an acknowledged leader when it comes to planning, designing and implementing such schemes. From large infrastructure challenges to innovative bespoke designs in the private and public sectors, Barkers Fencing is at the forefront of delivering the solutions that such projects demand. Board to border At Barkers Fencing there is a dedicated team of professional perimeter advisors to assist in all aspects of the tender and specification

process. From the very start, Barkers Fencing has the expertise to offer help and guidance for each and every step. Finding exactly the right products for each stage of a project can be difficult and time consuming. Fencing design, specifications and requirements are no different. Whatever the concept or design, Barkers Fencing can create a bespoke system or recommend a solution from its perimeter range. The company can prepare detailed specification documents and provide complete drawings ready to be inserted


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BEH Security Palisade

straight into tender documents and sent to the main or subcontractors. And with its network of preferred install contractors it can also recommend an approved installer local to any project. Start to finish manufacturing BSEN ISO 9001:2000 accredited, Barkers Fencing offers a unique startto-finish package which includes on-site manufacturing, galvanizing, state-ofthe-art powder coating plant and import fixing and fastener division all on the one manufacturing unit. The company is also OHSAS18001 and OMS14001 accredited. Network Rail approved fencing systems Barkers fencing comply with all the current Network Rail fencing standards and works closely with lineside engineers to ensure that the correct product is supplied and installed on the rail infrastructure, which over a period of time should result in less bespoke fences and keep the spares requirement to a minimum. Fatality fencing Over the past few years Barkers Fencing has

supplied contractors working for Network Rail who have been trying to help reduce the number of fatalities by introducing extra railing and gates on to station platforms where high speed trains pass through the station. Design is always site specific as no two stations are the same. Road Vehicle Incursion (RVI) A major issue that rail infrastructure faces is the weekly threat of unauthorised vehicle incursion on to live tracks as a result of an accident on the road network. Barkers StronGuard ™ RCS75 PAS68 crash tested palisade fence, designed and accredited to stop a 2.5 & 7.5 tonne vehicle traveling at 30 mph at an angle of 90 degrees in a Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) security situation, was seen as the solution to help mitigate the risk these incidents occurring. After modifying the current basic design to meet Network Rail’s operational requirements, which incidentally is not security driven (although the StronGuard ™ palisade has the added bonus of increasing the security protection for the client). Barkers Fencing has delivered this product

on several schemes across the UK and is now recognised as a cost-effective solution to meet certain RVI requirements. LCPB tested products In recent years Barkers Fencing has developed its StronGuard ™ security fencing products and now offers LPCB SR1, SR2 and SR3 accredited fence and gate systems which have been used on the Crossrail project to offer superior security for sensitive areas. Acoustic noise barrier posts As new routes and tracks are constructed the need to reduce noise levels in populated areas increases, Barkers Fencing manufactures a range of noise posts to match all types of reflective or absorptive acoustic panels, designed to meet any clients’ specification. Noise barrier posts can be CE MARKED to EN 1090-1 A1:2011 to Class 1 or Class 2. Tel: 01782 319264 Email: russellr@barkersengineering.com Visit: www.barkersfencing.com

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Railway bridge construction Cleveland Bridge is a global leader in the design, engineering, fabrication and construction of steel bridges, buildings and structures

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ounded in 1877, the company has a long track record of innovation in steel construction. Throughout its history, it has been responsible for creating some of the world’s most iconic structures, from the Victoria Falls Bridge and the Wembley Stadium Arch, to the Sydney Harbour Bridge and The Shard in London. The combination of highly-skilled designers and engineers with technicallyadvanced manufacturing facilities in Darlington, County Durham enables Cleveland Bridge to produce 150,000 tonnes of precision-engineered steel every year. Its products are engineered to fulfil the most demanding applications in the highways, rail, built environment, power, oil and gas and nuclear sectors. The company has been highly active in the rail industry for many decades from the Tyne Metro Bridge in Newcastle, through

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to the Canary Wharf station for Crossrail and its most recent projects including the award-winning Newport Bridge, the Lincoln Eastern Bypass Railway Bridge and the upgrading of London Bridge Station. It also recently opened its second location in the UK, an operations office in Newport, South Wales. Cleveland Bridge has extensive skills and expertise in design, civil and structural engineering, fabrication, project management, installation, construction and remedial services for steel bridges, buildings and structures, on any scale. It has the knowledge, facilities and resources to support every aspect of large scale construction and engineering projects, from new-build programmes to strengthening and refurbishment works, as well as providing support services such as preparation, painting and finishing. As bridge-building pioneers, Cleveland Bridge designs, manufactures and installs steel bridges of every type, including beam, truss, cable and modular bridges. In the world of construction, the company manufactures, fabricates and installs loadbearing and architectural steel elements for large scale commercial and civic buildings, industrial buildings, heavy transfer structures and iconic stadia. London Bridge Station upgrade The company’s specialist knowledge and expertise in bridge building and steel construction enable it to bring innovation and value engineering to any project, helping to solve problems, save time, costs and resources for clients, while improving safety and environmental performance. This is evident in the recent delivery of Cleveland Bridge’s element of the upgrade of London Bridge Station, which opened earlier this year. London Bridge Station is a major rail hub in central London, which has undergone a full, major redevelopment. Its transformation will now meet the growing transport needs of the area by increasing both passenger and rail capacity at the

station by 40 per cent. Cleveland Bridge was contracted by Costain, on behalf of Network Rail, for the supply, fabrication, trial erection, delivery and installation of 29 plate girder rail bridge decks. Consisting of six main girders braced together the total tonnage of the project was 3,600te. Securing this project also highlights Cleveland Bridge’s quality systems and standards, which are aligned with all statutory legislation and approved Codes of Practice. The company is registered under the

Achilles Link Up scheme as a qualified supplier for work undertaken on Network Rail property. It is also approved to ISO 9001:2008 by LQRA and ISO 3834 Pt2 by the International Institute for Welding. In addition, it has approval by LRV to ‘CE mark’ Cleveland Bridge steelwork in accordance with the Construction Products Directive product standard EN1090 for all execution classes. Tel: 01325 381188 Email: marketing@clevelandbridge.com Visit: www.clevelandbridge.com Rail Professional


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Celebrating excellence at the 20th annual Rail Business Awards Great Western Railway was named Rail Business of the Year at the RBAs, which took place at the London Hilton, Park Lane, on Thursday February 22 2018

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enior figures from the UK’s rail industry packed the Hilton’s Grand Ballroom to see Great Western Railway pick up three trophies and a Highly Commended. As well as the coveted title of Rail Business of the Year, the operator also scooped: • Rolling Stock Excellence award for bringing into service the new Class 387 electric multiple-units on Thames Valley commuter services • Safety & Security Excellence award for a partnership project on the Severn Beach branch in Bristol. GWR was Highly Commended in the Training & Development Excellence award for its Leadership Development and Great Experience Makers initiatives. Chiltern Railway won the Train Operator

of the Year award for completing and launching its new route to Oxford, as well as its consistently strong performance and high levels of customer satisfaction. ScotRail Alliance Managing Director Alex Hynes was named Industry Leader of the Year, while the alliance’s Head of Integrated Control, Mark Ilderton, took the award for Young Professional of the Year. Full details of the winners can be found on the RBA website www.railbusinessawards.com. Congratulations to the winners and many thanks to the sponsors. Looking ahead Entries are now open as preparations get underway for the 21st annual Rail Business Awards, taking place at the London Hilton, Park Lane, in February 2019. The 21st Rail Business Awards will bring

together more than 600 industry leaders, politicians and CEOs to celebrate excellence across the UK rail sector. Held at the London Hilton on Park Lane this annual event hosted by the Railway Gazette Group in partnership with Rail Professional is widely considered to be one of the best networking opportunities in the UK rail industry calendar. Sponsoring an award category at the RBAs demonstrates your support for all the hard work and effort of the many entrants and nominees, as well as the actual winner on the night. It also provides yearround coverage and superb exposure to the rail market through Railway Gazette International, Rail Professional magazine, the targeted RBA e-newsletter and other media channels. Tel: 0208 652 5214 Email: Andrew.walker@railwaygazette.com Visit: www.railbusinessawards.com Rail Professional


Trackbed Information for Maintenance Planning Rail Corridor Asset Mapping

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INNOVATION IN FOUNDATION SYSTEMS Designed by Structural Engineers Lightweight with Concrete Results Rapid Installation

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Rail Safety Systems

Magnetically attached

Safety Barrier 2000m ~ erected by one gang of 5 operatives in one 6 hour shift

Benefits of the Magnetic Safety Barrier • The RSS Railway Safety System has been certified to EN 13374 (Class A), and approved by Network Rail ~ PA05 05085 • Simple, safe and fast assembly/ disassembly, with a simple magnetic attachment to the web of the rail, with no requirement to remove or replace ballast • With no ballast removal it can be used in freezing temperatures (to-20oC) when ballast is frozen or in high temperatures (to+80oC) when ‘track distortion’ is an issue. • No loose components No tools needed • No danger of damaging underground signalling cables • Very strong magnet (tensile force up to 600 Kg/N) • Easy dismantling with one arm movement • Does NOT affect track circuits or Axle counters • Can be used in areas with S & C • Safe, with no hazardous ‘Ballast Dust’ or diseases such as Weil’s disease generated. • Very fast build time and thus a major saving in working and possession costs The patented Magnetically Attached Safety Barrier is easy to use and will therefore, be used!


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Designed for the job Majorlift’s entry into the rail market began at the end of 2006 when it received a phone call from Siemens’ locomotive repair workshop based at Ardwick in Manchester

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developed was a rail mounted two stage hydraulic jack for removing waggon couplings for Freightliner in Southampton docks. The design brief said that the jack needed to be able to run on the permanent way rails, under the waggon with the bogies removed. It then needed to be able to support the coupling while it was unbolted and lowered to be removed for maintenance. It also needed to be capable of lifting in the replacement part. Finally, the customer wanted to be able to lift it out of the pit and wheel it out of the way while the bogeys were refitted. All this was achieved, and the same jack can now be used to remove the brake shoes as well.

t that time, Siemens was having ongoing problems with the underframe handling of heavy equipment on the Trans Pennine rail on the class 185 Diesel Multiple units using the existing bogie drops. As Majorlift had considerable expertise in producing hydraulic lifting equipment, Siemens thought that the West Country based company might be able to help with the problem and put in a call. Engineers from Majorlift followed up with a visit to the site to understand the issues and constraints and to take measurements for design. Within seven weeks, a new product had been designed around Majorlift’s standard cylinders and controls and a prototype had been manufactured for installation and testing in the Ardwick MPD. Designed for the job By sitting on the bogie drop, the new Majorlift design was able to easily manipulate engines, gearboxes, coolers and fuel tanks with precision and speed. The decision to use Majorlift’s standard components was a good one for several reasons. Firstly, they are more commonly used in the servicing of HGVs and have been proved and tested over forty years, so performance was assured. Also, because of the high volumes going through the factory, the cost of this special product was kept lower than would have been otherwise possible.

This equipment has recently been returned to Majorlift for a full service and repair to return it to its original condition. In fact, with the improvements in product development that have been introduced since the first design, in some ways it was better than new. Having been through Majorlift’s service and repair department, it was stripped, rebuilt and resprayed before being returned to Ardwick. The next significant product to be

New products In the last year, Majorlift has been involved with more projects to assist with the removal of under frame components, such as air conditioning fans and alternators. The company is developing a standard product for this, based on the well proven pit transmission jack, used in heavy goods vehicle repair. The advantages are that the jack can run along the floor of the pit and be located underneath the component to be removed. With the addition of bespoke mounting plates, securely fitted to the top of the jack, individual, unwieldy components can be fastened to the jack and lowered safely. At the end of the repair, the hydraulic ram will easily lift the component back into place and hold it while the bolts are refitted and secured. On a recent project for GWR in Exeter the H&S team had insisted on the procurement of specialist lifting equipment for the removal of an alternator on a Class 150 unit. GWR’s DEM Technical, Gary Godfrey said: ‘Changing the alternator used to take most of the day to do the job safely. The procedure has now been considerably speeded up without compromising safety. I was also really impressed with how Majorlift’s team worked with us to provide exactly the tool we need – even as far as bring it on site for evaluation before handing it over.’ A great feature of Majorlift’s ‘Rail Jack’ is that it can be spilt into sub components for easy installation and removal from the pit and yet it is safe and unmoveable when locked into place. Tel: 01454 299299 Email: sales@majorlift.com Visit: www.majorlft.com Rail Professional


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Bridgeway Consulting... ... Training and developing the next generation

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he Bridgeway Consulting Learning and Development Differential has five core principles that define its goals:

1. The quality of training and assessments 2. The quality of its Trainers and Assessors 3. Its learning and development methodologies 4. Its competitive value for money solutions 5. 24/7 delivery of training and assessments Bridgeway Consulting was established in 1995 to provide underwater structural inspection services to Railtrack. Over the years, it has expanded its portfolio of services to meet the growing needs of Network Rail and the rail industry to include: • Possessions and Worksite Management • AC and DC Isolations • Site and Ground Investigation • Surveying including aerial surveying and monitoring services • Building Information Management (BIM) • Structures inspections including rope access, confined spaces and diving. Training, competence and continued development of staff have been significant factors in the successful and continued

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growth of Bridgeway’s portfolio. In 2017 Bridgeway was awarded the Queens Award for Sustainable Development. Managing Director Pino De Rosa said: ‘We are so proud. To be recognised as leaders in our field demonstrating that our values and actions are truly sustainable is a great honour. It is testimony to the commitment and hard work of our management team and staff, as well as the on-going support of our loyal contractors, suppliers and clients.’ This award highlights the importance Bridgeway Consulting gives to training and developing staff. Bridgeway’s Learning & Development (L&D) team has evolved to meet the ever-changing needs of both internal and external clients. The L&D team now comprises of more than 15 Trainer/ Assessors and dedicated L&D Coordinators who facilitate and deliver training and workplace assessments not just for Bridgeway, but also for Network Rail and a number of Principal Contractors, the Office of Rail and Road, Rail for London Infrastructure (RFLI) and ATC Systemwide at Crossrail. Over the last 24 months, Bridgeway’s L&D Team has worked with clients

both at home and abroad to deliver rail safety and technical training within challenging timescales. It has successfully delivered clients’ training and assessment requirements to the highest standards, thus giving clients value for money and timescale efficiencies. The ever-growing portfolio of courses available provides all of Bridgeway’s clients with a one-stop-shop solution for all their training and assessment needs. Bridgeway’s bespoke Online Competence Training and Assessment Service (OCTAS) system was designed to allow our clients to easily make bookings of training and assessment for delegates and instantly receive joining instructions. Bridgeway is currently developing the next generation of OCTAS to further improve our level of service. Key features to the new OCTAS system will be: • Secure Online Booking (fully GDPR compliant) • Individual logins • Instant Joining Instructions to delegate and client representative


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Delegate text and email reminders Reduced Sentinel administration Book workplace assessments 24/7 training and assessments.

Managed service Bridgeway also offers an L&D ‘Managed Service’ which takes the hassle of managing its clients’ staff Sentinel competence training and assessment requirements and ensures that their competences do not lapse. This enables its clients to concentrate on their core business while reducing their operational costs. 2017 and 2018 saw Bridgeway working with key clients to overcome challenges on training initiatives within tight timescales. Planning and Delivery of Safe Works (P&DSW) Bridgeway was awarded the contract as the sole service provider by Network Rail for the delivery of the skills fade training for the programme of works within the Planning &

Delivery of Safe Works (P&DSW) at Network Rail. This was one of the top five safety objectives within Network Rail’s business. This was a time critical and logistically challenging programme to deliver, in order for the Network Rail Planning & Delivering Safe Work (P&DSW) initiative to go live in September 2017. The project team was able to develop

a dynamic training plan in relation to where training events were required based on accurate and unified Geographical Information System (GIS) data provided by the stakeholders. Bridgeway’s bespoke Online Competence Training & Assessment Service (OCTAS) web portal provided an integrated booking process where delegates were sent joining instructions directly, with follow up emails and text messages. This resulted in an impressive attendance rate of 92 per cent. The Bridgeway project team managed and coordinated 385 training events for a total of 179 different stakeholders and successfully delivered the P&DSW training over a 12-week period utilising in-house trainers to a total of 3,945 individuals, all currently qualified Safe Work Leaders and Safe Work Managers. ATC Systemwide ATC Systemwide (Crossrail Programme) engaged Bridgeway for the delivery of Project Inductions / OHLE training to circa 5,000 staff. The training was carried out at Plumstead and Derby. Its intention was to familiarise staff and contractors with the dangers of the actual project and working around OHLE. Bridgeway also took part in the Safety Step Up event in London as part of the Crossrail electrification energisation. A highlight from this event was Frank Bruno paying a visit to the Bridgeway stand (see picture above). Tel: 0115 919 1111 Email: training@bridgeway-consulting.co.uk Visit: www.bridgeway-consulting.co.uk Rail Professional


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Improving customer experience in rail travel As the public transport industry continues to grow at a rapid pace, the arena is becoming much more competitive

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ncreased urbanization and connectivity allow people to travel further and therefore spend more time on public transport, both in frequency and length of journeys. Since the explosion of digital technology available to the consumer, passengers now have increased power – social media platforms have given them a voice. This combined with an increasingly competitive environment means passengers expect more from their journey. Transport operators now have to do more to satisfy their customer base – the industry is no longer just functional, it is experiential and increasingly design led. Below are some of the latest

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developments in public transport design that service providers are incorporating into their customer strategies to ensure they remain competitive and maintain high customer service levels. With the development of technology, customer service has little room for error. Public transport operators are beginning to include passengers in the design process. This enables the provider to really tailor its services to customer needs and also strengthen relationships with passengers – when customers are listened to, they feel valued and generally happier. Light and sound There is a long history of research into how

light affects our mood and wellbeing in general life. However, there is little that links directly to public transport – but the same results are transferable. Research shows that on sunny days people have higher wellbeing and are more helpful. The study also showed that in bright light, emotions were intensified – people found positive words to be ‘more positive’ in brighter settings. Natural lighting through a window has a very calming and peaceful effect whilst dark environments can trigger depression. As passengers spend longer on public transport, the environment – light and sound included – has a greater impact on their wellbeing. Lots of natural lighting can encourage passengers to be more engaged in


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and receptive to the journey they’ve had. Considering light reflectance value (LRV) ratings of materials is also important, using paints, wall coverings and floor coverings that have good light reflectance value can also enhance the passenger experience as they create a brighter, more inviting space. Forbo Flooring Systems notes LRV’s as standard these days on all point of sale materials, understanding how important it is in the overall interior design process. Sound greatly impacts on passenger engagement. If the passenger environment is too noisy, it can create discomfort and impact negatively on the overall experience. Noise can be a result of sound from the vehicle, other passengers and/or the materials used on the interiors. This is where operators should consider acoustic properties of flooring, wall coverings and windows. Colour psychology Colour has a significant impact on our mood and wellbeing, whether it be at home, at work or in public spaces and public transport is not exempt. As we are spending more time in transit, we are more exposed to the impact of colour. There are two overarching types of passengers, the business traveller and the pleasure traveller so how can interior design in transport increase customer satisfaction? The business traveller Whether it be by plane or by train, the commuter typically uses their journey as an opportunity to be productive and catch up on emails or get on with some work. Transport operators can enhance this productivity by using certain colours to create an effective mobile working environment. The four main colours to consider are: Yellow: yellow is the easiest colour for the eye to see and is associated with optimism and is said to encourage innovation Blue: known to be the top favourite colour in the world, blue is a calming colour and increases focus and productivity Violet: this shade of purple is associated with power and pride. Brighter hues increase creativity and lift the mood Orange: orange is one of the more vibrant colours on the spectrum and is typically associated with excitement. Orange can bring people high energy and stimulate activity. The pleasure traveller When people are traveling for pleasure, they seek out a more relaxing and enjoyable journey. The pleasure traveller typically uses their journey to read a book, watch a film, listen to music or even enjoy a meal. Transport operators can maximise customers’ rest and relaxation with a range of more calming hues. The four main colours to consider are: Green: green is the most seen colour in the world due to its symbolization of nature. It is said to soothe the mind and encourage

mental relaxation Blue: although blue is colour that encourages focus and productivity, it is also a colour associated with tranquillity and serenity. This hue is a symbol of rest and reduces tension Violet: pale shades of violet are known to bring inner balance and peace, encouraging ultimate relaxation Grey: grey has been dubbed a ‘boring’ colour but paler shades can actually create a soothing and cooling presence. Incorporating colour science into transport interior design, whether it be trains or buses, can enhance passenger wellbeing and therefore greatly increase customer satisfaction with design and colour determining the overall mood and having a positive impact on passenger experience. All of these elements of design create a more memorable experience for passengers. Enhancing the passenger environment to offer customers ultimate comfort lifts their mood and improves wellbeing, in turn making them feel more positive about their experience.

If transport operators get this part right, customer satisfaction levels will remain high, enabling them to stay competitive and maintain repeat business – a win for all; business, passengers and of course, our environment. Company profile Forbo Flooring Systems offers the widest portfolio of floor coverings for rail and its design team are keen to work with you to design floor coverings that fit perfectly into your bespoke interior design schemes. Working with the likes of Virgin East Coast Trains, Hitachi Rail, East Midlands Trains, Auckland Transport, Kiwi Rail, Translink N I Rail, Nederlandse Spoorwegen and many more, Forbo Flooring Systems understands the importance of creating that perfect look and feel in order to ensure that the passengers have the best possible overall experience. Email: transport@forbo.com Tel: +44 (0)1773 744121 Website: www.forbo-flooring.com/rail Rail Professional


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Reducing incidents through competence management Heathrow Express was able to reduce incidents from 25 per period to just two, here’s how...

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ssessTech is the Railway Industry’s leading provider of training and technology competency management solutions. Working with over twenty TOCs in the UK and internationally, AssessTech’s ethos is that competence management lowers business risk and reduces incident rates through targeted training and development of people. One of its clients, Heathrow Express has done just that! Heathrow Express offers a premier service to customers by connecting them to London Paddington from Heathrow Central in 15 minutes. As the business is customer focused, competency management is critical as safety and minimising customer incidents is paramount. The challenge Prior to electronic competency management, Heathrow Express, like many others in the industry, maintained all its training and competency records on a manual system. Managers would have the responsibility of defining each individuals’ competencies over a two-year period and

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Roland Snooks, Competence and Training Manager, Heathrow Express said: ‘We chose to work with AssessTech because of their tablet solution which means data can be collected in the field in real-time. This helps us react quickly to incidents and potential problems as we have the latest data to hand. We were looking to improve our monitoring process and the AssessTech platform has helped deliver that

monitor this via an excel spreadsheet which was laborious, resource dependent and expensive. Heathrow Express used a Microsoft Access database to record this data which was deemed inflexible and expensive to maintain. With a history of industry leading safety innovation, Heathrow Express wanted to become smarter in competence management. With customer service a key driver within the business they had a requirement to collect and analyse data over a longer period of time around customer service standards, KPI’s, trend analysis and the ability to identify issues and problem areas through an automation process. From this data, Heathrow Express could identify shortfalls and gaps in training which could impact on safety standards. An innovative approach AssessTech was working with Heathrow Express on delivering City and Guilds


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training and could see the challenges the business was facing. It approached Heathrow Express with an idea to use tablets to collect information in an efficient manner to help improve customer service, safety and reduce incident management via the AssessTech electronic competency management system, ACMS. Heathrow Express was open to new concepts and new ideas to improve processes and customer service. Its customers expect a premium service therefore innovation is at the heart of the business. Roland Snooks, Competence and Training Manager, Heathrow Express said: ‘We chose to work with AssessTech because of their tablet solution which means data can be collected in the field in real-time. This helps us react quickly to incidents and potential problems as we have the latest data to hand. We were looking to improve our monitoring process and the AssessTech platform has helped deliver that.’ AssessTech worked closely with the Heathrow Express team throughout the whole journey into electronic competency management, running workshops to help set standards and iron out issues as they arose. The company worked closely with the frontline colleagues to gather their thoughts and requirements around competency management to ensure it was not just a management tool. The result was the development of a self-management element, which ensures that individuals can view and manage their own competency data.

An award-winning service Customer Service is critical to Heathrow Express, which frequently receives over 95 per cent overall satisfaction in the National Rail Passenger Survey. Using the AssessTech platform, Heathrow Express has been able to closely monitor standards and identify areas in which to improve its customer service. The platform provides the management team with detailed information around incident and accident management and their overall impact. Monitoring these and improving the competency of its team has helped Heathrow Express, in growing a safety culture, dramatically reduce incidents from 25 in a four-week period, down to just one or two. Previous methods of capturing competency management were heavily paper dependent, resulting in a significant admin burden to the business. Using the AssessTech system Heathrow Express’s administration workload fell by eighty per cent. The biggest impact that the AssessTech platform has provided the business has been the transfer of competency ownership to the train drivers, resulting in them creating their own peer-to-peer training plans and identifying skills gaps with their workplace role assessor. Future plans Heathrow Express is committed to further roll-out of their electronic competency plans. The next phase is to look at the

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The AssessTech electronic competency management solution is easy to use, industry focused and very reliable. The team at AssessTech have been great to work with at all points on our journey. Their knowledge of the industry and the challenges it faces has helped to create a competency management model, which works across the whole of the rail industry non-technical skills and support to help individuals understand the impact of their actions. Heathrow Express is working with AssessTech and the wider industry to develop a solution in this area. Roland Snooks said: ‘The AssessTech electronic competency management solution is easy to use, industry focused and very reliable. The team at AssessTech have been great to work with at all points on our journey. Their knowledge of the industry and the challenges it faces has helped to create a competency management model, which works across the whole of the rail industry. They recognise the challenges with the regulators and are excellent at developing solutions that overcome these challenges. No issue is too much for them, they always find a solution.’ About AssessTech AssessTech supply hosted systems and services to TOCs, giving them better visibility of their competence related data, which along with complementary training and consulting, means they are better able to assess risk, manage incidents and target spend accordingly. Its aim has been to provide the railway industry with rich data to improve safety and inform investment decisions to increase profits. Gabriel Stroud, Founder and Director of AssessTech said: ‘From very early on we discovered that data was often fragmented, difficult to access and almost impossible to summarise and analyse. We have spent the last 5 years working with the Railway industry to develop systems and processes to overcome this situation. Companies that have been using our systems are now able to reap the benefits of collecting good competence management data to support their business.’ Tel: 01438 338646 Email: sally.brinkley@assesstech.com Visit: www.assessech.com Rail Professional


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Condition-based maintenance planning There are numerous benefits to integrating ground penetrating radar with more conventional track inspection methods such as track geometry

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outine track geometry measurements represent a key decision tool in most railroads’ maintenance planning, allowing track engineers to identify both potentially hazardous conditions that require immediate intervention and more progressive failures for which maintenance can be planned. Combining geometry data with time synchronous information on subsurface conditions provided by ground penetrating radar surveys addresses the root cause of problems and improves the effectiveness of trackbed maintenance. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) GPR is a well-established non-invasive inspection method utilised by railways around the world to determine the condition of ballasted trackbed, both in terms of ballast condition and the trackbed profile. Zetica Rail’s systems are used to undertake over 18,000 miles of trackbed GPR surveys each year, utilising train-mounted systems and hi-rail vehicles. GPR can also be deployed autonomously using Zetica’s new RASC® Pod (Figure 1). The primary aim of GPR surveys is to provide metrics for use in planning condition based trackbed maintenance (ballast cleaning/undercutting, shoulder cleaning, surfacing/tamping) and to provide information on the anomalous condition of sub-ballast and formation layers for helping to determine the root cause of trackbed problems. GPR surveys typically utilise both high and low frequency ultra-wideband antennas in order to obtain sufficient resolution and depth of investigation for the analysis of ballast condition and mapping formation and subgrade layer depths. The RASC®

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concept involves integrated data capture of a suite of complementary track inspection technologies, including GPR, which together allow a comprehensive assessment of both the above and below ground condition of the trackbed. GPR deliverables include a series of trackbed condition metrics (Figure 2), which are designed to provide a standardised means of quantifying the information contained within the often complex GPR datasets. Benefits of data integration Only limited attempts have so far been made

to integrate the results of GPR trackbed surveys with those of track inspection techniques such as geometry and rail deflection measurements. The continuous effort to drive down maintenance costs includes growing demand to make better use of the lake of data available to railroads. The integration of GPR and track geometry (TG) has the potential to significantly improve the effectiveness of condition based trackbed maintenance in three key ways. Identification of areas most prone to a deterioration in trackbed quality: GPR can help assess the nature and severity of


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potential for costly revisits to site. Help assess the cause of the track geometry fault: as well as determing the extent of the problem, having an understanding of the state of the trackbed, both near-surface and within the sub-grade, can help engineers determine the underlying cause (e.g. subgrade failure, ballast pockets, high moisture) and its depth (Figure 5). Where GPR data is collected in conjunction with geometry on track inspection vehicles the RASC® system can be configured to generate near realtime outputs in response to specific track geometry faults, enabling track engineers to quickly diagnose the potential cause of the fault.

underlying trackbed defects at the early stages of a developing geometry fault, identifying which particular aspect of the trackbed condition is driving the fault. Repeat surveys enable the progression of the defect to be monitored in detail (often revealing the effects of seasonal influences on trackbed stability), information which can be fed into predictive track deterioration models. Areas were the GPR-derived metrics are stable over time may be considered less likely to undergo rapid or catastrophic failure.

Determine the extent of the trackbed defect associated with a geometry fault: an isolated track geometry fault will often represent the surface expression of a much more extensive subsurface problem (Figure 4). Unlike more traditional site inspection methods such as trial pits, windowless sampling and cone penetrometer tests, GPR provides a continuous high-resolution image of the trackbed which enables accurate delineation of the extent of the associated trackbed defect. This helps to ensure that the fault is fully rectified first time, reducing the

Ballast cleaning recommendation A North American client commissioned a RASC® survey of an 80-mile section of primary route corridor in order to assess the most appropriate locations for Capital Maintenance ballast cleaning. Comparison of the combined RASC® survey results with both historical and contemporaneous track geometry data acquired using the railroad’s track recording cars pointed to strong correlation between the two datasets (Figure 6). The GPR-derived ballast fouling index (BFI) data were combined with the Track Quality Index (TQI), to generate a ballast cleaning Work Order Recommendation (WOR). The WOR identified locations where either the shoulders or centre BFI was higher than a specified threshold and where the TQI was poor. The high resolution (15ft) WOR results were clustered in order to identify minimum quarter mile work sites, with sites constrained by road crossings, under-bridges and turnouts (switches) (Figure 7). Some areas not flagged for ballast cleaning using this rule had incipient track geometry problems associated with shallow ballast fouling and failed formation (see Figure 5). Locations such as these could be considered for inclusion in the WOR where the rate of degradation of TQI is high (Figure 3).

Tel: +44 (0) 1993 886 682 Email: rail@zetica.com Visit: www.zeticarail.com Rail Professional


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The Great North Rail electrification programme FP McCann has supplied over two thousand precast concrete dual rail copings as part of Network Rail’s Great North Rail electrification programme

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he programme is designed to improve journeys between Blackpool and Preston and across the north of England. The large package of works includes major platform new build, extensions and refurbishment at Blackpool North and Kirkham and Wesham stations. Programme details Site: Blackpool North and Kirkham and Wesham stations Contractors: Volker Rail and Siemens Subcontractors: J Murphy Client: Network Rail Products Supplied: Precast concrete dual copings The construction consortium on the project includes Volker Rail and Siemens. Working on behalf of Volker Rail at both Kirkham and Wesham and Blackpool North is J Murphy and Sons, whose teams are responsible for platform and footbridge construction, drainage civils and upgraded mechanical and electrical services at both stations. Blackpool North is nearing completion where platforms one to eight have been demolished and replaced with six new, remodelled platforms totalling just over one mile in length. The line at Kirkham and Wesham was reopened to the public on January 29 after the complete refurbishment of platforms one and two, each measuring 185 metres long, and the construction of a brand-new platform three at two hundred metres long.

Integral to the speed of the platform work has been the adoption of FP McCann’s unique precast concrete dual coping/ tactile system as tight construction schedules have been placed on the consortium. A conventional platform surface build typically requires a separate tactile slab to be bedded and jointed behind the coping. As a single precast concrete coping unit combining the tactile slab, significant time is saved as this process is eliminated. In particularly harsh winter conditions, the dual coping offers major benefits as it removes the need for jointing and the single precast slab can be quickly installed, reducing the time bedding compounds are exposed to the elements. J Murphy has installed around 2,250 of FP McCann’s standard dual rail coping units measuring 930mm x 1160mm x 100mm, including a buff tactile in an acid-etched finish. The copings were lifted into place using a specialist concrete vacuum lifter and

bedded on a high strength grade mortar. Commenting on the installation of the precast dual coping/ tactile units, Leif Smith site engineer for J Murphy said: ‘As a key component of the complete construction package, this dual coping system significantly reduces the platform build time and has played a major part in ensuring the phased programme of works has been delivered on time.’ The dual coping/tactile units are manufactured at FP McCann’s Littleport factory in Cambridgeshire in full accordance with the requirements of NR/L3/CIV/030 and are accredited as conforming to the pendulum test slip resistance requirements of BS EN 13036-4. FP McCann is a Network Rail approved supplier. Achilles Link-Up Engage ID: 061598 Tel: 01353 861416 Email: sales@fpmccann.co.uk Visit: www.fpmccann.co.uk

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Zonegreen reduces third rail risk All railways are dangerous, but some railways are a lot more dangerous than others

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n this day and age, the concept that bare, live conductors of 750 volts run through our places of work at ground level is hard to comprehend, yet these are exactly the dangers facing depot operatives at third rail depots. Zonegreen, the Sheffield-based rail safety specialists, are using their considerable industry experience and expertise to tackle the issue. Christian Fletcher, Zonegreen’s technical director, said: ‘The safest way to protect personnel is to keep them away from areas of risk. It was estimated by the BBC in a news article released in October 2017, that the costs involved in converting the third rail system to overhead lines would be in excess of £17 billion, so clearly, more viable measures are necessary.’ What is being done to improve safety? Traditional safety measures, for example, the use of protection boards and written procedures, are still commonplace in depots today. However, both of these manual systems are open to human error and are leading to fatalities among depot workers, resulting in untold grief for family and colleagues and huge fines for their employers. Evidently, there is a need for better employee safeguards.

Zonegreen is leading a two-pronged attack on the risks associated with third rail, to improve protection for workers at rail depots, via its interlocking and points converter systems. The basic role of interlocking is to protect personnel and equipment from the dangers posed by live traction power supplies. Zonegreen’s system works by inhibiting the use of third party equipment until the third rail has been isolated, through a combination of mechanical keys and electronic contacts. This type of system is particularly beneficial on stabling roads, where operations such as cleaning and sanding are completed. Workers are often required to walk in and around the six-foot space alongside the third rail, putting them at considerable risk. The Zonegreen points converter, an innovative method of automating manual points, has also been designed to increase safety in rail depots and can be used to reduce the dangers associated with the third rail.

Points converters are fitted retrospectively to existing manual hand points and can be controlled either by key switches located in a position of safety, remote handsets or a central computer system. This allows the point to be operated remotely, without putting people in harm’s way. The innovative system removes the need for shunters to traverse potentially long distances to reach manual points, at all times of the day and night. In areas where there is potentially poor lighting, ballast and uneven surfaces, the dangers of contact with the third rail are heightened and ever present. Christian Fletcher added: ‘To help reduce the risks inherent in third rail areas, it is vital to have properly engineered systems that can play a major role in protecting depot staff. By applying our ability and technology to the issue, we can help to prevent personal injury and the associated costly damages.’ For the foreseeable future, third rail is here to stay. Its removal would mean converting 2,500 miles of track, a new fleet of trains and the reconstruction of depots, bridges, tunnels and stations. The ORR Strategy for Regulation of Health and Safety Risks, May 2017 called for ‘safety improvements in yards, depots and sidings, in particular in relation to electrical risks’. Overall, the best way to protect people from the harm the third rail can cause is to keep them away from it. Tel: (0114) 230 0822 Email: info@zonegreen.co.uk Visit: www.zonegreen.co.uk Rail Professional


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Premium inverters Relec Electronics offers years of experience with inverters from company Premium, S.A. based in Barcelona

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or over 37 years Premium, S.A. has been designing and producing power conversion systems for segments of the market that require high quality, high reliability, rugged, and durable products. Premium’s range of DC-DC converters and DC-AC inverters is extensive. They are suitable for many electrical and electronic systems for onboard transportation, communication and industrial applications. The research and design facility at Premium’s headquarters implements extensive controls from design concept through prototyping and production. These ensure the highest quality and performance not just in development but also throughout the product’s expected service life. All products go through accelerated life testing under full load and extended temperature conditions, which helps to identify any component weakness from an early stage. Test facilities include: • Climatic Testing – Performed in an environmental test chamber from -40ºC to +100ºC. Measurements are made and recorded on key components, both at static temperatures and also with sharp ramps in the thermal profile • EMC Testing – Conducted in house from an early point in the design phase. Emission and Immunity tests are performed in a well-equipped test chamber including the ability to perform electromagnetic field tests up to 20V/m and 1GHz • Electrical and Fire safety – All products have been designed in accordance with EN60950 with a planned migration to EN62368. Products are also tested EN45545-2 for fire safety and more generally to the requirements of EN50155. Again, this is an integral part of the design phase with regular design reviews to ensure compliance at all stages. Case study DC-AC converters are suitable for emergency HVAC and AC power at seats. Relec Electronics is proud to announce the full availability of Premium’s DC-AC inverters (OCS/ODS/ODX Series), with a power range from 260W to 4.5KW (6kW available soon). Inverters are available with either with single or three phase outputs. Premium has developed these inverters for use in both Rail Professional


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industrial and transportation applications (EN50155 approved). The inverters come with a range of accessories for either rack or chassis mounting. They can operate in ambient temperatures from -25ºC to 70ºC (half load) or to 55ºC (full load). Forced air cooling is provided with intelligent fan speed control to maximise fan life and efficiency of the inverters. Thanks to their rugged, efficient (above ninety per cent) and compact design, the OCS/ODS/ODX inverters are suitable for the most demanding and critical applications. The inverters have average power, over current and over temperature protection as standard, allowing them to shutdown safely even when a short circuit is detected at the output. Furthermore, the inverters are disabled when the input voltage drops below a threshold voltage to prolong the battery life. The railway versions are compliant with all requirements of EN50155 with additional testing in accordance with EN45545-2 for

fire and smoke. Premium has also developed a version of its 1,500W inverter which meets the requirements of RIA12 (385V surge for 20mS) for older UK rolling stock. Premium’s most recent additions include the ODX series (three phase output inverters) which have been designed for motor control applications, and include the following features: • RS-232 port – Used to configure and control the unit • Phase inversion – Used to define the motor rotation direction • Programmable output voltage and frequency • Programmable soft start (Control of Voltage and frequncy) • Choice of different input voltages • Isolated alarms. These features make the ODS / OSX series the perfect choice for high reliability systems like emergency HVAC but equally in applications like AC at seat power. Premium’s

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extensive range of inverters provide a high quality/price solution whilst keeping the reliability and robustness at the highest level. Company profile Relec Electronics is a leading supplier of specialist products and support to the electronics industry with a wealth of experience going back over 40 years. The company offers AC-DC power supplies, DCDC converters, DC-AC inverters, Displays and EMC filters. Through working closely with manufacturers like Premium, the Relec team can bring the latest technologies and products such as the new ODX Series DCAC inverters to the market place. Premium designs and manufactures a wide range of products which power equipment both in industrial and transportation markets. Tel: 01929 555700 Email: sales@relec.co.uk Visit: www.relec.co.uk

Cable Protection for UK Rail Infrastructure Flexicon has published its new brochure outlining solutions for rail infrastructure in the United Kingdom

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ntitled ‘Cable Protection Systems for UK Rail Infrastructure,’ the brochure is a handy contractor and installer guide to cable protection for companies working on UK rail infrastructure projects. It lists all the Network Rail PADS catalogue numbers and features Flexicon’s range of 14 approved conduit systems compliant with Transport

for London standard – TFL S-1085 for London Underground and Crossrail. Flexicon has a proven track record in rail, protecting safety and performance critical cabling to ensure passenger safety and operational integrity. The brochure highlights the extensive environmental testing Flexicon’s conduit systems undergo to guard against critical failures. It also includes testing ingress protection beyond BS EN IEC 60529, and testing fire performance to EN 45545-2 (compliant to HL3), NFPA 130 and Transport for London S-1085. The brochure features flexible conduit and glands intended for use in signalling and infrastructure applications, including applications prone to flooding or prolonged

immersion under water. Tim Creedon, Sales & Marketing Director for Flexicon says: ‘We understand and appreciate the various challenges involved in achieving compliance to the latest standards, managing and controlling risk, and making procurement more efficient while striving for continuous improvement across the entire railway system. ‘With that in mind, this brochure will give contractors and installers the best possible guidance to provide innovative and reliable cable protection solutions.’ Flexicon specialises in cable protection for demanding applications where continuity of supply, performance and safety is critical. The company provides a wide range of conduit systems for rail applications, with products that meet numerous international rail standards. Customers can request a hard copy by contacting Flexicon, Roman Way, Coleshill, Birmingham, B46 1HG. Tel: 01675 466900 Email: flexiconsales@atkore.com Visit: www.flexicon.uk.com Rail Professional


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Mark Southwell as Vice President of its Rail and Geotechnical business in Europe. Mark is responsible for programme delivery, building on combined experience and capability, following Jacobs’ acquisition of CH2M in December 2017.

Savvas Charalambous Clancy Docwra expands rail staff Clancy Docwra, the leading essential services contractor, has appointed Savvas Charalambous as Head of Rail as it expands its civil engineering and utility capability in the sector.

Stanley Russell Stanley Russell joins Ballyclare Leading rail workwear manufacturer Ballyclare has appointed Stanley Russell as Technical Sales Executive. Stanley is a fellow of the Textile Institute and has worked in the textile industry for over four decades. Simon Babes joins RIA Board Simon Babes, Managing Director of design and operations consultancy Movement

Strategies, has been appointed to the Railway Industry Association (RIA) Board. As Chair of the SME Group Simon will lead activities promoting the role of RIA’s small and medium sized members. Vintage Trains steams ahead with new appointment Vintage Trains has announced that Cath Bellamy will be taking up the role of Managing Director. Cath has been a senior figure in the UK Rail Industry for the last 25 years during which she has been Managing Director of Chiltern Railways and Hull Trains as well as having various senior roles at the Department of Transport.

Roger Neary DB Cargo UK introduces new Board members Two new directors have been appointed to the Board of rail freight company DB Cargo UK. Dr Dirk Nolte has been appointed to the position of CEO and Roger Neary has been appointed as Head of Sales.

WYG appoints Ian McGrane as Director of Transport Planning Professional services firm WYG has appointed Ian McGrane as Director of Transport Planning. Ian will be tasked with developing WYG’s transport planning capability in the South Midlands. Jacobs Appoints Mark Southwell to Lead Rail and Geotechnical in Europe Jacobs Engineering has appointed Mark Southwell

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Dr Dirk Nolte Alstom appoints new CFO Laurent Martinez has been appointed Chief Financial Officer of Alstom.


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THE POWER TO DELIVER HIGH SPEED RAIL IT’S TEN YEARS SINCE THE FULL OPENING OF HS1, THE UK’S FIRST HIGH-SPEED LINE AND EUROPE’S MOST RELIABLE RAILWAY. We have played a major part in this success, with our £150 million investment in the design, construction and commissioning of the electrical infrastructure. Through our innovative design of traction and non-traction electrical networks, we are the power behind HS1’s world-leading reliability. We are also incredibly proud of our safety record of no lost time injuries throughout seven years of operation and maintenance. The power to deliver a better future

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Rail Professional June 2018  

Rail Professional June 2018

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