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OCTOber 2017 Issue 236 £4.95


A fantastically rewarding job Chief constable of the BTP, Paul Crowther OBE, on how proud he is of the incredible people he works with LEGAL Electronic marketing strategy dangers

TUNNELLING German lessons for HS2

SURVEYING New ‘game-changer’

We offer a bespoke service, however complex and whatever project size. Our specialised team of Engineers will work with you from the very start of the pre-planning stages and throughout the project, right to the end - assisting you in the design, construction, installation, upgrade and maintenance works. Developing need analysis reporting and relevant system certifications, our work is always to the very highest quality. SMART planning helps us to achieve multi project interfacing whilst practicing great diversity throughout - minimising risk, offering a performance which is, a safe environment, rich in industry knowledge and individual expertise.

We supply, construct, install, test and commission electrical distribution systems… • Level A: AC and DC competent engineers for Isolation and Earthing, issuing of HV Permits to Work, Certificates of Isolation, Circuit State Certificates and Sanctions for Test • Level B: AC and DC Competent engineers for HV / LV Switching • Level C and D competent engineers for Substation access and permit accepting • Three Phase / Single Phase competent engineers • Testers in Charge / Lead System Test Engineers • System testing capabilities including HV Overhead Line section proving / Short Circuit Testing / Entry into Services of new HV Substation Equipment • Preparation and Documentation • VL / VT monitoring to confirm system immunisation • Preparation of switching documentation / commissioning schedules / Strategies /testing documentation • HV, LV and DC Switchgear Testing and Commissioning including Protection Relay testing • Autotransformer / transformer testing HV, LV and DC testing • Supervisory and SCADA commissioning, End to End testing from site to Electrical Control Room • Structure Mounted Outdoor Switchgear (SMOS) testing and commissioning • Motor Operated Switch (MOS) setup and commissioning • National Grid – Person competent engineers • Engineers competent to Controller of Site Safety (COSS) including Overhead Line and Conductor Rail Permit • Experience in the test and commissioning of HV systems interfacing with the National Grid and Network Rail Overhead line Catenary systems • HV and LV Electrical installation technicians and engineers • BS7671 – 17th edition Low Voltage competent testers

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OCTOber 2017 Issue 236 £4.95


editor’s note

A fantastically rewarding job Chief constable of the BTP, Paul Crowther OBE, on how proud he is of the incredible people he works with LEGAL Electronic marketing strategy dangers

TUNNELLING German lessons for HS2

SURVEYING New ‘game-changer’

OCTOBER 2017 - MASTER NEW V1.indd 1

19/09/2017 09:23

PUBLISHER RAIL PROFESSIONAL LTD Hallmark House, Downham Road, Ramsden Heath, Essex CM11 1PU Telephone: +44 (0)1268 711811 EDITORIAL EDITOR LORNA SLADE BUSINESS PROFILE EDITOR SAM SHERWOOD-HALE DISPLAY ADVERTISING CHRISTIAN WILES HANNAH CARRATT KELVIN HOLT BEN WARING RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING DANIELLE BURWOOD MARKETING MANAGER AITANA BRETON SUBSCRIPTIONS AMY HUDSON ADMINISTRATION CHERIE NUGENT LISA ETHERINGTON GILLIAN DUNN DESIGN & PRODUCTION MILES JOHNSTONE Rail Professional welcomes contributions in the form of articles, photographs or letters, preferably by email. Original photographs may be submitted, but, while every care will be exercised, neither the editor nor the publisher take responsibility for loss of, or damage to, material sent. Submission of material to Rail


t was a pleasure to talk to Paul Crowther OBE, chief constable of the British Transport Police, for this month’s interview, which took place two days before the Parsons Green attack. Presciently, Crowther mentioned that terrorists ‘keep coming back to old methods’ and ‘less sophisticated, easier to carry out attacks’. Later on in the interview he mentions the whole issue of terrorism as the thing that keeps him awake at night, and calls on the DfT to work with BTP on making the rail environment a more hostile one for terrorists, and to look at what more can be done to spot suspicious activity. I asked Crowther after the interview for his views on the Parsons Green attack, and he described it as ‘cowardly and utterly abhorrent’. He stated: ‘It was an attack on Londoners, commuters and visitors to the city, who were going about their everyday business. The public will never be cowed by the selfish and atrocious acts of terrorists. Those who commit these attacks will never win and we will continue to work closely with police forces nationally in order to prevent further incidents. ‘I am extremely proud of every single BTP officer who responded to the incident at Parsons Green. Each officer demonstrated an extraordinary level of professionalism and together with the Metropolitan Police and Transport for London we were quickly able to contain the incident.’ In asking how passengers, the industry and BTP can do more to help prevent this type of event happening in the future, Crowther told me: ‘Passengers and rail staff are the eyes and ears of the rail network. Each day, they travel the length and breadth of the nation and will be able to quickly see if something doesn’t look right. That’s when we want to hear from them. ‘The incident at North Greenwich station in October 2016 is a clear example of how the public can help us in countering the threat of terrorism. Passengers on the Jubilee Line service alerted staff when they saw a suspicious bag that was left unattended. Staff, as well as BTP, then took immediate steps to make sure the public were kept safe. ‘This should be seen as a shining example of how the public can help us intercept threat and stop attacks from happening.’ In his interview, Crowther states he does not believe rail can work as anything other than open access – that airport-style checks would defeat the object of a mass transit system, and I have to say I agree. He also mentioned that BTP’s CCTV work is done on ‘legacy’ systems that were installed to run the railway and not for security purposes. Isn’t it time that was changed? Since BTP has been dealing with demands stretching back as far as Ken Livingstone to disband it, what really came across in talking to Crowther is that, given rail is a ‘target rich environment’ as he described it, how could we possibly consider that a merger or its demise would mean passengers are as well-protected, not only economically and in terms of a quality journey, but in this day and age, from loss of life and limb?

Professional will be taken as permission for it to be published in the magazine. ISSN 1476-2196

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HS2 confirms new Phase Two MD; New trains across Thameslink; New report on valuing infrastructure; WMCA approves transport plan; New IOSH president elected; Plans to modernise customer service on London Overground; Urban Transport Group report; New trains unveiled by Greater Anglia; Worcestershire rail investment tops £50 million; Virgin Pendolinos repaint

In the passenger seat


The competition for the next East Midlands franchise must seize the opportunity to provide an outstanding journey, says David Sidebottom

Delivering the goods


Chris MacRae looks at Scotland and England’s respective High Level Output Specifications in terms of the needs of rail freight

Laying down the law


Martin Fleetwood warns of the dangers lurking in your electronic marketing strategy

Partnered up


Is growing foreign involvement in the operation of the UK’s rail franchises the right trend, asks Ross Macaulay

Women in Rail


Adeline Ginn looks at how we can welcome women back to work after a significant period of absence

A matter of policy


Rail Professional

River Tamoor-Baig outlines what will happen at HackTrain 4.0



The whole issue of terrorism is the thing that keeps me awake at night, thinking about what we can do in what is an open access system Interview, page 44 Working together in a new way


Andy Milner explains the role of the new Exports Leadership Group and how it will coordinate a new approach that will double rail exports

Intelligent foresight


Madeleine Lake says mobile laser scanning is shedding new light on tunnel inspections

Found: the Holy Grail of surveying


A new high-accuracy drone system is a ‘game-changer’ for track surveys, says David Norris

IRO News


News from the Institution of Railway Operators

Time for D day


Paul Salveson looks at options for suitable rolling stock on community rail routes, and concludes that there is one that stands out

Rail Professional interview


Paul Crowther OBE, chief constable of the British Transport Police spoke to Lorna Slade about the terror threat keeping him awake at night, the merger north of the border, and what the BTP needs to do to keep itself sustainable and relevant

Rail Professional



Lessons to be learned

Getting personal



Barely scratching the surface

A lasting legacy



Let there be light

Business news



We must take care building tunnels and caverns under operating railways, cautions Tony Berkeley

Using underground space is proving its value and the case for tunnelling has never been stronger, says Mark Leggett

Eli Rees-King looks at light in the tunnel as well as at the end

Simon Pont looks at how the industry can use business intelligence to drive customer service and growth

CrossCountry has partnered with The Scout Association to encourage youngsters to be safe on the railway

Heriot-Watt University; Arcadis; Mabey; Transport Systems Catapult; Rail Freight Group; Cisco

Eustress, not stress

Business profiles



With staff working around the clock to deliver on the new schemes, it’s time the industry placed more emphasis on mental health, says Rob Tidbury

Let’s get on with it


Mark Barry outlines his proposals for a £1 billion rail investment to deliver thirtyminute journeys to Cardiff and a Swansea Bay Metro

Rail Professional

Rittal; Rail Business Awards; Freshwater; Goodlight; 3M; CMS Cepcor; Kee Systems; RSK; Murphy Surveys; Fugro; Structural Soils; Artesyn; Socomec; Relec



Mary Grant; Alison Munro; Tom Joyner; Ronnie Cowan; Steve Double; Paul Girvan; Huw Merriman; Luke Pollard; Laura Smith; Iain Stewart; Graham Stringer; Martin Vickers; Daniel Zeichner; Arthur Leathley

Time to upgrade your wipers? 7 NEWS |

... introducing PSV’s new replacement system HS2 confirms new Phase News in brief... Two managing director


Pollution light ramForward’s campaign to promote electric-powered light rail as a means of combating health problems caused by air pollution has received a boost from research carried out in Sacramento, California, which concluded that electricpowered light rail offers the least polluted travel environment. Exposure to particulate pollution during commuting was compared in single occupancy motor vehicles, high occupancy motor vehicles, buses, light rail, train, and cycling.


Strangest things o encourage people to collect their lost items, and not leave them behind in the first place, ScotRail has published a list of the 10 strangest things left in its carriages and on platforms. ‘As much as we’ve enjoyed compiling this list, we’re asking customers to spare a couple of seconds and look before they leave,’ said comms director Rob Shorthouse. The list is: 1: season tickets; 2: phones; 3: glasses; 4: car keys; 5: skateboards; 6: bikes; 7: fancy dress; 8: false teeth; 9: kittens; 10: wheelchairs.

HS2 Ltd has appointed Paul Griffiths to the position, replacing Alison Munro CBE, who retired in the summer. Griffiths takes on his new role after joining HS2 in June 2015 as development director for Phase 2b where he led the team developing the routes for Phase Two from Crewe to Manchester and Birmingham to Leeds. Having studied civil engineering and beginning his career with British Rail, Griffiths was a director at West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive, Centro, and Transport for Greater Manchester where he led the development of light rail systems and other capital infrastructure investments. Welcoming Paul to his new role and place on the HS2 Ltd executive team, chief executive Mark Thurston said: ‘During his time with the company Paul has been instrumental in helping us to get the designation of the route to Leeds and Manchester. With his knowledge and understanding of the programme he is exceptionally well placed to continue the detailed route design and bring the benefits of HS2 to more places in the Midlands and the North.’ Paul Griffiths said: ‘I’m really proud of the what we have achieved so far with HS2, working with communities and stakeholders right across the country. We’re now focused on taking the next Bill through Parliament and continuing the work of developing the rest of the route.’

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Call for new Metro fleet • Arms usiness organisations in North • Wiper blades Eastand England are urging the • Motors (24v 110v) government to fund a new • Linkage systems • Control switches fleet of trains for the Tyne and • Components & North spares Wear Metro. The East England

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We offer robustly engineered solutions for train At PSV, we’ve been developing and manufacturing Our manufacturing facility in Worcester also has a builders, and system upgrades for operators ... introducing PSV’s new replacement system quality wiper systems for over 35(especially yearsthose (with 20 a high LCC onhighly experienced team of in-house designers experiencing years experience working withinoriginal theequipment). rail industry). and engineers who will work alongside you At PSV, we’ve been developing and manufacturing Our manufacturing facility in Worcester also has a to meet your individual needs. quality wiper systems for over 35 years (with 20 highly experienced team of in-house designers Weexperience are a proud supplier to international OEM years working within the rail industry). and engineers who will work alongside you to meet your individual needs. train builders, fleet operators and fleet support If you’re looking to replace or upgrade your wiper We are a proud supplier to international OEM train builders, fleet operators and fleet support If you’re looking to replace or upgrade your wiper distributors. systems, we’re just a phone call away. distributors. systems, we’re just asystem phone call away. Introducing PSV’s new replacement Whether your trains operate in the heavy snow of the mountains, the heat of the desert, or the harsh salty environment of the coast... you need a wiper system you can rely on.

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PSV Wipers Ltd., Navigation Road, Diglis, Worcester WR5 3DE Tel. +44 (0)1905 350 500 • PSV Wipers Ltd, Navigation Road, Diglis, Worcester WR5 3DE, United Kingdom Tel. +44 (0)1905 350 500 Photo reproduced under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Credit:

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News in brief... a campaign to persuade ministers to make an early decision on funding. Research shows agreeing around £400 million to replace Metro’s ageing train fleet would be worth three times the investment in on-going benefits to the region’s economy, said the group. Another record summer for Eurotunnel he season saw new traffic records for the Le Shuttle service with almost 564,000 vehicles carried from July to September 2017. Traffic grew 2% over the same period in 2016, which was itself a record year. Recent investments in the premium service like the opening of the Flexiplus lounge in France have seen bookings for this category up by 6%. Frequent Traveller bookings increased by 12%, ‘proof that a weak pound is no obstacle to our customers when they want to journey to France’ said the company. Other traffic records set over the summer include almost 77,500 pets (with owners) and 620 horses – increases of 8% and 25% compared to 2016.


London business body supports a ‘Crossrail for the North’ ondon Chamber of Commerce and Industry has called on the government to ‘seriously explore’ the construction of the ‘Crossrail for the North’ line, saying it is in the best interests of the whole UK if strategic transport infrastructure is not concentrated mainly in the southeast


New cutting-edge trains in full operation across Thameslink route

Passengers travelling between London Bridge, Gatwick Airport and Brighton now have brand new Thameslink trains that are up to three times longer, giving more space and more seats. Govia Thameslink Railway (GTR) has withdrawn the last of its older trains from this off-peak service, replacing them with Siemens Class 700 carriages. The 12-carriage trains replace the mostly four-carriage (weekdays) and eight-carriage (Saturdays) twice-hourly service, creating 9,000 extra seats each weekday and much The trains have a spacious design and more space for passengers at Gatwick and information systems that will tell those heading for the coast. passengers how London’s Tube trains are Trains on the wider network run running as well as which direction to walk with 8 carriages and 12 carriages. More to find more space on the train. 12-carriage trains will be introduced early Rail minister Paul Maynard said: ‘I am next year as additional stabling facilities delighted we have reached this significant are built in Bedford. Already, Thameslink milestone for the Thameslink Programme. has 50 per cent more carriages in service This investment will transform northin the peaks on the Thameslink route than ...trains introducing new south travelreplacement across London and the system before the new were introduced. PSV’s south east by a providing a modern, GTR engineering director Gerry accessible service in time for the expanded McFadden pointed out: ‘Next year Thameslink network from 2018.’ hundreds of thousands of new passengers Vernon Barker, managing director of the from east Kent, Sussex, Cambridge and Rail Systems business at Siemens UK which Peterborough will be plugged into the manufactures and maintains the Class 700 cross-London route when the Thameslink trains, said: ‘The Class 700 is one of the network expands.’ largest and most technologically advanced fleets of trains ever introduced in the UK.’ Guy Stephenson, chief commercial officer, Gatwick Airport, said: ‘Gatwick continues to grow with record numbers of passengers travelling through the airport every month. These new carriages are • Arms ideally suited for air travellers and the • Wiper blades longer trains will make a real difference to • Motors (24v and 110v) the increasing number of passengers using • Linkage systems the airport and travelling by rail. • Control switches ‘The new trains also form part of the • Components & spares excitingin transformation rail services Whether your trains operate the heavyofsnow of at We of Gatwick. By 2018, rail capacity through the mountains, the heatGatwick of thewill desert, or the harsh builde have doubled in just 10 years and our passengers will start to see the salty environment of the coast... you need a wiper (espec benefit of trains leaving the airport for system you can rely on. London with Tube-like frequency every origin Looking to lower your Life Cycle Costs? PSV can help. three minutes.’

Time to upgrade your wipers? ... introducing PSV’s new replacement system

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We offer robustly engineered solutions for train At PSV, we’ve been developing and manufacturing Our m builders, and system upgrades for operators quality wiper systems for over 35(especially yearsthose (with 20 experiencing a high LCC onhighly original equipment). years experience working within the rail industry). and en At PSV, we’ve been developing and manufacturing Our manufacturing facility in Worcester also has a to me Looking to lower Life Cycle PSV can help. quality wiper systems for over 35your years (with 20 highlyCosts? experienced team of in-house designers Weexperience are a proud supplier to international OEM years working within the rail industry). and engineers who will work alongside you Whether your trains operate in the heavy snow of the mountains, the your heat of the desert, or the harsh salty to meet individual needs. train builders, fleet operators and fleet support If you We are a proud to international OEM you can environment of thesupplier coast, you need a wiper system rely on. builders, fleet operators and fleet support quality wiper If you’re looking to replace upgrade your wiper At train PSV, we’ve been developing and manufacturing systems for over 35 yearsor(with 20 years distributors. distributors. systems, we’re just aOEM phone callbuilders, away. fleet system experience working in the rail industry). We are a proud supplier to international train Whether your trains operate in the heavy snow of the mountains, the heat of the desert, or the harsh salty environment of the coast... you need a wiper system you can rely on.

operators and fleet support distributors. • Arms • Wiper blades • Motors (24v and 110v) • Linkage systems • Control switches • Components & spares

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Why not discover the benefits of Call us today and ask for our Rail PSV Wipers Ltd., Navigation Road, Diglis, Worcester WR5 3DE

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We offer robustly engineered solutions for train builders, and system upgrades for operators (especially those experiencing a high LCC on

Photo reproduced under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Credit:

PSV Wipers Ltd, Navigation Road, Diglis, Worcester WR5 3DE, Un

Time to upgrade your wipers 9 NEWS |

... introducing PSV’s new replacement system

Government must get better at valuing Time to upgrade your wipers? News in brief... infrastructure says report be abandoned. The government’s use of cost replacement benefit ... introducing PSV’s new system The report recommends that the Treasury analysis must improve if crucial

area. Policy director, Sean McKee said: ‘London is heading towards megacity status with 10 million people by 2030, and while we seek the right infrastructure here, it is important that the rest of the country continues to grow as well.’

investments in the country’s infrastructure are to succeed, according to a new report. Published by the Institute for Government, How to value infrastructure: Improving cost benefit analysis, argues that with a quarter of a trillion pounds worth of infrastructure investment expected over the next five years, the government can’t afford expensive mistakes and unnecessary delays. Cost benefit analysis is the best way for government to assess the economic value of projects, but it is often misused, inconsistently applied and poorly communicated, says the report. This risks the wrong projects being approved while valuable projects are either turned down or delayed. The report argues that cost benefit analysis is sometimes used by ministers to justify decisions that have already been made. Not only does this erode public trust in government, it also harms the country’s long-term competitiveness. However, the report finds that cost benefit analysis can improve decision 110v) making when used properly – and shouldn’t


Fabricated threats olchester’s Tory MP Will Quince, who chairs the taskforce pressing for improvements on Greater Anglia, has called the RMT ‘luddites’ for calling for strike action on the Toc, according to the East Anglian Daily Times. ‘It’s not about genuine job concerns’ he said, ‘it’s an attempt to bring down the government. Greater Anglia has guaranteed there will be conductor/guards on its trains for the next 10 years. How many people have their jobs guaranteed for 10 years?’

and relevant departments, including the Department for Transport, publish clearer guidance for analysts, based on more and better data, with more consistent assessment. Ministers must be more transparent about the way they make they make difficult infrastructure decisions. Getting better at cost benefit analysis could go a long way in enabling the government to commission projects that will help transform the UK economy, and avoid expensive overruns like the Channel Tunnel or the embarrassing U-turns of the rail electrification programme, the report points out. Nick Davies, research manager at the Institute for Government and the report’s author, said: ‘Government must get much better at learning from the successes and failures of previous projects. Equally, ministers should be far more honest with the public about the limits of modelling and the real reasons behind their decisions. Cost benefit analysis is a useful tool but it will only ever be as good as the people using it.’

• Arms • Wiper blades • Arms • Motors (24v and 110v) • Wiper blades • Linkage systems • Motors (24v and • Linkage systems • Control switches No divorce • Control switches • Components he Edinburgh Trams project& sparesWMCA approves transport plan for the next decade


• Components & spares

could have been cancelled Cllr Roger Lawrence, lead member for A transport blueprint – the 2026 with a £40 million ‘amicable transport for the WMCA and leader of City Delivery Plan – that will see £3.4 divorce’ payment in 2010 of Wolverhampton Council, said: ‘HS2 will billion of tram extensions, new suburban bring us closer to London and the UK’s rail lines, cycle routes and motorway but the information was not shared other big city regions and make us a worldimprovements built over the coming with the city’s councillors, according class place in which to do business. Now decade has been approved by members of to The Scotsman. Figures published this blueprint has been approved we can the West Midlands Combined Authority. by the ongoing public inquiry get to work in putting it into action.’ Prepared by Transport for West show termination costs were being The final plan was compiled including Midlands, WMCA’s transport arm, the feedback from a six week online public plan is part of the authority’s long-term circulated in March 2010, a year before consultation and funding for this new transport strategy Movement for Growth. the city council voted to continue the Whether your trains operate in the heavy snow of We offer robustly engineered solutions for train isengineered now being pursued. This will be the first delivery phase of a Whether We offer programme robustly solutions for tra project at a cost ofyour £770m.trains At that operate in the heavy snow of the mountains, the heat of thelonger-term desert, or20 the harsh builders, and system upgrades operators Cllr Lawrence added:for ‘I am particularly year strategy to improve time, councillors were told cancelling the mountains, the heat desert, orandthe harsh builders,those and system upgrades operators pleased at how the views of thefor public transport unlock economic growth salty environment of of thethe coast... you need a wiper (especially experiencing a high LCC on thesalty projectenvironment would cost £750m. of the coast... you helped shape this final plan, that sort of LCC on acrossneed the West Midlands and will ensure a wiper (especially those experiencing a high

Looking loweryour your Life Life Cycle PSV cancan help. Looking to to lower CycleCosts? Costs? PSV help.

system you can rely on.

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input is key in helping us deliver what the region is ready for the arrival of HS2, original equipment). people need.’ which is scheduled to begin services from At PSV, we’ve been developingtwo and manufacturing manufacturing facility in Worcester also has a new stations in BirminghamOur in 2026.

system you can rely on.

for overand 35 years (with 20 At PSV,quality we’vewiper beensystems developing manufacturing years experience working within the rail industry). quality wiper systems for over 35 years (with 20 years experience working within the rail industry). We are a proud supplier to international OEM

Time to upgrade your wiper highly experienced team of in-house designers Our manufacturing facility in Worcester also h and engineers who will work you ... introducing PSV’salongside new replacement system highly experienced team of in-house designers to meet your individual needs. and engineers who will work alongside you

We offer robustly solutions for train builders, andsupport system upgrades forIfoperators (especially those experiencing a train engineered builders, fleet operators and fleet you’re looking replace orneeds. upgrade your wiper to meet your to individual high LLC on original equipment). We aredistributors. a proud supplier to international OEM systems, we’re just a phone call away. Our manufacturing facility in Worcester also has a highly designers and engineers who will train builders, fleet operators and fleetexperienced support team of in-house If you’re looking to replace work alongside you to meet your individual needs.

or upgrade your w systems, we’re just a phone call away.


If you’re looking to replace or upgrade your wiper systems, we’re just a phone call away.

Why not discover the benefits of a PSV wiper system? • Arms • Wiper blades Call us today and ask for our Rail Specialist, Paul • Motors (24v and 110v) Curry.

Why not discover the benefits of athePSV system? Why not discover benefitswiper of a PSV wiper system? Call us today and ask for our Rail Specialist, Paul Curry. PSV Wipers Ltd, Navigation Road, Diglis, WR5our 3DE, Rail UnitedSpecialist, Kingdom Call us today andWorcester ask for Paul Curry. • Linkage systems • Control switches • Components & spares

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Photo reproduced under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Credit:

Whether your trains operate in the heavy snow of PSV Wipers Ltd, Navigation Road, Diglis, Worcester WR5 3DE, United Kingdom the mountains, the heat of the desert, or the harsh salty environment of the coast... you need a wiper

We offer robustly engineered solutions for t builders, and system upgrades for operators (especially those experiencing a high LCC on



News in brief...


Email me n a UK first, GTR’s Great Northern railway has fitted its trains with a smart hi-tech kit that warns engineers by email when parts are developing a problem. Sensors are now on both wheel bearings and gearboxes across all 40 of the Toc’s Class 365 trains that run between Cambridge, Peterborough and London King’s Cross. The system, designed by Perpetuum uses vibration sensors to provide real-time ‘in-flight’ monitoring and diagnostics.


First for Peel eel Ports is to launch a new rail container service for its customers using the Port of Liverpool. The company is in advanced contract discussions with both a rail provider and shippers, with the aim of running the first services before the end of 2017. It is the first time Peel Ports has offered an integrated package, giving shippers a seamless route to market, from quayside to any UK destination served by major rail lines, or vice versa.


Good Fortune for MTR TR Corporation has been included for the first time in Fortune Magazine’s Change the World list for 2017 – an annual list of organisations committed to solving the world’s problems through smart business practices. The only rail operator on the list and ranked 33rd, MTR was praised for its high-quality services, low greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable approach to developing real estate in and around stations, as well as its punctuality on Hong Kong’s metro system, where 99.9% of services run on time.

More news at

Rail Professional

International rail safety chief to become IOSH president The head of corporate safety at MTR Corporation has been elected president of the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health. Dr Vincent Ho will take up the position in September 2018 and brings with him extensive experience of working in Asia, USA, Europe and Australia. He has been a member of senior government committees in Hong Kong and has connections across public and private sectors. The appointment comes as IOSH delivers its five-year strategy, WORK 2022, which has three key strands: enhancing the health and safety profession; building strategic collaborative partnerships across industry; and strengthening its influence globally. Dr Ho said: ‘My election shows that IOSH means business as we aim to deliver our strategy and influence health and safety across the globe. This is a very exciting time for the institution and the profession as a whole. We have to keep building on the momentum towards safer and healthier work and strengthen our impact worldwide.’ As well as delivering the strategy, Ho’s term in office will coincide with the APOSHO (Asia Pacific Occupational Safety and Health Organizations) conference in Hong Kong towards the end of 2018, hosted by IOSH’s Hong Kong branch. MTR Corporation, which operates Crossrail in the UK, employs more than 32,000 people worldwide. As well as Hong Kong, it has operations across China, Stockholm, Gothenburg, Melbourne and Sydney.

Plans to modernise customer service on London Overground Transport for London and Arriva Rail London, which operates London Overground, have announced plans to review and modernise customer service on the network. TfL is currently delivering a programme of improvements which includes Night Overground services from December this year and a new fleet of trains on many lines next year. To further improve customer service, ARL will begin meeting with its staff and trade unions to discuss a range of initiatives, including making London Overground staff more visible and available at stations, providing assistance and information where it is most needed, and modernising the process for selling tickets to reflect changes in how people are paying for their travel. As part of the programme ARL is considering increasing the number of staff it directly employs in permanent roles and reducing reliance on agencies to cover customer service positions. The proposed new positions would be multifunctional so that staff are skilled to work in different areas of customer service, such as helping vulnerable people on their journeys, with a comprehensive package of training and development provided. All stations will continue to be staffed at all times while trains are running. ARL will also be consulting with London Travel Watch and the Department for Transport on the emerging plans, which are

being developed such that there will not be a need for compulsory redundancies. In addition, the number of staff employed in permanent mobile revenue protection and security roles across the London Overground network is planned to be trebled by early 2019. Jonathan Fox, TfL’s director of London Rail, said: ‘The London Overground network has improved enormously over the last decade. We want to continue that trend and make sure we are continuing to provide a service that meets the needs of today’s customers.’ TfL and ARL have reviewed the previous Fit for the Future – Stations Programme on London Underground and are ensuring that all lessons learned are incorporated into the proposals. However RMT’s general secretary, Mick Cash said the union is ‘deeply concerned’ about the proposals, which it believes could see the elimination of ticket offices across London Overground. ‘Our experience in the past shows that, despite promises to the contrary, the closure of ticket offices leads to the wholesale de-staffing of stations with serious consequences for safety and security. ‘RMT is also aware that these proposals are being mapped out against the background of massive central government cuts to the TFL budget and those cuts could shape the eventual package. The mayor must give us cast iron assurances that will not happen.’



Urban transport authorities set out vision for change

New train unveiled by Greater Anglia

The Urban Transport Group, which represents the seven largest urban transport authorities in England, has published its vision for a partnership between national government and transport authorities to deliver high quality and integrated transport networks which support sustainable and inclusive growth at a time of rapid technological and social change. The report, Policy futures for urban transport sets out how, with more focused governance in place, the city regions are delivering major investment programmes including on public transport, highways and active travel, and smart ticketing. With the right national policy framework, it says, further and faster progress can be made. Tobyn Hughes, managing director of Nexus and the chair of Urban Transport Group said: ‘Transport is changing for the better in our major urban areas. However, we want to go further and faster and this report sets out how. It builds on the expertise of the transport authorities for our largest urban areas and turns that into a route map for what an effective working relationship between government and the city regions should look like on transport.’ One of the report’s recommendations is a more effective strategic and operational partnership between the city regions and Highways England/Network Rail to ensure that national and sub-national road and rail links are managed and developed in an integrated way.

The Toc’s commuters are due to get a fleet of trains built solely with them and their communities in mind, as a lifesize mock-up of what is to come has been unveiled. The event took place at Bombardier’s Litchurch Lane plant in Derby last month for a select group of railway journalists. During the on-screen presentation prior to visiting the mock-up, the journalists were given a demonstration of the 2D and 3D innovations used to plan the train’s design. Bombardier stands to receive £900 million for the venture featuring its AVENTRA model which comes in the form of 89 five carriage trains and 22 ten carriage trains, which will start appearing on services into and out of London Liverpool Street in 2019. Alan Fravolini, project manager at Bombardier told Rail Professional: ‘The main benefit of this design is that it is for one of the most densely populated areas and fulfils one of Greater Anglia’s greatest needs for this franchise. Everyone now expects Wi-Fi and has come to expect the train to give them information.’ In addition to Greater Anglia’s main commuter work, one of these state-of-the-art trains will be supplementing the Norwich to London main line service with one train per hour. Greater Anglia deputy managing director Mike Kean told guests: ‘We’ve consulted widely to make sure they are suitable for all of our customers and have received very positive feedback and helpful comments.’ Those involved in the planning of the new trains include rail user groups, disability representatives, customer panels, passenger watchdogs, rail unions and representatives from local authorities and business organisations. Also, more than 1,000 passengers took part in an online consultation. Photo and copy ©Peter Brown 2017

New lick of paint for Virgin Trains’ Pendolino The fleet is sporting a new look as part of a repaint programme. The new livery is named ‘flowing silk’ and builds on the Virgin brand, ‘adding curves, shapes and dynamism, with the flow across the train taking its main inspiration from the natural world… the wind,’ said the company. The work was undertaken by the original builders of the train, Alstom, at their newly opened facility in Widnes.

Rail Professional

Rail investment tops £50 million in Worcestershire The tens of millions being invested into the network will ensure the county, which has one of the fastest growing economies in the country, has better connectivity. It comes as figures show that Worcestershire will see a 97 per cent growth in passenger numbers on its rail network by 2043. On some routes, including Worcester to London, current figures are expected to double. Cllr Ken Pollock, cabinet member for economy and infrastructure at Worcestershire County Council, said: ‘To allow for future growth, this county needs an improved rail network so that is why we’re investing in it.’ Around £53 million is being spent by the County Council and its partners on rail improvements up to 2019 and work is due to start at Worcestershire Parkway this autumn with a construction target date of winter 2018 and opening in early 2019. The new station will forge better links between

Worcester and London. Plans have also recently been revealed for £4.3 million to be invested to improve Kidderminster station, the second busiest station in the county and predicted to see a 50 per cent increase in passenger numbers in the next five years. Work there is due to start in the autumn of 2018. Worcestershire County Council has just completed a period of consultation on its draft rail strategy that sets out the vision for a better rail network in the county.

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In the passenger seat David Sidebottom

Raised expectations The competition for the next East Midlands franchise must seize the opportunity to provide an outstanding journey for passengers, says David Sidebottom


ast Midlands passengers have told us in our latest research that the next franchise must seize the opportunity to deliver an outstanding experience. With the next operator expected to start running the franchise from August 2019 we believe that passengers’ views should be understood before new services are specified. Their interests must be placed at the heart of the contract. That’s why we carried out a number of focus groups across the network to understand what passengers’ biggest gripes were and to get a better feeling for areas where the operator excels. The research finds that the current East Midlands franchise largely delivers on passengers’ basic needs. However one of the biggest concerns for East Midlands Trains’ passengers is the dated nature of the trains in use at the moment. Overall 89 per cent of East Midlands Trains passengers are satisfied with their

What’s clear is that East Midlands Trains passengers have a dependable service that delivers the basics well. However, passengers have seen what other train companies provide, which has raised their expectations

journey. Passengers tell us they find East Midlands Trains delivers a dependable and reliable service which represents value for money on local journeys compared to the cost of driving or taking the bus. For longer journeys however, especially to and from London, opinions of the value for money are much more varied, with some people finding good value fares while others find tickets to be eye-wateringly expensive. “I’m spending £130 at least on tickets and when I add that up to a month, it’s at least £600. And then I have to pay for Wi-Fi.

I think that’s really rubbish.” Bedford, frequent commuter Passengers’ top priorities for the next franchise are more seats to handle overcrowding at peak times, additional evening and Sunday services, and the introduction of modern trains. This includes free on-board Wi-Fi, power sockets and improvements to catering services. In the latest National Rail Passenger Survey, just 29 per cent of passengers are satisfied with the availability of Wi-Fi on trains and 43 per cent are satisfied with the availability of



Our research shows passengers rate staff on the network highly, finding them friendly and helpful at the station and on the train. 81 per cent of passengers are satisfied with the helpfulness and attitude of staff on the train power sockets. Passengers have told us there are issues around the dated feel of trains, their lack of facilities, and the inconsistent quality of stations across the network. The dated appearance of the trains and the design of their interiors leads to people describing

the operator’s brand overall as ‘basic’, even rather ‘shabby’. Passengers also had some rather negative views about the cleanliness of train interiors, with satisfaction rates of 74 per cent on local routes.

friendly. I know what I’m getting really.” Mansfield, frequent commuter

Passenger satisfaction for toilet facilities was 50 per cent on local routes and 55 per cent on London trains. Passengers notice a stark contrast between East Midlands Trains and more modern trains run by Virgin Trains and London Midland, which share some stations on the network. The new franchise should look to significantly improve the quality of the trains, bringing them up to 21st century standards. Introducing trains across the network with an improved level of comfort and better provision of facilities, especially on local routes, would go some way to transforming passengers’ overall impression of the franchise.

Our research shows passengers rate staff on the network highly, finding them friendly and helpful at the station and on the train. 81 per cent of passengers are satisfied with the helpfulness and attitude of staff on the train. Where passengers have problems, these are generally resolved proactively onthe-spot, or dealt with successfully by East Midlands Trains’ customer relations team. It’s vital that the next operator continues to deliver good customer service and put the passenger at the heart of its day-to-day operation. What’s clear is that East Midlands Trains passengers have a dependable service that delivers the basics well. However, passengers have seen what other train companies provide, which has raised their expectations. We will now work with the Department for Transport to highlight these, and other issues, seeking a franchise that reflects passenger needs and exceeds their expectations. The competition for the next franchise must seize the opportunity to provide an outstanding journey for rail passengers in the East Midlands.

“[I use East Midlands Trains] because they’re on time, they’re reliable, staff are

David Sidebottom is passenger director at Transport Focus

“I find them quite noisy. I often get the train from Lincoln to Newark Northgate and it’s a two carriage train but it is so loud. Literally the windows are shaking sometimes, it’s just really uncomfortable to sit on sometimes.” Peterborough, leisure frequent traveller

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Delivering the goods


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Compare and contrast Chris MacRae looks at Scotland and England’s respective High Level Output Specifications in terms of the needs of rail freight


n 20th July DfT and Scottish ministers published their respective High Level Output Specifications (HLOS’s) specifying what outputs the respective governments want to buy from the railway in the form of Network Rail in the next fiscal regulatory Control Period (CP6) 2019 – 2014. It is fair to say that specifically in the case of freight as well as generally, the English one is ‘disappointing’ whereas the Scottish one is positive, ambitious and determined. For example while England cuts electrification programmes, Scotland forges ahead. The DfT HLOS focuses on operations, maintenance and renewals (OMR) with any

It is fair to say that specifically in the case of freight as well as generally, the English one [HLOS] is ‘disappointing’ whereas the Scottish one is positive, ambitious and determined. For example while England cuts electrification programmes, Scotland forges ahead

enhancements to be announced as and when there is a business case and the Treasury has any spare borrowing. Behind this lies a failure to get grips with Network Rail’s costs and efficiencies which have gone the wrong way with cost escalations. This explains the reason for the delay of the Statement of Funds Available (to both DfT and Scottish ministers) till 13th October. It would of course be good to have a continued English and Welsh freight enhancement investment fund as in previous Control Periods. In contrast, the Scottish HLOS

specifically mentions freight and focuses on loading gauge clearance and freight growth. There already is a Scottish freight investment fund. Gauging data, or the lack of, provides another example of Transport Scotland’s tightening of its grip. Network Rail will be required to ensure that by the end of CP6, all Scottish routes are maintained to accommodate the gauge of ‘all locomotives and rolling stock, including cross-border services and charter operators’ vehicles, which have run in Scotland in CP4 and Rail Professional



CP5 or are planned for CP6’. To achieve this, Network Rail must have a strategy in place to implement the ‘Scottish Gauge Requirement’ by the end of CP5, ready for phased implementation through CP6. A freight journey time metric will also be developed and the freight delivery metric which measures on time arrivals of freights services is being stepped up. Additionally, there will be a requirement for one crossborder Anglo – Scottish route to be kept open at all times. This is vital as 80 per cent of Scottish rail freight is cross-border. Freight growth target a challenge On freight growth, the Scottish government HLOS sets a collaborative approach on growth of 7.5 per cent by the end of CP6. This requires Network Rail’s Scotland Route to work with Network Rail’s system operator function and freight and GB passenger operators’ routes and with wider industry. This growth target is going to be a challenge given that Scottish rail freight was disproportionately affected by the decline in electricity supply industry coal traffic compared to the rest of GB. The Scottish government’s Programme for Government focuses on infrastructure and environment issues, the latter including introduction of road vehicle low emission zones in

Scottish cities, and the former the new Forth Crossing, A9 and Highland Main Line upgrades. To achieve this rail freight growth target it is vital that rail freight can become more efficient in Scotland. A focused growth plan for the next 12 months is needed with Transport Scotland help for Network Rail to plan with industry. The Scottish government’s rail freight strategy will be due a two year review in March of next year with Transport Scotland having to report on progress to minsters. Gauge enhancement is essential if refrigerated containers are to be carried by rail enabling supermarkets to use rail for chilled and frozen goods as well as ambient. Whisky from Speyside is another potential growth product. Sectional Running Times (SRT’s) for freight need to improve on the Highland Main Line so that two trips in a day can be made to bring costs and hence price down to win more traffic. Following one held at Coatbridge in June, two further rail freight commodity workshops are being held in October, one in Inverness, the other in Aberdeen. These are organised jointly by Transport Scotland, the Freight Transport Association, and the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport. The workshops aim to shine a light on the benefits of using rail freight and

follow the recent publication of Delivering Your Goods, a Guide to the Benefits of Using Rail Freight. Attendees will get the opportunity to speak directly with industry representatives, hear about rail in the domestic, deepsea, European and worldwide logistics chain and learn in detail about how rail freight has already benefited other companies. Details are available at: scot Contact: Chris MacRae, head of rail policy – rail freight and Scotland Tel: 01892 552355/ 07818 450353 Email: About FTA Freight Transport Association represents the transport interests of companies moving goods by rail, road, sea and air. Its members consign over 90 per cent of the freight moved by rail and over 70 per cent of sea and air freight. They also operate over 220,000 goods vehicles on road – almost half the UK fleet. The main UK rail freight operating companies belong to FTA as do the major global logistics service providers operating in the European and UK markets.

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Laying down the law


Martin Fleetwood

A granular approach to consent Martin Fleetwood warns of the dangers lurking in your electronic marketing strategy


wo EU Regulations are due to be implemented in May 2018 which between them represent a significant shift in data compliance obligations, particularly in relation to the form, nature and management of consent to electronic direct marketing (EDM). One, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), has enjoyed fairly thorough coverage in the press, while the closely connected ePrivacy Regulation (ePR) has, by contrast, remained in relative obscurity. With e-mail, social media and search advertising continuing to lead aggressive growth, public and regulatory scrutiny has also increased significantly. Regulators and the courts are exhibiting a much lower tolerance of mistakes by companies in

With e-mail, social media and search advertising continuing to lead aggressive growth, public and regulatory scrutiny has also increased significantly. Regulators and the courts are exhibiting a much lower tolerance of mistakes by companies in handling data

handling data. While the GDPR regulates the processing and sharing of personal information (PI), the ePR addresses the rules organisations must follow when sending EDM, and using tracking technologies such as cookies. Although individually discrete, a distinct area of overlap on advertising and the use of PI has developed and flourished between the two. For marketing, understanding the (sometimes complex) interplay between both Regulations is key to getting compliance right and avoiding potentially significant fines. What is ‘consent’? Consent is the agreement of one party to allow another party to use the PI which is provided as part of the relationship between the two parties in specific ways. It can be implicit or explicit and often is requested

early in a relationship, such as cookie agreements when you hit a website. The consent given is different under the GDPR and ePR. Under the GDPR consent can be given to process PI, but there are other grounds for holding and processing PI, such as legitimate interests or contractual necessity. The organisation holding the PI can go on and use the PI to plan and design advertising campaigns but that is where the consent ends. The actual sending of EDM to a recipient (communication consent) falls under the ePR and a separate, clear and specific consent to such EDM being sent to it is required from the recipient. Getting valid consent For consent to be valid under the GDPR or ePR, it must be freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous. The practical Rail Professional



The current draft of the ePR does contain a very specific ‘soft optin’ exemption but only in the context of commercial marketing in connection with the sale of goods or services, where the organisation has obtained the individual’s details in the course of the sale impact is that if an organisation is to rely on consent under the GDPR and/or ePR, then anything other than definitive, clear and critically ‘opt-in’ consent to EDM is unlikely to be valid. Silence, pre-ticked boxes and opt-out consent (whereby a user must take an active step to say ‘no’ rather than ‘yes’ to EDM) are almost guaranteed to be invalid. The current draft of the ePR does contain a very specific ‘soft opt-in’ exemption but only in the context of commercial marketing in connection with the sale of

Rail Professional

goods or services, where the organisation has obtained the individual’s details in the course of the sale. As there is no reference to ‘negotiations for a sale’ it is expected that the soft opt-in will only apply once a sale has been made. Any EDM sent under soft opt-in consent must be limited to marketing similar products or services of the specific entity to which the consent relates (e.g. not another group company). Organisations must take care to ensure the scope of materials sent under this consent is limited to their own closely related products/ services. In addition, recipients must be given a simple opportunity, in each EDM correspondence, to withdraw consent to any further EDM. A much more granular approach to consent collection will also be required. Practically this will require consent collection which specifies the channels through which an individual can be contacted (e-mail, SMS, social media, etc.) and specifying from whom the EDM will come (the specific organisation, members of its group and/or third parties). Maintaining a robust consent and/or customer identity management system in place across the business will be key to ensuring that the consent itself, and requests for withdrawal are appropriately managed.

Actions for industry Organisations should: • start considering now how obtaining granular consent can be achieved, both technically, and organisationally; • review and consider their current grounds for selection processing and how this needs to be modified, whether by means of GDPR compliant consent re-permissioning and/or update of information notices; • consider how they will manage that consent post-collection. The GDPR provides that in order for consent to be valid it must be granular (as above) and easily revocable. For marketing, this presents a challenge under the ePR, both day-to-day in managing which channels and from which third parties a recipient is happy to receive EDM, and in altering those consents in the event of consent withdrawal. Martin Fleetwood is corporate partner at Shoosmiths Email:

Disclaimer This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. It is recommended that specific professional advice is sought before acting on any of the information given.

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Partnered up As the UK continues to experience Brexit-related uncertainty in its business and political environment, is growing foreign involvement in the operation of the UK’s rail franchises the right trend, asks Ross Macaulay


oming just a day short of the anniversary of the UK’s decision to leave the European Union, Chris Grayling’s announcement on 22nd June of the shortlist to run the West Coast and South Eastern franchises was a strong indicator of Britain’s continued engagement with the rest of the world, at least as far as running the country’s railways is concerned. Involvement by overseas firms has become the norm in UK rail operations. The number of foreign bidders has increased significantly over the last few years, often acting as joint-venture partners with established UK train operators. Of the fifteen firms currently automatically approved to bid for new UK Rail franchises via the pre-qualification questionnaire (PQQ), nine are either domiciled overseas or are UK subsidiaries of overseas firms, while a tenth, Govia, is 35 per cent owned by French firm Keolis, the remainder being owned by the UK’s Go-ahead Group.

...joint ventures with foreign bidders are positive as they come at a time when we see increasing risks for train operators in the UK market. In a previous article...we discussed how risks are increasing largely as a result of changes to the franchise contracts awarded in the past four years, primarily due to the replacement of the full revenue share/support mechanism with a more limited GDP-linked mechanism

Foreign operators have many possible reasons to expand into the UK. The majority of bidders are state-owned enterprises whose domestic operations are significantly larger than their operations in the UK. Their participation may be driven by the need to diversify outside of home markets that have matured. In the case of European railway operators, the enforced liberalisation of their own markets under EU law is eroding their monopoly status and therefore encouraging them to create a foothold in different markets. While increased foreign participation obviously benefits competition, it would be easy to assume it is bad news for UK operators. Instead, UK companies are more frequently developing a partnership



approach, bidding for UK rail franchises in a joint venture with a foreign player. We believe this has actually been marginally positive for the UK rail operators that we rate. Various factors underpin this view. Firstly, foreign participation strengthens bids in relation to franchise requirements. This is particularly evident with the West Coast Partnership franchise, due to commence in April 2019, where high-speed rail experience will be beneficial due to the inclusion of HS2 high-speed services from 2026. Of the three shortlisted bids, two include European state-owned railways with extensive high-speed rail operations in their domestic markets: First Trenitalia West Coast Ltd is a joint venture between FirstGroup and Trenitalia; while West Coast Partnership Ltd is a joint venture between Stagecoach, Virgin and SNCF. The third bid is by MTR West Coast Partnership Ltd, a joint venture between Hong Kong’s MTR Corporation Ltd and China’s Guangshen Railway Company. MTR cooperates with Guangshen on high speed railway networks between Hong Kong and China and has experience of the UK rail industry through its operations of Crossrail and as a joint venture in the upcoming South Western franchise with FirstGroup.

A second advantage is that foreign participation limits UK companies’ capital exposure. For example, of the £165 million shareholder loan commitment for Virgin Trains East Coast (VTEC), Stagecoach, which owns 90 per cent of VTEC shares, is responsible for 90 per cent of that £165 million. The remainder is funded by Virgin Group of Companies, which owns 10 per cent of VTEC shares. In the case of UKbased groups bidding for rail franchises alongside foreign participants, the exposure to risk capital is typically distributed across the joint venture partners, freeing capital for other uses such as debt servicing or investment. We also note that the risk capital amount for train operating companies has increased for some recently re-let franchises, although it may be too early to identify this as a trend, particularly as risk capital requirements vary by individual franchise. Increasing risks in UK market Third, joint ventures with foreign bidders are positive as they come at a time when we see increasing risks for train operators in the UK market. In a previous article (Rail Europe, September 2017), we discussed how risks are increasing largely as a result of changes to the franchise contracts awarded

in the past four years, primarily due to the replacement of the full revenue share/ support mechanism with a more limited GDP-linked mechanism. While the partnership approach offers these advantages, it is only one aspect influencing the overall performance of the UK operators in the present market. Even before the impact of Brexit is considered, growth in UK rail passenger journeys has slowed since 2014, putting pressure on margins. Many operators are also active in the bus sector, which is facing pressure from road congestion, declining high street retail footfall and funding cuts. On the other hand, where operators have significant geographical diversity within their business models, Brexit-related sterling weakness should translate to higher overseas earnings. Combined with the financial discipline, the stability that comes from having contracted earnings, and a strategic approach to growth, we anticipate that UK train operators are likely to remain on track.

Ross Macaulay is associate director in the Corporate Ratings division at Fitch Ratings @AdvanceTRS

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Women in rail


Adeline Ginn

A return to supportiveness Adeline Ginn looks at how we can welcome women back to work after a significant period of absence


eturning to work after a significant period of absence can be an unnerving experience for anyone, particularly following a change or shift in home circumstances. What should be an ultimately positive experience and the chance to pick up where you left off at work, can be overshadowed by a number of concerns; am I still employable? what if I can’t work suitable hours? what if I can’t command the same wage? For mothers in particular, taking significant time off work for childcare can feel complicated. Mothers returning to work post-birth are frequently faced with worries surrounding their home/life balance – with any worries about increased responsibilities at home often accompanied by fears about

Creating more suitable work environment is not just about addressing the concerns of the employees in the present, it appeals to their futures. After all, someone who is more comfortable in their job is more likely to remain in the industry long-term. That is why, ultimately, investment in female workers is so integral to the sector

perceived skills gaps at work. Of course, childcare does affect both men and women, but take-up for shared parental leave is low in the UK (compared to other European nations) and, more often than not, it is women who take career breaks and leave from work to raise baby. There is little sign of a tectonic shift in the status quo. It can be disheartening that motherhood, one of life’s most treasured experiences, is still such a difficult area to navigate for employees and for companies. Those returning to work can often feel unsupported both practically and emotionally. Earlier this year, Women in Rail and The

Rail Benefit Fund joined forces to conduct a survey looking to address the issues facing women returning to work within the rail sector after a period of absence, be it as a result of maternity or care leave. The first of its kind, the survey aimed to help identify what the rail industry can do better to support and retain its female talent. Over the past few weeks, the survey asked women who work within the sector a total of 29 questions about their experiences and opinions on returning to work after a period of absence. The survey attracted an incredible 586 responses from women representatives from train operating companies, rolling-stock leasing companies, Rail Professional



manufacturers, suppliers and infrastructure providers to name a few. Returning to work is clearly an issue the whole industry is trying to get to grips with. The results have offered us unique and informative insights into the feelings, concerns and views of these employees, who hail from all over the country, at varying stages of their careers. Their answers highlighted key factors and hefty considerations involved in decisions to return to work – considerations that we imagine are common in many UK workplaces and, subsequently, in many UK households. Almost all of the answers indicated that women found balancing work with family life one of the most challenging aspects of returning to work – emotionally, practically and financially. More to be done There is work to be done to improve women’s transition back into work after a period of absence and to ensure female talent is, at the very least, retained and supported to progress within the railway sector. Only then will we begin to move the needle on increasing representation. Several of the concerns raised fall to internal processes, within individual companies and departments managing an employee’s transition to returning to work, but there is certainly more that can be done to support

and re-assure returners industry-wide. Flexible-working is one such example of an initiative that needs further buy-in. The practicality of flexible working is usually the first hurdle to cross, but it is often a construct that is misunderstood: where possible, employees having the freedom to work around home commitments shows a trust and respect for the all-important home/life balance. The same can be said for job-sharing, enabling colleagues to split a role between them, while working reduced individual hours. Supporting remote working where possible is also a viable and rewarding solution – for many jobs, particularly those that are office-based, technology means that employees can be accessible from anywhere in the world. Creating a more suitable work environment is not just about addressing the concerns of the employees in the present, it appeals to their futures. After all, someone who is more comfortable in their job is more likely to remain in the industry long-term. That is why, ultimately, investment in female workers is so integral to the sector. Senior authorities in the industry need to identify and develop their female talent, proactively discuss career plans to ensure they reach their full potential and support them in climbing up the career ladder. Companies are increasingly acknowledging that a happy

employee is an engaged and committed employee. If a company is invested in an employee then it has taken the first steps to confronting concerns and trepidations around their returning to work. Women in Rail and the Railway Benefit Fund are passionate about bettering the lives of those in the rail sector. RBF is the only charity that solely supports railway people and their families and this survey is a continuation of the support they provide to those who need it in the rail industry, offering advice, online support and financial assistance. Women in Rail aims to increase diversity and inclusion within the UK railway industry and believes that more can be done to support female employees – current and prospective. Adeline Ginn is the founder of Women in Rail

For more information email womeninrail@ or Tel: 0121 265 2760. RBF: Women in Rail: Women in Rail and RBF will publish the survey’s results in full later this month and look forward to working with the rail industry to highlight the factors that can impact a woman’s decision to return to work and progress in their career and propose solutions based on the answers given.

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A matter of policy River Tamoor-Baig outlines what will happen at HackTrain 4.0 and says it’s the most exciting challenge yet


e caught most of the industry off guard a year ago when we released the B.A.R.R.I.E.R.S. report. Often I’d hear ‘what do you lot know about rail?’, ‘how are you going to change the way the industry works?’, or ‘you guys haven’t even been here for more than a year!’ Yet, here we are, a year later, having brought to life seven out of the 13 recommendations we made. Not bad for a bunch of kids who hadn’t even been in rail for more than a year. Some in the industry regard the B.A.R.R.I.E.R.S. report as the best piece of work we’ve ever done, as well as one of the best reports ever produced about rail – a testament to the hard work the team

We’ll be bringing together the very best policymakers, strategists, economists and data scientists to ‘hack’ new ways of improving the industry. We are not going to completely abolish franchising and control periods. They are both staying in the industry for good or worse. Instead, we are going to focus our efforts on how we can tweak these methodologies or introduce new micro-policies to allow for improvements in the way customer experience is delivered and how rail is operated Rail Professional

put in over the seven months to produce it. As insightful as the report was, there’s more to be done, and this year we’ve been contemplating how we can continue helping the industry make policy and structural changes to how rail is operated, but, also stay closer to home with what we do best, the hackathons. In previous hackathons, our participants would often ask, ‘why is it structured this way, why can’t they change it?’ [Network Rail’s CP cycles/ Toc franchising] and I would tell them it’s because that’s what the policymakers decided. Some would even be more interested in coming up with a new way to improve those instead of creating new tech. Over the years we’ve looked at: customer experience, operational efficiency, infrastructure, data and even safety. For this year’s event, we decided

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to go with: customer experience and rolling stock for our first train (sponsored by Trainline and Angel Trains); and infrastructure and cyber security for our second train (sponsored by Network Rail and SNCF). For our third theme, we wanted to add something new to the mix, something never done before. Which is why, the third theme for HackTrain 4.0 will be… POLICY! We’ll be bringing together the very best policymakers, strategists, economists and data scientists to ‘hack’ new ways of improving the industry. We are not going to completely abolish franchising and control periods. They are both staying in the industry for good or worse. Instead, we are going to focus our efforts on how we can tweak these methodologies or introduce new micro-policies to allow for improvements in the way customer experience is delivered and how rail is operated: effectively working within the system to deliver short and mediumterm change for passengers and rail professionals alike. We’re not expecting these people to build new mobile apps, websites, or pieces of hardware. But, they may very well use data provided by our sponsors or openly accessible to help inform their

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decision making process around what policies can be improved/tweaked and what new micro-policies may need to be introduced. We’ll be asking our policy participants to present back their findings to a group of judges with a background in policy. They will not only have to submit a presentation, but also provide evidence as to how they came to their conclusions in the form of a report (never thought I’d ever willingly run a ‘reportathon’ before hah). Having supported us since our early days in 2015, the Department for Transport is also setting a policy related challenge for our group of innovators to tackle. NSAR has already agreed to provide us a challenge around how we can bridge the ever-widening skills gap in rail and we’re in discussions with the ORR and Network Rail around what challenges they could enter into the hackathon too. The level of interest we’ve received from both government and the industry for the policy train shows that there is no lack of demand for young creative thinkers and fresh ideas from outside of the bubble of rail. Judging by just how much change our innovators have already brought to the

industry, it’d be a safe bet to say there’s more to come. As Margaret Mead once said: ‘Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.’ #LetsDoThis HackTrain 4.0’s launch event is being coupled with our HackTrain Conference this time around on the 24th of November. Our first conference, held last June, brought together more than 300 rail and tech professionals to see the latest outputs of their accelerator, results of the B.A.R.R.I.E.R.S. report, and five of the transport owning groups present what they learned through engaging with HackTrain. Peter Wilkinson, the MD of Passenger Services at the DfT is the opening keynote for this year’s HackTrain conference. More information about HackTrain 4.0 can be found at: Enter RAILPRO in the promotional code box to get 50 per cent off River Tamoor-Baig is co-founder of HackTrain

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IRO welcomes 6000th member The Institution of Railway Operators (IRO) is delighted to announce that it has recently welcomed its 6000th member, Gagandeep Singh, a scheme project manager for Network Rail. The Institution exists to advance and promote the safe, reliable and efficient operation of the railways, by improving the technical and general skills, knowledge and competence of those engaged in the operation of the railways. Its membership continues to grow each year as railway operators from across the industry join together to develop their knowledge and experience by taking advantage of the benefits of IRO membership, such as regional area events, academic courses and online learning opportunities. With the recent launch of an online system for railway operators to record, monitor and plan their Continuous Professional Development, the Institution looks forward to welcoming more members from across the industry and helping them take advantage of benefits of IRO membership. Commenting on his reasons for joining the IRO, Gagandeep Singh said, ‘As a new member of the rail industry and working exclusively on rail infrastructure, I have extremely limited knowledge of rail operators. By joining the IRO I am hoping to network with people who can enhance my knowledge of the industry. ‘I also plan to develop my industry knowledge by pursuing one of the careerenhancing courses available through the IRO,’ added Gagandeep. If you are employed by one of the IRO’s


corporate members, you are eligible for free membership. Visit www.railwayoperators. to find out more. Industry leaders join IRO board of directors The IRO is pleased to announce the appointment of two new members to the board of directors: Phil Hufton, managing director, England & Wales, Network Rail, and Jan Chaudhry-van der Velde, managing director, Merseyrail. Both Phil and Jan will bring a wealth of industry experience to the Institution as they work to help guide the strategic direction of the organisation. The IRO board of directors is now formed of: IRO chair: Alex Hynes, managing director, ScotRail Alliance; Jan Chaudhry-van der Velde, managing director, Merseyrail; Steve Cocliff MIRO, managing director, VolkerRail; David Franks FIRO, chief executive, Iarnród Éireann; Ruud Haket, interim managing director Neil Henry MIRO, head of operations and performance, Network Rail Mark Hopwood FIRO, managing director, Great Western Railway;

Phil Hufton, managing director, England & Wales, Network Rail; Stewart Langridge, mineral & cargo business unit director, Saudi Railway Company; Tim Shoveller FIRO, managing director, rail division, Stagecoach Group; David Simpson FIRO, production and safety director, Caledonian Sleeper.

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Time for D day Paul Salveson looks at options for suitable rolling stock on community rail routes and concludes that, to a limited extent, there is one that stands out


he debate about getting suitable trains for the UK’s network of ‘community rail’ routes has been running since the start of the community rail movement back in the early 1990’s. Back then, there was much talk of copying the German example in building a new fleet of diesel-powered high quality trains that could run on lines as diverse as St Erth to St Ives to Heart of Wales, Huddersfield – Penistone and Far North of Scotland. While cynics might say nothing much has happened, I do think we are further forward, for a number of reasons. The current situation We have a better idea of what works and what doesn’t, which I’ll come back to. But perhaps more importantly is the remarkable growth which has taken place across most community rail routes, with some lines more than doubling in patronage since the Community Rail Development Strategy was launched in 1994. There’s a need for more capacity. A further reason is the general recognition that tourism is incredibly important to local economies and good rail access is of huge benefit. Even better if the train itself can be part of the tourism experience. This is now starting to feature in rail franchise specifications. Finally, the recent government announcement that electrification of some routes (e.g. Windermere) will not go ahead does present a bit of a wake-up call to re-think options. What doesn’t work? Quite a few people in the enthusiast community think that locomotive haulage is the answer to every problem. It isn’t. Ask the regular users of Northern’s Cumbrian coast line, with several trains formed of ancient Class 37s with Mk 2 coaches. Not only is it an expensive and complex operation, reliability is poor. Locomotive haulage is a niche market, certainly the ideal solution for charter trains and for longer-distance inter-regional services, such as the new TransPennine Express operation and Chiltern’s London to Birmingham trains. It isn’t a solution

for lines like Esk Valley (Middlesbrough – Whitby) or Penistone. At the opposite end of the scale is ultralight rail. While the Stourbridge Town – Stourbridge Junction ‘Parry People Mover’ has worked well in the circumstances, it doesn’t have the flexibility or speed for most routes. As a feeder into main line hubs, such as Stourbridge Junction, it is perfect. Tramtrain has been another ‘great hope’ that has come down to reality because of high costs. Hopefully the South Yorkshire experiment will prove a success in operational terms, but it has been a horrendously expensive one. The other option is refurbishing existing trains. That is a solution but most suitable trains are coming to the end of their useful lives and while a class 156 is basically a decent train which can be altered internally to suit tourism needs, it isn’t a long-term answer. The lower-spec class 150 is basically a commuter train but might have potential with a complete internal refit, allowing more space for bikes and luggage, with better alignment of seats and windows. The current fetish for bi-mode trains does have a niche opportunity and Northern’s conversion of some of its newly-acquired class 319 electrics to bi-mode diesel/electric makes sense for some routes (including

Windermere). But it probably isn’t the answer to many rural lines whose trains would have little chance to operate under the wires anyway. What does the customer actually want? The starting point should not be about technology but about what the customer would like to have. By ‘customer’ I mean the leisure traveller, from either the UK or abroad, who wants more than just getting from A to B. When the Association of Community Rail Partnerships (ACoRP) set up a rolling stock working group comprised of rail and tourism people in the late 1990’s, issues that were uppermost in people’s minds were: • a good quality train with comfortable seats • good standards of accessibility, above the legal standard • toilets • good views from windows with seats properly aligned so you can see out • space for luggage and cycles • internal and external branding which makes the train feel ‘special’ and part of the community and landscape There were other ‘operational’ factors which



we thought were important. These included ease of maintenance, cheap to run, flexible ‘go anywhere’ capacity so the train would not be confined to just one or two routes. Today, additional requirements should include ‘clean’ technology, preferably not diesel nor expensive overhead wiring. With an eye to local economic development, trains should be capable of being maintained at local depots bringing good quality local employment and local procurement. While the requirements may not seem all that different to a standard commuter train, in fact the differences – the superficial ones – can be important. People who want to enjoy a scenic rail journey don’t want to be crammed into poor quality seats with no external view. They need space to put their luggage and bikes. So is there anything suitable on the market? To a limited extent there is, and it is Vivarail’s ‘D’ Train, developed by a team led by respected railwayman Adrian Shooter. Potentially it could meet all the above requirements. The ‘D Train’ has suffered from three problems. Firstly people were resentful about having ‘London’s cast-offs’ foisted on them when some over-optimistic campaigners wanted brand new trains. The unfortunate fire on one of the trains during tests basically confirmed people’s prejudices.

Finally, the maximum speed of 60 mph, while not being an issue for many secondary branch lines, could be a problem if running over higher speed mainlines to get to or from a final destination. I’d say all of these issues can be resolved; the ‘cast off’ argument really is a prejudiced one and people should see the train running. The fire safety issue has been addressed and with a bit of clever timetabling – and the faster acceleration of the D Trains compared say to a class 150 or 153 – the 60 mph top speed isn’t a deal breaker. But this isn’t an ‘advertorial’ for Vivarail. A possible downside has been suggested – lease costs, though these have not been made public. One Toc MD I spoke to said the costs of hiring D Trains compared with new build were quite finely balanced. Vivarail needs to come up with some attractive deals to make an impact in the UK market. If the lease costs are low enough they could have a number of sets (they are available in two or three car formations) which can enhance capacity when needed e.g. during the peak tourist season or for special events. The competition may well come from refurbished diesel class 150s, with lease costs likely to drop as new trains come into the market for Northern. The D Trains are here and are running,

with a large fleet of them sat at Long Marston awaiting the call (but requiring overhaul). One big advantage over 150s is that they can be adapted to battery or fuel cell operation and one unit is being developed as a prototype. Given that electrification is off the agenda even for non-wired InterCity routes, future ‘community rail’ operations need to think of innovative alternatives to electric and also polluting diesel traction. Several of the big manufacturers are exploring these alternatives and Alstom is building fleets of fuel-cell powered regional trains for Germany and Latvia. The best way forward would be to try out an entire community rail route using fuel-cell powered D Trains based at a brand new depot along the route, rather than a major existing facility with other pressures. It could work for Heart of Wales, Esk Valley and several others. The best form of feasibility study is to actually do it. Let’s hope someone will.

Paul Salveson is a visiting professor at University of Huddersfield and group advisor (society and communities) at Arriva UK Trains. He is writing in a personal capacity.

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Paul Crowther

It’s not for me about the profits of Toc’s it’s about the social good in terms of getting employment, social inclusion, social mobility and a safe, secure and reliable network that is good for everyone – and that we have contributed to that

Paul Crowther OBE, chief constable of the British Transport Police spoke to Lorna Slade about the terror threat keeping him awake at night, the merger north of the border with Police Scotland, and what BTP needs to do to keep itself sustainable and relevant >

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You led BTP’s initial response to the July 2005 terrorist attacks on the Tube. What’s different about the new terror climate and how do you see it developing? he terror threat continually changes and we constantly look at all the different methodologies being deployed by terrorists across the world, who frequently attack rail systems and transport hubs because they’re a target rich environment in that they’re crowded places and because an attack there disrupts the economy. In many ways it’s a changing profile of attacks but we find terrorists do keep coming back to old methods. I have a guy who has been with us since the late 80’s from the IRA terrorism days, and he looks at every event globally and then updates our Strategic Threat and Risk Assessment where we currently look at 24 different attack methodologies. What we have to do is constantly review what the terrorists are doing and then look at what we can do. What we see at the moment is a move towards less sophisticated, easier to carry out attacks, often with everyday items as weapons, whether it’s knives or vehicles. But then just for good measure you get a more sophisticated attack such as in Manchester, where we saw the use of quite difficult to handle explosives. So therefore we have to adapt and that’s why we have a range of tactical deployments to try and counter those threats and stay one step ahead.


Is the rail industry doing all it can to assist you? The industry is really good actually; it’s very responsive and very keen to do more. We have Project Griffin where we brief and train industry staff in a range of skills including spotting suspicious behaviour, how to act if something does take place and how to interact with us. We’ve now moved on to ‘train the trainer’ type activities where we train industry staff who then go on to train a much greater number of people. Is there anything the industry could do differently or better? We’re working with the industry to try to enhance the way we collectively use CCTV. We have a CCTV hub in the south east into which we network feeds from most of the south east operators, and we can access about 55,000 cameras within that. We don’t have an equivalent hub outside of London and we’re working with a number of operators, trying to draw on the innovation funds that come with the new franchises to deliver a virtual CCTV hub based on the Network Rail ROC structure. That will mean the imagery is available to all and can be used in a number of different ways; we’re looking at how we can exploit analytic technologies – face recognition, behavioural analysis and so on, but not just from a security perspective – we’re also looking at Rail Professional

how the customer journey can be improved, so there’s a lot of collaborative work going on. What are your thoughts on Lord Harris’s report suggesting the three police forces serving London should be merged? It seems to me there is an everpresent threat to BTP’s future. I didn’t agree with is findings and I wrote to the mayor in those terms. And reading the report I didn’t see any evidence that underpinned the final recommendation. It’s an issue that as you say comes up regularly but I was really pleased that in one of the first public lectures she gave, the commissioner of the Met Police, Cressida Dick, said she’s not interested in taking over the City of London and she’s not interested in taking over the BTP. I think she recognises that we have specialisms, and providing we all work together for the greater good then

it works. We work very closely with the Met Police and The City of London Police, and that was clear in the London Bridge incident for example, where our assets became deployable as one. Looking at the CCTV of the armed response vehicles dealing with the terrorists, the first one there was a City of London, the second was a Met, the third was ours and then they worked seamlessly throughout the night, so it’s one of those ‘If it ain’t broke what are you trying to fix?’ type things. You have made your feelings clear about the force north of the border merging with Police Scotland. Do you believe this is more to do with political ideology around independence than what’s best for policing and for rail passengers? You will excuse me if I don’t get drawn into politics. What I would say is we gave



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our professional view about how we think policing of the network – and it has to be policed as a network in my view – is best served, and we set out a number of options for how that would be done. Ultimately politicians make decisions and we’re not naive enough to think the decision stands in isolation – it’s part of a whole raft of proposals that were agreed under the Smith Commission, and we now need to work with everyone involved to make sure we can make it as successful as possible. How best can the merger be carried out? I understand there will be a separate division in Police Scotland. My view has always been that policing the transport system is a specialist function and therefore I guess that kind of makes sense. Our concern has always been around specialist knowledge and the outlook we have – I call it the transport policing ethos: we deliver policing but we deliver it in a way that takes account of and is sympathetic to the environment we work in, and the biggest challenge I believe everybody has recognised – including Police Scotland and the Scottish government – is that on merger day plus one, the people who will be doing this will be my former colleagues and they’ll still have that same ethos, but as you get turnover of staff the big challenge is how you maintain, generate and perpetuate that ethos. That’s something we’ve identified and others will have to work out how they achieve that.

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What’s the situation around funding going to look like? The funding we currently receive for policing Scotland will cease for us, which is interesting in its own right. So of course there are direct staff costs, which clearly someone else has been paying for, but there are a number of force-wide functions that every part of the force contributes to, and it’s not necessarily the case that if you take off one part of it that all of those functions just disappear with it as well. So we have quite a significant challenge in BTP for how we will absorb that activity that’s provided across the force for the benefit of everyone, which is not easily disaggregated from it. But in the future, through the franchise arrangements with Abellio for example, there will be degrees of public funding that go through the Scottish government into those. One of the interesting challenges is how cross border services fund the policing that takes place north of the border, and so what’s required by the legislation – the Railway Policing (Scotland) Bill – is that an equivalent setup for our police service agreements is established by the Scottish government to interact with the Toc’s – that is one of the challenges we’ve identified and shows how complex a merger like this is. I have a couple of sources working for London Underground who say compared to Met officers, BTP officers are tough

and get the job done and treat criminals in the way we would expect them to be treated, but there are not enough of them and they are known as ‘Be there perhaps’. What do you say to that? Well, I think if you ask any chief constable they’d say they’d want some more. The reality is there are 4000-odd stations and I’m sure everyone would like there to be a police officer on every one of those. Inevitably at some places the local force will get there first, but in actual fact what I’d encourage people to look at is, because we’re an integral part of the wider policing family or policing PLC, local forces attend in our stead, and interestingly quite a lot of the calls to railway stations, if they were to go directly into a local force and into their prioritisation and categorisation matrix, they’d get a response but it may not be the response they currently get. But actually because we are asking other forces to attend on our behalf in the first instance sometimes people are getting an enhanced response they might not otherwise get, and then we come and take over. I wish we could attend all the calls – we certainly try to attend those that have the potential to cause disruption to the network because we know from our analysis of thousands of incidents, validated by a university, that typically for an incident such as cable theft a geographic force will take two thirds longer to deal with it; for a fatality they’ll take twice as long and in a



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There is always more that we can do, together with the industry. I think we could better coordinate the activities of police and the whole array of security people that are employed by the industry across the network. Sometimes if you go to the big hubs particularly in London you can spot lots of different fluorescent jackets doing some form of security work, and I believe that could be better deployed security-related incident – a bomb threat or an unattended item, in almost 100 per of cases we’re able to manage risk a little bit more because we look at these from a global perspective. We may not get to all the incidents first but you would probably need to double or treble the size of the force if you wanted that to be more feasible. You are now saying there is a risk that 20:20:10 would encourage the wrong sort of behaviours – taking policing away from where it is needed most in order to pursue numerical targets, and you are moving to new ways of evaluating performance. Can you talk about that? For many years we had a very robust performance regime, very familiar to people within the rail industry, where everything was red amber or green. But lots of industries in lots of public services have found that while that type of approach drives improvement, you can get to the point where it generates unintended consequences – you have people concentrating on the wrong things to meet the target rather than do the right thing. Our approach at the moment is fairly Rail Professional

straightforward, so protecting the public and protecting vulnerable people – and we are dealing with more calls and incidents around the latter, whether people have mental health issues or are suicidal or homeless – than around crime. So we are encouraging people to use their discretion and do the right thing and have in mind victims, witnesses and the vulnerable as the priority, and that drives what we do. Of course what we have to say is ‘we’re the police and we can’t ignore any crimes’ so sometimes this can be plate spinning, and we’ve still got to deal with volume crime and we’ve still got to identify trends. Sometimes volume crime is being driven by organised crime or there are underlying issues around the exploitation of vulnerable people, and that in itself is a threat of risk and harm, so we’ve got to be quite nimble and fleet of foot in our approach. That ties in with your saying it’s time to shift the focus away from treating all crime as equal and BTP is moving towards more of an emphasis on victims of crime and the vulnerable. Yes, going back to what I was saying about people being safe and feeling safe, you have to deal with the issues that are most impactful on people or that they fear the most, because actually it’s a very low crime environment but people’s perception is very different because it’s an enclosed environment – if you ‘re in a carriage or on a station and something happens your sense of your own personal safety is impacted because you think ‘I can’t get away’, so we’re conscious of that and we need to make sure we’re doing all we can to deal with that. The industry is, quite understandably from a commercial perspective, exploiting its premises and making sure it is deploying more retail outlets – lots of stations now are also places of public resort so with retail outlets comes retail crime, and that’s important, but we need to look at it in terms of its relative importance to someone who has being assaulted, so what we’re talking about is prioritisation – it’s not ‘we do this but not that’ we do all of it but we just prioritise particular areas. Trespass and vandalism crimes rose by 16 per cent to 1,485 in 2016/17. Why is that? I don’t think we entirely know why that rose. What we do know is that trespass itself is the single major contributor to delay and disruption. Trespass has traditionally been a really difficult subject to tackle because it’s so dispersed right across the network and carried out in so many different ways; some of it is people using a convenient yet illegal crossing point, some of it is kids, some of it is foolhardy behaviour, so what I’ve been suggesting for a while is that we should adopt the same sort of approach to trespass as we did to metal theft. You need to bring together a national group to share intelligence, to create a fusion centre as we call it where everybody’s information

is available – we need to get the industry, the public sector, the private sector and the third sector to work on this. Actually through our analysis identifying some terrible incidents of children who have been electrocuted and killed, we’re beginning to influence others to say this is a safeguarding issue, and if you look at it in those terms you get a different approach. Through that you bring many other parties to the table, more people with more powers and more influence, and that’s what we’re doing. On cable theft, which as you know is still a significant crime, Peter Lalor, MD of VPS Site Security commented recently that ‘all the enforcement agencies’ work and regulation checks are falling away’ at the same time as the price of copper has increased by more than 50 per cent in the past year. What do you say to that? I still chair the National Metal Theft Group and we track and monitor all the trends. Interestingly although the price of copper is increasing we’re not seeing crime levels match that rise. In previous years before the change in the legislation the graphs followed each other – if you saw the price of copper go up there was about a one month lag and then the crime levels went with it. We’re not seeing that. We are seeing some increase in metal theft but not so much in the rail industry more in other utilities. What seems to be more prevalent when you look at it on a national scale is the theft of lead rather than copper and the targeting of churches and places such as those. So I remain pretty confident that legislation is very effective in terms of removing cash from the system... So the agencies are just as active? Well, we need to constantly review that and so we work closely with the Local Government Association to look at how its licensing regime is working and how its enforcement and checking regime is working. I think it’s true to say that many public service agencies, local authorities and environment agencies and others are under financial pressure and having to prioritise what they do, and it’s right to say the degree of checking and regulation is not what it was when this was at its height. So we need to constantly keep that under review. What does BTP need to do to make itself sustainable and relevant for the longterm, and what does the rail industry need to do as part of that? There is always more that we can do, together with the industry. I think we could better coordinate the activities of police and the whole array of security people that are employed by the industry across the network. Sometimes if you go to the big hubs particularly in London you can spot lots of different fluorescent jackets doing some form of security work and I believe that could be better coordinated and deployed.


Do you mean that’s messy? Not messy, we work closely together at the moment but I think we could work even more closely – do more joint tasking, more understanding of who is where at any given time, because sometimes we sort of agonise over whether we’ve got enough resources at a location, but if we had greater sight of what other security enforcement resources were there it might make more sense. In terms of BTP we need to continue to make sure that we’re the specialists in railway policing. We have the ambition that we want to be the provider of choice: we’re a monopoly provider that the legislation requires the industry to have – it’s a police service agreement and it has to be with us – but we’re not content with that. So we say to ourselves ‘if the industry had a choice we’d want them to pick us, because we’re relevant, we’re responsive and we understand rail’, and we’re constantly driving to make sure we can fulfil that, which makes our approach entirely link in with the ambitions of the industry – we want to see more passengers, we want to see passengers who feel safe and are safe. It’s not for me about the profits of Toc’s it’s about the social good in terms of getting employment, social inclusion, social mobility and a safe, secure and reliable network that is good for everyone – and that we have contributed to that. Is there anything you’d like to say directly to the rail industry? We don’t make enough of the successes that we’ve collectively achieved. So for a massively expanding network with 3.2 billion passenger journeys every year – I make the point to my staff that’s the equivalent to a third of the world’s population – there are such low levels of crime that we ought to be very proud of that, because no one body has achieved that, it’s been through everybody working together. But the challenges ahead are enormous, as even more passengers come onto the network, as capacity is reached, as you get disruption in one location which creates crowding issues in another, and because passengers are very mobile and informed themselves – everyone has a smartphone and can make their own alternative travel arrangements, which can bring pressures in some unexpected areas: I remember around 18 months ago there was an issue at Clapham Junction, some trains were held up and you would have expected Waterloo and London Bridge to be impacted, but actually very quickly Balham station became overrun because people had made their own arrangements and all descended on what is a pretty small station, so it’s how do we collectively anticipate and model those sorts of pressures, because that leads to crime and so on. The whole issue of terrorism is the thing that keeps me awake at night, thinking about what more we can do in what is an open access system.

Do you see it continuing to be open access? I think it has to be, if you try to implement airport-style checks you defeat the object of a mass transit system, so therefore collectively with the DfT we need to look at all the things we can do to make it more difficult, to make it a more hostile environment for terrorists and to spot suspicious activity. Are there new technologies you are excited by? There’s quite a lot that people are trying to sell us all the time and we have to be really quite discerning about that. Some of the technology, particularly around analytics for CCTV, are fine if you’ve got a brand new super high definition camera set, but when you’re working with legacy systems that were installed to run the railway and not for security purposes, they’re not necessarily as effective, but we’re constantly on the lookout for the latest gizmos and gadgets that will help us in this difficult task. You’ve been in the role for more than three years now. Has it been what you expected? It’s a fantastically rewarding job. It’s an organisation made up of incredible people who do incredible things on a day-to-day basis in both routine and extraordinary circumstances. We’ve seen great successes in some of the innovative work we’ve done to tackle suicide and making life saving interventions, working with Samaritans, Network Rail and the industry. Every time I see the number of life saving interventions going up it fills me with great pride that that’s something that’s been developed within BTP, that’s unique I believe, and literally saves hundreds of lives. So that’s very gratifying.


We’ve pressed hard on issues that have been difficult and under-reported for years such as sexual offences against women and girls and hate crime. We asked for more people to report those sorts of offences, but interestingly we get a backlash when our crime figures are published showing an increase in sexual offences – well we kind of went out and asked people to report those incidences! And we’re trying to tackle unruly football supporters and have made some inroads into that. But in recent times the stuff that can’t fail to make you really proud are the actions of our people at Manchester and London Bridge. Our PC Wayne Marques at London Bridge stands out for his incredibly brave actions, but many, many other people did brave and difficult things that night. And that’s not to forget Manchester, and actually Manchester Arena is part of the station – a lot of people don’t realise that, so the first people to attend were some of my officers, including people very young in service – both police and community support officers who had been in the job for only a couple of weeks, and a female officer who is a mother herself and was just out of her probation who did some really difficult things with some children who didn’t survive in there. Then looking at our staff who do the really difficult job around body recovery and the disaster victim identification teams who are part of a national capability – some of them worked in Ukraine after the MH17 flight was shot down. I went to Manchester and the team carrying out all that work was a BTP team, but they’d previously done Westminster and then after Manchester, London Bridge, and more recently 17 of them were at Grenfell Towers for more than three weeks, carrying out very, very difficult work. So it just fills me with great pride – the brilliant people that we’ve got at BTP. Rail Professional



Working together in a new way Andy Milner explains the role of the new Exports Leadership Group and how it will coordinate a new approach that will double rail exports


he UK rail industry is a catalyst of innovation and achievement, driving significant benefit to the UK economy. As the government begins its Brexit negotiations, the rail sector must come together to showcase its skills, capabilities and products to develop a unique export proposition for the UK. The Exports Leadership Group (ELG) is working to double exports by 2025 – a genuinely realistic target. We can access an extensive range of capabilities that underpin our ability to deliver considerable improvements to the UK and global rail networks, providing a platform to ensure our ability to export the results of our ingenuity. However, the industry can be fragmented, and to maximise the potential, the whole sector must be well-represented throughout the Brexit process. The ELG will coordinate a new approach that will involve sitting with the supply chain together with key industry partners such as Network Rail, Toc’s, rail industry trade organisations and

We have a clear framework for success with commitment from government and leading rail organisations to support and promote the work of the ELG. However, success also requires the supply chain to work together in a coordinated and disciplined way. The industry needs to recognise the importance of sharing intelligence, coordinating some of our development initiatives, agreeing to common export targets and working collaboratively to achieve these

government deparments to drive export policy and manage the implementation under the umbrella of the RDG. The ELG is part of the Rail Supply Group (RSG), which is the leadership body for the UK rail supply sector, bringing together government and the private sector to champion the supply chain, from SME’s to multinational companies, in every part of the UK. We have always been at the forefront of rail engineering and it is important that we maintain this reputation. SME’s play a pivotal role in achieving this, bringing innovation, technology and fresh thinking to the rail sector and the ability to establish new and dynamic ways to strengthen the domestic market and grow exports. In addition, the RSG recently formed a new partnership with the Rail Delivery

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Group (RDG) to better co-ordinate shared objectives and further strengthen the voice of industry. The new partnership will offer closer alignment and collaboration between train operators, Network Rail and their supply chains, and give government and stakeholders a ‘one-stop-shop’ to communicate with the industry. Together, the RSG and the RDG can give an even stronger voice for UK rail, providing a unified solution to government and industry. We have a clear framework for success with commitment from government and leading rail organisations to support and promote the work of the ELG. However, success also requires the supply chain to work together in a coordinated and disciplined way. The industry needs to recognise the importance of sharing intelligence, coordinating some of our development initiatives, agreeing to common export targets and working collaboratively to achieve these. The inaugural meeting of the ELG in July was successful, receiving positive contributions from a number of industry leaders and the rail minister, Paul Maynard MP. Maynard’s attendance demonstrated the significance of the group and highlighted

it as a key priority for government which helped to reinforce the strategic priorities of the ELG. The ELG will develop strategies based on a framework of activity that includes scoping priority markets for better industry insight into opportunities, enhancing related export support and funding mechanisms, and developing an approach for UK and international consortia to improve UK market share. To ensure this is a tangible opportunity for the rail market, we will work closely with the Infrastructure Exports: UK Group (IE:UK), which connects organisations, enabling them to bid for global infrastructure contracts as a single ‘Team UK’ consortia, to deliver complex projects by combining their expertise. The rail sector can make a fundamental contribution to this new approach and the Exports Leadership Group offers an opportunity to work collaboratively as an industry to showcase the exceptional talent, capability and intellectual solutions available from the UK rail industry. There is great potential for growth in the rail sector at home and abroad and the fresh collaborative approach adopted by the Exports Leadership Group is a real


The ELG will develop strategies based on a framework of activity that includes scoping priority markets for better industry insight into opportunities, enhancing related export support and funding mechanisms, and developing an approach for UK and international consortia to improve UK market share. opportunity to help the UK become a global market leader. As a group, we will work with the rail supply chain to improve the promotion of international opportunities, increase support for exports and develop funding mechanisms that better involve new exporters. Andy Milner is the CEO of Amey and the chair of the Exports Leadership Group






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Intelligent foresight Madeleine Lake says mobile laser scanning is shedding new light on tunnel inspections


side from the NHS there isn’t a public service that suffers from as much scrutiny and criticism as our rail services. Maintaining the nation’s railway lines is no easy task, with nearly 10,000 miles of network to cover. Add to this aging infrastructure and limited budgets, it’s evident that rail operators need to work intelligently to ensure that services run smoothly and safely. Laser scanning technology has been used for some years by both operators and contractors, all looking to get a full picture of conditions and maintenance needs. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) uses a rapid pulse laser scanner to collect measurements over large areas to help create a 3D visualisation of an environment, known as a point cloud, allowing retrospective analysis of a site in millimetre perfect detail. Laser scanning systems measure the amount of time it takes for the pulsed light from the laser to return to the scanner, calculating measurements even through dense vegetation. Surveyors have traditionally used total stations or terrestrial LiDAR scanners to survey rail infrastructure and tunnels, yet limitations of this technology have meant that inspections can be costly for operators in terms of time and money. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) require multiple set-ups to cover large areas which can sometimes mean that services need to be disrupted to allow critical inspections to be carried out. This is often in response to an incident rather than as part of a sustained monitoring and maintenance strategy. TLS systems still have their place in many environments, yet when working in difficult and potentially hazardous locations such as tunnels, they can be prohibitive to both efficiency and safety. One of the greatest challenges facing

civil and rail engineers is the inspection, assessment and maintenance of more than 50,000 tunnels and bridges which support the UK’s rail network. Regular tunnel inspections are a necessary part of railway maintenance, and given their predisposition

to deterioration – thanks to heavy daily use, extreme vibrations and environmental factors – operators have their work cut out when it comes to planned, preventative maintenance. Working in tunnels has obvious Rail Professional



details alongside key features, with the ability to extract or classify assets such as rail components and communication equipment. The ability to continually analyse data in this level of detail means that sites only need to be visited once, saving on time and resources – critical in the event of an incident but paramount when it comes to planning future works and maintenance.

difficulties for surveying teams. Limited light and uneven surfaces make visual and TLS surveys dangerous and time-consuming. Traditional non-destructive methods of identifying defects in concrete, steel and masonry structures are labour intensive and not always conclusive, leading to repeated inspections when a potential fault is suspected. Any additional work carried out may often mean additional delays or disruption to services that inconvenience customers and can cost rail operators both financially and in terms of credibility.

catenary wires along a 2,700 metre long tunnel. Due to limited and restricted access, data had to be acquired between 1:00-5:00am within a set ten-day period. Terrametrix completed the survey in under four days, despite the challenging survey conditions inside the tunnel, with accuracies of 0.04’ achieved. Both the surveyors involved in the project and the client, SEPTA (Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority), noted that the MLS system used enabled them to capture the necessary data faster

Map on the move Mobile mapping systems have changed the way that LiDAR can be used for rail and tunnel surveys. Thanks to their ability to be mounted onto a moving vehicle such as a train, data collection can be carried out during operating hours, without having to expose survey teams to the dangers of visual inspections, or delay services. Mobile laser scanning systems, such as ROBIN and RailMapper, utilise the best in geospatial technology, which provides operators with the ability to capture a virtual representation of critical rail infrastructure on the move. Capturing over 1,000,000 points per second, with a 360° field of view, modern mobile laser scanners create point clouds which can help to identify structural deformation and slope instability, which is particularly helpful where visual inspections are difficult and dangerous to carry out. MLS systems are easy to mount and can be installed by a single operator in the safety of daylight. Only one pass is needed, at speeds of around 40 mph, to create a dense point cloud with accuracies of around 5 millimetres. This fast mobilisation is of great benefit where time is at a premium. Terrametrix, a surveying company which specialises in transportation infrastructure, uses a hybrid RailMapper/StreetMapper system to map highways, railway lines, assets and tunnels. In a recent survey, Terrametrix surveyors were tasked with collecting data across four tracks and

and in a safer way than using traditional TLS. This also reduced track downtime and site revisits. Outside of the time saving aspects, the greatest advantage of mobile laser scanning can be found in the data. Point cloud data is easily shared and can be analysed in many different software packages being utilised by the multiple stakeholders involved in any rail project. Mobile mapping systems offer an amazing amount of flexibility and enhanced intelligence for rail operators and contractors who need to work collaboratively and with consistent and accurate information. Scans can also be combined from multiple surveys, including airborne, to create a more in-depth picture of tracks, tunnels and sidings, even when dense vegetation obscures focal points. The collected data can be processed and manipulated to highlight topographical

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Monitoring underground maintenance needs Replacing manual methods of inspection using MLS stands to improve the accuracy and safety of rail tunnel surveys, while also providing datasets which can be compared over a period of time. Monitoring cross sectional deformation, mortar loss in linings and water ingress in tunnels can be key to preventing large scale incidents as well as allowing operators to plan maintenance tasks ahead of time. This proactive approach to protecting rail assets and infrastructure can help to lower operating costs and improve service delivery at the same time. The applications of LiDAR for tunnel monitoring go further than just mobile laser scanning. Mapping innovations are also available to help monitor the depth and strength of tunnel linings. SiteMonitor Underground is a simple analysis software which shows the surface depth of concrete and mortar in real-time. The simple analysis software can compare deterioration of

tunnel linings without the need for visual inspections, proving once again that laser scanning can help to remove workers from difficult and hazardous situations, whilst providing critical data to allow critical decisions to be made ahead of time. The safety of workers and passengers is obviously at the forefront of any rail operator’s mind when it comes to maintaining the critical infrastructure which is needed to run our rail services. It’s here that LiDAR can play an important part in automating railway and tunnel inspections. The ability to have foresight is obviously a huge benefit to any service operator, and as much as laser scanning systems cannot entirely predict incidences such as slope failure, this intelligent technology can help operators to lower maintenance costs while reducing disruption to services. Madeleine Lake is MLS sales manager at 3D Laser Mapping


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Found: the Holy Grail of surveying A new high-accuracy drone system is a ‘game-changer’ for track surveys, says David Norris


etwork Rail’s much-publicised commitment to the creation of a Digital Railway is a very ambitious and necessary step for the future of our national rail infrastructure. But it’s a momentous challenge given the 20,000 miles of track and 40,000 structures that demand continual inspection, monitoring and maintenance. Providing Network Rail with highly-accurate survey data that can be easily integrated into existing workflows – as well as informing future planning – is therefore a vital link in the service chain. The trouble is that capturing this valuable data is a labour-intensive and challenging business. With engineers and track design teams requiring a sub-5mm accuracy, surveys have traditionally been conducted by manually measuring and observing the tracks and the surrounding infrastructure. Of course, this demands track closures and possessions, which brings with it extra risk, significant cost and unwelcome passenger disruption. In some cases, it can take months to complete a fairly straightforward topographical survey because of the gaps between possessions, particularly on the busiest routes. With surveys usually at the front of a maintenance or upgrade project, the knock-on effect of these delays can be catastrophic.

Some companies do already conduct aerial surveys for Network Rail but the data accuracy is somewhere in the region of 3060mm – nowhere near the sub-5mm quality achieved using a laser-scanner or even a

total station. So, the Holy Grail is finding a way of capturing high-quality data without boots on ballast. Thanks to a collaboration between Network Rail and survey company Plowman Rail Professional



Craven, a new drone-mounted survey system has been developed that does just that, producing validated survey data to a sub-5mm accuracy – without the need to access tracks, and in a fraction of the time taken by standard methods. Network Rail’s senior survey engineer has described it as a ‘game-changer’. Named Vogel R3D, this UAV solution uses a state-of-the art drone platform and a 100-megapixel camera to produce data from ultra high-resolution photography, rather than laser scanners. Hundreds of overlapping images are taken, then combined and pixel-matched to produce a 3D point cloud (a point cloud being made up of billions of pixels correctly positioned in 3D space). By taking both nadir and oblique images – looking straight down and at a

45-degree angle – it’s possible to capture every single visible surface to give a full picture of the entire site. The resulting point cloud can then be used in the usual way to generate the topographical surveys, track alignment data for P-way design and 3D Building Information Models (BIM) required by Network Rail. The whole process is faster, safer and much more efficient, which suits all parties. Complete visual record with measurement data The real benefit, though, comes from what else the system offers. Where Rail Professional

traditional ‘manual’ surveys simply provide topographical and track alignment information, Vogel R3D captures both highresolution imagery and survey-grade data, covering a much wider area. Having a complete visual record with measurement data behind it is incredibly valuable. Not only can site visualisations, condition surveys and asset inspections be conducted, enabling stakeholders to ‘walk’ the site from anywhere in the world using a tablet or computer, but using a widely available software package such as Leica’s TruView makes it possible to ‘interrogate’ the imagery and extract measurements. Users can identify certain areas

or points-of-interest, pull up exact measurements on screen and share data with interested parties. For train operators with extremely limited information on the physical characteristics of their routes, being able to access such usable, verified survey data could be hugely beneficial. With the highest possible level of permissions from the Civil Aviation Authority, Vogel R3D is able to operate from a safe working height of just 25m even during traffic hours, which is a vital component in producing such accurate data. Additionally, it ensures the absolute clarity of imagery in which it’s possible to read the markings on the sleepers, identify specific rail clips, examine crossing nodes and clearly view flash butt welds – simple things that are highly problematic for surveyors working on the tracks at night. Having been presented to Network Rail’s Track Technical Board following 18 months of development, the Vogel R3D system was unanimously backed and in Spring 2017 it was approved by senior engineer Chris Preston as able to produce Band 1-quality rail surveys (+/- 5mm), having been extensively compared and validated against the Amberg GRP1000 track-mounted measuring device. In addition to track measurement jobs, there is also potential to apply the technology to other areas of the rail network. For example, infra-red or thermal imaging sensors on the drone would make it possible to monitor the temperature of assets, while laser sensors could be used to measure embankments covered in vegetation. With embankment slippage being a significant problem for Network Rail this could be highly beneficial given the current need for specialist rope access to conduct embankment surveys. Vogel R3D is – according to its chief surveyor – a ‘real game-changer for Network Rail’. It helps satisfy many survey requirements in a safe manner without the cost implication or potential programme delay associated with multiple possessions. David Norris is director, Plowman Craven

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Lessons to be learned We must take care building tunnels and caverns under operating railways, cautions Tony Berkeley


he collapse of a new rail tunnel under tracks carrying hundreds of freight and passenger trains a day at Rastatt, between Karlsruhe and Basel in Germany on 12th August caused a major disruption to the main Rotterdam – Genoa rail freight corridor. The two track line normally carried around 200 freight trains per day per direction, as well as intercity and local passenger services. The tunnels being bored under the town were part of a plan to add two more tracks to this heavily used corridor. The tunnels were being bored through waterlogged ground which had been frozen when, for some reason, the tunnel collapsed where it crossed under the existing tracks, causing severe subsidence. The tunnel boring

So there is clearly more work to do in the rail freight corridors to make them more resilient. Common standards for language, gauge, train length etc, have been proposed for years but still, sadly, not fully adopted, and the lack of communication between the railways of France and Germany, two countries who boast at being the most European, was sadly very evident. Customers do not care about the reasons why, and accept that railways and roads sometimes get blocked, but do expect some reasonable attempt to provide alternative routes

machine and part of the tunnel behind were filled with concrete and the line is due to reopen in early October. The reasons for the failure will emerge from various inquiries underway but there are at least two lessons that can be learned now. The first one is that there was no contingency plan for diversion routes. Passengers were diverted onto buses but for freight, the lack of sufficient diversionary routes resulted in only some 15 per cent of trains being able to run, a disaster for the railway companies and their customers. The train operators took the lead in suggesting alternative routes, but the lack of drivers with route knowledge, the lack of diesel locomotives which were required for some of the diversionary routes, made it very difficult. The most obvious route was on the left bank of the Rhine in France, a line which is not heavily used but was unsuitable on two counts; the normal Corridor 1 train drivers do not speak French, and the loading gauge was a little smaller than the P400 generally used on the corridor. Some customers have suggested that Rail Professional



SNCF purposely made the loading gauge smaller to suit the French Modahlor system but too small for the more standard UIC gauge equipment, and the European Agency for Rail has been trying to get one language adopted for all railway critical work across Europe, as has been done for years in the air industry. But at their last board meeting, in spite of a two hour discussion on language, the French delegation vetoed acceptance of English at least until after the presidential elections. So there is clearly more work to do in the rail freight corridors to make them more resilient. Common standards for language, gauge, train length etc, have been proposed for years but still, sadly, not fully adopted, and the lack of communication between the railways of France and Germany, two countries who boast at being the most European, was sadly very evident. Customers do not care about the reasons why, and accept that railways and roads sometimes get blocked, but do expect some reasonable attempt to provide alternative routes. Compensation claims by train operators and their customers will be huge, even before there is consideration of the lost business, temporary or permanent. The second reason is to question why DB Netz chose to build a tunnel so close to the surface under such a heavily used rail line. It is a reflection on the insular nature of both DB and SCNF that they did not agree to use the two pairs of tracks, one in France and one in Germany, as one network for the corridors and avoid the need for four tracking at Radstatt. Even so, the tunnels could have been built elsewhere clear of the tracks above and perhaps deeper underground, to reduce the risk of such a catastrophic failure. They could have taken extra precautions when tunnelling under tracks where the risk and consequences of failure are much greater than under a minor road or garden. Lessons for HS2 How does all this compare with the UK and new lines or tunnels? There are many examples of where old earthworks or bridges have failed and lines are closed; generally Network Rail can provide diversion routes and gets repairs done as quickly as possible. Such failures are inevitable given the age of structures and earthworks. However, when it comes to new build, have we lessons to learn? Readers will be aware of the controversy over the route of HS2 into Euston where the specification for speed, timings and reliability demand that the 11 platforms be separated into two throats leading to four tracks which then need grade separation to reduce them to two tracks in the tunnels towards Old Oak Common. The scheme approved by parliament involved such grade separation being shoe-horned between the West Coast Main Line approaches to Euston Rail Professional

The ground under the tracks is probably better than that at Radstatt but, even so, there will always be a risk of tunnelling and, worse still, creating caverns to accommodate the track junctions. It may not be a high risk, but the consequences of a failure, closing Euston for months, do not bear thinking about

better than that at Radstatt but, even so, there will always be a risk of tunnelling and, worse still, creating caverns to accommodate the track junctions. It may not be a high risk, but the consequences of a failure, closing Euston for months, do not bear thinking about.

and a very high retaining wall supporting a road and Grade 1 listed buildings in Park Village East. A disused canal at the other side of the buildings and great uncertainty about the foundations to the wall make this a very risky solution, likely to cause closure of several of the WCML tracks for months if not years. So HS2 is now reported to be looking at an alternative solution that avoids touching or burrowing under the retaining wall foundations and, instead, locate the grade separations and junctions in tunnels and caverns under the six track WCML approaches to Euston. The ground under the tracks is probably

So is there a solution to reduce the risk? The simplest one is to move the caverns so that they are under carriage sidings rather than the main lines, but apparently this would require obtaining new permissions, perhaps even a new hybrid bill. HS2 – and ministers – therefore have the choice of risks; the retaining wall falling into the tracks or the tracks collapsing into caverns below. Neither is attractive, so perhaps the best solution is to terminate at Old Oak Common and allow time to develop a less risky solution for the London end. Tony Berkeley is chairman of the Rail Freight Group and a board member of the European Rail Freight Association. He previously worked on the construction of the Channel Tunnel. The opinions expressed here are his own.



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PSV Wipers - providing a clearer view Pneumatic windscreen wiper systems have been around for decades. When new, they work well, but as time progresses they can become prone to failure due to system leaks. Failed wipers result in inoperable trains, causing service disruption (costing both time and money). Thankfully, there’s an economic alternative. With over 35 years experience producing complete wiper systems, PSV Wipers Ltd have developed a number of conversion kits specifically for older rolling stock. These are a direct replacement for your existing pneumatic or electric system. They’re reliable, easy to retrofit and can save thousands in maintenance costs and lost operating time. PSV have been developing and manufacturing robustly engineered wiper systems since 1980, supplying new and replacement components and systems for UK and international OEM train builders, fleet operators and fleet support distributors. Our products are designed to improve reliability and lower ‘Life Cycle Costs’.

Why not discover the benefits of electric wiper systems? Call us today and ask for our Rail Specialist, Paul Curry. PSV Wipers Ltd, Navigation Road, Diglis, Worcester WR5 3DE, UK Tel. +44 (0) 1905 350500 │ │ Photo reproduced under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Credit Phil Sangwell.



Barely scratching the surface Using underground space is proving its value and the case for tunnelling has never been stronger, says Mark Leggett


ritain has a long tradition in tunnelling. The world’s first sub-aqueous tunnel was built under the River Thames by Marc and Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1843. Today, this tunnel is still in operation, being used by trains on London Overground’s East London Line. Indeed, London’s success was built on the growth of the Tube. This rich heritage must continue with industry-wide development of this vital field of civil engineering. The British Tunnelling Society (BTS) is an Associated Society of the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), with a current membership of 820 individual members and 250 corporate members. The BTS takes an active role in promoting the tunnelling industry and sustainable infrastructure to government and parliamentarians, including through the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Infrastructure. We believe the UK government is coming to understand and

The future for tunnelling in the UK looks bright but we can only ensure its ongoing success by continuing to promote the discipline, both as an infrastructure solution and as a long-term career. Already there is at least 20 years of tunnelling ahead and there will be more projects following that too. I am confident about the future – more so than ever – because using underground space is proving its value and the case for tunnelling has never been stronger

accept the very important contribution that the use of underground space has in society and for the development of our infrastructure. However, we’re barely scratching the surface when it comes to the potential of underground space. The urbanisation agenda is driving development and there is a place for putting a lot of traditional surface facilities underground. As cities grow up and out, urban environments could be better managed through the spaces beneath them. We need to be imaginative about the possibilities, moving beyond urban transport and water treatment facilities to include potential public spaces such as retail, sports halls and event arenas. Society needs to see the greater use of underground space as an option and we hope to see strengthened support and greater involvement from the industry towards this end. Rail Professional



This is an area where the BTS are working closely with Think Deep UK and the International Tunnelling Association Committee on Underground Space (ITACUS) to promote the informed and efficient use of underground space. Of course, increased demand for tunnelling means an increase in demand for skills. Major schemes such as HS2 and Crossrail require leading-edge tunnelling techniques and solutions, as will future projects like the Trans-Pennine tunnel beneath the Peak District and the Stonehenge tunnel. Tunnelling is an exciting multidisciplinary industry offering challenging and rewarding careers to motivated individuals. With so many economic and environmental drivers encouraging the development of underground space, the industry is booming and there has never been a better time to embark on a career in tunnelling. The BTS is leading tunnelling education in the UK and runs courses for people at all levels in the industry, namely the week-long Tunnel Design & Construction Course held at Warwick University in the summer and the two-day Underground Health and Safety Course held in the autumn. The Design & Construction Course

aims to cover all the major aspects of an underground project’s life and contains worked examples and workshop sessions to allow improved interaction between delegates and speaker. It is aimed at the wide range of professional services that support the tunnelling industry, including clients, tunnel operators and members of the financial and insurance sectors, as well as young tunnel design and construction engineers. The Underground Health and Safety Course has been developed to focus exclusively on the underground environment. It aims to provide an introduction or enhance existing basic knowledge and develop an awareness of the health and safety challenges that working underground can pose. The jewel in our crown is the MSc in Tunnelling and Underground Space at the University of Warwick. Established in 2011, this is the only higher education course in the UK to concentrate on the many and varied skills required for the design and construction of tunnels and underground space. The BTS supports the course by providing bursaries and student prizes, a steering board to advise on the syllabus and module champions and guest lecturers. As chair of the course’s steering board,

I’m keen to see student numbers to grow. The BTS Young Members group is active in schools and universities across the UK to promote careers in tunnelling and help create future industry leaders. But we want more people in this industry, particularly clients, to recognise the importance of investing in quality training and education to safeguard the eminence of the UK profession. The future for tunnelling in the UK looks bright but we can only ensure its ongoing success by continuing to promote the discipline, both as an infrastructure solution and as a long-term career. Already there are at least 20 years of tunnelling ahead and there will be more projects following that too. I am confident about the future – more so than ever – because using underground space is proving its value and the case for tunnelling has never been stronger.

Mark Leggett is chair of the British Tunnelling Society

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Let there be light Eli Rees-King looks at light in the tunnel as well as at the end


ailway lighting has not always been a subject close to my heart, but since joining the Rail Alliance and in particular running our annual event with a big focus on railway lighting – Light after Dark, I see this subject in a whole new and fascinating way. With new tunnels being built and old tunnels needing to be maintained – this area of lighting comes with its own challenges and demands requiring a specific set of guidelines and stringent criteria that has to be met. Lighting falls into two categories when considering tunnels. The first is permanent and operational lighting for the infrastructure and the second is maintenance lighting for works taking place within a tunnel environment. 

There are so many things to consider when installing lighting underground and in tunnels. It is a harsh environment in its own right, particularly with high levels of damp that exist in these spaces which are often difficult to access – so maintenance and whole lift costing are key factors in decision making.  The effective maintenance of luminaires (as they are referred to by lighting specialists) is essential to meet railway lighting standards at the same time as being easy to install and straightforward to function and operate, in addition to ensuring that illuminance is maintained and achieved for the period of time set-out.  Vibration is another key factor, with rail vehicles – whether passenger or maintenance using the track on a constant basis. There is also the need to create even

levels of lighting so that the transition between darker and lighter spaces is not sudden but gradual. This is particularly important for train drivers as they travel through tunnels and into platforms/ stations. Train drivers/operators must also be able to clearly see signals and be completely confident in what those signals indicate.  This means that the colour rendition is a vital aspect to consider when lighting tunnels.  It is crucial that whatever solution is selected – the lighting system must allow for simple, safe and effective maintenance and avoid the need for specialist equipment, track possessions/disruption, isolation of equipment and delays to service.  There is also another aspect to all of this – and that is that lighting systems must meet energy

Rail Professional



saving and carbon emission targets to meet legislative requirements. Standards for a range of circumstances The RSSB publishes a guidance document – Standards for lighting of railway premises – GI/GN7619 Iss1 Guidance on the Safety in Railway Tunnels Technical Specification for Interoperability – and specifically gives guidance on the requirements for the infrastructure, energy, control command and signalling, and rolling stock sub-systems. Tunnels also need to be maintained, and there are occasions when a tunnel is the scene of an emergency, including passenger evacuation, so lighting standards are required for those circumstances – especially in light of recent terror events that we seem to be seeing more of recently. Lighting for maintenance in the tunnel environment also demands specific requirements which are separate to the needs of infrastructure or operational lighting.  Here is an extract taken from the Lighting & Safety Guidelines published by Network Rail which can be found on its website at What do you need to illuminate? Both the size of the area to be lit and the conditions of the ground need to be considered – large open areas of track for example would require different lighting to a narrow access point.   What type of work activity will be going on? Different activities require different levels of lighting – more detailed work requires brighter lighting  than that required for walking to and from a work site. This is covered in more detail later. Some work will require secondary lighting.   What power source is available? Some lights come with their own source of power built in. For those that don’t, suitable generators also need to be provided. Generally we have two sizes of generator – the 3KVA and the 5KVA. In some cases mains electricity may also be available for use, but it must always be transformed down to 110V. Finally when planning the lighting requirements and prior to installing temporary lighting on site ALWAYS consider the risks of electrocution from overhead and third rail.   Are environmental noise and light levels an issue? When temporary site lighting is used adjacent to built up residential areas there will be a need to keep noise levels to a minimum. Similarly, as far as is practical lighting will need to be directed away from residential areas. This can be achieved by considering placement of the lights and generators, and screening generators to reduce emitted noise levels from the site.   Is the area well-ventilated? Generators should only be used in a well-ventilated Rail Professional



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area, as emissions from these in a confined area could lead to hazardous build-up of exhaust fumes – with the associated health risks. Where the working area does not have adequate ventilation (e.g. tunnels) the generator should be sited away from the work, and sufficient cable made available and run out safely to power the lights thus avoiding tripping hazards.

Does shadowing and glare need to be considered? For working environments where shadowing may create problems it may be beneficial to consider lighting that emits a softer diffused light (fluorescent). Lighting should always be positioned to prevent glare. Consideration should also be given to the extent of engineering trains/ machinery, proximity  of overhanging trees etc Vegetation clearance may be required prior to installation of light systems.   Impact of poor lighting Good lighting whether natural or artificial, is essential to the health, safety and general comfort of workers. The quicker and easier it is to see a hazard the higher the likelihood of avoiding it. The types of dangers present at work therefore determines the lighting requirements for safe operation. Providing the correct level of lighting is particularly important when working at night. Consider the diversity of tasks that staff perform in the hours of darkness. Poor lighting can represent significant risks to business – not only in the form of time off work as a result of accident and injury, but through reduced staff efficiency and productivity. To see a whole range of solutions for working in tunnel or night conditions, the Rail Alliance will be hosting Light after Dark again in February 2018 to showcase portable, trackside lighting required for maintenance, tunnel lighting, security lighting for station car parks, depot lighting, platform lighting to keep the public safe – and the list goes on. Eli Rees-King is marketing communications director a the Rail Alliance Contact her on for more details on Light after Dark Rail Professional

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From May 2018 we will introducing a significantly enhanced RISQS, the Railway Industry Supplier Qualification Scheme used by Network Rail, London Underground and 100-plus other buyers with over 4,000 supplier members throughout the GB rail industry. It is the supplier qualification scheme by the industry, for the industry. The enhanced RISQS will feature a new easy to use platform with more functionality, the ability to access data in the scheme for industry learning, better integration with buyer systems, and the ability to respond more quickly to industry requirements. We are running a series of industry engagement workshops during October and November including a buyersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; event on October 31st in London and supplier events in:

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Details of the events and how to book are available at

Rail Professional



Eustress, not stress With investment plans on a Victorian scale now taking shape and staff working around the clock to deliver these schemes, it’s time the industry placed more emphasis on mental health, says Rob Tidbury


or many rail organisations, safety of passengers and employees is paramount to good business practice. While that should of course be commended, it is now time that rail puts the same emphasis on employee mental health. Parts of the industry are unsighted as to the true costs

Line managers are pivotal in helping to encourage good mental health, given that they work with their teams on a daily basis. Proactively starting the conversation around mental health with their staff is a good place to start, from adding it on the agenda of team meetings, to including it as part of their dialogue in everyday conversations

of mental health for their businesses, with only limited sharing of good practice and the associated cost benefits. A reactive approach to mental health is becoming the norm, but more needs to be done to develop preventative measures in order to make staff wellbeing a priority. Rail Safety Week, which took place during 25th September – 1st October, should hopefully go some way in highlighting this important issue such that it is seen as equally important as other safety initiatives. After all, taking care of staff makes good business sense. According to a report by the Health and Safety Executive, of the total working days lost each year to ill-health, work related stress accounted for the large

majority. Furthermore, the Centre for Mental health estimated that the business cost of mental health problems at work accounts for £26 billion a year across the UK workforce – equivalent to £1035 for every employee in the UK. While it is not just the rail sector experiencing the effects of workplace absence as a result of employees suffering from mental health problems such as stress, it is clearly time that the industry places more emphasis on this important issue. Employees working in the industry are currently working on some of the most exciting projects that have come forward in decades, with investment plans on a Victorian scale now taking shape. Staff are Rail Professional



working around the clock to deliver these exciting schemes. While some pressure at work can be motivating, excessive amounts can become a negative rather than positive force that can eventually lead to mental ill health. Encouraging employees to talk openly about their mental health in the workplace and by building capability among managers to recognise the signs of potential issues at an early stage can create an environment where mental health awareness is part of our everyday activity. Line managers pivotal Unfortunately, mental health can be seen as a taboo subject by some and an issue that employees may find difficult to discuss. In many parts of the industry, mental health is seen largely as the remit of HR or safety departments, rather than being embedded as a key line management role in the same way as worker safety. Line managers are pivotal in helping to encourage good mental health, given that they work with their teams on a daily basis. Proactively starting the conversation around mental health with their staff is a good place to start, from adding it on the agenda of team meetings, to including it as part of their dialogue in everyday conversations. Here at AECOM, we are investing in

training and also launching a Manager Guide to enable them to encourage and promote staff wellbeing, addressing problems before they become severe, and supporting staff when issues do emerge. This is not about becoming an expert in mental health; itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s about spotting the signs that something might be wrong. It will mean that they can signpost the right support and resources, and offer suggestions for putting strategies in place to support good mental health. To further break the taboo and create an open and caring culture, organisations could look to take a top down approach and encourage senior leadership to lead by example. By openly speaking out on the issue and perhaps even drawing on their own knowledge or experience of the topic, senior leaders can help promote this attitude down to all levels. Activities in offices to encourage this dialogue can also help. To coincide with Mental Health Awareness Week in May, AECOM piloted an exercise called Elephant in the room across some of our offices in the UK and Ireland. This was a really simple awareness mechanism in which we put up posters which posed questions such as: How are you feeling today? and What stops you from talking about your mental health? We made sticky notes available for staff to

write anonymous responses and then asked them to place them next to the poster. This initiative was really well-received and staff were refreshingly candid, sharing their own stories, which in turn encouraged more people to speak up. It was wonderful to see something so powerful happen from a very simple exercise. While businesses should now be considering employee wellbeing as a strategic priority, individuals also need to be accountable for their own mental health too. It is important that people find a balance and are empowered to take steps to better manage their own mental wellbeing, which could include improving their diet, undertaking more exercise or taking time out for themselves. Together as an industry we can break the mental health taboo and enable everyone to flourish.

Rob Tidbury is HSQE director, rail, Infrastructure Europe at AECOM

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Morris Line Engineering (MLE) have consistently innovated by evolving their tried and tested Rail Isolators for use: at higher current levels; in new arrangements; and now in load-break applications. MLE have a long standing record of building robust, reliable Isolation and Earthing Equipment. MLE is part of the Morris McLellan Group.

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Introducing the Monbat Front Access Range Easystart is extending its Front Access range of batteries by supplying the highly accredited Monbat battery to be supplied alongside Haze which the company has offered for the past 10 years. Haze has become a renowned name in the Front Access market over the years, being used in a wide range of standby and telecom applications. Easystart will now offer both ranges alongside one another as there are size and specification variations and also approvals for a wider number of brands associated with the Monbat range. Monbat is a European made factory brand used by a number of the continents largest telecom companies such as EE, BT, Ericsson, Telefonica and Vodafone just to name a few. Easystart is the official distributor for the whole Monbat factory range across the United Kingdom and will now offer the Front Access range to expand its already growing presence in the telecom and standby Front Access market. For more information regarding the new Monbat range or the existing Haze range, please contact Easystart’s Sales Manager, Cillian Brugha on or 01536 203030.

Rail Professional

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Let’s get on with it ... Mark Barry outlines his proposals for a ~£1 billion rail investment to deliver thirty-minute journeys to Cardiff and a Swansea Bay Metro


n March 1st, 2011, I was interviewed live on BBC Wales Evening news from Swansea. The UK government had just confirmed Great Western Main Line electrification from Paddington to Cardiff 1 and I was asked my view on whether the electrification should or would be extended to Swansea; I confidently predicted that it would. On September 6th the same year, I presented my evidence for the Cardiff Business Partnership to the Transport Select Committee as part of its review of High Speed Rail2. That submission set out the strategic need to upgrade the Great Western Line from Paddington to Swansea, beyond the electrification programme announced in March, as a counter to the negative economic abstraction impacts of HS2 on South Wales and the South West England (See Figure 1). Then, in July 2012, the UK government committed to the electrification of the GWML to Swansea and ‘electrification’ of the valley lines – all part of a major programme across the UK4. All seemed well in the world…. but now, oh dear, what a sorry tale. Once the Department for Transport decided in 2016 to procure only bi-mode IEP trains for the GWR5, it was only a matter of time before the decision to cancel

electrification from Swansea to Cardiff was made. That decision in 2016 had less to do with the ‘benefits’ of bi-modes and more to do with the escalating costs of, and delays to, the wider electrification programme6 of which the Cardiff-Swansea section was not immune. In that environment, just arguing

for millions of pounds of infrastructure that won’t reduce journey times is perhaps not the best use of one’s time. An opportunity for bigger thinking? So, rather than join the obvious outcry, I want to avoid the politics and focus on perhaps a more ambitious scheme that presents a real opportunity to transform connectivity to/ from and within Swansea Bay and one that delivers real economic benefits. I think it is possible to deliver Cardiff to Swansea rail journey times of 30 minutes and Swansea to London of two hours and 15 minutes, and at the same time establish the foundation of a transformational rail based, Swansea Bay Metro. The current limitations of the Swansea Bay rail network The current 55 minute rail journey to Swansea from Cardiff (which are only 55Km apart) is unnecessarily extended because Rail Professional



of two key constraints. Firstly, the low line speed between Cardiff and Bridgend and secondly, the more challenging need for the main line to meander around to Neath and Skewen between Port Talbot and Swansea. In addition, the promise of faster journeys on the Swansea District Line from West Wales to Cardiff is diminished by the commercial reality of a rail line that completely by-passes the revenue offered in Swansea. The location of Swansea High Street station itself, being a terminus, is also a constraint as it requires through trains to enter and reverse back onto the main route near Morfa adding 10/15 minutes to through journey times (See Figure 2). The opportunity for Swansea Bay The question then, is what could address all the transport issues and at the same time unlock wider development and regeneration opportunities to help grow the economy of the entire Swansea Bay City Region. The wider Swansea Bay City Region (Swansea, Neath Port Talbot and Carmarthen) has a population of ~500,0007, a leading UK university and a unique urban coastline – ‘a lovely ugly town’ as Dylan Thomas put it. The University of Wales Trinity St David’s development at SA1, Swansea University’s new bay campus, Bay Studios and Amazon signpost the development potential along the Fabian Way coastal corridor. The recently announced Swansea Bay City Deal also sets out ambitious plans for life sciences, the digital economy, creative industries, smart manufacturing and Rail Professional

energy. To realise this economic potential, Swansea Bay needs a good transport network to help its key centres and development areas – Swansea, Neath, Port Talbot, Llanelli, Fabian Way – support more employment; it also needs better connections to West Wales, Mid Wales, Cardiff, Bristol and London. The issue of regional peripherality is also very real given that HS2 will bring all major English cities (apart from Newcastle) within 90 minutes of London8; when one considers that current rail journey times from Swansea to Cardiff, Bristol and London are approximately one, two and three hours respectively the need is clear. Within Swansea Bay itself road congestion is a real and growing issue (along with the resulting air quality impacts). The idea, a Swansea Bay Metro… So, here’s an idea (and I give some credit for this to Jim Steer of Greengauge 21 with whom I originally discussed the bones of this project in 2011) (See Figure 3). Let’s upgrade line speeds between Cardiff to Bridgend to at least 100 mph. Then, let’s build a new section of track that spurs off the current line just west of Port Talbot, heads over the River Neath and approaches Swansea along the coast parallel to Fabian Way (in part using some of the old rail alignment); it then elevates over Fabian Way near SA1 on the approach to and over, the River Tawe to an expanded Swansea Central Station (see in red on Figure 3) that has two new through platforms immediately adjacent to and on the

eastern side of, the current station building. This would deliver a more direct route to Swansea from Cardiff 10km shorter than the current route and help reduce journey times between Cardiff and Swansea to perhaps 30 minutes, and reduce journey times from West Wales to Cardiff by at least 20 minutes. Moreover, post-Great Western Electrification, Swansea to London journey times of two hours and fifteen minutes could be delivered. To complement this ‘main line’ intervention some new short rail connections between the Swansea District Line (SDL) and the current main line just east of Llansamlet and west of Skewen, would enable SDL trains from both directions to travel onto the current main line into Swansea station. These schemes would also allow much of the existing line via Neath and the Swansea District Line (and even the Heart of Wales line to Ammanford) to support new stations and more local services. New stations could serve SA1 and the new student campus on Fabian Way, M4 P&R at Felindre and Llandarcy, and the Liberty stadium, etc (See Figure 3). This package of interventions will improve intra-regional connectivity and more importantly, make Swansea City Centre more accessible to more people across the region, enhancing its capacity to support more employment. Other regional centres (Neath, Llanelli and Port Talbot) will also benefit from their enhanced regional accessibility (via faster and more frequent local metro serves). As important, these proposals will also reduce generalised journey times from all the

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region’s key centres to Cardiff and London as well as West Wales. This is a pragmatic approach; the investment in the new section of main line (and yes this will be costly) and the connections at Llansamlet/Skewen, free up the existing network for local services and new stations. The Neath Valley railway (currently freight only) could also be incorporated into this network and if tramtrain was eventually proven to work in the UK9, then an ‘on-street’ route along to the Mumbles could be considered in the longerterm (See Figure 4). Wider economic impacts To maximise the benefits of these proposals we need to link the development of a railbased Swansea Metro to local land use planning and economic development across all of Swansea Bay. Where are new homes, offices, schools and hospitals? Can we make these more accessible to the whole region? Do these proposals present new development opportunities? For example, I think there is an opportunity in the centre of Swansea at/ near Parc Tawe which today is a car-based out of town retail park. The opportunity of an expanded or relocated station and a throughrail route could transform the economic and commercial potential of a site that would be at the heart of the Swansea Bay City Region, only 30 minutes from Cardiff and two hours and 15 minutes from London. Surely a chance to imagine a new higher density mixed use scheme that can complement the

developments at the west of the City Centre and now emerging along Fabian way. From heresy to reality So, yes these are just ideas; and many may find them too difficult or ambitious. However, the South Wales Metro started as my heretical idea in 2011 – and now procurement is in progress. Such schemes need vision, determination, tenacity and to be grounded in economic and engineering realities. More importantly perhaps, the development of a Swansea Bay Metro needs a collective effort from across the public and private sectors and political support and leadership – else it risks remaining an interesting article from a well-meaning advocate. The economic and regeneration dividends (direct and indirect) of this investment could be significant and have a lasting and positive impact of the whole of the Swansea Bay City Region. In my view, this ~£1 billion rail investment programme to 2030 will deliver far more than that in economic terms and complement the already ambitious proposals set out in the Swansea Bay City Deal10. Let’s get on with it… • I’d like to thank Jim Steer, director of Greengauge21 who helped shape this article. Mark Barry is professor of practice in connectivity at Cardiff University’s School of Geography and Planning


Footnotes: 1. 2. cmselect/cmtran/1185/1185we44.htm 3. M Barry, February 2011, “A Metro for Wales’ Capital City Region” Cardiff Business Partnership/Institute of Welsh Affairs uploads/2011/02/iwa-metroreport.pdf 4. and 5. network/2016/06/01/hitachi-converts-gwr-801s-to-bimode-operation 6. National Audit Office, 2016, “Modernising The Great Western Railway” Modernising-the-Great-Western-railway.pdf 7. populationestimates-by-localauthority-year 8. consulation_library/pdf/P2C37_Journey%20times%20 and%20frequencies%20LOW.pdf 9. National Audit Office, July 2017, An investigation of the Sheffield-Rotherham tram-train project The-Sheffield-to-Rotherham-tram-train-projectinvestigation-into-the-modification-of-the-national-railnetwork.pdf 10. Disclaimer: This article has nothing to do with the current and ongoing procurement of the Wales and Borders Franchise and South Wales Metro by Transport for Wales. It is based on Mark Barry’s own ideas or those already in the public domain and not those of Transport for Wales, Welsh government, Cardiff University or any other organisation.

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Getting personal Simon Pont looks at how the industry can use business intelligence to drive customer service and growth


he rail industry is currently facing the challenge of developing incremental revenue to drive greater profitability. Today, companies in every industry are trying to use data about their customers to make better business decisions. Technology is impacting every aspect of modern travel and advanced business intelligence enables new opportunities for expanding and improving retail business in travel. Coupled with greater expectations of better customer service, progressive rail firms are looking ever more closely at how to optimise the sales of ancillary services. From on-board entertainment and Wi-Fi to travel updates and automated refunds, consumers are increasingly expecting an enhanced customer experience as they travel. Safe, personalised and convenient on-board payment and services is the logical next frontier. How can the rail industry improve their customer service by incorporating business intelligence systems? A new approach raises questions about whether rail companies

should view themselves simply as transport providers or as sophisticated, mobile, multichannel retailers. Regardless of this, they need to adjust how they offer and

How can the rail industry improve their customer service by incorporating business intelligence systems? A new approach raises questions about whether rail companies should view themselves simply as transport providers or as sophisticated, mobile, multichannel retailers. Regardless of this, they need to adjust how they offer and sell ancillary goods and services to their customers

sell ancillary goods and services to their customers. Omni-channel rail companies Increasingly, when rail passengers purchase their travel, they do so via multiple channels, including: online, direct, comparison websites as well as in person from travel agents. As these sales occur there are usually many opportunities, across the customer journey, to market and sell ancillary goods and services. Are rail companies tracking these moments, and data points, to personalise and provide other services? Typical items sold include insurance, food and beverage, seat upgrades, retail and even destination attraction ticketing. While some rail companies are already capitalising on this, many still are not. Regardless of their position, rail firms need to capture information, and effectively utilise this data around the customers’ needs and preferences. This will help them form a holistic view of the customer across the entire customer lifecycle, Rail Professional



which will in turn support sales programmes, deliver a better customer service and drive business growth. Business intelligence to personalisation By using big data analytics to predict customer-specific purchase behaviour, businesses can offer customers a more personalised set of options and increase customer spend on-board. By adopting the more holistic customer view of passenger behaviour before and during rail journeys rail firms can go on to deliver what the customers want, and to also increase sales. With the right Point of Sale (POS) and BI capabilities, stock control can be effectively managed, even during long train journeys, that have multiple stops, crew changes, new passengers, and which will often span different networks and country borders. Effective on-board POS systems can provide greater speed and accuracy in understanding huge volumes of data. It can open opportunities for analysing each stream of data for greater insight in respect of stock, product price, consumers’ taste and buying tendency – all of which can impact business growth. Getting the payment strategy right Once the appropriate ecommerce, personalisation, analytics and logistics technologies have been implemented, the

rail business needs also to consider whether its payment technologies are modern and suitable. Can it support payments with multiple currencies, vouchers, different rail networks and more? Importantly, can on-board mobile point of sale (MPoS) systems support contactless and the latest mobile wallet payments? Does the rail firm’s overall payment strategy meet customer expectations? With regard to Mobile Point of Sale (MPoS) systems that the rail industry uses, one of the latest issues is whether they meet not only with PCI requirements, but also VISA and MasterCard’s contactless mandate, which states that merchants that accept payments from these global payment networks must establish contactless payments as a standard by the end of 2019. Today, rail companies need to streamline the payment process and customers need to be able to pay for goods and services via contactless. In addition, rail firms need to ask whether the existing two or three-piece MPoS systems currently used are appropriate. The traditional approach of rail staff carrying three devices – MPoS, card reader and receipt printer – while carrying out duties is no longer the only, and is not necessarily the best option. Older devices can suffer from poor connectivity (pairing issues) and energy usage, often proving impractical.

Rail firms would be well-placed to explore all-in-one, contactless, MPoS technologies to support personalisation, sales and the overall customer experience. Get on-board Increasingly, rail passengers expect rail firms to look after them in a modern way. This means that they are expected to offer on-board internet connectivity, a joined-up customer experience, a modern payment experience and an excellent retail offering that can be accessed before and during journeys. The time for the rail firms to modernise is now. The question remains whether they appreciate the potential at their fingertips to offer personalised retail offerings to their passengers before, during and after their journeys, and if they view the importance of business intelligence in adding to that customer experience and supporting the sales efforts. In today’s world, where personalisation and customer experience is key, rail firms need to consider whether their offerings are still relevant, and whether their payment options, including MPoS strategies, are fit for purpose for the modern rail customer.

Simon Pont is CEO of ECR Retail Systems Rail Professional

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A lasting legacy CrossCountry has partnered with The Scout Association to encourage youngsters to be safe on the railway


rriva Group train company CrossCountry and The Scout Association joined together earlier this year to launch a new partnership to promote rail safety among young people. Recognising that young people are more likely to take a risk trespassing on railway tracks, CrossCountry and the Scouts have come together to encourage

Speaking about the importance of keeping safe on the railways, Simon Munn commented: ‘Railways can be a dangerous place and not a playground. We’re all responsible for keeping young people and those who live or work near the railway safe, so we must do all we can to raise awareness of how to stay safe on the railway.’

Britain’s younger generations to be safe and understand more of the potential dangers when on or near the railway. The two organisations have developed educational materials for the Cub Scouts’ 150,000 members aged 7-10 available to view at, helping them understand these dangers and how to act responsibly and safely. Completion of these will help the Cubs Scouts achieve their Personal Safety Badge – one of the most popular badges in Scouting.

The partnership was launched at Birmingham New Street Station, where local Cub Scouts along with representatives from CrossCountry, British Transport Police and Network Rail were joined by Paralympian Multi Medalist Simon Munn, who tragically lost his leg after an accident on the railway. A video of the launch is available at the XCHub website and has now been watched over three million times. Speaking about the importance of keeping safe on the railways, Simon Munn Rail Professional



commented: ‘Railways can be a dangerous place and not a playground. We’re all responsible for keeping young people and those who live or work near the railway safe, so we must do all we can to raise awareness of how to stay safe on the railway.’ CrossCountry’s managing director, Andrew Cooper, said: ‘Safety on the railways is our top priority, so we’re delighted to be able to work with The Scout Association to help our nation’s children understand the dangers of not being safe and responsible. ‘To young people the railway can be a place of wonder and excitement, but it is also a place of heavy engineering, fast moving trains and electric cables. In such an environment the dangers of injury or worse are too great for people to think about not

acting responsibly.’ Assistant chief constable Robin Smith from BTP said: ‘Keeping young people safe is a priority for us and we are doing everything we can to prevent them from coming to harm on the railway, including patrolling trespass hotspots and going into schools to warn of the dangers. ‘However, we cannot tackle this issue alone and we are always keen to support any initiatives aimed at reducing trespass. We hope the Personal Safety Badge will help youngsters spread this important safety message within their communities and stop children risking their lives on the tracks.’ Directory of industry partners Once Cub Scout Packs have completed their personal Safety Badges, Scout Leaders can access a directory of industry partners who are available to arrange station visits and, where appropriate, to help Scout groups look at ‘adopting’ a local station. Experience has shown that when young people are more closely involved with the railway they are less likely to commit antisocial acts such as vandalism, as they take a personal pride in their local station. To build awareness of the new partnership and promote the benefits to Scouts of completing the new badge, CrossCountry and BTP attended the annual

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Innovation as a tool for accessibility In August, the Department for Transport announced the release of a draft action plan to improve accessible public transport by creating a system that is open to everyone


he plan, which is open for consultation until November, considers initiatives such as broadening existing schemes to improve physical accessibility on trains and at stations. The Department is also working with the Rail Delivery Group to investigate the feasibility of providing alternative journey options, such as alerting and potentially rerouting users if the only accessible toilet is out of use. The action plan with its vast array of recommendations is a good start, but it still fundamentally lacks vision when compared to the real differences to accessible transport that could be implemented by intelligent use of technology.

Zipabout believes that accessibility requirements are a spectrum that every traveller sits on in some shape or form. The company’s approach to the issue considers that every passenger could be disabled, confused, vulnerable, or simply encumbered – i.e. having temporarily restricted mobility – to greater or lesser extent. In short, everyone benefits from investment in better accessibility. Access for all There are many common issues that affect accessibility for vulnerable travellers. Long before you get to the physical environment,

these include subtler issues such as: lack of detailed information regarding facilities or what to expect, visual impairments and anxiety induced by loud or busy environments. The issues surrounding accessible transport extend even further than those with both visible and hidden disabilities. The International Transport Forum (ITF) considers encumbered travellers, such as heavily pregnant women, those accompanied by young children or carrying heavy luggage, under the umbrella of requiring better accessibility. Interestingly, the ITF believes that the percentage of disabled and

The full accessibility spectrum It is not the first government action plan attempting to improve accessibility for all. The Transport for Everyone plan, published in 2012, set out a vision to increase transport accessibility for disabled people. It is claimed that huge improvements were made off the back of it, enhancing physical access to stations, trains and buses. However, Zipabout believes that the current approach to accessible transport is still, at best, inadequate. Accessibility minister, Paul Maynard, says: ‘Accessible transport is not only about having accessible buses and trains, for example, it is also about the support and understanding of drivers and transport staff operating and delivering these services.’ This is true, yet the transport industry continues to simply segment its audience into most people and step free access, which is not only divisive but fails to serve any accessibility issues that cannot be solved by a ramp. The barriers to travel for people with disabilities extend far beyond physical station and vehicle access. Rail Professional



encumbered passengers in typical flows on public transport can be as high as 30 per cent at any one time, so this is no small problem. Regardless of disability, vulnerability or encumbrance, a lack of mobility and the ensuing difficulties when travelling lead to a loss of confidence and independence. Many people are left trapped in their own homes, terrified to face public transport. An ageing UK population (44 per cent of whom suffer from a disability, according to the government’s 2015/16 Family Resources survey) makes this a terrifying possibility for a vast number of people. Despite multiple action plans and green papers, it is fair to say that progress is slow when it comes to enshrining accessible transport provision in law, and the question remains as to why. Failure to grasp what’s needed There are three obvious barriers to change. First is the lack of understanding of the breadth of disability requirements. Whilst installing ramps in a station will certainly help those in a wheelchair and tick the accessibility box for a stakeholder, they do nothing for a traveller with early onset dementia who is easily overwhelmed by unfamiliar environments, or a passenger with irritable bowel syndrome who needs to plan a journey around toilet proximity. Secondly, there is a lack of understanding of the economic benefits of improved accessibility. For starters, accessible transport can increase tourism and give those with disabilities the confidence and independence to seek and gain employment. Finally, transport authorities and operators face tight budgets and a vast array of potential investments. Politics surrounding the understanding of disabilities combined with their lack of understanding of accessibility and the opportunity it presents, means that it is hardly surprising that Tocs and other transport authorities often will not invest in accessibility initiatives beyond those forced upon them by central government. There is a fear of causing offence or Rail Professional

getting it wrong. Fighting for change – the personal approach To tackle the accessibility problem a two pronged approach is needed. The traditional tactic of improving infrastructure and physical environment, largely set out in the government’s action plan, can be coupled with a more forward thinking method of personalising travel information. This helps to meet the needs of the passenger so they can navigate their individual issues unaided. Both are important, but the latter is arguably more empowering; facilitating independence and instilling confidence to travel even before the physical environment is upgraded, whilst simultaneously creating economic value. A large part of the solution clearly lies in technology and innovation. Zipabout believes that by personalising the user experience to every single customer there should be no need to distinguish between differing degrees of accessibility requirements. What’s more, the data needed to achieve this already exists but lies unused in silos guarded by owners and operators who lack the resources to utilise it. A joined up approach, something rarely encountered in the transport sector, would not only reduce costs but hugely improve reach. Integration with community transport schemes, buddy travel and lift sharing schemes for example would remove many of the barriers vulnerable passengers face in getting to and from a railway station. High quality personalised information can help them make their own choices around how and when to travel and remove the stress of the unknown without any need for station redesign and staffing. Community transport in particular places a premium on providing accessible, flexible and inclusive travel. The work that community transport operators are doing in providing accessible journeys to health centres and major connectivity hubs (including train stations) shows how integrated accessible travel can be made possible at a local level.

Supporting every step of the way Zipabout’s platform can provide personalised information to help vulnerable travellers without the need for tick boxes and form based approaches. The company is working on pilots with the NHS and others to improve accessible travel for people living with dementia and other vulnerable travellers. From a technical point of view, a truly personalised experience should be just as capable of providing advice and assistance to a parent with small children going out for the day as to somebody with Parkinson’s disease or dementia who is anxious about getting off the train onto a crowded platform. If you understand the user, you can provide the information needed to support their needs and to increase their confidence to travel. Better still there is no reason why, in the days of high technology, you can’t detect physical triggers such as stress and respond accordingly. Even a smart phone can give enough feedback to identify a passenger who needs more assistance. The ITF has advocated journey planners that enable travellers to reduce the number of interchanges in a given journey as being highly beneficial to people who find it difficult to board and disembark public transport. This is already available and lacks ambition, and there is no longer any excuse for such a one dimensional approach to the transport network. Door-to-door planning already looks like a dated minimum requirement and yet is still rarely offered; no journey begins and ends at a railway station, and this is important to acknowledge when providing assistance to customers. Without safe walking instructions, predicted disruption, detailed wayfinding, stressful environment warnings – truly personalising the journeys that are on offer – then we’re not really trying hard enough. Alex Froom, director, Zipabout

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High-speed railway slab tracks put to 20m tonne axle test at Heriot-Watt slab track system that has been used in high-speed railways around the globe is being tested at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh to discover whether it is suitable for UK conditions. Eight sections of an FFB Bögl slab track system and its associated sub-layers are being tested on Heriot-Watt’s Geo-pavement and Railway Accelerated Fatigue Testing (GRAFT) facility, which uses hydraulics to simulate realistic speeds and dynamic loads of high-speed railways equivalent to many years of track use. The slab track system is being tested over several weeks and during that time, scientists from the university’s Railway Research team with colleagues from the University of Leeds, will monitor the slab’s performance as the machine simulates the equivalent of 20 million tonnes of axle loading across the top of them. The testing is the first of its kind in the UK and is being undertaken as part of the EPSRC-funded Lowering the Costs of Railways using Preformed Systems project (LOCORPS), which aims to reduce the cost of new highspeed railway lines and improve track behaviour. Professor Omar Laghrouche, director of the Institute for Infrastructure and Environment at Heriot-Watt University, said: ‘The slab track and its sublayers are being subjected to the envisaged loading cycles of a UK high-speed railway, which will exceed 20 million tonnes axle load per annum. ‘We’re looking at differential track settlement, which is a serious problem in modern day railway engineering, with considerable cost and time implications. Settlement of substructure is the main cause of track deterioration, and this research will identify how we can mitigate settlement and ensure future high-speed rail projects in the UK are appropriately engineered and constructed.’ Professor Peter Woodward, chair in High Speed Railway Engineering at the University of Leeds and head of the LOCORPS project, said: ‘High-speed rail lines, at ever increasing speeds and distances, are in consideration across the world, but up-front capital expenditure can sometimes be seen as an inhibiting factor. ‘The LOCORPS project will bring us closer to innovative solutions that will reduce the cost and duration of construction, as well as the land take.’ Steve Swain, project director of the Tarmac Max Bögl Joint Venture, is a supporter of the LOCORPS project and an advocate of the research. He said: ‘We were happy to support this research by providing both the FFB Bögl slab track system and the associated sub-layer materials, given the critical importance of high-speed rail to the UK’s future infrastructure plans and productivity across all regions. ‘Delivering these new networks safely



and efficiently, with a focus on longevity and lifecycle costs is a priority, requiring proven technology and high-performance systems.’ Both plastic deformations and elastic behaviours of the track under various loading combinations are being plotted and the track structure is being monitored for probable faults. The performance of soil layers and super-structure layers are investigated. The GRAFT is one of only two academic facilities of its kind in the UK. It has a hydraulic capacity of 200 tonnes (150 tonnes cyclically) which enables accelerated testing of existing and new railway products in realistic railway conditions. Visit:

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Arcadis appointed to lead delivery of Belfast Transport Hub rcadis has been awarded the Delivery Partner contract by Northern Ireland’s Translink to create a new integrated public transport hub in the heart of Belfast. The Belfast Hub will provide a world-class gateway for the city, linking it to national and international markets, creating new jobs and investment opportunities and supporting Belfast’s regional economic growth. The consultancy will be providing project management, commercial management and site supervision for the enabling and main works, as well as providing strategic advice in terms of procurement strategy along with design and engineering input, including BIM, throughout the project lifecycle. The Hub will be located on the site of the


Europa Bus Centre and Great Victoria Street train station. It is one of the most important projects in the region and will be a core component in delivering Belfast’s overall vision as a modern European city. Almost 80 million passenger journeys are made across Northern Ireland’s public transport network every year. Last year, a record 13 million of these journeys were made by rail – over twice the number since the current Great Victoria Street station was first designed and built in 1995. With a focus on improving passenger journeys and providing better, more modern facilities, the new Hub will significantly increase capacity across rail, as well as bus and coach, services in the region. The development will include a brand new station quarter, public areas and a large section of potential retail and office space. This opens up the opportunity for

significant private investment directly into the site, creating new jobs and regeneration opportunities throughout the surrounding neighbourhoods. Dennis Geary, country lead for Ireland at Arcadis, said: ‘The people of Northern Ireland are set to benefit from increased infrastructure investment over the coming years, as the government seeks to make the country more productive and more attractive to investors. Bringing new growth to this key area of the United Kingdom can only be good news for those who live, work and do business there. We are extremely proud to be playing our part in making Northern Ireland better connected for people right across the country.’ Construction of the Belfast Hub is expected to commence in 2017-18 subject to funding and planning permissions. Visit:

Enclosures from the smallest to the largest. ENCLOSURES




Bridging manufacturer among first to be certified to new global ethical business standard ridge and engineering services specialist Mabey has become one of the first companies in the world to be independently certified to the ISO 37001 antibribery management systems standard. Infrastructure organisations globally are calling for public sector clients and contractors to help fight bribery and corruption by adopting the new standard and promoting an ethical business culture. The certification, provided by LRQA, an independent professional assurance services organisation and member of the Lloyd’s Register Group, has been awarded to Mabey’s modular bridge business which designs, manufactures and distributes bridges across the UK and 140 countries around the world from its factory in Gloucestershire. ISO 37001 is only awarded to those companies that can demonstrate that an anti-bribery management system is in place to prevent bribery and corruption risks. This new standard builds on the British Standard 10500, which was awarded to Mabey’s modular bridge business in 2012. International construction and engineering associations helped develop the standard including the World Federation of Engineering Organisations, the International Federation of Consulting Engineers, the European Construction Industry Federation and the European International Contractors Association (EIC). EIC Director Frank Kehlenbach said: “The new ISO 37001 standard is a milestone and offers contractors and clients alike a big opportunity to introduce management systems which will reduce the risk of active and passive corruption considerably.’



Mabey Group chief executive Juliette Stacey added: ‘We often export to governments in developing countries where bridge infrastructure brings huge social and economic benefits. Our government and contractor customers need to be confident that their own efforts to stamp out corruption are supported by companies working in their countries. Our determination to work to the best ethical standards is evident with the award of the new ISO 37001. ‘No organisation is immune from the risk of bribery and increasingly industry groups are calling on customers to engage suppliers that hold ISO 37001. We support that call. If we can compete on the same terms as everyone else, we will be able to increase exports and bring the benefits of quicker, safer and more efficient travel to more people.’ LRQA’s UK & Ireland area operations manager said: ‘By gaining ISO 37001 certification, this ethical commitment by Mabey’s modular bridge business will enhance its corporate reputation and help to avoid the high cost and reputational damage that can result from involvement in corruption.’ Visit: --------------------------------------------------------Sharing data brings innovations


he Transport Systems Catapult (TSC) has launched a first-ofits-kind data facility which will enable access and analysis of various data sources to help address challenges in transport. The Intelligent Mobility Data Hub (IMDH) provides a neutral, secure platform for transport organisations to allow access to and analyse their data. The hub currently


stores many valuable data sets from government organisations, transport and technology businesses, offering multiple insights into road travel and haulage patterns in the UK. Businesses will be able to use the facility to work with SME’s and research organisations to create transport innovations. Existing data sets can be combined for the first time to help create solutions for transportation issues such as congestion, pollution and journey planning. Partners who use the facility have access to powerful IT infrastructure for data analysis and a team of experts to help them. The platform also features highly secure storage and robust legal processes to ensure privacy and commercial confidentiality to allow partners data to be stored and analysed. The launch follows a statement from the TSC, which stated innovation in transport is at risk because data is not being shared in the sector. The report, commissioned by TSC and using analysis from the Open Data Institute (ODI) and Deloitte, found £14 billion of potential benefits to the UK could be gained from better use of data. Paul Campion, CEO at the TSC said: ‘Too often transport data is locked within commercial and technical siloes, inhibiting collaboration and innovation. Utilising the TSC’s position as a neutral trusted broker, the Intelligent Mobility Data Hub allows the UK transport industry to take a major step toward resolving this issue by enabling the analysis and combining of large data sets in a secure platform. This new facility will allow UK companies to grow by offering new services to travellers, unlocking the door to innovations which were not possible before.’ TSC is encouraging businesses to make contact via




Victa Railfreight named RFG’s Business of the Year 2017 he Kent-based rail freight support service provider is one of the longest-standing members of the Rail Freight Group, and won the first ever Rail Freight Group award ten years ago. This year’s award was presented to managing director Neil Sime by the Awards’ sponsors John Smith, MD of GB Railfreight and Simon Coppen of Burges Salmon. The judges said Victa Railfreight had demonstrated ‘consistently excellent customer service and innovative thinking, while the rapid growth of the company over the last few years had created jobs and improved productivity, safety and profits for its customers as well as for itself.’ The judges also congratulated Sime, whom they said was instrumental in the company’s ongoing success. Record producer and railway fan Pete Waterman OBE, who was the first ever guest speaker, returned to provide a reminder of the importance of the freight sector to the UK economy and urged companies to have an even greater voice at national level. He spoke about his work with the Cheshire and Warrington Local Enterprise Partnership and efforts to free up capacity at Crewe and Birmingham. He also spoke in detail about his work to ensure freight could be carried on HS2 in the future and urged freight companies to ensure they had a greater voice at national level. RFG welcomed a new category to this year’s Awards with Young Railfreight Professional. The winner was Jack Eagling, senior planning manager at GB Railfreight whom judges described as being an industryleading individual. The full list of award winners is: Customer care: Network Rail; Community


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and Environmental responsibility: Associated British Ports and Brett Aggregates; Innovation and technical development: Freightliner and Unipart Rail; Judges special award: DB Cargo UK; Railfreight project of the year: Direct Rail Services; Outstanding individual contribution award: David Barney. RFG chairman Tony Berkeley said: ‘It was an amazing night for the RFG and the rail freight sector as a whole. We all work in a dynamic and innovative community that can compete successfully while still coming together to celebrate the best successes and overcome critical challenges.’ Visit: -------------------------------------------------------- Reinventing the 08:15 from Glasgow to Edinburgh isco, ScotRail, CGI, Network Rail Telecoms and Wittos have announced their collaboration on an InnovateUK and RSSB funded proof of concept to enable superfast Wi-Fi on trains (Project SWIFT). The project will see ScotRail trialling the fastest in-train Wi-Fi service in the world, allowing users to experience Internet speeds on the go of up to 300 Mbps. Currently, those travelling by train between Scotland’s two biggest cities can access less than 10 per cent of that capability; the difference between streaming a music service with interrupted coverage, and downloading the entire Beatles back catalogue, seamlessly in under two minutes. With the existing in-train mobile service in the UK, 33 per cent of internet requests on trains fail and with 1.4 billion journeys a year, that equates to millions of lost hours of productivity, missed opportunity for online retailers, and potentially dissatisfied


passengers. Consistent, high speed connectivity on trains provides a significant opportunity for not only the rail industry, but the UK as a whole. As the recent National Infrastructure Commission report outlined, the use of existing 3G/4G networks for train connectivity has been unsuccessful, largely due to number of tunnels, cuttings and regional 3G/4G black-spots in the UK. Project SWIFT provides a viable alternative. Led by Cisco CREATE, the company’s Collaborative Research and Emerging Technologies division, working with government, industry, research institutions and start-ups to accelerate innovation, Project SWIFT will highlight how high-speed in-carriage connectivity will improve the experience for passengers and help train operators provide better, more reliable and profitable services. Project SWIFT has been initially implemented on a full scale train and test track near Stratford-upon-Avon, and will now see a limited duration roll-out on one of the current fleet of ScotRail trains that operate services between Glasgow and Edinburgh. The project will utilise existing trackside fibre to backhaul data from trackside masts. The masts will use unlicensed Wi-Fi spectrum to connect trains to this fibre, with a lossless session handover between masts as low as two milliseconds. Both existing and newly installed masts will be used along the Edinburgh-Glasgow route to ensure that consistent coverage can be trialled along the line, regardless of tunnels and cuttings. The proof of concept trial will commence later this year, and run until the end of March 2018. Visit:

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Our parent companies are leading railway infrastructure specialists. Together we continue to invest in cutting edge on-track machines which improve safety, reliability and efficiency.

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Convertors for demanding railway applications Relec Electronics is a specialist supplier of electronics solutions specialising in applications in the railway industry


ith over 38 years’ experience the company has a highly qualified engineering and QA team to ensure that the most suitable products are selected and can also offer customised design and manufacturing options to give greater flexibility to the range of solutions offered. Unit isolation The UK rail network is under continuous improvement by the operators which creates certain demands on the type of DC DC power converters required. Especially critical is the requirement for suitably isolated units. The development of high-speed rail networks challenges the limits of technology and the requirements for robust, safe and flexible power converters for a number of applications on rolling stock. These applications typically cover the ever increasing demands for passenger safety and comfort. Especially critical is the requirement for suitably isolated units. Relec are able to supply MORNSUN railway power converters which provide a variety of highly reliable solutions in line with the railway standards. Relec now has a new DC DC converter from Mornsun, the URB1D-LMD10/15/20WR3 series with improved isolation.

air-conditioning control and information displays. They have a continuous operating temperature range of -40°C to +85°C and multiple protection features as standard (input under-voltage and output short-circuit, over-current, over-voltage protection). The converters come in 2 x 1 inch standard package with two pin-out positions available. A2S (chassis mounting) or A4S (DIN-Rail mounting) packages are also available, which have reverse voltage protection built in. Sliding door application The diagram below shows a typical sliding door control system application using the URB 1D15LMD-10WR3. Key features: • ultra-wide voltage range: 40-160VDC • 2250VDC reinforced isolation

• • • •

operating temp -40°C to +85°C low ripple and noise international standard pin-out reverse voltage protection available with A2S (chassis mounting), A4S (35mm DIN –rail mounting) • compliant with EN50155/EN60950 and EN50121-3-2. To ensure the electrical safety and common-mode interference protection capability the CPU system and the internal door control unit should isolate from the motor, signal acquisition and other equipment. Therefore, it is recommended to select two power converters. The diagram below shows the power supply of vehicle electronic equipment with a 110VDC input. MORNSUN 10W railway power converters, URB1D05LMD-10WR3

The units have a 40–160VDC ultra-wide input voltage with 2250VDC reinforced insulation meeting EN60950/EN50155 and are suitable for 72V, 96V and 110V traction supply voltages for supplying electronic equipment such as monitoring equipment, Rail Professional



is used to set the position of the seat with the drive motor positioning the seat with a manual reset in case of power failure. The diagram (left) shows the 110VDCpower supply to the railway vehicle. The MORNSUN URF1D24QB-100W offers 24VDC to power the vertical motor, tilt motor and sliding motor and connects with a K7805-500R3 to convert voltage into 5VDC powering the electronic controller and position sensor. Monitoring equipment and displays The DC/DC converter URB1DxxLMD10WR3 series offers 10W of output power from a 40-160VDC ultra-wide input voltage, 2250VDC isolation (reinforced insulation), an operating temperature of -40°C to +85°C and multiple protection features (input under voltage and output short circuit, over current, over voltage protections), suitable for 72V/96V/110V traction supply voltages for railway vehicle electronic equipment provides 5VDC power for the CPU and URB1D15LMD-10WR3 providing 15VDC powering motor driver chip, each requiring approximately 6-8W. The URB1DxxLMD-10WR3 family meets EN50155 and the special requirement for isolation. They come in enclosed metal package with excellent thermal performance and good radiation protection. The series offers 2250VDC isolation (reinforced insulation) and 40-160VDC ultra-wide input voltage, suitable for 72V/96V/110V system supply voltages. Business-class seat on HST Business-class seat electric control systems consist mainly of the switch, position sensor and electronics together with the ECU controller and drive motor. The switch meeting EN 50155 and EN 50121-3-2. Applications are railway monitoring equipment, air conditioner controller and information displays applications. Features: • ultra wide input voltage (4:1): 40160VDC • high efficiency up to 85 per cent • reinforced insulation • isolation: 2250VDC • operating temperature: -40oC to +85oC • low ripple and noise • protections: RVP, SCP, OCP, OVP • reverse voltage protection available with A2S (chassis mounting) or A4S (DIN-Rail mounting). High Performance Unit The URF1DxxQB-100W is a high performance railway power converter featuring 100W output power, no minimum load requirement and wide input voltage of 66-160VDC. The construction of the case allows for the high base plate temperature (up to 100oC). It also provides protection against Rail Professional



input under voltage, output over voltage, short circuit and over temperature and has functions of remote control and output voltage adjustment. The series meet railway standard EN50155, suitable for railway system.

Features: • wide input voltage: 66-160V • high efficiency up to 92 per cent • low no load power consumption • isolation: 3000VDC • operating temperature: -40oC to +100oC • international standard: 1/4 brick • EN50155 railway standard approval • protections: RVP, OVP, OCP, SCP, OTP. Non-isolation The K78xx-500R3 series including open frame cost effective K78Lxx-500R3 are high efficiency switching regulators and compatible with LM78xx series threeterminal linear regulators. The series features high efficiency, low standby power consumption and output short-circuit protection. They also have no requirement for heat sink and can support negative output voltages. They are widely used in industrial control, instrumentation, and electric power applications Features: • high efficiency up to 95 per cent • no load input current as low as 0.2mAl • operating temperature: -40oC to +85oC • negative output available • pin out compatible with LM78XX linear regulators • UL60950/EN60950 approval.

Interruptions to voltage supply Interruptions of up to 10 ms may occur on input voltages for Class S1 equipment. This can be met with the addition of external input capacitors external on the input side of the power converter.

Ambient temperature In addition to this range of DC DC converters Relec provides rugged high performance power conversion products, AC DC power supplies, DC AC inverters, Displays, EMC Filters and vandal proof switches. Products offered for rail applications are compliant with national and international railway standards EN50121-3-2, EN50155. Furthermore Relec’s comprehensive and easy to navigate website shows the particular standard to which a product is compliant. In addition the product may also benefit from having been listed by Network Rail PADS (parts and drawing system).

Contact Tel: 01929 555700 Email: Visit:

The series features high efficiency, low standby power consumption and output short-circuit protection. They also have no requirement for heat sink and support negative output, widely used in industrial control, instrumentation, and electric power applications

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Developing, building and maintaining railway Infrastructure since 1989

Delivering international projects of both OLE and Track infrastructure in complex and challenging conditions, Neopul creates and implements the procedures to always work within the highest Technical and Health and Safety standards.



Keeping control systems safe Philip Glenister is Rittal’s business development manager for railways and specialises in industrial and outdoor solutions for railways and telecoms applications


ail industry engineers have to consider a number of key factors when choosing the right enclosure to house sensitive electronics equipment. Technology is evolving at an ever faster pace, thanks in no small part to the development of new, faster, smaller and more powerful electronic solutions. This progress in the electronics sector has been likewise reflected in the instrumentation market which has quickly embraced the new technology, with the obvious result that equipment has also shrunk significantly. The upside of this is a reduction in power demand, plus an increase in portability and reliability, all of which consequently gives greater functionality but less volume. Instrumentation comes in a plethora of forms and so enclosures that house these instruments need to be just as varied. A variety of options Rail engineers and IT managers now have a significant choice of enclosures. These range from weatherproof outdoor cabinets with various internal fittings to suit the equipment and application, through custom and proprietary desktop and portable cases. There are also, still, the relatively simple plastic and metal boxes, frequently customised to fit the application. The decision as to which enclosure to use will be down to the nature of the application and the environment where it is to be sited. Whether static or mobile, the enclosure may need to withstand shock, vibration, moisture and/or dust ingress. Parking sensitive electronics beside a busy railway line or road requires particular care as external damage may be likely. In such exposed settings, the enclosure may also be vulnerable to vandalism and graffiti, and subjected to changes in external temperature, wind, rain ice and snow. In many applications, the ergonomics of the user and EMC will also, almost certainly, be an issue to consider. Reviewing each of the variables will help engineers to narrow the field from the wide range of alternatives available in each enclosure style. Rating systems One popular misconception worth addressing here is the interpretation of IP ratings for outdoor enclosures. An IP rating provides an indication as to whether an

enclosure is built to withstand the ingress of dust and water under varying conditions, and over a limited period of time. It is advisable to use an enclosure specifically designed for outdoor use rather than just ‘the highest IP rating’. The reason for this is that the seals on a high IP rating enclosure will be designed to withstand a limited exposure to a hose, but may not be capable of withstanding freezing in winter, or days of non-stop rain. Furthermore, internal temperature rises caused by direct or indirect exposure to the sun can be mitigated by using a doubleskinned enclosure which will lower cooling bills in the long term. However, there are exceptions to the rule. For those who want to select the highest IP rating for outdoor use, Rittal has a range of

IP69K enclosures specifically designed for high pressure wash down applications, such as in operating theatres, food production areas and on vehicles where externally mounted control boxes are hosed down at the end of each shift (such as refuse trucks). As these enclosures were originally designed for vehicle use, they are normally suitable for outdoor applications. Enclosure design considerations Some of the other key areas which must be considered include: • • • • • •

power requirements data corrosion thermal performance accessibility and service future upgrades

Power requirements Portable units, for example, will need space for either batteries, or mains conversion, or both. Not as much space will be needed if mains conversion is external. If, however, the unit is static, how will the power be supplied and distributed? Does the PSU need to be plug-in for easy exchange? Or even N+1 redundant to ensure continuity of supply following a unit failure? Rail Professional



Data How will the system receive and send data and is the same route available for response and control? Is ‘industry standard’ cabling structure involved? Can wireless or infrared be used to keep the unit remote from whatever system it is controlling, or are fibre-optic links present? Copper connections require different space and handling, both up to and inside the enclosure, and wireless/infrared options may need additional circuitry (with accompanying space), as well as suitable sites for antennae or target windows. Corrosion Corrosion protection involves more than just a layer of paint across the metal body. Long lasting corrosion protection requires a specific, staged, process, from cleaning to powder coating the primed enclosure. For electrical switchgear enclosures,

corrosion protection is required by IEC 62208 and IEC 61439 while the required corrosion test is conducted in accordance with IEC 60068-2. Depending on the testing standard, a distinction will be made between any indoor and any outdoor installation of the enclosure. Thermal performance You need to actively address the conundrum of keeping dirt, moisture and EMC out, while ensuring cooling air circulates both in and out of the enclosure. As processing power and system power increases, so does the need to remove the heat generated. Even the batteries housed in small, portable, units will contribute to the heat generation – to the point where they could be deemed to be too hot to handle under certain circumstances. Control system components typically fail more frequently as temperatures rise, so if

climate control is not in place, the service life of a system will be shortened – which could lead to total system failure. Accessibility and service Accessibility and service or exchange are important issues over the lifetime of the instrumentation, as even a simple box becomes ‘unfriendly’ when it takes a disproportionate amount of time to replace a battery. Having to remove a dozen screws to access the battery compartment may prevent unauthorised access, but what about the effect on the user who may be in a hurry? Both the box and the system design need to allow access where necessary and to restrict it elsewhere. In a 482.6mm (19”) environment, the cabinet may include a lockable door, while inside the sub-racks could have easily exchanged ‘hot-swap’ circuit boards, power supplies and fan systems. These are partly enabled by utilising the sub-rack rear for input/output cabling, to leave the front clear for service exchange. Future upgrades These may also need to be considered at the outset of the project, both from an accessibility and space perspective. Will you want to be able to add on extras as they become available without having to replace the complete model, or is the system designed to be modular and a simple replacement or addition of one part will facilitate expected future expansion? High reliability systems The reliability of any system depends not only on the quality of the components and the design, but also whether the equipment is maintained within its design parameters, particularly temperature. Properly cooled systems generally increase the mean time between failures (MTBF) of critical components. It’s worth noting that inadequate dust filters will become congested quickly, preventing proper airflow from cooling the system, which will lead to temperatures within the enclosure rising. Proper consideration of the environment the electronics will normally operate under will ensure mechanical, EMC, dust and liquid protection is provided, reducing the risk of external factors damaging the electronics inside. To ensure the product selected is capable of providing a long-term cost effective solution, it always makes sense to involve a company which has both the relevant expertise and the widest range available.

Tel: 01709 704000 Email: Visit: Rail Professional



Increasing productivity Increasingly, short lead times and flexible call-offs by customers mean that Hinckleybased O.L.D. Engineering have to offer ever-shorter response times


component type. between batches is particularly important,’ .L.D. Engineering’s need for Components are gauged manually during explained Joint Managing Director Chris flexibility in precision finishthe grinding cycle, but they are subjected, Topp. grinding hundreds of different after completion, to individual high The Ultramat Easy, with a 1m grinding components means ease of length, covers most of its likely shaft lengths accuracy inspection on a Tesa Scan 52, which programming, incorporating offers colour-coded classification of the (the machine features a one-piece ‘T’ bed both grinding and dressing cycles, is measurement values and allows the analysis design with a fully supported table). A paramount - hence the attraction of the of the results at a glance. touch-screen provides access to the Easy Ultramat Easy external cylindrical-grinding In conclusion, Mr Topp says: ‘Since its software, while automatic dressing and machine from Jones & Shipman. installation in June 2015, the Ultramat has grinding cycles mean the machine can be ‘Additional capacity was the initial driver become an invaluable part of our operations for considering a new machine, but when the quickly set and left to run unmanned. and has given us an immediate payback in capability of the Ultramat’s software became A proportion of O.L.D. Engineering’s reduced down-time alone. Indeed, we now work is grinding the heat-treated bearing evident, we soon appreciated the additional have the capacity to offer a sub-contract surfaces of shafts to ±4 microns, without benefits of very short set-up times. Indeed, 125 216 55410 grinding service, such is the combination of in-process diameter gauging. The Marposs the machine’s operator can now look after our operator skills and the machine’s Easy wheel-head-mounted touch-trigger probe two machines in the cell. Not untypically, ku.oc.for gnishoulder reenignlocation edlo@sisevital iriuqto ne 17software.’ 91 ECNIS GNIRUTCAFUNAM ensure that we could be producing hundreds of different Tel: 01455 612 521 component positioning is precise (in the Z components per week in a variety of batch ku .oc.relative gnireeto nigthe nemaster dlo.ww w of each axis) datum sizes so minimising non-productive time






We’ve been helping our clients achieve success since 1971 by supplying them with quality, bespoke components produced on state of the art, multi-axis machinery. Find out how O.L.D. Engineering can help your business stay on track by calling us today on 01455 612 521 or visit

Rail Professional Advert Revised.indd 1

05/06/2017 10:39:12

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Celebrating the best of UK rail Established 20 years ago to celebrate the best developments across the UK rail sector after privatisation, the Rail Business Awards is as a highlight of the UK rail industry calendar


t provides an unrivalled opportunity to pay tribute to all the hard work that goes on day in, day out. Part of the Railway Gazette Group at DVV Media International, alongside Railway Gazette International and the agendasetting newsletter Rail Business Intelligence, the Rail Business Awards is supported by lead sponsor Ricardo in association with Rail Professional. More than 600 senior executives and industry leaders from across the UK rail sector will be gathering at the London Hilton on Park Lane on February 22 2018 for a star-studded 20th anniversary event, where the winners will be revealed. The evening provides an unrivalled opportunity for networking with colleagues and contacts across the rail industry, and table reservations are already being accepted. The awards are open to any company

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of any size that conducts business within the UK rail industry. The various categories (below) have been carefully selected to recognise many different aspects of the rail business, from individual achievements through customer service and technical innovation to operational excellence in both passenger and freight. The presentations culminate with the coveted award for Rail Business of the Year, awarded by a panel of independent judges on the basis of the results from the other categories. Last chance to enter Entries for the 20th Rail Business Awards are open until October 10. This year entries are being invited for 18 categories, giving companies and organisations the opportunity to tell everyone about their achievements during 2017, and a chance to celebrate the people behind the scenes that make it all happen. Companies are invited to enter as many categories as they wish, selecting those that best suit their business. They may also nominate another organisation that they have been working with, or submit a joint entry if preferred. However, the same projects should not be entered for more than one category, and the organisers may transfer entries to a different category if that is felt to be more appropriate. Anyone wishing to enter should initially visit to review the categories and criteria, and register to

take part. Once the submissions have been prepared, registered entrants can simply log in and upload their entries. Each submission may contain up to 2,500 words and a 50 word summary, along with photographs and any necessary supporting documentation. When marking the entries, the judges will be looking for evidence that each submission properly addresses the criteria for that category. More details of the Rail Business Awards, and the many industry-leading companies among the award sponsors, can be found

at www.railbusiness Further information about the Railway Gazette Group is available at www.railwaygazette. com Deadline The entry deadline has been extended to October 10 2017 Tel: 020 8652 5216 Email: Visit: Rail Professional



Party conference season The political party conference season is back underway, and this year rail is again attracting a high level of debate


rom funding to planning; from new market entrants to the possibility of market leavers; from the fate of new rail plans to the sunlit uplands of continued growth, there are opinions to suit the mind of optimists and pessimists alike. Sifting fact from fiction, spin from substance, is a prerequisite of attending political conferences. Yet the tone and substance of the debates found, both in fringe meetings and in the conference halls themselves, are always an accurate barometer of what the political classes, and those who influence them, are thinking and how they are developing their policy agendas. Given the annual budget’s move to the autumn, the Conservative conference is particularly valuable in providing a glimpse of what the chancellor may be setting out in a few months’ time. Meanwhile, the Labour conference is of real significance once again. The general election result has made the party under Jeremy Corbyn’s leadership a genuine contender for government and the perilous state of the Conservatives in the Commons means Labour can enjoy meaningful influence over the passage of legislation. For every argument expressed, there is an opposing view – and that breadth of opinion is what makes attending party conferences so useful. More than many other times in the last few years, rail professionals not only need to make their voices heard amongst the rhetoric of setpiece events, they also need to analyse the

Predicting future transport policy has always been a challenge. With government departments continuing to tighten their belts and mixed (and changing) signals about the approach to rail investment and delivery, this remains true Rail Professional

substance, put in place strategies to protect their long-term interests and have a stake in policy-making. One thing is probable: rail’s capacity to command the attention of senior politicians – its ‘share of voice’ in the national debate – risks being diminished amidst the dominance of Brexit in parliament and the political discourse – for the immediate future at least. Policy changes Predicting future transport policy has always been a challenge. With government departments continuing to tighten their belts and mixed (and changing) signals about the approach to rail investment and

delivery, this remains true. Behind the announcements of record breaking investment in rail, there lurks a more profound concern over the financial trajectory of the industry, and how competing yet inter-related interests might be resolved. In the spirit of devil’s advocate, here are some of the opposing views that are the subject of debate in the corridors of conference. The Office of Rail and Road is continuing to be scrutinised for its part in what many see as uncontrolled costs and reduced efficiency in the industry, particularly for its part in the cost-overruns incurred by Network Rail. Following the same theme, with Network

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Rail now firmly back on the public books, and with the seemingly unlimited overdraft turned off, is it a financial basket case, or is it becoming more agile and commercially minded, after restructuring and greater route focus? Future funding Is it back to the 1970s – with year-on-year settlements looming – and a stop/start patchwork of investment? The hiatus caused by a hand-to-mouth funding regime would mean bad news for suppliers, importing cost and uncertainty, and leading to postponed investment decisions. Will the continued modernisation of the railways make the UK supply chain a ‘land of plenty’ or one of ‘feast and famine’, never quite reaching its full potential? Driving down costs, through innovation and efficiency, is seen to be mission critical for the continued health of the industry. There’s been driver only operation (DOO) on Britain’s railways for decades, yet now there is fierce opposition, with allegations that safety could be compromised. With the Department for Transport continuing to specify DOO as an option on franchises, they are clearly not minded to back down to the concerns of unions and some customers too. Driver only and driverless operation represent a significant challenge to all elements of the industry. How can operators, manufacturers and others shape the debate and the public’s popular perception of these innovations to re-balance the conversation? Would widespread implementation be an Achilles’ heel, creating a rod for the industry’s back, or a long overdue and necessary element of the wider modernisation of the railways? Electrification strategy This summer has been dominated by the government’s change in approach to its previously ambitious electrification programme, with a new emphasis coming directly from the secretary of state on the benefits of bi-bode and alternative fuel trains are a cost effective, efficient and less disrupting solution to bringing about service improvements beyond the fringes of electrification. But, predictably, this has gone down badly with many in the industry, in parliament, and amongst the wider public – particularly in the large swathes of the country where long promised and fought for electrification would bring real benefits. Those attending Labour conference will have heard some disquiet about the government’s strategy, yet it is the tone of the debate at the Conservative conference that provides most accurate prediction of the long term sustainability of it. With the Tories now seeing traditionally Labour voting ‘northern heartlands’ as floating seats, how will their backbenchers representing north of England constituencies negotiate their

competing loyalties to the party and to their constituents? The theme of the north-south (or, perhaps, rural and metropolitan, or southeast and the rest) divide will resonate, too, with the government’s approach to transformative major infrastructure schemes. Some will argue that Crossrail 2 was waved through by government, in the same week that the plug was pulled on schemes elsewhere. Meanwhile the socalled ‘Crossrail for the North’ (or Northern Powerhouse Rail) has received a less than ebullient public backing in recent DfT and government publications. Conferences There is certainly much evidence to suggest that the economic muscle of the southeast continues to curry favour with ministers – irrespective of the political colour of devolved governments – and will always result in disproportionate investment in the region. Yet the government has stated that the Northern Powerhouse is not dead – will it back this up with commitment to meaningful investment and a compelling strategy, or will it rely on the newly elected city region mayors to deliver it? Attendance at political conferences is

never dull, and those attending this year will have seen the strength of the rail industry’s presence in the exhibition halls and fringe sessions – and in meetings in the hotel lobbies and side rooms too. Yet despite all the hard work, the industry still faces challenges in how it communicates with political audiences, whether they are local MPs, ministers, city region mayors or local authorities. Conferences are excellent for building and maintaining these vital relationships; but they are not the be-all and end-all. The best engagement programmes, particularly if they involve finding solutions to the most complex, controversial and intransigent issues, cannot be left to just one time of the year. For these, the industry should see the autumn conferences as a cornerstone of a sustained, ongoing and continually evolving dialogue. If just seen as a ‘one hit wonder’, investment in them will all too often fail to bear fruit. John Morris is an associate director and Ben Blackburn an account director at Freshwater

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The rail lighting revolution A quiet but visible revolution is taking place in railway lighting. LED lights are slowly but surely displacing fluorescent and other lighting technologies in railway buildings


ED Eco Lights, an award winning British lighting manufacturer is currently re-lamping a major London terminus across 19 platforms with G360 LED SON lamps, T8 LED Tubes and PL LED lamps from its Goodlight range. As pioneers in retrofit LED since 2006, LED Eco Lights provides a comprehensive range of LED solutions for commercial, industrial, amenity, leisure and hospitality environments. Goodlight LED lamps switch on instantly at full brightness with no warm up required. They use much less power than other lighting technologies, and are maintenance free. Their 50,000 hour lifespan equates to 11 years if switched on for 12 hours per day and are guaranteed for five years. The Goodlight range has proved popular with design, engineering and sustainability professionals. Clients include NHS, Jaguar Land Rover, British Airways, the MOD, Heathrow Airport, Sainsbury’s, Carillion, Quorn Foods, London Excel and more recently, Transport for London, which has added Goodlight to its approved products register. Huge savings The reasons aren’t hard to see. Commenting on the TfL approval, project director Dr Leon Smith says: ‘The network is transitioning to much greater use of LED lighting, partly because of its energy efficiency, but mostly due to the huge savings in maintenance and labour costs more advanced technologies allow. This reflects our new approach to procurement, taking a long-term view and looking at the whole life-cycle costs for all the products we install across the network.’ He continues, ‘We rigorously assessed products from many world leading lighting suppliers and as a result of this process, we are delighted to confirm that two Goodlight™ LED products met our high standards; products that we will be actively using to secure savings.’ The two approved products are Goodlight T8 LED tubes, which are mandated for use where LED tubes are required in all non-section 12 areas, and Goodlight G360 LED SON replacements which can be used anywhere on the network. Retrofitting is economical In a new building or one that is being

refitted, it is a simple matter to install suitable LED light fittings from scratch – but many of the current projects involve reequipping existing stations and buildings. Ripping out entire light fittings is costly, but the introduction by LED Eco Lights in its Goodlight range of solutions that can be installed directly into existing light fittings has transformed the economics. Products from this range have now been approved for use across Transport for London’s network in both section 12 (underground facilities) and non-section 12 areas, such as the tube, rail and bus stations, depots and bus shelters. T8 LED Tubes Available in warm, daylight and natural colours, the Goodlight T8 LED tubes are specifically designed for retrofitting into existing fittings and operate independently of external control gear. With translucent lens covers, they look just like fluorescent tubes and, once installed, deliver a bright, even light spread with no shadowing.

Specified output of 105Lm/W leads to direct energy savings up to 75 per cent. Lighting output ranges from 10W, with the two foot T8 tube, up to 35W for the eight foot model. G360 LED SON replacements The Goodlight G360 LED SON lamp range has been designed to provide retrofit LED replacements for standard E27 and E40 SON and metal halide lamps usually associated with industrial lighting applications in high and low bay lighting, or for exteriors in bollards and street lighting. The range pioneers maglev fan technology (a patented design), plus a unique new heat sink design, to draw away waste heat. This unique combination provides inimitable new design with performance; delivering a long, unrivalled lifespan allowing the lamp to operate at temperatures beyond 70°C. Tel: 01276 691 230 Email: Visit:

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Light-weighting and the future of UK rail The UK government is preparing to embark on the construction of one of the most ambitious rail infrastructure projects in living memory


he delivery of the High Speed 2 (HS2) network will link London with the Midlands and later to the north of England. Annual rail passenger journey numbers in the UK have more than doubled during the past 20 years to 3.2 billion in 2016. What’s more, the government predicts this figure will double again within the next 30 years. Engineers have to draw on the latest technologies and materials to ensure all aspects of the rollout; from essential infrastructure to the development of new rolling stock, now attaining the highest standards of design efficiency. Safety and speed This will require the utilisation of innovative technologies and components that mean trains in the coming years will be both lighter and safer when travelling at high speed. Composite materials that provide high levels of strength but at a fraction of the weight of traditional building materials will be integral to this. A reduction in the weight of all new rolling stock will not only serve to deliver enhanced efficiency for operators and travellers – but the impact of lighter rail carriages will also help in driving forward the UK’s ongoing push towards a greener future. Exacting carbon reduction targets remain in place for the UK, with a commitment to deliver a 57 per cent cut in overall CO2 production from all industry, transport and the nation in general against levels witnessed in 1990 by 2030. Reducing weight Lightweight structural materials will hold the key to reducing the weight of trains. The use of lightweight materials is predicted to deliver weight savings of up to 30 per cent for all rolling stock in the years ahead. Therefore, a focus on efficient manufacturing and assembly techniques, new technologies and lighter-weight designs will be crucial to achieving the industry’s target of a long-term fleet volume increase of up to 89 per cent over the next three Rail Professional



decades. Developing the trains of tomorrow will therefore require ambition and a drive to embrace new methods of construction. 3M is continuing to develop a range of innovative products to streamline and ensure the quality of future rolling stock delivery. 3M’s industry leading adhesive and tape solutions for interior and exterior designs are vast, offering both bonding and fastening solutions. 3M has adhesive bonding technologies that support in speeding up the assembly process and lighten the load by reducing the number of mechanical fasteners needed in rail carriage assembly. The company’s technologies can also support in bonding composites, enabling lighter constructions. Environmental protection Rail carriages transport masses of people quickly, safely and comfortably. 3M bonding technologies are there sealing windows, attaching interior panels and flooring, helping construct next generation composites.

The innovative technologies protect rail carriage exteriors from environmental effects, supporting the extended life of the carriage by mitigating maintenance over the long haul. 3M offers support from design to delivery working with design engineers on site and at its UK test facility to meet the growing market demands, to enable lighter constructions of train carriages. Rolling out the next generation of trains

to meet the needs of HS2 and beyond will therefore be no mean feat. But it is with a focus on creating a greener, better future for the whole of the UK that manufacturers and designers are now embracing new materials and technologies to make this ambitious push towards progress a reality. Tel: 0870 60 800 50 Visit:

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Investing in the future CMS Cepcor® has further increased its CNC manufacturing capacity with the installation of a new Correanayak Norma 25 CNC bed type milling machine


he Correanayak Norma 25 can be used for heavy duty roughing operations and for highly accurate finish machining of complex components proving them to be incredibly versatile for CMS Cepcor® (the new machine bed also incorporates a rotary table for added flexibility). Manufacturing This machine adds to the company’s existing Correanayak Norma 25 and Norma 45 bed mills and the recent installation of a Doosan Puma VT1100 at its Coalville technical centre. With all machines now installed this represents a huge increase in the capacity and the company’s commitment to reinvestment and UK manufacturing, which will play a part in meeting the growing global demand for high quality UK

manufactured crusher spare parts. CMS Cepcor® operate an extensive and modern UK manufacturing facility in Coalville, Leicestershire, which includes CNC, milling, turning, boring, slotting, grinding, drilling, welding, co-ordinate measuring and material testing. CMS Cepcor® is Europe’s largest aftermarket manufacturer and supplier of premium quality crusher, screen and asphalt plant spare parts and service supplying worldwide to the mining, quarrying, demolition and recycling industries. Based in Coalville, Leicestershire the company is located close to the motorway network and within easy reach of international airports. Exporting to over 120 countries CMS Cepcor® operates ISO9001:2008

quality management, ISO18001:2007 safety management and ISO14001:2004 environmental management systems certified by Lloyd’s Register QA, UKAS 001. Tel: 01530 510247 Email: Visit:

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Equality compliance The Equality Act of 2010 required the UK’s train stations to make ‘reasonable adjustments’ to avoid physical barriers which may impede access for people with disabilities


ee Systems has for many years provided Equality Act compliant solutions to the rail industry. These solutions are still often referred to as DDA compliant, as before the Equality Act was passed these requirements were laid out in the now defunct Disability Discrimination Act 2005. Previously, adjustments merely had to be made only where it would be ‘impossible or unreasonably difficult’ for a disabled person to access the premises. Under the Equality Act, adjustments must be made where disabled people experience a ‘substantial disadvantage’. One way to achieve this is to provide suitable handrails on external stairways as recommended in Part M of the Building

Regulations. Handrails should be installed to provide a safe means of access for all, particularly those who find it difficult to negotiate changes of level. Ramp access Where access ramp gradients are installed from two to five degrees, the Act requires handrails to be positioned on both sides, or centrally on a wide path, to allow the user to choose which arm to use for support. They should be installed on both sides of the ramp where it is longer than two metres and should, where possible, extend 300mm beyond the top and bottom of the ramp or staircase. Building Regulations stipulate an outside diameter tube-size for installations between 400 and 450mm and must be offset

in the case of a mid-height handrail. Where the stairway consists of two or more flights separated by landings, where possible handrails should be continuous throughout the series of the flight. The Act also states handrails should be circular or oval for ease of grip, and that in ideal circumstances circular handrails should have a diameter of between 40 and 45mm while oval ones should have a width of 50mm. The system should also terminate in a way which reduces the risk of clothing being caught. Meeting requirements Kee Access® fittings satisfies these regulatory requirements whilst still allowing architects and specifiers to meet

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customer demands on aesthetics and costeffectiveness. Made of cast iron to BS EN ISO 1461, Kee Access® components are designed to suit BS EN 10255 (ISO 65) steel tubes, and any system can be easily installed with a Rail Professional

hex tool and tube cutters, allowing it to be easily assembled without specialist workers or equipment. This saves specifiers time and money whilst still meeting all requirements. The Equality Act also states handrails should not be cold to the touch, and the Kee

Access® system can easily be powder coated in a choice of RAL colours to prevent this, whilst also meeting visibility demands for visually impaired users. Other benefits include the system’s modular nature, allowing for noncompliant structures to be upgraded if necessary, and ensuring that any section of the rail can be easily removed and replaced without having to disassemble the entire structure; this also means most onsite variations can be accommodated. According to the Office for Disability Issues and Department for Work and Pensions there are over 11 million people with a limiting long-term illness, impairment or disability in Great Britain. People with disabilities contribute over £80 billion a year to the UK economy and account for up to 20 per cent of the customer base for UK businesses, making it essential to have the correct facilities in place, especially in vital areas such as train stations. Kee Systems will continue to provide the Kee Access® system to ensure access for all to railway stations around the country. Tel: 0208 874 6566 Email: Visit:

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Improving level crossing safety Level crossings account for approximately half of the train accident risk on the railway in the UK


SK Business Solutions provides its experience and expertise to the industry that is required to carry out level crossing risk assessments and the associated nine day censuses. Risk reduction Since 2010 the rail industry has devised a level crossing risk reduction programme to improve safety on the railways. The main objective was to either close or upgrade crossings where appropriate across the network. Since the programme started over 1,000 crossings have been closed and many have been improved or upgraded. Although level crossing fatalities are at their lowest in 20 years, fatalities, injuries and near misses do still occur. In recent years an elderly pedestrian was struck and fatally injured by a train on a footpath level crossing at Gipsy Lane, Suffolk. The RAIB report concluded she either did not see the approaching train, misjudged the speed of the train, or she believed the train was approaching on a different line. One of the observations noted in the report referred to Network Rail’s understanding of crossing usage. It stated that the quick census used by Network Rail at the time, to gauge crossing usage is not always an effective measure of the actual number of crossing users and the periods during which the crossing is used. One of the final key recommendations in the Rail Accident Report outlined the necessity for Network Rail to improve the accuracy and consistency of data collected at level crossings during site visits and make certain that any changes to previous data are fully understood.

users with an audible warning which is triggered automatically as a train approaches the crossing. This is an additional warning as trains already sound their horns as they approach the crossing. This new technology is also solar powered, making it environmentally friendly as well as easy to maintain. This is a great improvement for users of all types of level crossings. One of the observations in the report following the Gipsy Lane fatality was the concern that the pedestrian may not have heard the train’s warning horn. Analysis in the RAIB report suggested that an audible warning device should have been fitted at the site following a recommendation by the ORCC prior to the fatality. One of the suggestions as to why this recommendation was not progressed was due to inconsistent and inaccurate data collection and staff falling behind with the processing of data. The shorter ‘quick’ census that was used for risk assessment at the time was proving highly inaccurate. For instance vulnerable users were seen using the crossing during the censuses taken in 2006 and 2008, but not in the May 2009 census. With such a short survey of 30 or 60 minutes taken once a year, it is impossible to gauge an accurate picture of who actually uses the crossing. Unfortunately, action to improve the crossing is only taken when a ‘higher than usual’ number of vulnerable users are seen during the census making the

results inconsistent and the need for a new, improved method of assessing risk and improving rail safety at level crossings to be developed. Enhanced data RSK Business Solutions provides an accurate and improved solution to the previous issues raised by data collection and short censuses. If the risk at a level crossing is to be assessed and mitigations implemented, a fundamental part of the risk assessment process is to understand the type and frequency of use of the level crossing e.g.; the vulnerable users discussed previously. It is clear when comparing two identical level crossings, a crossing in a rural location

System technology New technology is moving forward very quickly in relation to level crossing safety. Earlier this year Network Rail installed a new audible warning system at Seadale level crossing which alerts pedestrians of approaching trains. Crossing users are required to stop, look and listen for trains before crossing the railway, however this newly installed technology will increase safety by providing Rail Professional



used once a day would hold a much lower level of risk compared to a crossing which is in constant use. However, there are other factors that the risk assessor must be aware of such as the type of user. This could be a route for school children, a walking route for elderly people or disabled. There also needs to be consideration into the location of the crossing. For instance, a crossing next to a football stadium or possible misuse of the crossing due to various reasons such as cars blocking back for a right turn ahead, extended barrier down time causing frustration to users, crossings close to platforms for passengers determined to make their train). There are many more factors to the risk algorithms that need to be considered. Data collection The method of collecting this array of usage data is in the form of a pedestrian and vehicle census. This is usually a nine day period of time in order to include two weekends and the data is gathered via remote CCTV installation over the full 24 hour period. This is obviously a huge increase in data gathering compared to previous years. The survey is there to give an exact breakdown of the use of the level crossing by both different categories of vehicle (cycle, car, van, HGV, farm vehicle etc.) and type of pedestrian (elderly or vulnerable persons, accompanied or unaccompanied children of school age). However, the surveys also go into further details such as barrier down times and number and direction of train flows as well as categorising any blocking back incidents. Any misuse incidents or incidents of note are also captured. Solution provider RSK Business Solutions is a consultancy which specialises in operational railway risk assessment. The company has recently developed a data capture framework which

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has allowed this footage to be recorded using state of the art camera systems. To develop this methodology RSK Business Solutions has made full use of its expertise in risk assessment as it understands the output that is required and how it will be used. RSK Business Solutions also develops software for risk assessment and data gathering solutions. Therefore, RSK Business Solutions was able to make use of its technical expertise in order to develop the right camera solution. The outcome is a system that is able to collect the CCTV footage for the full nine day period in good quality, with full 18 frames per second frame rate regardless if it is night or day. And the system does this powered only by a single 12V battery for the full nine day period. This eliminates the need to carry out a visit to change the battery. RSK is located in 45 offices around the UK also demonstrating that it can cover the

whole of the UK with its survey services at a lower cost to other suppliers. Data analysis After the data is collected the next stage is the analysis of this footage in order to log each car, pedestrian, train or blocking back incident. This is time consuming to collate but clearly the quality of this analysis is crucial. A single person could not be expected to sit through 216 hours of footage and be expected to get this correct. To carry out this task RSK Business Solutions has made use of its 50 strong technical team made up of database developers and data process engineers to share out the task, and a web application has been developed in order to increase the accuracy and speed. The time saved through the development of a state of the art data collection system is utilised within the data quality control process with multiple resources reviewing the same footage to ensure the report is correct. Often the analysis goes beyond the requirements of the current Network Rail Standard, picking up additional parameters such as the traverse times of pedestrians walking across the level crossing, something particularly pertinent to the Gipsy Lane scenario The output is a report which is reliable, auditable and of the highest quality for no more cost compared to other suppliers providing the same service. The managing director of RSK Business Solutions concludes â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;RSK Business Solutions have made the best use of its knowledge and expertise in both technology and level crossing risk assessment to develop a unique and affordable solution for the industry that will give a high quality accurate output with no additional cost to our clients.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Tel: 01732 833111 Email: Visit:



Geospatial innovation Murphy Surveys is a leading supplier of geospatial services in the UK, providing innovative solutions across all sectors


he company has over 30 specialised surveying services covering everything from utility surveys through to aerial surveys. The UK operations established over 15 years ago has grown from strength to strength increasing in size and extending its technical capability. With extensive experience in delivering large scale and high value contracts, Murphy Surveys has gained a reputation for consistently delivering high quality data and an exemplary service. A large resource of highly skilled surveyors and project managers are the driving force which provide innovation and allows the company to provide bespoke surveying and engineering solutions and deliverables. Data capture The rail division has extensive experience working on new and existing railway projects throughout the UK and Ireland. These include Crossrail, London Underground, Dockland Light Railway, Wessex Capacity Upgrade, Thameslink, Greater West Electrification, Dart Interconnector and Luas Cross City to name but a few. Measurement technology is moving at an incredible pace and new methods and

tools for data collection, presentation and management of 3D information, enables data to be to captured faster and more accurately than ever before. This provides clients and users of this data, the ability to

make more informed decisions, reduce reworks and therefore saving significant time and money on a project. Advancement of new and existing technologies and methodologies such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), laser scanners (dynamic and static) and photogrammetry, enables the user to capture data not only faster, but more importantly safely by reducing time and people exposed to hazardous site conditions. In addition, documentation, survey and design information can be shared collaboratively by more people in a common data environment (CDE) assuring that a projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s risk is mitigated and it is delivered on time and on budget. BIM process With this increase in data capture and more people utilising and requiring access to this data, the common data environment is not only becoming a requirement but an essential part of the BIM process allowing designers and engineers to retrieve up to date data, quickly and easily. Increased use of BIM (building information modelling or better information management, as it is often called), digital workflows and the use of 3D data are becoming integral to assist in the design, planning and visualisation of projects.

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As an example, some in place pipework was found to be out of tolerance. The contractor was informed and advised on remedial action that could be made to the layout to rectify the situation and allow the pipework to be reinstalled within the tight tolerance specified. Quality control and assurance The quality assurance procedures and digital construction workflows were major benefits to the contractor. These procedures minimised reworks and delays to the programme, they reduced material wastage, improved efficiencies and reduced costs. You may be asking yourself what all of this has to do with the Rail Industry. Beth West, former commercial manager for the HS2 project declared that the project will be managed in a similar way. Payments will be linked upon successful delivery of compliant as-built data to the common data environment (CDE). The BIM and digital construction process relies on these key stages to incentivise contractors to deliver on time and to work to the required accuracies and tolerances. It won’t be long before this becomes standard practice across all industries. A recent report by the McKinsey Global Institute on ‘Reinventing Construction, a route to higher productivity’ (February 2017) listed seven action areas which can boost sector productivity by 50-60 per cent. Two of these areas are improving onsite execution and infusing technology and innovation. It is these two fundamental areas that Murphy Surveys are working on improving.

A key requirement of the BIM process is provision of an as-built model. Surveyors have always been responsible for positioning designed elements on site as well as measuring and validating as-built information. However, the role of the surveyor is changing so they are more like data managers. They are now responsible for updating and managing the BIM model to as-built status and are therefore providing a key link between stakeholders such as designers, engineers and quantity surveyors. Linking stakeholders Murphy Surveys has recently completed several multi-million-pound projects where it was employed to be that key link, and in another sense, to provide governance over the other contractors. It was required to check and validate the as-built elements of the project. These also included prefabricated components constructed off-site using modern Rail Professional

construction techniques. By working alongside and having close dialogue with the client, Murphy Surveys could ensure that any of the constructed items which were non-compliant, could be rectified within a short space of time and more importantly, ownership of any potential issues could be assigned to the relevant contractor. As part of these projects, the client and the associated contractual arrangements dictated that payment of invoices only occurred upon successful completion and acceptance of an as-built model or similar data. Murphy Surveys worked collaboratively with the tier one contractors and the client ensuring this process ran as smoothly as possible. Even though the company was effectively overseeing all the main contractors working on the project, the contractors welcomed its presence on site as it was quickly able to identify any potential issues and provide corrective actions.

Improving workflow Murphy Surveys is building on its project experience to develop and improve new and existing workflows to assist in helping clients achieve these benefits. What Murphy Surveys offers: • cost savings through innovative data capture methods and efficient working practices • reduced risk by having a specialist team manage all geospatial related activities within the project • seamless integration and management of real world and digital asset models • BIM compliant deliverables and quality assurance workflows in a common data environment (CDE) • early identification of non-compliant elements to allow remedial work to be undertaken • paperless sites and digital snagging systems • project integrated GIS tools for mobile devices • a large resource of highly skilled and experienced surveyors and engineers. Tel: 07860 595556 Email: Visit:

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New challenges for tunnel inspection Today’s rail operators have inherited more than a thousand tunnels from Britain’s 19th century rail transport revolution


his gift horse provides immense benefit to the travelling public and has an asset value that is immeasurable; resourcing and financing replacement with modern structures would make today’s biggest high-speed rail or nuclear projects pale into insignificance. Most passengers give little thought to the challenges of maintaining these vital links as they speed noisily under hills, rivers and cities. Tunnel engineers and asset managers, on the other hand, must consider a raft of challenges if they are to ensure the availability of rail tunnels to future generations. These challenges include the need to maintain masonry structures in aggressive conditions, to better understand the risks associated with unrecorded and hidden structures – principally hidden construction shafts- and to modify and adjust the structures to accommodate modern traffic. The ability to meet these challenges with targeted maintenance relies on reliable and accurate information, gathered from a range of sources including historic records and legacy data, from routine inspections and from bespoke surveys, often carried out by specialist consultants and contractors. Fugro is one of those specialists – a global geoscience expert providing asset owners with information and advice to help them manage risk in the design, construction and operation of a wide range of infrastructure. The tunnelling challenge Most UK rail tunnels date back to the 19th century heyday of rail building when hundreds of tunnels were built with impressive ingenuity and speed, though with little conformity in design or construction. Built to various shapes, using various materials and with construction thickness changing in response to ground conditions the Victorian tunnel stock never

in condition in order to fix minor defects before they become major issues, they must adapt the structures to meet changing needs such as electrification, and they must be confident that subsurface features such as hidden shafts do not pose a threat.

displayed the uniformity of its modern equivalents. Added to this as-built complexity is the legacy of 150 years of repair, alteration and general tinkering plus some patchy record keeping. Tunnel owners recognise that, with replacement not an option, maintenance is a must, so they need efficient and affordable ways to assess and monitor asset condition. They must routinely check for changes

Adapting for change Thanks to the belt and braces engineering adopted by Britain’s 19th century tunnel builders, major defects are actually very rare. Where problems do occur, early identification is crucial. Experienced tunnel inspectors can identify surface defects, but for any meaningful perspective beyond depths of a few centimetres, drilling or core sampling have long been the only options. However, ground penetrating radar (GPR) can determine the presence of cracking and voids, and map delamination between brick rings. Radar surveys are generally carried out from a hydraulic access platform, with the antenna swept over the intrados at a fast walking pace. Multiple profiles are collected to build a dataset of many thousands of measurement points – contrasting with the widely spaced sampling achieved by coring or drilling. With the electrification of routes, accurate, up-to-date condition and structural data are crucial for the successful installation of overhead line equipment in tunnels. Tunnels are not the same from portal to portal, or side to side. Care is needed in determining the optimum positions for fixings that will be crucial in powering the next generation of trains. Similarly, appropriate spatial and condition data is vital in designing changes such as track lowering to increase structure gauge or line speed. Finding hidden shafts Hidden construction shafts are a widespread remnant of the Rail Professional



ground from above and adapted them for use inside tunnels.

Victorian railway boom; they were used to drive multiple headings and accelerate the building process. It was common for a tunnel of a mile length to be built from a dozen construction shafts, with maybe a quarter being retained for ventilation. This left many to be capped and buried at the surface, and bricked-over within the tunnel. Decades later, they pose a variety of risks. They act as a conduit for groundwater movement which can damage masonry and foul electrification and signalling systems. They can also complicate development of land above the tunnel, and present the risk of a potential catastrophe should a shaft collapse. Network Rail’s business management document, ‘Management of Existing Tunnels’, stipulates that tunnel management strategies must include an action plan to determine the existence and location of shafts. This has not proved straightforward however. To locate a shaft position with confidence may require examination of records, aerial photographs and anecdotal information; it may require the use of indirect geophysical surveys and is likely to require a programme of intrusive investigation to verify findings.

With two decades’ experience, the structural investigation team at Fugro has learnt that there is no magic bullet and that careful consideration needs to be given to the selection of indirect methods. The most extensively used has been GPR. Reconnaissance surveys based on three to four profiles through the tunnel can target suspect locations for further investigation and can often be completed in a single shift. More detailed surveys can target suspected shaft locations with a greater density of profiles and with different frequency antennae to investigate near surface and deeper features. Success is by no means guaranteed however, with soot deposits, groundwater and the presence of conductive materials, such as grey engineering brick, all potential pitfalls. With these constraints in mind, Fugro geophysicists have borrowed technologies more commonly used to look down into the

Radar alternatives In highly conductive conditions (such as clay-rich, wet or highly oxidised ground) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be an ideal alternative to radar. This technique can identify structural and geological features several metres beyond the tunnel lining. It typically requires a shift to investigate a single suspected shaft location; it also requires holes to be drilled into the masonry lining to insert metal electrodes. Ground conductivity is a more rapid geophysical method that is attracting renewed interest for shaft investigations. In response to increasing pressure on track access there is growing enthusiasm for investigations that can find shafts from the top down. Surface investigations can take many forms, with methodologies tailored to suit different land uses. Investigation is more straightforward in rural areas where there has been little development and ground disturbance compared to towns where any relics of tunnel construction may be buried under tarmac and concrete. The most indirect surveys are those conducted from the air, with flown surveys offering a range of photographic, infrared and lidar (light detection and ranging). imaging which can potentially reveal telltale depressions and spoil heaps associated with hidden shafts. Subsurface perspective can be added by deploying tools from a broad suite of geophysical methods including resistivity, conductivity, magnetometry and microgravity. Conclusion Providing tunnel owners with structural and condition information is vital for the safe operation of the rail network into the future. Data providers such as Fugro have proved adept at deploying survey technologies to meet the considerable challenges of the complex tunnel stock relied upon by UK rail users. Looking ahead, the collection of multisensor rapid scanning systems is rapidly evolving and will be delivering systematic, repeatable data streams to measure and map the internal surfaces of rail tunnels in the near future. Deployed on a routine basis, this exciting development will take asset management forward by identifying change over time, but it will not tell us what lies beyond the surface – for that there will be a need for bespoke geophysics and teams with drills for many years to come.

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An industry first Structural Soils, an RSK company, is proud to announce the launch of its new, integrated site investigation and supporting services for the rail industry


first for the rail sector, RAIL SI and RAIL SI+PLUS offer turnkey solutions designed to deliver on all aspects of rail-related surveys. These new nationwide services will provide unique, coordinated site investigation packages from a single supplier. Geotechnical site investigation contractor Structural Soils has built up a strong reputation since it was established in 1964, over 50 years ago. With a current turnover of £20 million, the company operates throughout the UK from offices at Bristol, Hemel Hempstead, Tonbridge, Castleford near Leeds and Glasgow. It operates across all sectors and environments to deliver first-class, qualitydriven geotechnical services for a variety of clients, including EDF Energy, Network Rail, Taylor Wimpey and Thames Water. In safe hands Structural Soils’ experience gives it sound knowledge of all aspects of geotechnical site investigation and engineering. As the company operates a variety of drilling rigs, field plant and associated equipment, investigations can be designed to suit clients’ requirements and the rail environment to obtain information in the safest and most efficient manner. This adaptable and client-tailored approach lends itself well to delivering the new rail service packages successfully. Samples are tested in the company’s own laboratories in Bristol, Castleford, Hemel Hempstead and Tonbridge. The company operates to an ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and OHSAS 18001 certified management system

alongside an ISO 17025:2005, UKASaccredited laboratory management system. Structural Soils’ continuing growth is enhanced by its reputation, competitive rates and quick response. Being part of RSK means that the company can also offer group services such as ecology and geophysics as part of overall site investigations. The company’s expertise includes the following key areas: • site work * cable percussion drilling * rotary drilling * dynamic sampling * trial pitting * in situ testing • laboratory testing * geotechnical * chemical • reporting * factual

* interpretive • geotechnical consultancy • expert witness. Innovative thinking Structural Soils provides a full site investigation service to the rail sector, Rail SI, using dedicated staff and equipment for this unique working environment. Highly experienced in the rail sector, the company can offer innovative solutions to meet clients’ requirements on projects of all scales. ‘These new services will enable Structural Soils to mitigate the complex, multifaceted nature of rail-related surveys and provide effective solutions to the challenges that clients face’ comments Structural Soils director Jon Bassett. ‘By offering collaborative services from a single supplier, RAIL SI and RAIL SI+PLUS ensure that clients will have minimal reliance on multiple, subcontracted services and thus greater project control. ‘This will improve project health and safety standards, and ensure that work is completed in a timely manner. By using Structural Soils, clients will reduce track possession costs, increase economic value and maximise limited windows of opportunity to obtain important data from the rail environment.’ These integrated services represent a first in the industry for rail site investigations and are the most efficient means of completing rail-related surveys. RAIL SI and RAIL SI+PLUS will launch nationwide in autumn 2017. The RAIL SI and RAIL SI+PLUS team will offer live demonstrations during the services’ launch Rail Professional



The new Rail SI+PLUS service offers all Structural Soils’ site investigation capabilities with the addition of wider, bolt-on services from RSK. Traditionally, clients have had to source and coordinate survey services from a multitude of different suppliers. By offering a single point of contact, Structural Soils can manage and coordinate the full range of services traditionally singularly sourced from within RSK.

event; look out for more details at www. shortly. At this free event, the team will carry out various surveys in a rail environment to showcase the equipment and techniques. A wealth of experience With wide experience of structural and geotechnical investigation and survey work in the rail industry, Structural Soils and RSK recognise the importance of clear communication and planning when completing complex rail-related work. With RAIL SI and RAIL SI+PLUS now enabling clients to combine their surveys in a single package, Structural Soils can coordinate and deliver a complete and multifaceted survey package from within RSK. Filton Bank four tracking This work has involved site investigation for the electrification of Bristol Patchway Station to Bristol Temple Meads line. The initial package of work had 40 exploratory locations involving dynamic sample boreholes with rotary follow on, hand dug trial pitting, concrete coring and window sampling. Additional work has included the structural investigation of concrete bridge abutments, the structural investigation of brickwork over bridges, geotechnical investigations of gabion basket retaining walls, geophysical investigations of Rail Professional

stonework wing walls and more traditional site investigation techniques such as ballast sampling. Structural Soils was subsequently awarded the investigation work relating to the four tracking of a section of the same railway. This work comprised geological mapping of bedrock subcrops to determine the correct methodology of track-bed installation and using lightweight deflectometers to determine the suitability of in situ deposits for the reuse of excavated materials. This also includes in situ testing for crane pad design, waste acceptance criteria testing, water quality sampling and reuse contamination surveys of proposed site compounds. Structural Soils has completed more than 500 exploratory holes on the project. RAIL SI+PLUS has provided a series of ecological site appraisals, staff training, baseline noise surveys, protected species recognition training, European protected species translocation licence applications and permits, and bat emergence surveys. ABC Electrification To date, Structural Soils has completed £600,000 worth of site investigations for ABC Electrification, a consortium of Alstom, Babcock and Costain. Network Rail is overseeing the ABC work, which is part of the Intercity Express Programme, a £2 billion initiative to replace

the UK’s ageing Intercity 125 fleet with modern rolling stock to run mostly on electrified lines, which the Department of Transport launched in 2005. Eventually, about 3000 kilometres of track will be electrified, which will make the UK rail network greener, faster and quieter, and cut pollution, thereby saving an estimated 25−30 per cent of the carbon dioxide emissions per passenger. With a modern fleet to attract new passengers, it is hoped that the new network will help to cut road congestion too. The project is expected to be complete towards the end of the decade. Along with the electrification work on the line, new rolling stock is currently under construction; new trains will run from 2017/2018. Ground investigation services Structural Soils has provided include • cable percussion drilling • machine-dug trenches and pits • window sampling, dynamic sampling and dynamic probing • rotary drilling • inclinometer and piezometer installations.

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Fail safe architectures for rail systems The market for embedded computing technologies in rail applications is following a similar trend as has been seen in other embedded market spaces


here has been a transition in the rail market for embedded computers that are certified to safety integrity level four (SIL4), the highest level. These embedded computers offer a certified, commercial off the shelf (COTS) generic fail safe platform allowing rail application developers to focus R&D resources on differentiating applications. This is driven by a number of emerging trends in the global rail industry. In the past few years there has been an explosive growth in global investments in public rail transportation, in particular high-speed rail and metro. This is particularly evident in emerging economies such as China and India, as well as established economies in the Far East, Africa and South America. While less so in Europe and North America, there has been growth in these

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markets due to other factors such as panEuropean rail standardization and the modernization of rail infrastructure to enhance safety. New trends However, a growing market, while creating an attractive target for COTS products, will not on its own cause an outsourcing trend. Additional safety, technical, and commercial factors come into play. High-speed, high availability and fail safe computer based control equipment must be deployed to guarantee safe operation under all conditions. High performance and high availability computing expertise is relatively widespread, however fail safe computing has been the domain of a few expert companies, located mostly in Europe (Alstom, Bombardier, Siemens and others) for SIL4 certified systems, and Japan (Nippon Signal,

Hitachi) for certification to Japanese safety standards and deployed locally. Fail safe know-how has not been prevalent in other markets that are investing in rail networks, relying on mostly European vendors for acquiring the fail safe systems (India, Africa, and South Korea) or for forming joint ventures with these same European vendors to develop fail safe systems for the local market. Another interesting trend in the global rail market is the aspirations of Asian application providers and rail integrators to expand potential reach and penetrate oversea markets. Witness Hitachiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s establishment of a design center in London, recent announcements from Chinese vendors of wins in the USA and Africa, as well as efforts by South Korean vendors to expand into former Soviet bloc countries. Almost without exception, SIL4 certified equipment is a mandatory requirement. A few major and factors emerge from these trends that are the root cause for the emerging trend to outsource SIL4 certified application platforms: The lack of SIL4 development expertise by Asian rail application providers and the barrier that poses to aspirations to expand into overseas markets. The threat to western vendors posed by the entry of Asian vendors into the global rail market and the price erosion that would

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likely bring (witness the impact Huawei had on the global telecom market). The prevalent architecture implemented by existing fail-safe computers is no longer capable of handling the required performance, requiring an expensive development effort in ‘table stakes’ base technology. Lockstep architectures Most rail systems today use an architecture called hard lockstep, whereby two processors execute the same instruction at the same time and drive their respective address and data buses in synchronization. Comparisons are performed at the address and data bits of the processors, so a primary and mandatory requirement is that the two processors must execute the same instruction, at the same time, to the same external resources (memory, cache, I/O, etc.). To do so, the processors themselves must be deterministic. The boundary created by the comparators is called the deterministic boundary. Unfortunately, hard lockstep cannot be implemented using modern processors. The first problem is that modern processors do not guarantee deterministic behavior. The second problem is that it’s practically impossible to synchronize the data pairs of two different modern CPUs. Another problem with a hard lockstep system is that it is fundamentally a closed system. Everything is tuned to work together, and it has to be all synchronized such that it’s very difficult to upgrade technologies without affecting the total system. So the bottom line is that hard lockstep is just not possible any more with advanced processors. Artesyn has developed an alternative approach it calls data lockstep architecture, whereby a deterministic boundary is created at the output stage of the processor board to the system data fabric that connects the processors to external devices. Before the processor boards are allowed to change the state of external equipment by driving packets on the data fabric their packets are compared to ensure that they are the same. If they are the same, then the transaction is forwarded to external equipment; if the packets do not compare, then a failure is declared, and the system fails safe; i.e., it is prevented from changing the state of external equipment. As shown in the figure below, the deterministic boundary is not at the processor itself but rather at the edge of the processor and comes before packets are placed on the data fabric. The benefit of data lockstep is that it makes it possible to use modern processors and deliver the performance required by modern rail applications. ControlSafe architecture highlights Artesyn has over 30 years of experience serving a range of fail-safe and fault

tolerant industries, including the world’s telecommunications networks, where it has deployed hundreds of thousands of products. Artesyn’s ControlSafe portfolio includes the ControlSafe Platform, ControlSafe Expansion Box Platform, ControlSafe Carborne Platform and ControlSafe Compact Carborne Platform. The first two platforms in the portfolio have been both certified to SIL4, while SIL4 certification of the ControlSafe Carborne Platform is anticipated to be complete in October 2017 and certification of the ControlSafe Compact Carborne Platform is planned. Artesyn’s ControlSafe Platforms employ data lock-step synchronization and 2oo2 voting. The system runs Wind River’s VxWorks 653 operating system, which has been deployed in many fail-safe avionics

certified applications, including extensions to assure the task level synchronizations needed to implement data lockstep. All voting is implemented by hardware using proprietary FPGAs, making it transparent to application software, and easing porting of existing applications. The architecture is flexible and expandable. All intra system communications are over the data fabric and are based on Ethernet. All I/O modules are connected via Ethernet so that expanding the system from local to remote or expansions in the I/O environment is straightforward and scalable. In conclusion, the ControlSafe Platforms are a cost-effective, modular and a scalable system that is based on open industry standards. The systems are future-proof and provide protection for the customer’s investment because the architecture enables upgrades to both the CPUs and the I/O modules independently of each other. This portfolio is designed to offer COTS SIL4 certified platforms, bringing customers all the benefits of outsourcing table-stake technology – accelerated time to market, significant savings in R&D and certification costs, and the ability to focus effort and R&D on differentiations from competitors.

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Leading from the front Balancing the demands of day-to-day operations whilst keeping strategic development and investment programmes on track has never been more critical


y deploying the latest technology within network modernization programmes, it is now possible to significantly reduce operating costs and optimize total cost of ownership – whilst also improving overall network quality and enhancing long term competitiveness. Integrated power solutions manufacturer, Socomec, has developed a range of low voltage electrical solutions for rail specific system architectures that guarantee network safety and robustness – whilst improving the bottom line. From design and build through to installation and commissioning with continued 24/7 service support, Socomec has a strong track record in providing robust, efficient and complex critical power solutions for the exacting requirements of the rail sector. With a dedicated testing platform recognised by the world’s major electrical test certifications that carries out customer witness tests and factory acceptance tests to ensure ongoing adherence to industry standards. An independent manufacturing business founded in 1922 specializing in the availability, control and safety of low voltage electrical networks, Socomec combines the benefits of family ownership with corporate and global scale, with over 3000 employees, 30 subsidiaries and nine production facilities around the world. Delivering solutions for traction power, signalling, buildings and onboard rolling stock systems, Socomec provides electrical power solutions for all rail facility applications in the most challenging operating environments. Innovative technology As a champion of innovation in the rail sector, Socomec has demonstrated that investment in new technology can deliver tangible returns. Colin Dean, managing director, Socomec UK comments: ‘Every high performance rail infrastructure is working within a continuously evolving legal and operational framework – whilst also trying to reduce energy consumption and improve performance standards. We recognize that those responsible for managing both transformational projects – as well as those tasked with optimizing normal operations – are facing unprecedented challenges. ‘We also understand how important it is for our rail customers to retain control Rail Professional

over their costs both in terms of cost management and allocation, particularly during this era of change – and the effective management of energy costs starts with the accurate measurement and centralized monitoring of energy consumption. ‘One of the first systems developed for UK rail and underground applications used our ruggedized industrial IP+ unit as a platform enabling us to deliver complete critical power solutions that not only provide outstanding performance but also deliver exceptional value throughout their lifecycle. ‘When developing solutions specifically for the unique demands of the rail sector, we collaborate with our customers’ engineering and commercial team to make sure that we are all aligned with the needs of the market. For example, we have taken switching and protection technology from across our business and adapted it to develop products which perfectly match the demanding requirements of the rail sector. ‘Ongoing investment, particularly

in the latest monitoring and metering technology, can deliver really compelling returns. The ongoing modernization of networks, including systems interfaces with digital technology, can deliver important reductions in operating costs. In turn, traffic capacity and overall network quality can be improved – improving the long term competitiveness of rail operators and enabling the service to evolve to meet the changing needs of rail customers. ‘The most advanced low voltage electrical solutions for rail specific system architectures are able to guarantee network safety and robustness; metering provides critical information on the status of an electrical network which, when applied correctly, will anticipate potential issues affecting reliability as well as delivering demand side reductions and lower costs.’ High performance As well as providing system optimisation support throughout the product lifecycle, Socomec is also at the forefront of next



in order to develop and deliver a custom solution, including operative training, which will optimize equipment performance enabling energy targets to be achieved.

generation technology development for the rail sector. The business is fast becoming the authority in this arena and is regularly recognised by important approvals such as PADS. This Network Rail product acceptance process provides assurance that all products accepted for use on or about the rail infrastructure are safe, fit for purpose and do not export unacceptable risks to the Network Rail infrastructure. Socomec’s Network Rail PADs approved IP+ RAIL range provides the very latest UPS technology for the mass transportation sector, engineered to provide optimum energy efficiency for high performance critical power applications – guaranteeing network robustness even in the most extreme environments. The latest product in the range to be recognised with the PADS approval is the smaller Masterys IP+ UPS now available in 10 – 80kVA (400V three phase input and output), 10 – 40kVA (400V three phase input and 230V single phase output) and 10 – 15kVA (230V single phase input and output) – recently selected by Kent Group list of approved suppliers for infrastructure development programmes for both principle and auxiliary supply points (PSPs and ASPs). For operational continuity and the ongoing protection of staff and infrastructure, Socomec’s Masterys IP+ Rail solutions deliver the latest UPS technology, engineered for the rail sector, to secure the critical power supply to control and monitoring systems with minimal maintenance. A comprehensive rail infrastructure engineering organisation and principal contractors licence holder and key supplier

to Network Rail, Kent Group works nationally across the UK to deliver electrical, mechanical and civil engineering projects. From feasibility to design, construction, testing and commissioning, Kent Group provides operational solutions both on and off track. Kent Group director comments: ‘Our focus is on reliability and safety, so we look forward to working with Socomec to make improvements that will deliver against our key objectives. Leveraging the latest technology will enable us to progress development projects that build on our exacting standards, including the maintenance of high quality power via realtime alerts and monitoring of low voltage equipment.’ Maintaining service standards Delivering innovation to the rail industry also requires ongoing support to ensure that the installed systems continue to operate at optimum performance levels – particularly when infrastructure is undergoing improvements. Colin Dean explains: ‘We understand the importance of maintaining vital equipment whilst also being mindful of operating costs. Our dedicated engineering teams will ensure business continuity, optimize efficiency and guarantee the safe performance of the network’s electrical infrastructure. ‘Our specialist engineering team and approved subcontractors have the necessary trackside training and accreditations to install and support equipment, and provide preventative, consultative and technical callouts, throughout the equipment lifecycle.’ Socomec will assess the unique requirements of the electrical infrastructure

Future proof infrastructure Ongoing investment in research and development is very much part of the fabric of Socomec with around 10 per cent of annual turnover ploughed back into the creation of new technology, Socomec works hard to maintain its position and to remain a step ahead of the curve. The latest product currently undergoing acceptance trials is Socomec’s UPS for the train protection warning system (TPWS). Socomec’s TPWS UPS is housed in a self contained trackside located enclosure rated at IP54. This UPS is designed to provide reliable clean power for a period of up to 12 hours should the local DNO supply fail. A key design feature is for the system not only to be able to cope with the rigors of trackside operation, but to be able to operate reliably over a wide range of external temperatures whilst maintaining battery performance over its design life. Application for product acceptance has been made and a trial UPS has been installed at Barnstaple Station. The trial has been ongoing since January 2017 and is expected to conclude January 2018. To date the system has performed as expected and a successful conclusion to the current product trial is anticipated. Colin Dean continues: ‘Whether planning a new installation or retrospectively upgrading an existing facility, Socomec can develop a low voltage electrical solution for an organization’s precise requirements – delivering optimized system performance and robustness whilst enabling our rail customers to retain control over costs both in terms of cost management and resource allocation.’ Tel: 01285 86 33 00 Email: Visit: Rail Professional



New CEO at Porterbrook Porterbrook Leasing has confirmed the appointment of Mary Grant as its new chief executive officer. She took over last month from Paul Francis who was with the company for more than 20 years. Grant previously worked in the UK and international transport sector including senior roles at FirstGroup, National Express and Eurostar International. Phil White, chairman of Porterbrook said: ‘Mary has an excellent reputation and I am looking forward to working with her and welcoming her onto the board.’ Grant said: ‘It is an exciting time to be joining and I look forward to working with the chairman, board, shareholders and employees to create a new vision for the company.’

Alison Munro retires as HS2 phase 2 MD Munro had been with the company since the beginning, joining the team as chief executive when HS2 Ltd was established in 2009. When former transport secretary Patrick McLoughlin decided to proceed with the scheme in early 2012, she was re-appointed its CEO (see Rail Professional interview, June 2013) and led the company through the phase 1 Hybrid Bill process, which recently gained Royal Assent. A few years later, Munro, who was previously a director at the DfT, moved away from her role as chief executive to oversee the project’s phase two as managing director. Munro was given a CBE in the Queen’s Birthday Honours List this June for her services to the rail industry. Rail Professional

Members of Transport Select Committee announced Last month the House of Commons appointed ten MP’s to the Transport Committee. They join Lilian Greenwood MP, who was elected chair of the Committee in July. The members are: Ronnie Cowan (Scottish National Party) – Inverclyde Steve Double (Conservative) – St Austen and Newquay Paul Girvan (Democratic Unionist Party) – South Antrim Huw Merriman (Conservative) – Bexhill and Battle Luke Pollard (Labour (Co-Op)) – Plymouth, Sutton and Devenport Laura Smith (Labour) – Manchester Metropolitan Iain Stewart (Conservative) – Milton Keynes South Graham Stringer (Labour) – Blackley and Broughton Martin Vickers (Conservative) – Cleethorpes Daniel Zeichner (Labour) - Cambridge Details of the Committee’s programme of work will be announced in due course. New chair of London TravelWatch The London Assembly has announced the appointment of Arthur Leathley as chair of the statutory watchdog for transport users in and around London. Leathley, who has senior level experience as a communications director in the private sector and Whitehall, said: ‘Travelling in the capital is likely to be transformed beyond recognition over the coming years and London TravelWatch will ensure the interests of the travelling public are always put first. I look forward to building on the work of the previous chair, Stephen Locke.’

Tom Joyner joins Arriva as MD of Arriva Train Wales Joyner is currently passenger services director for London Midland and will take over early this month from Ian Bullock. He said: ‘I am excited to be joining one of the largest businesses in Wales and to use my passenger services background to build on Arriva Train Wales’ partnership approach with the Welsh government and Network Rail.’ Chris Burchell, Arriva’s MD for UK Trains said: ‘We are really pleased that Tom has decided to join the Arriva team. I would also like to thank Ian for his enormous contribution and the role he has played in driving improvements in services for passengers.’

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Rail Professional October 2017  

Rail Professional October 2017  

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