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FEBRUARY 2019 ISSUE 249 £7.95

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THE 21ST RAIL BUSINESS AWARDS Thursday 21 February 2019

Technology drives safety Nottingham Express Transit is utilising VR and AI on its tram network DRONES Regulations and restrictions

DEPOTS Why our depots need to be SaaS-sy

TRAM AND LIGHT RAIL Competence and safety


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WELCOME |

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FEBRUARY 2019 IssUE 249 £7.95

www.railpro.co.uk

THE BUSINESS RESOURCE FOR RAIL

THE 21ST RAIL BUSINESS AWARDS Thursday 21 February 2019

Technology drives safety Nottingham Express Transit is utilising VR and AI on its tram network DRONES Regulations and restrictions

DEPOTS Why our depots need to be SaaS-sy

TRAM AND LIGHT RAIL

editor’s note

Competence and safety

PUBLISHER RAIL PROFESSIONAL LTD Hallmark House, Downham Road, Ramsden Heath, Essex CM11 1PU Telephone: +44 (0)1268 711811 EDITORIAL EDITOR SAM SHERWOOD-HALE editor@railpro.co.uk DISPLAY ADVERTISING CHRISTIAN WILES chris@railpro.co.uk BEN WARING ben@railpro.co.uk ADAM OVERALL sales3@railpro.co.uk RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING recruitment@railpro.co.uk MARKETING AITANA BRETON aitana@railpro.co.uk SUBSCRIPTIONS subscriptions@railpro.co.uk ADMINISTRATION CHERIE NUGENT info@railpro.co.uk LISA ETHERINGTON admin@railpro.co.uk GILL DUNN office@railpro.co.uk KIRSTY CARTER projects@railpro.co.uk DESIGN & PRODUCTION MILES JOHNSTONE production@railpro.co.uk Rail Professional welcomes contributions in the form of articles, photographs or letters, preferably by email. Original photographs may be submitted, but, while every care will be exercised, neither the editor nor the publisher take responsibility for loss of, or damage to, material sent. Submission of material to Rail Professional will be taken as permission for it to be published in the magazine and online. ISSN 1476-2196 © All rights reserved.

I

typically stop wishing people ‘Happy New Year’ at around lunchtime on 1st January, so even though this is our first issue of 2019 I’ll simply say: welcome back! The new year does seem like a good time to discuss new beginnings, perhaps the most important for the rail sector is Network Rail’s Control Period Six which commences in April this year, spearheaded by Network Rail’s new Chief Executive, Andrew Haines OBE. Andrew wrote the foreword to our Industry Reference Book and Supply Chain Directory for 2019 which is now available. Coming back to this issue, we’re focussing on depots and tram and light rail. Those of you who have been waiting for a dummies guide to depots will be pleased – we have 25-year veteran Richard Carr providing just that. David Jones looks at the industrial progression of mass passenger transport and the greater integration of light rail systems of urban rail transportation into road networks and highway systems. My interview this month is with Darren Caplan, Chief Executive of the Railway Industry Association. We cover a wide range of topics that encompass all of the RIA’s key ‘asks’ for 2019. We also kick off a couple of series on fares and avoiding legal disputes. Ivan Viehoff, Chief Economist at Cambridge Economic Policy Associates (CEPA), asks why British rail fares are so complicated in the first of two articles on that topic. Whilst Charlotte Heywood and Darren Fodey of Stephenson Harwood LLP provide their tips on dealing with changes under franchise agreements in the first of four articles on common areas of dispute and how to avoid them. You all will have read about, or at least heard mention of, the chaos at Gatwick airport caused by a drone. Whilst we are all aware of the advantages of drones for surveying the public might be a bit more ambivalent about their benefits and stories like that one could end up tipping the scales against the wider deployment of drone technology. In this issue’s Laying down the law column, Martin Fleetwood looks at the significant benefits the technology has brought to the transport sector and explores the various regulations and restrictions that apply to drones. Something more positive to finish up. I always like to see news from our industry get mainstream coverage, especially if it’s related to the opportunities that rail infrastructure work brings about. Case in point would be the recent story that, on 25th January, archaeologists working on the HS2 project in St. James’s burial ground, Euston, discovered the remains of Captain Matthew Flinders, the Royal Navy explorer who led the first circumnavigation of Australia and is credited with giving the country its name. This story comes at the same time as the West Midlands Combined Authority’s (WMCA) Construction Gateway programme saw ten trainees work alongside HS2’s enabling works contractor LM – presenting them with the opportunity to learn from MOLA Headland’s archaeological experts at the site of Birmingham’s brand new high-speed rail terminus station. I hope to cover this story in more detail in our April issue which will look at the topic of cooperation within the rail sector and how rail can cooperate with other parts of society. For now, enjoy the first issue of Rail Professional for 2019! Sam Sherwood-Hale Editor

No part of this magazine may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the copyright owners. The views and opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher, nor does it accept liability for any printing errors or otherwise which may occur.

Rail Professional


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| CONTENTS / ISSUE 249 / FEBRUARY 2019

News

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Oldham town centre Metrolink line celebrates its first five years, ESG Rail wins a contract from Transport for London for the provision of a device that physically prevents the over-speeding of trams, CECA: collaborative working vital for UK rail, Work due to start to extend platform at Northamptonshire station, Final multi-million-pound contracts awarded to deliver rail projects in Scotland and North East, Passengers’ need for convenience sparks growth in Christmas retail sales, Maritime Transport and DB Cargo UK announce agreement to increase UK rail freight capacity, Automatic braking system for trams to be installed this year, HS2 unearths new opportunities for trainee archaeologists, Excell Rail supports Balfour Beatty Rail and Network Rail on numerous projects, Plan to keep train customers moving during cold snap, Welsh businesses offered opportunities with Transport for Wales

In the passenger seat

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As passengers shiver on platforms waiting for their trains, they might be wondering why rail fares continue their seemingly inexorable rise?

Laying down the law

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While drones received very negative press in December following the problems at Gatwick Airport, in reality drones have brought some significant benefits to the transport sector

Women in Rail

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Adeline Ginn, General Counsel at Angel Trains and Founder and Chair of Women in Rail looks ahead to another exciting year for the UK rail industry

The Cheek of it

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Demand for passenger rail services in the UK rose during the Summer quarter, despite ongoing problems over performance caused by new timetables and Network Rail’s poorer performance

Viewpoint

31

With just a year to go until rolling stock has to meet legal accessibility requirements, operators must ‘hear’ the needs of the largest group within the disabled community, says Andrew Thomas

Viewpoint

35

With time our most valuable commodity, Iain Griffin, CEO and Founder of Seatfrog, explains why saving it for your customers could be the key to your future

Viewpoint

39

Christopher Nuttall, Rail Operations Consultant, SNC-Lavalin Atkins Transport Consulting & Advisory asks if it is time to rethink Britain’s railway timetable

www.abasurveying.co.uk

Rail Professional


CONTENTS / ISSUE 249 / FEBRUARY 2019 |

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The Oxford Economics research found that rail contributes over ÂŁ36 billion to the UK economy, three and a half times bigger than previously thought

INTERVIEW - Page 46

Tram and Light Rail

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David Jones, Director of Education and Training on the Executive Board of the Institute of Construction Management looks at the industrial progression of mass passenger transport and the greater integration of light rail systems of urban rail transportation into roads networks and highways systems

Technology and Innovation

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Justin Southcombe, Commercial Director of Perpetuum examines how the rate of technological change is vigorously advancing customer experience on the railways

Fares

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Over the course of two articles, Ivan Viehoff looks at British rail fares. Part one asks: why are British rail fares so very complicated?

Legal

79 Viewpoint

43

Eli Rees-King, Executive Director at the Rail Alliance looks at how the Digital Railway will be delivered and asks what this means in real terms?

Rail Professional Interview

46

Sam Sherwood-Hale talks to Darren Caplan, Chief Executive of the Railway Industry Association (RIA) about what he is looking forward to in 2019

Depots

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In the first of a series of four articles on common areas of dispute and how to avoid them, Charlotte Heywood and Darren Fodey of Stephenson Harwood LLP provide their tips on dealing with change under franchise agreements

Business Profiles

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Adomast Manufacturing, Kee Systems, Hytorc, Furrer+Frey, Rail Signalling & Power, Elite Precast Concrete, UK Power Networks Services, Coeval, Cintec International, Relec, 2019 Rail Business Awards, 3M

People

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Kirstie van Oerle, Sharon Rice, Kate Marjoribanks, Adrian Calder, Barbara Moorhouse, Jeremy Bloom

Lucy Prior explains why our depots need to be SaaS-sy

Depots

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Richard Carr gives us a run through of rail depot design (for dummies)

Tram and Light Rail

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The very latest virtual reality simulations and artificial intelligence have been embraced by the operators of Nottingham’s tram network to boost safety, improve efficiency and enhance customer comfort

www.abasurveying.co.uk

Rail Professional


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News in brief... Govia Thameslink Railway Launches UK’s First Line Resident Programme The UK’s largest rail franchise, Govia Thameslink Railway (GTR) which runs Southern, Thameslink, Great Northern and Gatwick Express, announced the country’s first Line Residents project on 15th January – a creative partnership with six influencers, tastemakers and content creators – to highlight the people, connections and must-visit destinations along the rail routes. Twice the trams, half the wait Tameside tram travellers are set for a welcome boost with the number of services on the Ashton line to double next week. Trams now run every six minutes on the line instead of the current twelve, doubling capacity. The move will halve the average waiting time to just three minutes. Boosting the number of services to meet demand supports the aims of Greater Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham’s ‘Congestion Deal’. Launched last year, the deal includes a series of measures to offer people more choice in their transport options and incentivise them to change their travel behaviour.

Oldham town centre Metrolink line celebrates its first five years Metrolink’s popular Oldham town centre line celebrated its fifth anniversary in the last weekend of January with an impressive track record. Around 60,000 tram passenger journeys are being made to Oldham town centre every month, boosting access to jobs, shops, cafes and restaurants and local attractions including the traditional Tommyfield Market and popular Oldham Coliseum Theatre. The new street-running tram line brought vital transport links to the heart of Oldham town centre when it opened on 27th January 2014. Four new stops at Westwood, Oldham King Street, Oldham Central and Oldham Mumps replaced a 1.5-mile-long section of the old railway line with fully accessible transport links. Thanks to more frequent services, patronage on the Oldham-Rochdale Metrolink line is five times higher than the Oldham Loop Line rail service it replaced, with 6.1 million journeys in 2018 compared to 1.2 million in the last full year of rail operation. The line has provided crucial transport links in areas with low car ownership. And a quarter of the people who use the Oldham line say they take it instead of using a car, helping to combat congestion and improve Greater Manchester’s air quality. The Oldham town centre line was completed as part of the ‘big-bang’ Metrolink expansion that extended the 93-stop network to Chorlton and East Didsbury, Rochdale town centre, East Manchester and Ashton-under-Lyne, Wythenshawe and Manchester Airport. 27 new trams are on order to bolster the tram network and used to run more ‘double’ trams on the busiest lines, with the first set to arrive early next year. The five-year anniversary comes just weeks after Greater Manchester published its first Transport Strategy 2040 five-year delivery plan, which included proposals (without secured funding) for a new Metrolink stop at Cop Road in the Beal Valley, and boosted park and ride spaces at the Derker stop, and possibly others in the borough. The proposed new tram stop would sit between Derker and Shaw and Crompton and would serve the existing community in Moorside as well as potential new housing.

Enclosures from the smallest to the largest. ENCLOSURES

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CLIMATE CONTROL


NEWS |

News in brief... Kilmarnock station’s £2.7 million access improvement project nears completion The new lifts at Kilmarnock are now in in public use as access improvements at the station near completion. The £2.7 million investment, delivered through the Access for All scheme, provides a step-free access to platforms one, three and four from the existing station underpass via newly installed lifts, which opened on Friday 18th January. BAM and QTS awarded multi-millionpound contracts to support Scotland’s railway Network Rail has announced that BAM Nuttall and QTS Group have won framework contracts to deliver a range of rail projects across Scotland over the next five years. BAM Nuttall has been awarded a renewals and enhancements framework covering Scotland and North East England valued at £320 million.

more >>>

IT INFRASTRUCTURE

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ESG Rail wins a contract from Transport for London for the provision of a device that physically prevents the over-speeding of trams ESG Rail is contracted to develop, supply, install and commission a physical prevention of overspeeding (PPOS) device for the Croydon tram fleet. This protection system will operate independently of the other tram monitoring systems and will stop a vehicle if it is found to be travelling at excessive speed within pre-defined locations, with the flexibility to be introduced on other parts of the network. ESG Rail has sub-contracted Sella Controls, who will provide the equipment necessary for the PPOS system. The system consists of a PPOS controller fitted into the tram, together with Sella’s proven Tracklink III system, which communicates data from the rail infrastructure to the tram. The Tracklink III system consists of track beacons and an on-tram reader. In the event of a tram overspeeding in a speed restricted area, the PPOS controller will interrupt the power to the PPOS safety relay. This will result in full service brake application and will bring that vehicle to a controlled stand-still. Roof mounted, Wi-Fi/3G/4G antennas will advise the operational controllers of any critical events. Communication will be via the public, mobile data network during tram operation. A new dedicated Wi-Fi system will also be installed at the depot. The Wi-Fi system will be dedicated to PPOS and will communicate with a PPOS work station.

CECA: collaborative working vital for UK rail Civil engineering contractors have today called on Government to promote a more collaborative rail sector in order to deliver a world-class railway. In its response to the Williams Rail Review, established to recommend the best way to organise the UK’s rail network and operations, CECA called for the principles of collaboration to extend to those carrying out rail construction. Looking at railway projects carried out on the mainline, the most successful of these are generally supported by a collaborative relationship between operators, Network and contractors. Recent examples of this include Waterloo Station Redevelopment, Nottingham Station Remodelling and Derby Station Remodelling. Earlier similar projects include Evergreen 1 & 2 which upgraded the Chiltern Route. In these cases, a rational balance between disrupting users and improving the infrastructure was achieved. In parallel, information campaigns were used to explain to users what will happen and how things will improve.

SOFTWARE & SERVICES www.rittal.co.uk


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News in brief... Modified electric trains to be used temporarily on London Overground’s Gospel Oak to Barking line Contingency plan put in place as new ‘Class 710’ electric trains are not yet ready for passenger service. Customers on London Overground’s Gospel Oak to Barking line will see a mixed fleet of trains operating as an interim measure until the delayed new electric ‘Class 710’ trains are delivered by the manufacturer, Bombardier Transportation, and are ready for passenger service.

Work due to start to extend platform at Northamptonshire station Network Rail is beginning work on Monday 4th February to extend the platform at Corby station, part of a wider programme of enhancements on the Midland Main Line. The work will take place at the southern end of platform and will not disrupt passengers or station users. The extended platform will enable longer trains with more seats to operate between Corby and London St Pancras, providing more comfortable journeys with less crowding. The Midland Main Line is undergoing its largest upgrade since it was completed in 1870 which will help to meet the challenge of rising passenger demand and support the growth of regional economies, connecting people to more job, education and leisure opportunities. Network Rail Sponsor, Wendy Bell said: ‘As a key part of the wider Midland Main Line Upgrade, a significant amount of work has already been carried out to improve the capacity, speed and resilience of the railway in and around Corby’

GB Railfreight launches new service from Birch Coppice to Felixstowe GB Railfreight has launched a new intermodal service from Birch Coppice to Felixstowe. The move demonstrates the sustained growth of GBRf as a business, with the launch marking its fifth new intermodal service in the past 18 months and second service into the Birch Coppice terminal. Freightliner plans new Ipswich maintenance facility Freightliner is planning to build a state-of-the-art railroad locomotive and wagon maintenance and fuelling facility at its existing Ipswich freight yard, situated off Ranelagh Road, Ipswich. After evaluating various sites throughout the UK, Ipswich was chosen due to its strategic positioning close to the Port of Felixstowe, the UK’s largest maritime port and from which Freightliner operates 22 trains a day, transporting goods all over the country.

More at www.railpro.co.uk

Final multi-million-pound contracts awarded to deliver rail projects in Scotland and North East Network Rail has announced further multi-million-pound contract awards for Control Period Six (2019-2024), worth a total of £467 million. The most significant work-bank for Scotland and North East (SNE), a renewals and enhancements framework valued at £320 million, has been awarded to BAM Nuttall. The framework will complete a wide range of projects including replacing and refurbishing structures across the route and delivering improvements at stations. In addition, two Geotech frameworks worth a combined £147 million have been awarded to Story Contracting (London North East) and QTS (Scotland) as part of the procurement process. At the end of last year, Story Contracting was also awarded a contract covering renewals and enhancements work in Scotland valued at around £135 million. The latest contract awards complete the procurement activity for Scotland and North East, which is anticipated to hold one of the largest work-banks for the coming five-year funding period. Cannon Technologies Ltd Queensway, Stem Lane New Milton, Hampshire BH25 5NU T: +44 (0)1425 632600 E: sales@cannontech.co.uk

Rail Professional


NEWS |

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Passengers’ need for convenience sparks growth in Christmas retail sales Passengers’ appetite for convenience has driven a 2.3 per cent growth in station retail sales over the festive period, Network Rail has announced. The figures, which reflect sales between 10th November and 22nd December, also show growth of 0.6 per cent in like-for-like sales despite a difficult wider trading environment, with sales levels flat across the wider high-street retail sector in December. The results reflect Network Rail’s retail strategy, which aims to place passengers at the centre of its plans and provide an attractive retail offer that suits their buying habits. In total, Network Rail recorded more than £93.8 million in sales during the six weeks leading up to Christmas, with retailers in the health and beauty (13 per cent up), food (ten per cent up) and news, books and confectionary (nine per cent up) sectors performing particularly well. There was also a one per cent increase in retail footfall, comparing favourably against results in the latest BRCSpringboard and Vacancies Monitor, which showed that overall UK retail footfall was down 2.6 per cent. London Bridge (74.7 per cent up), Paddington (10.7 per cent up) and Charing Cross (7.6 per cent up) showed the highest total sales growth in London, with the sales surges at London Bridge and Paddington correlating to Network Rail’s significant investment in regeneration and retail enhancement projects at these transport hubs. Meanwhile, Edinburgh Waverley (3.5 per cent up) and Birmingham New Street (2.9 per cent) were the best performers outside of the capital.

Maritime Transport and DB Cargo UK announce agreement to increase UK rail freight capacity Two of the UK’s largest freight operators have announced plans to combine their expertise to increase rail freight capacity and competition in the intermodal market. After reaching agreement in principle with DB Cargo UK, Maritime Transport has announced the launch of a new division – ‘Maritime Intermodal’ which will initially contract four dedicated services out of Felixstowe and Southampton. Maritime is currently Road Haulier of the Year and DB Cargo UK is Rail Freight Operator of the Year. The longterm agreement will enable each organisation to operate to its strengths, driving up service and efficiency which will result in increased intermodal capacity and growth in rail freight. Under the terms of the proposed agreement DB Cargo UK will be contracted to run Maritime Intermodal’s rail operations out of Felixstowe and Southampton. Maritime Intermodal will take on responsibility for DB Cargo UK’s terminals in Trafford Park, Manchester and Wakefield in West Yorkshire, thus strengthening the road haulier’s national network of strategic hubs.

INTEGRATED 19” CABINETS, RACKS & ENCLOSURES PROTECTING ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS EQUIPMENT

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Automatic braking system for trams to be installed this year London’s tram network will be the first in the UK to have an automatic braking system after Transport for London (TfL) awarded Engineering Support Group Limited (ESG) the contract to build and install the new safety system by the end of this year. It will automatically apply the brakes and bring a moving tram to a controlled stop if exceeding the speed limit at designated locations. Work began on the feasibility of introducing this new safety measure, which has not been introduced on any UK trams before, shortly after the tragic overturning at Sandilands, Croydon, in November 2016. It is expected to be fully operational by the end of 2019, including a period of training and familiarisation with tram drivers, and will operate alongside the driver protection device that has been in operation since September 2017, alerting to any signs of driver distraction and fatigue. Automatic braking is one of the recommendations set out by the Rail Accidents Investigation Branch (RAIB) following the tragic tram overturning. It will initially be configured to priority highrisk locations as suggested by the RAIB but will have the flexibility to be introduced elsewhere on the tram network. The RAIB listed 15 recommendations aimed at the UK tram industry following the overturning. Work has progressed on all of the recommendations specific to TfL with some of the most vital already complete. These include a permanent speed reduction across the tram network, speed 1 24/05/2012 monitoring and10:32 signage at significant bends, an enhanced customer complaints process and the installation of a driver protection device that alerts to driver distraction or fatigue. A new emergency lighting system, which will operate independently of the tram’s battery in the event of an emergency, has also been procured and will be installed over the summer, addressing recommendation seven. Extensive testing with safety experts has also progressed and a new higher specification film that is 75 per cent thicker (from 100 microns to 175 microns) will be fitted to all doors and windows to improve containment, as per recommendation six, by Spring.

OUR OUR SERVICES SERVICES

HS2 unearths new opportunities for trainee archaeologists A mum of two from Washwood Heath, a teenager with Asperger Syndrome and a 58-year-old who was out of work for several years are now on the pathway to an exciting career in archaeology. Just a year ago, the trainees had no idea they could get the opportunity to become archaeologists. Now they are playing a pivotal role in the delivery of Britain’s new high-speed railway by supporting the most extensive archaeological dig currently underway in Europe. The ten trainees, aged 18 to 58, came through the West Midlands Combined Authority’s (WMCA) Construction Gateway programme, funded by £5 million from the National Retraining Fund. Following an initial six-week training programme, delivered in conjunction with BMet College, a number of the trainees have gone on to be directly employed by archaeology and built-heritage specialists, MOLA Headland. Kate Myers, HS2 Ltd’s Head of Skills, Employment and Education said: ‘Not only is HS2 driving business growth and creating jobs right across the country, it is playing a crucial role in upskilling the nation and supporting people into meaningful employment. ‘Even at this early stage in the programme, we’re expanding the breadth of people working in a diverse range of transport and infrastructure-related roles and creating a talented and highly skilled workforce for the future.’ Working alongside HS2’s enabling works contractor LM, the trainees are learning from MOLA Headland’s archaeological experts at the site of Birmingham’s brand new highspeed rail terminus station. For 63 years, between 1810 and 1873, a section of the site on adjoining Park Street was a burial ground, and archaeologists at the site are studying the remains of those interred. The site in Birmingham forms part of a wider archaeological programme. Over the next two years, more than 1,000 archaeologists, period specialists, scientists and conservators from across the UK will be exploring and recording over 60 sites from London to West Midlands.  On 25th January, archaeologists working on the HS2 project in St. James’s burial ground, Euston, discovered the remains of Captain Matthew Flinders, the Royal Navy explorer who led the first circumnavigation of Australia and is credited with giving the country its name.

Excell Rail supports Balfour Beatty Rail and Network Rail on numerous projects Excell Rail has supported Balfour on all different types of projects and Beatty Rail and Network Rail, among adapting and changing to get the end result, other customers, on numerous projects the job done and everyone home safe. such as Dawlish Warren, Penzance, Excell Rail has various certificates CASR, SITA, Maidenhead, Scorrier, and competencies and has been Newcastle, Kent, Birse, GWEP and awarded five stars RISQS for TGW, Swindon and Reading. the last few years and holds ISO The company worked very 9001:2015, ISO 18001:2007, ISO closely with its customers 14001:2015, Ciras, and ICO to on these projects. They were name a few. at varied locations so travel All the foundations have been and accommodation was also put in by the Excell Rail team to considered. gain a good name in the market From the start of Excell Rail place and keep it in front of the www.excellrail.co.uk Rail working with its customers it has competition. The company thrives always committed full attention on the challenges it faces alongside to what its customers have been trying to its customers. achieve, collaborating and working together

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Technical Excellence Whatever your rail crossing challenges, we’ll work with you to overcome them. Our team has built an unrivalled depth of knowledge and experience enabling us to provide solutions that are engineered to meet specific site and ground conditions, track use, variations in track gauge, fastener type, rail type and sleeper design. Rosehill Rail – Setting New Standards For more information, or to enquire about training, please call the Rosehill Rail sales team on +44 (0)1422 317 473, or email info@rosehillrail.com

26 - 28 March 2019 - Stand 2/504 Lille Grand Palais Exhibition Centre, Lille, France

14 - 16 May 2019 - Stand J30 NEC, Birmingham, UK

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Plan to keep train customers moving during cold snap Network Rail frontline teams are prepared to keep train customers on the move through snow and ice. Between London Euston and Carlisle, via the Chilterns, West Midlands and North West, there are six snow ploughs and eight de-icing trains on standby. Hundreds of staff armed with specialist icebusting kit are ready to defrost frozen points and signals and tackle any other weather-related issues. Network Rail uses a range of tools to deal with cold weather, including: • Weather forecasts: The MetDesk, provides Network Rail with a specialist forecast on the specific conditions which could affect the tracks and the probability of ice forming on third rails. • Points heaters: Gas and electric heaters prevent points freezing. They are automatically activated when rail temperatures fall below a certain level. During extreme conditions, thousands of staff work night and day to check hundreds of points at key junctions to prevent them freezing. • Snow fences: In certain key locations prone to drifts, snow fences

are installed to prevent snow drifting onto the tracks. • Snow/ice clearing: A variety of equipment is available to clear snow when it reaches a depth of six inches or more. These include miniature snow ploughs which fit on the front of trains for smaller volumes of snow. Specialist drift ploughs are used to clear drifts of greater depths. • Anti-icing spray: A fleet of specialist anti-icing trains spray heated antifreeze onto the third rail. Train operators will also run empty passenger trains, or ‘ghost trains,’ throughout the night to help prevent ice building up. Some train operators also have de-icing equipment attached to their trains to cover an even larger area. • Emergency timetables: Contingency plans for severe disruption are agreed in advance with train operators and can be activated and communicated to passengers when disruption is likely. • Icicle patrols: Network Rail staff patrol tunnels and under-bridges when the mercury plummets to ensure icicles do not cause obstruction to trains or to overhead power lines.

Welsh businesses offered opportunities with Transport for Wales Transport for Wales are offering opportunities for small and medium businesses in Wales to be part of the investment project that will transform the transport sector. Business Wales will be running free workshops at different locations throughout the country, helping provide guidance for Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Transport for Wales are developing a framework of suppliers to work with them to improve transport connectivity and provide wider benefits to the economies and communities of Wales. The workshops will focus on Human Resources and Sustainability and SMEs will be given the opportunity to look at these requirements in greater detail and provided with advice; improving their chances of winning the tenders. The ‘HR Essentials’ workshop will provide a background to the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act to help SMEs respond to tender PreQualification Questions on the Code of Practice on Ethical Employment in Supply Chains. The ‘Sustainability Essentials’ workshop will be centralised around sustainability issues including minimising waste, forest stewardship and decarbonisation. Rail Professional


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VIEWPOINT |

15

In the passenger seat David Sidebottom

Passengers deserve modern ticketing As passengers shiver on platforms waiting for their trains, they might be wondering why rail fares continue their seemingly inexorable rise?

W

hile substantial, welcome investment in new trains and infrastructure is continuing, many passengers have faced a year of poor performance, strikes and timetable chaos. In our latest survey fewer than half (45 per cent) of passengers and just 30 per cent of commuters were satisfied with the value for money of train tickets. How can this situation be improved for passengers? The increases are higher than they initially look as the outdated Retail Price Index measure is used to calculate regulated fare rises, rather than the more relevant and widely used Consumer Price Index measure. Transport Focus has long argued that it’s time for a fairer, clearer fares formula based

The rail industry must be seen to be more than the sum of its parts. The industry must produce better value for money for the passenger and the taxpayer. The continual rise in costs must be capped somehow, at some point

on calculations that use the Consumer Prices Index. The factors that drive up prices seem clear on first glance. The costs of labour, materials and fuel go up. There is a lot of investment taking place – some very visible in rebuilt stations such as London Bridge, but this is much more visible in track and signals which should boost reliability and capacity. However, the amount of fares revenue flowing into the industry now tops £10 billion a year as passenger numbers and revenue have started to pick up again. With Government investment continuing to pour in, surely all this investment must start to produce a more reliable, better value for money railway? When is the tipping

point where new technology and more reliable equipment start to drive costs down and the heat is taken out of fare rises? Or is the historic backlog of work so big that point will never be reached? The rail industry must be seen to be more than the sum of its parts. The industry must produce better value for money for the passenger and the taxpayer. The continual rise in costs must be capped somehow, at some point. All this is what makes the Government’s Rail Review (including looking at fares and ticketing) so important. We need ticketing that matches the way we live and travel now. Part time season tickets. Filling those empty off-peak seats. Contactless, capped fares in urban areas – the spread of smart systems Rail Professional


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| VIEWPOINT

The announcement of a new 16&17 railcard and the launch of the 26-30 railcard was welcome news for passengers and will help take some of the sting out of rising fares. With less than half of passengers satisfied with the value for money of their journey and even fewer young people satisfied, this will help make travelling by rail that little bit more affordable for young people like Oyster across the southeast must continue across the network and proceed at a much faster pace. We value simplicity in all areas of our lives, so why not travel as well? The announcement of a new 16&17 railcard and the launch of the 26-30 railcard was welcome news for passengers and will help take some of the sting out of rising fares. With less than half of passengers satisfied with the value for money of their

Rail Professional

journey and even fewer young people satisfied, this will help make travelling by rail that little bit more affordable for young people. These are welcome measures, but this work must go further. Passengers need parttime season tickets, deals to fill up off-peak seats and a modern ticketing system to suit the way we travel now. Passenger anger during the Summer

timetable crisis was palpable and understandable. Recent poor performance continues to erode passenger trust in the industry. Passenger frustration at the continual rise in fares saps confidence in the system to reform itself. Looking back to 2018 it’s clear that the railway isn’t operating as a coherent whole – let alone more than the sum of its parts. That is what makes the Williams Rail Review so important and his deliberate focus on what passengers want so valuable. Industry structure and funding needs reform if train operators are to deliver better value for money and performance for the people the railway exists to serve – passengers. In support of robust passenger input to that Review, Transport Focus is carrying out research to look at what passengers think about industry structures. Transport Focus will publish a number of papers in the early part of this year. These will not try to design a new railway but will set out what passengers want any new structure to deliver, how they want to be engaged and their broad views on fares and ticketing. Passengers will want to see much better reliability in return for these fares. Change had better arrive in 2019!


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FEATURE | VIEWPOINT

Laying down the law

19

Martin Fleetwood

Droning on‌ While drones received very negative press in December following the problems at Gatwick Airport, in reality drones have brought some significant benefits to the transport sector

C

amera drones are very good at showing some of those hardto-reach areas such as roofs and tucked away corners in the environs of a depot, allowing easier inspections and giving a different view on things. High definition pictures can show defects in a structure while staying a safe distance away from the buildings themselves. Once identified, a more detailed inspection by humans can then take place and the relevant repair made or offending item removed, saving both time and money. Equally, camera drones are very helpful in surveying linear routes such as the prospective route of a new light rail system, as well as being part of the inspection team once the system is established. However, such flights will take the drone over

Equally, camera drones are very helpful in surveying linear routes such as the prospective route of a new light rail system, as well as being part of the inspection team once the system is established. However, such flights will take the drone over significant distances and across private property so there needs to be a set of rules which govern how the drones can operate

significant distances and across private property so there needs to be a set of rules which govern how the drones can operate. General regulations The Air Navigation Order 2016 (the ANO) is the primary set of rules for all aviation within the UK. It deals with everything from flights involving large commercial aircraft to the short duration flights of small drones. Some of the regulations are specific to types of aircraft, including for small drones which have a mass of under 20kg (referred to in the ANO as small unmanned aircraft (SUA)). These are generally simpler than those for commercial aircraft. However, there are some regulations within the ANO which apply to all aircraft including SUAs. Article 241 for example, requires all operators of any aircraft not to endanger the safety of any person or property. A person found guilty of an offence under Article 241 is

liable for an unlimited fine and up to two years in jail. SUA specific regulations For SUAs the regulations are relatively straightforward, with some additional requirements if they are used for commercial purposes or with cameras. These include the need for permissions and licensing by the Civil Aviation Authority. Growth in the use of drones has seen some recent amendments to the regulations for SUAs under the ANO through the Air Navigation (Amendment) Order 2018. They made a number of clarifications as well as extending some restrictions to any SUAs weighing over 250 grams. Key changes include: • Clarifying that responsibility for a SUA can lie both with the remote pilot physically operating the SUA and the SUA operator (the person or company with Rail Professional


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| VIEWPOINT

Main ANO regulations applying to drones • The person in charge of the SUA is responsible for flying the SUA in a safe manner • The remote pilot of the SUA must keep it in sight at all times when in flight to ensure that it does not collide with anything, especially other aircraft • Items must not be dropped from a SUA which may endanger persons or property • SUAs cannot be flown for commercial operations except where they have permission from the CAA and only to the extent of that permission • SUAs cannot fly closer than one kilometre to an aerodrome without permission of the CAA or more than 400 feet above the surface except where permitted by an air traffic control unit • Only the remote pilot and person in charge of the SUA can be within 30 metres of the SUA during take-off or landing • Where a camera is fitted to the SUA, except with the permission of the CAA, the SUA cannot be flown within 150 metres of a congested area or within 150 metres of an organised open-air assembly of more than 1,000 persons. The SUA cannot be flown within 50 metres of any structure or vehicle not under the control of the person in charge of the SUA or within 50 metres of any person other than the remote pilot of the SUA or any person under the control of the person in charge of the SUA. The 400-feet limit looks at the height above the surface of the earth. If tall buildings or other structures require a greater height, additional permissions are required from the CAA. overall management of the SUA) • Introducing a scheme requiring SUA operators to be registered and to display their registration number on their SUAs • Introducing a competence requirement for remote pilots of SUAs, to be in place by 1st October 2019.

Rail Professional

Without the registration number the SUA is not permitted to be flown. Once the competency training is in place, remote pilots will need to have passed the relevant competency test and SUA operators will need to ensure that their remote pilots have the relevant competency certification.

Other restrictions The ANO regulations only cover requirements to fly a SUA. They do not give a right to fly unhindered. Permission is needed from the owner or manager of the land from which the SUA takes off and lands. There may also be restrictions imposed by statutory bodies such as the emergency services, the Highways Agency and local authorities. However tempting it may be for a company to buy a couple of drones to help with its asset management, time should be taken to ensure that any operations are fully compliant with all relevant regulations. Martin Fleetwood is a Consultant at Addleshaw Goddard’s Transport practice. Within this, the Rail Team has over thirty lawyers who advise clients in both the private and public sectors across a wide range of legal areas. As well as regulatory issues, this includes operational matters, franchises, concessions, contracts, finance, employment, property, environmental and procurement issues

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. It is recommended that specific professional advice is sought before acting on any of the information given.


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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

Women in rail

23

Adeline Ginn

Looking ahead to 2019 Adeline Ginn, General Counsel at Angel Trains and Founder and Chair of Women in Rail looks ahead to another exciting year for the UK rail industry

A

s an industry we achieved an incredible amount last year, and as we welcome 2019, for Women in Rail it promises to be yet another busy year for the charity. There was a fantastic response from across the UK rail industry at the end of last year to our repowered mentoring programme, and as we begin the year, we welcome our fifth mentee intake, with over 200 people coming forward to be part of the programme.

The success of the mentoring programme, which has seen substantial growth from twelve pairs in 2014, to over 200 this year, is a true testament to the commitment by the whole industry to support a cross-industry mentoring initiative, ensuring the continued development of our workforce, while providing a support network for men and women in the UK rail sector. Opportunities for continued professional development and a robust support network

for all rail professionals is vital to ensuring we harness and retain talent within the sector. This month, we celebrate the launch of Women in Rail London, a newly formed steering committee which will help to further shape the direction of our network in the London region, strengthening the opportunities across the capital for our members as we continue to develop and further our offering using our regional networks.

Rail Professional


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| VIEWPOINT

The Big Rail Diversity Challenge before summer provides an opportunity for the industry to come together to demonstrate our commitment to improving gender balance, diversity and inclusion within and across the rail family The Big Rail Diversity Challenge before summer provides an opportunity for the industry to come together to demonstrate our commitment to improving gender balance, diversity and inclusion within and across the rail family. If you have not yet taken part in the Challenge, which is back

for its fourth year this summer, I would encourage you to join us for a really exciting and motivational networking opportunity. As we look ahead to the new year and the exciting initiatives coming up, it is also important that we reflect on the successes that our industry has enjoyed over the last twelve months. Last year we held the inaugural Women in Rail Awards ceremony, to celebrate successes throughout the rail network, recognising and rewarding those

nominated by the industry, who have worked to improve diversity and made a significant difference to the railway industry in the past year, and we are delighted to be once again staging the awards this year in May at the historic Roundhouse in Camden. For more information about the awards or any of the current Women in Rail campaigns, please do visit the Women in Rail website – womeninrail.org

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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

27

The Cheek of it... Chris Cheek

Rail demand sees Summer growth Demand for passenger rail services in the UK rose during the Summer quarter, despite ongoing problems over performance caused by new timetables and Network Rail’s poorer performance

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verall, demand rose by 1.9 per cent during the third quarter of 2018, according to National Rail Trends statistics, published by the Office of Rail and Road (ORR). Six TOCs – Cross Country, East Midlands, Great Western, Merseyrail, Northern and Scotrail – saw a reduction in passenger numbers, but the remainder saw some growth. The provisional figures were published

As we have noted before, short term effects can affect a single quarter’s figures, so it is often better to look at the figures over a rolling year. Here, demand was basically flat, with a small rise on the commuter routes

in December, and cover the second quarter of fiscal year 2018/19, finishing at the end of September: across the network, 433.8 million passenger journeys were made during the twelve-week period, up from 425.6 million in 2017. Between them, they covered 16.9 billion passenger kilometres, 1.4 per cent ahead, and paid a total of £2.5 billion in fares, 5.4 per cent more than in 2017. The growth during the quarter was driven by London and southeast services, which saw a 3.1 per cent increase in passenger numbers. The pre-Crossrail TfL Rail operation saw the largest growth, recording a 21.1 per cent increase over the 2017 figure – largely driven by the takeover of the former Heathrow connect services from Great Western on 20th May. Govia Thameslink (GTR) saw a 5.6 per cent rise, followed by Greater Anglia (4.2 per cent), South Western (4.1 per cent) and Chiltern (3.8 per cent). Long distance InterCity services saw a 0.8 per cent fall. Growth was maintained on the two north-south lines – InterCity East Coast recorded a 1.7 per cent increase, whilst the West Coast saw growth of one per cent. These were offset by declines at Cross Country (2.1 per cent) and at the mixed franchises of East Midlands Trains (3.8 per cent) and Great Western (six per cent, though this is mainly due to the loss of the Heathrow Connect service to TfL Rail). In the regional sector, demand was 0.7 per cent down on the previous year. TransPennine continued to grow, with a rise of 1.2 per cent, whilst Arriva Trains

Wales, in the last months of their franchise recorded a barely perceptible 0.2 per cent increase. However, these gains were offset by losses at Scotrail (1.3 per cent), Northern (0.7 per cent) and Merseyrail (0.6 per cent). The latter two continued to suffer from industrial action during the quarter, whilst Northern’s performance continued to be hit by timetable problems. In terms of passenger kilometres, the growth came in London and the South East, which was 3.8 per cent ahead, offsetting small falls at InterCity (1.1 per cent) and Regional (a tiny 0.1 per cent). Revenue rose in all sectors during the quarter. Overall, income grew by 5.4 per cent, driven by rises of 7.1 per cent in London and the South East, 4.2 per cent on the InterCity routes and 2.5 per cent on the regional routes. Rolling year figures As we have noted before, short term effects can affect a single quarter’s figures, so it is often better to look at the figures over a rolling year. Here, demand was basically flat, with a small rise on the commuter routes. The national totals for the twelve months ending 30th September 2018 show the number of passenger journeys rising by a barely perceptible 0.4 per cent to 1.73 billion. Passenger kilometres travelled rose by 0.7 per cent to 66.1 billion, whilst passenger revenue was 4.3 per cent higher at £9.94 billion. The rise in the latter was sufficient to deliver real-term growth: after allowing for inflation, revenue was 0.7 per cent higher in Rail Professional


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real terms. Looking at the individual sectors, passenger journeys on the London and South East routes rose by 0.7 per cent, with passenger kilometres up by 0.9 per cent. On the InterCity routes, annual growth was 0.5 per cent in terms of passenger journeys, and 0.9 per cent in passenger kilometres. On the regional routes, there was a 0.5 per cent fall in the number of journeys, whilst the number of passenger km was 0.1 per cent ahead. Revenue yields were up by 3.5 per cent in cash terms. There were increases in all three markets, with London and the South East services leading the way on 3.5 per cent, followed by InterCity (3.47 per cent) and Regional (3.4 per cent). After allowing for inflation, yields fell in real terms in all sectors and the overall reduction was 0.1 per cent. Comment The famous quote about there being no such thing as bad publicity is often associated with circus promoter and ‘the greatest showman’ himself, P T Barnum. It is perhaps kinder to avoid comparisons between the rail network this last summer and the circus. However, the evidence of this and the last quarter’s figures tends to support Barnum’s theory.

The timetable failures of late May undoubtedly bled through into the Summer quarter, which started at the beginning of June, and the media and political storm which was provoked was still in full flood. And yet, and yet. Here we are with another set of surprisingly positive statistics: the market for rail travel once again held up remarkably well, even in some cases clawing back some of the ground lost this time last year. The return to growth in London and the South East is particularly remarkable, particularly since the economy generally still seems to be sluggish. The 301 million passenger journeys is a new record for the June-September quarter, comfortably ahead of the previous high of 296 million in 2015 and double what it was in 1998. The three operations south of the Thames all saw growth after shedding several million passenger journeys between them over the past three years. Amazingly, the 83.7 million passenger journeys recorded by GTR is the second highest quarterly figure recorded since the franchise began. It makes you wonder what the market potential could be if they ever got the service right. Alarm bells will no doubt have rung at Cross Country and East Midlands Trains,

each of which lost more than a quarter of a million passengers during the quarter. Meanwhile, a combination of engineering works and rolling stock problems damaged ScotRail’s market, whilst ongoing industrial action was undoubtedly a factor in declines at Merseyrail and Northern. As the latest review of the structure of the railway gets fully under way, it is important to remember the huge changes in patterns of demand that have taken place over the 20 years since privatisation. Looking back to September 1998, we see that long-distance routes carried 17.1 million passenger journeys, regional services 50.7 million and the London commuter routes 147.1 million. Since then InterCity and London and southeast numbers have more than doubled, with the regional network at 1.9 times. Whatever else the industry structure introduced by the 1993 Act has done, it did put into place a framework that allowed increases in demand to be accommodated and encouraged. In looking to the future, it is important to ensure that the incentives to achieve and accommodate more passengers are maintained and indeed improved. We must not sacrifice market growth on the altar of organisational tidiness.

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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

31

In the loop With just a year to go until rolling stock has to meet legal accessibility requirements, operators must ‘hear’ the needs of the largest group within the disabled community, says Andrew Thomas

T

he access needs of disabled rail passengers are often thought of in terms of the physical and barriers to travel focus on those in wheelchairs or who use mobility aids. Indeed, of the five per cent of rail journeys in the UK made by passengers with a disability, half of these are by people with a mobility issue. But 15 million rail journeys are made each year by people with a hearing impairment, the second most commonly reported disability among rail users. One in six of the UK population (nearly eleven million) has some form of hearing loss. With more than 40 per cent of people aged over 50 being affected, an ageing population will only see the prevalence of hearing impairment increase and, no doubt, its incidence among rail passengers. The rail environment poses a considerable challenge to those with hearing loss. Major stations have an inherent high level of noise which can be challenging when it comes to requesting tickets. Announcements on the concourse may be difficult to make out and once onboard, poorly maintained or poorly used passenger information systems mean vital journey information may be lost. The safety of hearing-impaired passengers is also compromised if they are unable to hear and act on emergency announcements. So how to respond? Stations and rail

services are subject to The Equality Act 2010 which requires operators to ‘make changes, where needed, to improve services for disabled customers or potential customers’. ‘Potential customers’ is a key point – it’s not enough to respond to current passenger requirements. Instead, services should be accessible to everyone who may want to travel. The Act requires ‘reasonable adjustments’ to be made where a passenger is at ‘substantial disadvantage’ because of their hearing loss. What constitutes ‘reasonable’ is not clearly defined but will depend on passenger numbers, frequency of services and the relative investment needed. Hearing or ‘induction’ loops are one solution for hearing impaired passengers and will be technology many rail operators are familiar with. They offer people with a hearing aid, cochlear implant or other assistive listening device the ability to cut out unwanted background noise and listen to the sounds they want to hear. A loop system takes the sound picked up by a microphone and converts it into a magnetic signal. That signal is converted back into speech by the telecoil receiver in a hearing aid, so when wearers switch to the ‘T’ position they can hear that sound source clearly. A number of operators may already have hearing loops on rolling stock or on the station, but incorrect positioning, poor assessment of the site or a lack of

maintenance is preventing passengers from getting the service they deserve. At a time when the physical presence of staff at stations and onboard is diminishing, hearing loops give passengers the ability to hear desired information without the need for additional assistance. However, loops are not ubiquitous and cross-border journeys can result in changing services as a passenger’s journey progresses.

Part of the problem is a lack of consistency in how operators interpret policies for disabled travellers and part is down to the franchise system. Operators may not see the benefits of investing in accessibility features such as loops when their guardianship is for a limited time. But they are still obliged to ensure there is no barrier to passengers with additional needs being able to travel on their services and ‘minor works’ budgets mean funding is allocated for improving accessibility for disabled passengers. Hearing loops represent the best investment for meeting the needs of hearingimpaired passengers. While additional technology such as the Signly app is being developed to aid rail travellers with hearing loss, at least a fifth of all those who are


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hard of hearing wear a hearing aid, so a corresponding hearing loop is currently (and is likely to be for the foreseeable future) the most beneficial option. Also, app-based technology is not yet the preserve of the older population and with a clear relationship between age and disability, and a changing demographic, technology needs to meet passengers’ needs now and in the immediate future. People with hearing loss, particularly those who have acquired it with advancing age, often don’t identify themselves as disabled (just 13 per cent of rail travellers with a hearing impairment have a Disabled Person’s Railcard). The provision of a hearing loop means they don’t have to and thus loops allow them to continue to travel more independently. Hearing loops have the added benefit that they are developed to international standards which is particularly key for stations handling a large number of overseas passengers. Switching their hearing aids to the ‘T’ position will allow them to hear as clearly as native travellers. Rail operators may have systems in place but unless they have been well designed, regularly tested and maintained, their benefits to passengers could be minimal.

On the station There are a number of keys areas on station where hearing loops can transform the experience of hearing-impaired passengers. Firstly, the ticket office where clear communication is essential to getting the right ticket and information about the services on which it can be used. Speech transfer systems allow for conversation to be amplified through secure ticket windows and systems are available with in-built induction loops. With the correct signage, passengers know there is a Rail Professional

loop system available and can complete their transaction smoothly and discreetly. The concourse or platform area is the second. The public address system may appear to be at a reasonable volume that is accessible to all, but with engine noise from trains, conversation from other travellers and the passing alarm of the assisted transport vehicles, hearing aid users can find it impossible to discern the announcements. A hearing loop cuts out the distracting background noise to make service, and safety, information audible. This is also the case in waiting rooms, a key location for hearing loops which can make the difference between passengers making or missing their train. Where it is impossible to loop a large area as a whole, ‘listening areas’ can be created, using a configuration of smaller loops that give the clearest reception close to seating perhaps, or in view of the information boards. These should be planned to make sure the designated areas are where passengers feel their personal safety isn’t compromised. Of course, this is all to nought if loops are not accompanied by clear signage. Best practice While not legally enforceable, stations are subject to BS8300 Building Code of Practice which sets out standards for creating inclusive environments. Revised in January 2019, it now includes, for the first time, specific guidance on meeting the needs of people with hearing loss. Induction loops are deemed to be a key part of this and the code gives clear examples of the appropriate level of provision for a range of environments and sectors. For instance, loops should be available at every ticket window, not just one. The premise is that the service should be inclusive – passengers being able to have their needs met at any window – rather than just accessible. Help point and emergency intercoms are also specified within the code, leaving operators in no doubt where they should aim their sights in order to meet best practice standards. Specialist knowledge is key Of course, it is easier to design loop systems into major refurbishment work or entirely new stations than retrofit in buildings that can easily be more than a hundred years old. This is where the expertise of a specialist installer is essential in order to produce a design that works for both the fabric of the building and for passengers. It is not enough for operators to say a loop is installed. It needs to work and perform well for those who need it. There are a number of considerations that can affect its performance in the station. For example, the existence of metal in the building’s construction or fittings can cause a loss of power in the loop signal while electrical power sources can create interference that produces a buzzing sound for listeners. Physical barriers may limit the size of the

area that can be looped and in this instance a specialist installer will design smaller ‘listening areas’. Their expertise can also provide solutions for listed buildings where the position of cabling is limited because of maintaining key features. Rolling stock Providing loops onboard is a more pressing issue with the deadline for rolling stock meeting accessibility standards set out in RVAR 2010 and the PRM-TSI being 1st January 2020. Train carriages present one of the most challenging environments for installing loops. The metal inherent in their construction together with operating features such as braking systems, electrical power plus vibration and limited installation space means careful assessment and design is needed. These factors may mean that reception via the ‘T’ coil in a hearing aid is much better in some seats than others. In this instance, signage is again a vital part of giving passengers the best experience so they know where to sit in order to get clarity. This, of course, is key for those operators needing to retrofit existing rolling stock that may not otherwise meet required accessibility standards. It also shows the importance of a specialist installer in order to overcome these potential barriers to a successful outcome. Staff awareness and information visibility While there is a move towards ‘driver operation only’ (DOO) and a reduction in the number of staff available to rail passengers, those who remain have a key role to play in helping hearing impaired people to get the best results from assistive listening technology. Staff need to be aware of where loops are provided and should be trained in how to use them so that they can assist passengers where necessary. Equally important is information online, on station and on board that makes passengers aware of the facilities available to them during their journey. Despite considerable investment under initiatives such as Access for All, information about the availability of loops is still patchy. Indeed, Crossrail’s website makes no mention of hearing loops being available at its stations or on its services when they are likely present on both. Clear information is key in giving those with a hearing impairment the confidence to travel on the rail network. Well designed and well maintained loop systems are what will keep them on board for years to come. Andrew Thomas is the Market Development Director of Contacta Systems and has more than 30 years’ experience in the sector. He is also Chair of the International Hearing Loop Manufacturers’ Association (IHLMA)

Tel: 01732 223900 Email: athomas@contacta.co.uk Visit: www.contacta.co.uk


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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

35

Time for change With time our most valuable commodity, Iain Griffin, CEO and founder of Seatfrog, explains why saving it for your customers could be the key to your future

I

f you could have one superpower, what would it be? To become invisible at the click of your fingers? To fly like a bird? When I was growing up, I would always choose teleportation. Because while in many ways the planet has never been smaller, when it comes to getting around it, we’re still frustratingly hamstrung by the laws of physics. That’s not to say things aren’t being done to speed up travel as much as possible. London’s Crossrail promises to decrease journey time through the capital with a train every two and a half minutes; the Virginbacked Hyperloop project claims to be 10-15 times faster than traditional rail travel; I even watched Lilium’s CEO talk about the planned battery-powered flying taxis, which use vertical take-off to make journeys five

If you’re lucky enough to have a mobile ticket you still have to stop at the barrier and scan it or have it checked before you can actually board the train, while getting on (and off) a plane often seems to take longer than the flight itself – something I find particularly annoying when you’re due at a meeting not long after disembarking

times faster than travelling by car, and are set to be a common sight in urban skies by 2025. But while these efforts are being made to slash the duration of the actual journey, it feels like everything else around travel takes longer than ever. According to a landmark Google study, if using a 3G connection, the average load time on a rail company’s mobile website is nine seconds. That’s long enough for 29 per cent of visitors to give up and go elsewhere. Even if you have booked your tickets in advance via an app, you often still have to queue up at a station to collect them from a machine. If you’re lucky enough to have a mobile ticket you still have to stop at the barrier and scan it or have it checked before you can actually board the train, while getting on

(and off) a plane often seems to take longer than the flight itself – something I find particularly annoying when you’re due at a meeting not long after disembarking. In a world where Google can answer any question in seconds, takeaway food can be summoned in a matter of minutes, and almost any song ever recorded is available at the click of a button, instant access and immediate gratification have become the norm. Google has found in the past year there’s been a 300 per cent increase in the use of ‘open now’ rather than ‘opening hours’ as a search term. So why does everything related to travel still take so long? These new, faster modes of transport will undoubtedly come at a premium, but people have become accustomed to this kind of


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When Stripe launched in 2011 it cut the time taken for businesses to set up a global payments platform from several months down to a couple of weeks. It’s now worth $9 billion. Netflix hasn’t just revolutionised home entertainment with on-demand video streaming, it frequently adds features that actively save viewers a few valuable seconds immediacy and the evidence suggests that if you can save people time, they’re willing to pay for it. When Stripe launched in 2011 it cut the time taken for businesses to set up a global payments platform from several months down to a couple of weeks. It’s now worth $9 billion. Netflix hasn’t just revolutionised home entertainment with on-demand video streaming, it frequently adds features that actively save viewers a few valuable seconds. Follow-up episodes play automatically without the user having to dig through the menus, plus it also gives you the option to

ever having to wait in a queue, which to me feels a bit like legal shoplifting, but it works. I don’t need to tell you how much their business is worth. It’s undisputed that passengers are willing to pay for time and this represents a billion-pound ancillary opportunity for the rail industry. Passengers want to upgrade on-the-go by mobile, switch trains when they need to, pay to access the lounge on impulse and countless other actions that make the most of their valuable time make their journey less ordinary. So, creating customer experiences that remove friction and adapt to their needs, making sure you’re there when they need you most will lead to significant revenue growth. At Seatfrog, the clients we work with achieve over three times the revenue growth on ancillaries by taking this approach. So just ask yourself, do you make the most of your passenger’s time? And how would you rate your retailing customer experience against Amazon, Netflix and Stripe to sell the right product at exactly the moment when your customers need you the most? If it’s low, then 2019 represents a huge revenue opportunity for you.

skip the opening sequence of a show and get straight to the good stuff. The company is now worth almost as much as the entire Disney group and has only existed for a about a fifth of the time. Amazon has made the concept of saving time central to everything they do, and this is no more evident than in its new 24-hour retail stores, streamlining the shopping experience by removing the checkouts and using a combination of sensors and cameras to work out which products customers have picked up. When they leave the shop, their account is charged automatically without

Iain Griffin is CEO and Founder of Seatfrog

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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

39

Is it time to rethink Britain’s timetable? Christopher Nuttall, Rail Operations Consultant, SNC-Lavalin Atkins Transport Consulting & Advisory asks and answers the question

T

he UK’s railway network is one of the most under-utilised systems in Europe, making it incapable of delivering better value for money. It also handles a relatively low share of national travel demand and suffers from an acute capacity shortage. The network has always been under close scrutiny, whether from Government, Network Rail or the train operating companies. This has resulted in strategies and plans that have made significant progress in identifying and meeting the network’s current and future capacity needs. However, to date there has been a lack of a joined up comprehensive plan to tackle the principal cause underlying the under-utilisation of the railway’s existing assets. The principal cause of this underutilisation is unequal distribution of usage, be it the concentration of demand into short peaks, with quiet periods in between, or the geographic concentration of demand around London and other major cities, with little traffic elsewhere. This problem may well stem from the belief that rail is a natural bulk carrier, ill-suited to conveying smaller flows. There is a given-wisdom that rail has a high share of demand to and from central London but loses most of the rest of the market to road competition. It is generally quicker to take the train to central London than to drive, whereas it is generally quicker to make non-London journeys by car, even where both the origin and the destination are on the rail network. On the other hand, the roads have proved themselves effective at attracting the multitude of small flows that exist across the country. The fact that private road transport accounts for over 80 per cent of passenger kilometres travelled in the UK, whereas the railways handle under ten per cent, suggests that these small flows are rather more valuable than the railways have ever perceived them to be. The railways’ historic focus on major

routes, which has resulted in improvements occurring only between a limited range of destinations while neglecting the other lessused routes, may be misplaced. However, it is possible to create a joined-up competitive strategy to retime Britain’s railway which would improve the railway’s market share against road usage, enhance utilisation and increase capacity. It is eminently achievable, what it requires is a holistic view and a recognition that efficiencies aren’t just about time savings on major routes. A new strategy The Retiming Britain’s Railways’ strategy would involve moving away from simply accelerating journeys that are already quicker by train and instead would focus on making uncompetitive journeys competitive and attractive. Achieving this would mean people would be able to travel where and when they wanted, matching the kind of freedom currently offered by Britain’s roads. The premise of this strategy is to focus on where rail usage is low. Many non-London journeys are uncompetitive because they involve slow and tedious interchanges and the key to improving many of today’s uncompetitive non-London journeys lies in eliminating unnecessary waiting at interchanges, rather than solely trying to rely on direct trains which can only link a relatively small number of destinations. For example, looking at the route from Colchester to Kings Lynn, it currently takes two hours and 58 minutes to travel by train. The journey has just under two hours spent travelling on the train, while the other hour is spent waiting for connections at Ipswich and Ely. The Retiming Britain’s Railways approach makes it possible to cut the journey time by over an hour, eliminating excessive waiting and increasing the frequency. As a starting point, coordinating the scheduling on a holistic level is needed. However, to achieve these kinds of journey

time savings, there also needs to be a recognition for the requirement to invest in upgrades. This is not just about laying more miles of track or shaving a few minutes off existing direct journey times, it is about creating imaginative solutions. This might involve cutting the journey time between two main hubs to make the difference between a train arriving in time for passengers to make their connections and arriving just too late. It may involve expanding station capacity so a number of services could arrive around the same time in each hour and make connections with each other. In some cases, it may be necessary to construct completely new interchange stations. For example, the current location of the Ely station is sub-optimal for connectivity. Therefore, the recommendation would be for a new station at Ely North, to maximise connectivity between the five lines that converge on the area, easing freight congestion and looking to serve the proposed housing developments. While most trains would continue to call at the existing Ely station, interchanges would take place at Ely North. Cross-platform changes Cross-platform changes are another aspect which would need consideration. Allowing passengers to simply cross the platform to connect with next train helps quicken the passenger journey. Eliminating the need to use steps, subways, bridges and lifts means that passengers are able to move between trains quicker, particularly important if there is a short gap between the trains. Cross-platform changes offer a significant uplift in frequency without the need for additional trains or track, simply by supplementing direct trains with other journey opportunities involving a cross platform change en route. The benefits would be seen on the Ipswich to London route. The 15-minute interval express service between Ipswich and London has three departures each hour which are


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direct and one which has a cross-platform change at Colchester. The advantage of cross-platform changes is that they use a fraction of the resources needed to run high frequency direct trains on every route and avoids overburdening an already congested network with unnecessary train movements. This cuts long distance journey times by reducing the pressure for the express to make other intermediate stops. While it is an ideal solution, it has to be remembered that few British stations have been designed with cross-platform connections in mind. This means investment in interchange stations and their track layouts would be required to achieve the benefits. It is possible to carry out a comparison between the Retiming Britain’s Railways approach and the Network Rail timetable for the Great Eastern Main Line produced to support the Anglia Route Study process. Having compared the two timetables it was seen that Retiming Britain’s Railways and Network Rail both offered a net improvement in journey times and frequencies compared to today’s service. Both also had to make tradeoffs; Network Rail negatively impacted 21 per cent of journeys compared to Retiming Britain’s Railways’ one per cent. Retiming Britain’s Railways was also able to connect 19 per cent more places with direct trains whereas Network Rail connected eleven per cent fewer

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places with direct trains compared to today. One of the principal challenges to realising this vision is the fact that train services are currently planned as a series of direct trains which are then specified to franchise bidders for implementation. Apart from a few isolated instances of connections being stipulated, this process does not consider longer interconnecting routes where people need to change trains. The creation of the timetable is left to the final stages of the process which fails to ensure the best infrastructure and service pattern are achieved. The timetable has to be flexed and fitted retrospectively, even when operating on new infrastructure, which has an inevitable impact on performance. In contrast the Retiming Britain’s Railway process looks at achieving good connections within an entire region. This means each regional scheme develops a recast timetable and scopes the necessary infrastructure and rolling stock improvements needed in order to achieve the desired output. The concept of writing the future timetable up front also makes it possible to understand what trade-offs will occur, and any potential risks they represent. Good connections need to be supported by key performance measurements, such as passenger arrival at destination, taking into account any interchanges, rather than each train’s arrival at

destination. Crucial information, such as the departure time, platforms, connection data and whether the connection will be held if the arriving train is slightly late, needs to be readily available to passengers on their journey. The digital network provides an obvious solution, allowing passengers to monitor their route easily in real-time. Implementation of a retimed strategy would involve investment not only in stations but also in rolling stock, the rail infrastructure and changes made to existing processes. All of this comes at a cost. However, it does offer Britain’s railways a unique opportunity to increase market share, tackle overcrowding and improve value for money. For the vision to become a reality it would require a full business case to be produced with buy in from the various players. It would require strong industry leadership to champion the benefits and win over the hearts and minds of stakeholders, bring about changes in process and secure funding for the necessary investment. It may be that Retiming Britain’s Railways’ goal of a competitive, efficient rail system may take many years to realise, but that is all the more reason to start creating it now. Christopher Nuttall is Rail Operations Consultant at SNC-Lavalin Atkins Transport Consulting & Advisory


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VIEWPOINT FEATURE |

43

Delivering the Digital Railway Eli Rees-King, Marketing Director at the Rail Alliance looks at how the Digital Railway will be delivered and asks what this means in real terms?

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hat does the digital railway mean in real terms? We have heard so much about Network Rail’s Digital Railway strategy and how this is set to revolutionise the rail network in the next 15 years and beyond but how will this realistically be implemented and what will it take to see innovation successfully and quickly adopted? Investment in the global rail network right now is unprecedented with digital capability broadly viewed as an essential enabler to drive economic growth in addition to developing a world-class industry with export potential. The Rail Delivery Group (RDG) stats speak volumes in terms of the opportunity: • Britain’s railway is set to deliver £87 billion of extra economic growth across the country • The railway and its supply chain work in partnership to support 216,000 jobs with 100,000 new job opportunities across the industry by 2027 • Freight trains take 7.6 million lorries off the road each year, cutting congestion and making savings of £12 billion in travel time. In November 2016, the UK Government announced that it would be investing £450 million between 2017 and 2021 into the Digital Railway to enable the trialling of digital signalling technology, expanding capacity, and improving reliability. Over the next 15 years at least 70 per cent of journeys will significantly benefit from the implementation of a digital strategy, bringing with it the capacity boost to help the UK rail network cope with the expected 40 per cent boom in passenger numbers by 2040. It will also be critical to improving train performance with particular emphasis on allowing them to run closer together which in turn would help make journey times faster while reducing the disruption from renewals, maintenance and upgrades. It would also see customer satisfaction levels increased through vastly improved mobile and Wi-Fi connectivity so that passengers can make the most of their travel time and communities close to the railway

can connect more easily. With capacity shortage and the urgent need to improve efficiency in the existing infrastructure, investing in and deploying digital signalling and train control clearly is seen as the answer to meeting this ambitious challenge. However, the challenge that exists is that these developments have not yet translated into the widespread deployment of innovative new UK-products into the UK/ Global Rail Supply Chains and as a result has an impact on the ability of UK-based suppliers not only to supply the UK market but also affects export in addition to reduced competitive advantage compared to our European counterparts. This detriment in competitive advantage is not helped by the gap between business support to accelerate the translation of university research and derisk new technology development, innovation and integration. Innovation which meets the needs and challenges of the industry is now crucial if we are to support the industry to fulfil the ambition and goals set out by the Digital Railway. We could start a discussion here around the skills gap but this is another subject for a separate article of its own and has attracted a great deal of attention – particularly in light of the recently signed Rail Sector Deal Agreement. Bridging the gap between industry and academia University of Birmingham’s School of Engineering recently secured £92 million of funding to establish the UK railway Research & Innovation Network (UKRRIN). The funding is made up £28.1 million from the UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and £64 million from industry partners – including Siemens, Hitachi and Bombardier Transportation. This exciting initiative launched early in 2018 is designed to create powerful collaboration between academia and industry and offers a tangible and practical approach to meeting the digital challenge and indeed challenges across the whole railway system. It aims to provide step by step change in innovation in the sector and accelerate new technologies and products from research into market applications globally.

UKRRIN is based on three Centres of Excellence formed by a consortium of universities, in collaboration with existing industry testing and trialling facilities such as Network Rail’s Rail Innovation and Development Centres and approved test facility, Quinton Rail Technology Centre. The new centres include Digital Systems (led by University of Birmingham), Rolling Stock (led by University of Huddersfield, in partnership with Newcastle University and Loughborough University) and Infrastructure (led by University of Southampton, in partnership with the University of Nottingham, the University of Sheffield, Loughborough University and Heriot-Watt University). In unison, the UKRRIN partnership enables a solid platform for academia, suppliers, technology inventors and SMEs The Digital Railway requirments: •

• •

European Train Control System (ETCS) – an in-cab signalling system that allows trains to run closer together, safely and to travel at their optimal speeds and braking distances Traffic Management (TM) – controls the flow of trains across the network in the most efficient way, maximising the throughput and adapting as conditions change Connected Driver Advisory System (C-DAS) – provides decision-support to drivers to improve timetable adherence and therefore, overall performance and efficiency The Digital Railway Programme 4 Supervised Automatic Train Operation (ATO) – directly controls the train’s traction and braking systems, making speed and braking decisions Smart Infrastructure with Remote Condition Monitoring – will improve performance, reduce disruption and improve safety Telecommunications & Data – providing the backbone to transfer data and information between systems and to rail staff and customers As a data configurable railway – Digital Railway requires high levels of data confidence and integrity, backed by cyber security and business continuity processes. Additional areas include – Energy Optimisation, BIM, Digital Twin, Smart Ticketing, Future Wireless Networks, Fault Management, Station Information Systems, The Internet of Things.


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to have access to, and work with, industry experts to help them understand the routeto-market for new technology, products and systems. DIGI-RAIL In addition to the resource and capability offered by the UKRRIN network, an exciting initiative designed to bolster the UK, and indeed European digital strategy, was launched at the end of 2018 by BCRRE called DIGI-RAIL. This is a funded, European Regional Development programme, made possible by the EDRF (European Regional Development Fund) with the aim of solving challenges within the rail sector and access the increasing number of digital rail commercial/research opportunities that currently exist in the UK and internationally. Essentially, DIGI-RAIL is a unique digital rail, demand-led, business support and demonstrator programme which will bring together rail sector buyers, eligible businesses and research expertise. Currently, the DIGI-RAIL programme is regionally focused and only companies falling in the Greater Birmingham & Solihull and the Coventry & Warwickshire Local Enterprise Partnership areas will be eligible to access this funded initiative. Any company interested in finding out more about engaging with DIGIRAIL, BCRRE research facilities or to access the UKRRIN network of capability, please

email railway@contacts.bham.ac.uk Data as an asset So to summarise, closing the gap between industry and academia is now key to being able to take digital innovation from early research stages through to commercial reality and has to be driven by market need. If there is more digital capability on the rail network this means more available data and the ability to use that data for even greater improvements and improved performance. The point that needs to be made here is that in isolation data is useful but by no means holds anywhere near the value or the power as when it is taken from a large number of sources and analysed as a whole. Research, development and innovation in the digital space has the eyes of the rail sector firmly fixed on how it will come to fruition to deliver the world-class railway of the future. The digital era for rail is now well and truly underway. Rail Alliance The Rail Alliance has recently signed a M0U with BCRRE in a bid to strengthen links between the two organisations and build on connections with the wider railway sector. Not only will this ensure that research and teaching draws on real-world situations, it will further reinforce relationships with SMEs for the benefit of the railway supply chain.

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As the rail sector’s largest dedicated B2B networking organisation, the Rail Alliance is all about bringing customers, suppliers and supply chain opportunities together. It is a membership organisation that sits at the very heart of the rail supply chain. Born out of the Manufacturing Advisory Service (MAS – established in the West Midlands in 1996), the Rail Alliance has evolved as a leading representative of the UK rail supply chain community. Its broad spectrum of membership extends way beyond rail and positions the Rail Alliance as the go-to membership organisation for B2B diversity, ingenuity and innovation. BCRRE With over 130 academics, researchers and professional support staff, BCRRE delivers world class research and thought leadership within railways, and offer an expanding portfolio of high-quality education programmes. Its close relationships with the rail industry mean that our research and teaching draws in real-world situations. By studying in depth what is happening across the world’s railways, it prepares graduates for the challenges of the future. The BCRRE press contact is Michelle Morgan. Email her at: M.Morgan@bham.ac.uk Eli Rees-King is Marketing Director at the Rail Alliance


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| INTERVIEW

The Oxford Economics research found that rail contributes over £36 billion to the UK economy, three and a half times bigger than

Sam Sherwood-Hale talks to Darren Caplan, Chief Executive of

previously thought, and employs

the Railway Industry Association

some 600,000 people, two and

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half times bigger than previously

forward to in 2019

thought, and more than the workforce of Birmingham

D

arren Caplan joined RIA as Chief Executive in January 2017. Since then he has led the RIA team, with a mission to promote rail supply sector growth, increase RIA’s visibility amongst political and stakeholder decision makers and influencers, and ensure RIA develops into the very best trade association it can be for its members. On 1st October 2018 RIA called for more funding into rolling stock research and development (R&D) in its submission to the Autumn Budget. I questioned him about this and the other key ‘asks’ he has for the rail industry in 2019 and also looked back at the big stories for the sector from 2018. The focus on the UK’s future relationship with the European Union dominated the news in 2018 and has bled into this year as well. What’s some good news we might have missed? With so much Brexit talk in recent months, it is easy to forget some of the major other political announcements over 2018 regarding rail. Perhaps most significantly, 2018 saw the Statement of Funds Available (SoFA) for railways providing a welcome £48 billion for rail infrastructure over the five yearly funding cycle, Control Period 6, which starts in April. We have seen a Rail Sector Deal published, which provides the basis for further cooperation between industry and Government. And despite some difficult developments on some major projects, good progress was made on schemes across the UK. At RIA, the national trade body for the UK’s supplier community, we believe even more can be done to help build a world-class rail network for the future, and assist our exports efforts overseas, in what are clearly uncertain times. At the start of 2019, it is worth considering the key priorities for the rail supply community. What do you believe these key priorities to be and what can be done to support this initiative? First, we should highlight just how valuable the rail industry is and the contribution it makes to UK plc. In 2018, RIA and some of our members commissioned independent researchers Oxford Economics to examine the value of UK rail, as it was clear that previous studies Rail Professional

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INTERVIEW |

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INTERVIEW |

were underestimating the size of the railway industry. The Oxford Economics research found that rail contributes over £36 billion to the UK economy, three and a half times bigger than previously thought, and employs some 600,000 people, two and half times bigger than previously thought, and more than the workforce of Birmingham. Furthermore, rail provides £11 billion in tax revenues to the Treasury, meaning that excluding capital investment, rail fully pays for itself. And for every £1 spent in rail, £2.20 of income is generated in the wider economy, meaning rail is not just a significant sector in its own right but is also crucial to boosting GVA and jobs in the wider economy. The study also conservatively estimated that £800 million rail products and services are exported abroad annually. The reason for these new figures being so much higher than previous studies is that past work only looked at Britain’s mainline rail system, and did not include metro systems, including the London Underground, capital investment, exports, station catering and retail, and indirect and induced jobs. Other sectors measure their size by looking at wider industry in this way – aerospace/aviation supports almost 1m jobs and £52bn GVA, and automotive 700,000 jobs and £45bn GVA, for example – so one wonders why rail undersells itself, as it clearly has been doing in the past. Now the true size of the rail industry is known, it is important that the Government acknowledges both the heightened economic and connectivity benefits the industry brings to UK plc; and supports it accordingly so that it can do even more to benefit the country. What are some things the Government could do to help rail deliver even more in 2019? There are five key issues we and our members believe the Government could act on in 2019 to assist the rail industry in providing even more for UK plc. These are: • Commit to ending ‘boom and bust’ in rail funding. • Ensure a visible pipeline of enhancements that provides confidence for rail suppliers. • Ensure that electrification remains a key option for decarbonising the rail network, subject to costs being reduced, as per RIA’s Electrification Cost Challenge. • Ensure maximum benefit from the £245 million allocated for infrastructure R&D, and identify potential additional sources of funding to support non-infrastructure rail R&D; and • Ensure the Rail Review does not stall investment in the rail network. What is the cause of ‘boom and bust’ in rail funding and how would we go about ending it? ‘Boom and bust’ cycles in the rail industry

occur because funding settlements for each cycle, known as Control Periods (CP), are not delivered consistently over five years. Instead, in every CP to date, there has been significant ramp ups followed by drop offs in workload, detrimentally impacting the rail industry by adding up to 30 per cent to the cost of running the rail network and stopping businesses from investing in people, plant and processes due to lack of confidence in future work. A recent poll of more than 120 rail business leaders, conducted for RIA in October 2018 by independent polling company ComRes, found that virtually all of them (99 per cent) agreed there are peaks and troughs in rail funding to some degree, two thirds thought the term ‘boom and bust’ described the nature of Government spending in rail, and more than four in five who saw peaks and troughs said that these had a negative impact on their organisations. What’s more, 61 per cent had frozen recruitment as a result of boom and bust, 50 per cent chose not to employ a staff member and 45 per cent decided not to invest funds in their organisation as a result. Nearly all – 96 per cent – said the Government must do more to smooth out peaks and troughs in rail spending in future. So, the first key ‘ask’ is for the RIA to call on the Government to smooth the funding of renewals work within and between Control Periods. And it is the top priority for many RIA members, who regularly raise this issue with us. How do we ensure a visible pipeline of enhancements? Unlike previous Control Periods, the forthcoming CP6 – April 2019 to March 2024 – does not cover the funding of enhancements, or upgrades, to the rail network. Instead the Government has developed a new Rail Network Enhancements Pipeline (RNEP), which will bring projects through a staged approval process to ensure appropriate ‘checks and balances’ for Government funded schemes. RIA understands and supports the objectives behind this approach of achieving value for money for taxpayer funded projects. However, there are no construction-ready schemes within the RNEP which makes it highly likely that there will be a significant reduction in enhancements workload over the coming few years. There is a danger that if the enhancements workload falls away, the relevant skillsets will be eroded or lost, as companies shift their rail capabilities into other areas, to other sectors or overseas. This is exacerbated by the fact that the skillsets required for enhancements are very different from other rail work, such as renewals, as enhancement projects require a multi-disciplinary approach. So, this needs to be tackled quickly and is something the Review needs to consider urgently. This brings me to

49

key ‘ask’ number two, which is that RIA recommends the Government maintains the funding for enhancements to at least CP5 levels (2014-19), to ensure the supply chain can continue improving services and increase capacity. RIA also recommends the Government publishes a visible pipeline of rail enhancements and keeps this regularly updated as projects progress through the stage gate approval process. How important is it to maintain rail electrification as an option and what needs to be done to keep it that way? In July 2017, the Government announced its decision to cancel a number of electrification schemes, including between Cardiff and Swansea, Kettering and Sheffield, Chippenham through Bath Spa to Bristol Temple Meads and Didcot to Oxford. Ostensibly, – due to cost. However, electric traction remains the optimal technical solution for intensively used railways and, along with emerging technologies like hydrogen, battery and trimodes, must be considered as an option for future rail upgrades, particularly in light of the Government’s challenge to decarbonise the rail network by 2040. Electrification has been shown to be better for the environment, quieter, improves journey times, produces less wear and tear on the track and reduces passenger delays. In the long term it is also more economic and costs less when compared to the whole-life costs of diesel services. RIA believes electrification could be delivered at significantly lower cost and has been investigating how to achieve this through its Electrification Cost Challenge, an initiative that brings together a number of Tier 1 and Tier 2 contractors, consultants and suppliers to see why costs are high and what can be done to reduce them. A report based on the Challenge’s findings will be published later this year. So, this would be key ‘ask’ number three: RIA calls on the Government to continue to support electrification schemes, and to keep Rail Professional


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INTERVIEW |

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electrification on the table whilst it works with the industry to see how costs can be reduced to cost effective levels. Back on 1st October 2018 RIA called for more funding into rolling stock research and development (R&D) in its submission to the Autumn Budget. At the end of that month rail regulator Office of Rail and Road (ORR) released its Final Determination which increased infrastructure R&D funding from £100 million to £245 million. How do we ensure maximum benefit from this? For many in rail it was positive to see the ORR increase infrastructure R&D funding in its Final Determination. RIA supports this increase which will allow the rail industry – with matched funding from the private sector – to develop new and innovative solutions to improve customer and freight services. However, whilst RIA welcomes this funding and the frameworks and innovation partnerships, there is no R&D funding for rolling stock or train operations, which will significantly reduce the ability of suppliers to take high-risk leading-edge development. The rail industry has already shown a willingness to co-fund R&D, as best demonstrated by the UK Rail Research and Innovation Network (UKRRIN), the £94 million partnership between academia and industry. The lack of co-funding in CP6, though, will make it difficult for multinational companies to make the case for R&D in the UK. And it will directly impact customers as well as the Government’s aim of decarbonising the rail network by 2040. As the rail network is a system, infrastructure and rolling stock R&D need to go handin-hand to get the best improvements for passengers and freight. So, this is our key ‘ask’ number four. There is an urgent need to identify potential additional sources of funding to support non-infrastructure rail R&D and to ensure the maximum benefit from the £245 million allocated for infrastructure R&D. This is particularly important given the imperative, in a Brexit world, for the UK supply chain to maintain and improve its domestic competitiveness and export potential.

Crucially, as mentioned before, the review should also be used as an opportunity to remove ‘boom and bust’ in rail infrastructure funding. Finally, what are your thoughts on 2018 as a whole and what do you think 2019 will bring? It is clear that there was some very good news for UK rail in 2018. On major projects, we welcomed the commitment in the Autumn Budget to further funds for Northern Powerhouse Rail, East West Rail and the Docklands Light Railway, all of which are vital and will unlock economic growth, investment and jobs in different regions of the country. Transpennine Route Upgrade has secured significant funding. And, despite the political controversies, strong progress was made on both HS2 Phase 1 and bringing Crossrail closer to eventual completion. RIA urges the Government to move at similar speed on Crossrail 2, and to set out its plans to safeguard and fund the project as soon as possible, in order it to progress. There is much more to be done in 2019. As I’ve said, we need to smooth out ‘boom and bust’ in rail funding, provide a visible pipeline of enhancements, ensure electrification remains on the table when decarbonising the rail network, ensure match-funding is provided for rolling stock

R&D in CP6, and ensure the Williams Rail Review does not stall investment in the rail network. We need to be aware of the challenges and opportunities posed by Brexit. Clearly we need to understand how any changes on standards, access to a skilled workforce, and frictionless trade could, post-Brexit, impact UK rail supply, and do whatever we can to mitigate these impacts. But we also need to ensure UK rail suppliers take advantage of the Brexit drive to boost exports and inward investment as the Government seeks to promote a ‘Global Britain’. And RIA would like to see rail have a stronger presence in any trade deal discussions the Department for International Trade are having with other countries. As we go through 2019 and enter a new Control Period in April, RIA and its members will continue to campaign on these ‘asks’, and call on the Government to engage with the industry to ensure the rail supply community can deliver the best rail network possible in the future. As the Oxford Economics study released in 2018 showed, rail is not just an important sector in its own right but – given its size and contribution to the country’s wider economy and connectivity – it is crucial for UK plc, as we enter particularly uncertain times in the months and years ahead.

You mentioned the Williams’ Rail Review, what are your hopes and expectations for the results when they are published at the end of this year? The Williams’ Rail Review provides a significant opportunity to holistically review the UK rail network. For rail suppliers, though, the review must not throw the industry into stasis whilst we await its findings – to do so would result in a loss of work momentum and certainty for the supply chain. We therefore welcome confirmation from the Government that business will continue as planned but will also watch closely that investment decisions are not affected as the review gets underway. Rail Professional


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DEPOTS |

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Why our depots need to be SaaS-sy Pick up any current opinion or strategy piece on any element of the railway sector and at some point the digital theme will be referenced

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have written before on the fact that The Digital Railway is not only about modern forms of signalling and train control, but that it is in fact influencing every element of our sector, from state-of-the-art teaching practices, through to the ever-growing relevance of Industry 4.0 on our supply chain. There has also been a palpable shift in the uptake of concepts such as Mobility as a Service (MaaS), most notably perhaps with Transport for West Midlands entering in to a Memorandum of Understanding with the Finnish Maas Global, to pilot the ‘Whim West Midlands’ app. Similarly Transport for the North’s Integrated and Smart Travel programme will deliver better integration between modes and will enhance the purchase and passenger experience through the application of emerging technologies, and more recently National Rail Enquiries launched a personalised journey update service via

Planned and unplanned maintenance will always be a necessity, and as such, all forms of technology have their role to play, from RCM to recording fuel deliveries, information is critical to performance

Facebook Messenger. MaaS in various guises and nuances is arguably pervading every element of the railway at the point of use, but how does that relate to those who are a step or two removed from the passenger, our mutual end-client? One could assume that the general travelling public has little interest in the ‘behind the scenes’ activity, which keeps our trains, trams and others running. But

one could also draw parallels between this upsurge in the adoption of MaaS-like tech on the customer-facing side and the Software as a Service that is of increasing relevance to the operational side of railway. Whether focussing on passenger or freight vehicles, there is a need for increasingly proactive vehicle maintenance. The use of remote condition and/or performance-based monitoring (RCM/PBM) has surged over recent years. As vehicles are Rail Professional


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becoming more and more intuitive in terms of onboard telemetry, so increases the need for better manipulation and practicable application of the data gleaned. This is where the growing number of Software as a Service (SaaS) providers, such as RTS Infrastructure can help make a difference. SaaaS can enable vehicle operators and maintainers to respond to anticipated issues, whilst vehicles are already off-line for scheduled checks and stabling. Depot guidelines According to the RSSB’s railway depot guidance notes (issue one, September 2018): ‘A good depot is one which allows the vehicle fleet to receive the designed level of maintenance with minimal delay,

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with minimal shunting movements while providing operational resilience for all failure modes.’ It is the ‘all failure modes’ where I feel SaaS could further optimise the efficiency of our depots, and truly help digitalise our railway. A fundamental aspect of vehicle reliability and availability is that of planned preventative maintenance; and this true to all rail-borne vehicles, from heavy ontrack plant and machines to passenger rolling stock. Regardless of the vehicle type, the more information that can be relayed between vehicle and maintenance depot staff the better. Exploring ways in which SaaS can assist the timely and comprehensive transfer of this information offers multiple

opportunities to not simply enhance the lifecycle of the vehicle or asset in question, but ultimately enhance the passenger experience too, directly or indirectly. Planned and unplanned maintenance will always be a necessity, and as such, all forms of technology have their role to play, from RCM to recording fuel deliveries, information is critical to performance. From basic telemetry to more sophisticated monitoring techniques, technology can also influence driver/ operator behaviour which will also help to


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optimise asset life cycles from component to complete vehicle. Rail is often described as the ‘backbone’ to a modern, inter-connected transport system, especially through the MaaS lens. Extending the metaphor, this makes the train depot the vital organ to MaaS’ central nervous system. I know that my proposition is not new; that RCM/PBM is established practice. I know for example that one of the major vehicle OEMs in conjunction with a depot protection provider was using RFID tags years ago to alert depot personnel to

maintenance needs as the vehicle was being brought in, as opposed to once it was stabled. But my argument, or rather question, is how can we come together across the industry to harness our combined capabilities? To maximise on the growing understanding and wider application of SaaS and ultimately improve the MaaS experience without the passenger even realising it? We talk about seamless ticketing as an ultimate goal for the passenger experience, but I would argue that seamless service and maintenance should be of equal if not paramount importance. This is where our depots can be the vital organ in the railway system. The RSSB states that: ‘There is evidence that some depots have been designed in isolation from the rolling stock which is due to be maintained at the depot.’ Given that more and more new fleets are coming onto our network it is imperative that our depots be developed and designed with modern vehicle and passenger needs in mind. SaaS can play but a positive role within this. Be that from ensuring that onboard RCM feeds give depot operators the most pertinent information ahead of a vehicle’s arrival, or that SaaS providers support the interplay between track and rolling stock. Returning to the metaphor, and

applying the systems thinking approach, the organism that is our railway needs vital connectivity at all levels. Looking after our infrastructure more effectively by planning and resourcing the effective utilisation of on-track plant and road/rail vehicles and by providing the fault analysis, monitoring and rectification process for all disciplines supporting the National Rail infrastructure means our fleets, old and new, passenger and freight, can run more efficiently. Thus they can enter into depot more proactively, and can in turn we can ensure that our mutual client, the passenger, still doesn’t realise what we do. Lucy Prior MBE is the Business Development Director of RTS Solutions, a specialist transportation software engineering company delivering stable and resilient, web-based, realtime safety critical applications. RTS’ software supports the railways, metros and road network infrastructures to meet the ever-growing operational demands for increases in capacity, reliability and availability of their networks by providing a suite of products and applications. Lucy was awarded an MBE for services to rail exports in last year’s Birthday Honours, the nominations for which also cited her work in support of the YRP and encouraging EDI within rail. She also has two young children who hear an awful lot about just how cool the rail sector is.

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Rail depot design (for dummies) Over the last 20 years, there have been some significant changes to the way that rolling stock is manufactured and deployed, which in turn is impacting the design and operation of the depots and workshops that are there to maintain the new rolling stock

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egular servicing and maintenance are fundamental to the safe and efficient operation of any railway. Each depot or workshop typically has to satisfy a unique set of requirements, determined by the type of rolling stock to be maintained, the maintenance activities to be undertaken, and the frequency of those activities. Sustainability should be a taken, and a good design will also ensure the depot is adaptable for future needs. As a result, there are many factors that should be considered when designing and building new depots and workshops, or indeed when enhancing existing facilities. From my personal experience the simple things are sometimes forgotten, hence this ‘dummies’ guide. Where to start? The design process should start from the moment the need for a depot is conceived. A depot is a complex beast, which needs a wellthought-out design to be in place. The UK rail industry also complicates this process, as there are numerous stakeholders involved which creates multiple interfaces that can increase the risks of the depot not achieving the most effective operational layout. The optimum solution to all these interfaces is to ensure that the team responsible for the new rolling stock fleet are closely linked with the team responsible for the design and development of the depot scheme. The rolling stock team should understand the vehicle requirements such as coach length, onboard equipment locations, power needs whilst on the depot, connection points and any high-level access needs. The front-line depot staff should be involved, as they will bring experience from depots with similar environments.

Human factors This seems obvious, but people work in depots (AI and robots are coming!) so the depot design, and that of the equipment provided with it, should take into account the interaction of humans. Human factors is a scientific discipline that looks to optimise the interactions between people and the systems they live and work with. A clean and well-lit working environment is a must, there are still some depots that haven’t changed since the Victorian times! Diesel fume extraction should be provided (diesels are with us until the 2030s), how many times have you visited a diesel depot and found the back of your throat burning after 20 minutes! The design should also ensure there is provision of adequate welfare and accommodation for different staff undertaking different tasks, and that future needs are provided for, or at least passive provision is included. Sustainability First and foremost, sustainability shouldn’t be an afterthought or add-on, it should be designed in from the start and considered as fundamental. Sustainability is also a key contributor to whole life cost and should be seen as one of the many benefits of the project. All areas of the depot design should be reviewed for sustainability – materials selection, use of renewable technologies (depot roofs are typically long with a large surface area, ideal for solar energy capture and rain water harvesting techniques), noise pollution, lighting and air quality. Don’t forget the neighbours! Specific environmental measures might include the separation of litter and other waste materials removed from the train during internal cleaning, requiring separate storage and disposal facilities. External

cleaning systems and washing plants have to incorporate water treatment, and some traditional cleaning agents are no longer permitted. Sustainability will encourage innovation in the depot design. Set a target, such as attaining the BREEAM standard. What equipment will I need? This all depends on the maintenance activities that are designed to take place at the depot. Not all depots undertake all maintenance, so it’s imperative that the functionality is agreed at the design stage to prevent missing equipment or unnecessary equipment that then stands idle for years. Passive provision for future mid-life maintenance can be included in the design, with the equipment purchased at a later date. A list of ‘typical’ activities for a depot would include: • Stabling • Light Maintenance – inspection and assessment • Cleaning (interior) • Toilet emptying (known as CET for Controlled Emission Toilets) • Fuelling • Sanding (sand boxes used for braking/ acceleration assistance) • Watering or tanking • Train Wash (exterior cleaning) • Wheel reprofiling (Wheel Lathe) • Heavy maintenance – usually involving lifting the vehicle or a bogie drop • Major overhauls • In house bogie maintenance or outsourced? The current trend for new depots is to have on-site ‘Vehicle Scanning’. These systems scan the train as it enters the depot Rail Professional


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and provide real time data on key wearable components such as wheels, brake pads and pantograph carbons. These scanners, when combined with onboard condition monitoring systems, give depot planners advance notice of issues and allow for depot movements to be pre-planned. This reporting chain offers advantages for the depot team, allowing an incoming vehicle to be directed straight to the appropriate track for maintenance or repair, if required. All the spare parts and tools required for rapid execution of the work in the available timeframe are on site until the vehicle is put back into operation. To facilitate this the depot needs to be able to detect the trains, identify them, route them and monitor the progress of maintenance activities. To ensure safe depot movements, a Depot Personnel Protection System is required, which will prevent vehicle movements whilst staff are still performing activities on the depot floor or in the vehicle. Storage and stockholding Holding a large quantity of spare parts can represent a significant cost element in the maintenance process, based both on the value of the spares and the space required. However, this has to be traded off against

the loss of productivity if vehicles are held out of service awaiting parts. While greater use of condition-based maintenance is providing more information about the life-cycle and usage of individual components, operators need to give thought to these issues when planning their maintenance strategies, as this will affect the design of depots and workshops Future proof? Once the depot or workshop is constructed and operational, it will need to be maintained itself. So, the ongoing maintainability should be a key part of the design process. This should include ongoing maintenance, life cycle management and life expired replacement schemes and instructions. Maintenance costs should be considered as part of the whole life cost of the design. Try to make the equipment modular which will give the option to reposition in the future, for expansion or rolling stock changes. If the depot is a diesel depot, the design should also consider the capability to accept OLE in the future. In terms of future proofing the depot, the more space the better is a good starting point but is not the panacea! As the industry moves towards the Digital Railway, depot

designers will be challenged as the ‘final’ product isn’t fully understood yet. What is expected is that the systems associated with digital signalling will be train borne, and as a result, more activities will be undertaken at the depot. So, what makes a good depot? In essence and in summary (and in my opinion!), a good depot is one that allows the rolling stock fleet to receive the required level of maintenance with minimal delay. It does this in an environment which presents minimal risk to employees and minimal impact on the environment. Richard Carr has 25+ years of corporate senior management/director experience in manufacturing and service businesses with a particular focus on the rail sector. Now operating his own consulting business, ConsultCarr he is highly experienced and brings with him a wealth of operational and strategic skills, with particular strengths in strategy, supply chain improvements, marketing and business development. You can follow Richard on Twitter @consultcarr

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TRAM & LIGHT RAIL |

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Technology drives safety on Nottingham’s tram network The very latest virtual reality simulations and artificial intelligence have been embraced by the operators of Nottingham’s tram network to boost safety, improve efficiency and enhance customer comfort

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customised Tram-Pro simulator was originally introduced to help train drivers on new routes following extensions to the network, but such is its success that this innovative technology is now integral to every driver training course. The value of simulators to improve tram driver knowledge and enhance skills is well-documented. That said, software is continually evolving, so it’s a question of investing for the long term to reap the benefits of the latest technological innovation. To maintain high safety standards and improve its service to passengers, Keolis Nottingham Trams, which operates Nottingham Express Transit (NET), is committed to making that investment. Not only is the decision to integrate the simulator into its driver training programme making a significant difference to the business, but it also garnered the business a Highly Commended accolade in the Light Rail Awards 2018.

company behind the Tram-Pro simulator developed a bespoke package with high quality geo-specific graphics to meet Nottingham Tram’s unique requirements. Introduced in 2015, the simulator played a key role in the successful launch of network extensions to Toton Lane and Clifton South. With 32 trams running across the routes each day, NET’s 150 drivers were struggling to find quiet periods in which they could take to the track. Using the simulator, which features graphics that replicate the lines in every detail, the driver team was able to learn the new routes and signalling within four weeks – training that would typically take at least two months.

Typical hazards As well as enabling drivers to familiarise themselves with the various routes, the technology has proved invaluable in honing defensive driving techniques so that drivers can cope with the typical hazards they may encounter along the city centre section of the Nottingham Trams network. Mike Mabey, Head of Operations at NET, said: ‘We’re keen to make our training as relevant to day-to-day tram driving as possible so identified the hot spots and created some real-life scenarios around them. ‘Drivers can make mistakes in the safety of the tram simulator environment and then it’s down to our trainers to work on corrective

Real-life application To be effective simulator technology has to accurately reflect real life. Working closely with NET and drawing on its in-depth knowledge of the light rail business and understanding of the training process, the

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the view through the tram windscreen. A number of upgrades since the customised Tram-Pro system was launched include the introduction of 31 new operational scenarios, enabling Nottingham Trams to place even greater emphasis on safety in its driver training programmes.

practices to ensure those errors are not repeated out on the network.’ NET’s simulator setup incorporates artificial intelligence, with moving cars, vans, buses and bicycles that change colour or type depending on the scenario, and all traffic lights are operational. The software tests a driver’s response to a variety of scenarios such as pedestrians walking out in front of a tram and situations where road vehicles fail to obey the Highway Code such as passing a red traffic light or turning into the path of an oncoming tram. Other ‘incidents’ include emergency vehicles pushing in front of a tram and people or property becoming trapped in tram doors with the associated ‘trap and drag’ risk. Since pedestrians board and alight the trams, it is also possible to incorporate platform routines into the training process. System upgrades The simulator technology continues to evolve and as part of NET’s ongoing investment a new hardware console has been added to the setup. Representing the Alstom Citadis vehicle, this console provides a lifelike Traction Brake Controller with position gates and all dashboard switches and indicators. The line ahead is depicted on a 44-inch ultrahigh definition 4K monitor, which replicates

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Cost-effective training solution The technology has been such a success that it is now deployed during every driver training course, including refresher sessions, and is also involved in screening potential new recruits to ensure that Nottingham Trams employs the right people for the job. The new driver training course lasts eleven weeks and recruits spend the first five of these working with the simulator. At any one time up to seven people can undergo simulator training with guidance from a single trainer, making the technology a highly cost-effective business tool. Each trainee session can be monitored with an accurate, detailed record of each ‘drive’ and trainers can ‘join’ a session to take a virtual cab ride with trainees. ‘The simulator provides cost effective, fully immersive training in a controlled learning environment and is pivotal in developing the skills that all trainee drivers must master’ says Simon Hunnybun, NET Training Manager. Driver recruitment In the transport industry, for safety’s sake it’s vital to employ drivers with the right qualities and skillsets. Recruitment is another area in which the Tram-Pro simulator is proving its worth, as it is now routinely used to assess the capabilities of potential new drivers. In the safety of the classroom environment the technology makes it easy to check a candidate’s ability to follow instructions and determine their suitability for further training, as Maria Dobney, HR Manager at Nottingham Trams, explains:

‘Using the simulator, to measure speed and signal compliance, for example, our trainers can assess a candidate’s aptitude for the role, while printed graphs provide instant feedback to candidates, highlighting both their driving capabilities and levels of concentration. ‘It means that those who make major errors can be excluded at an early stage of the recruitment process, saving both parties time and money.’ Safety record Passenger safety is the number one priority at Nottingham Trams so all drivers undergo rigorous training at every stage of their career. By replicating the entire network, the customised Tram-Pro simulator has proven to be effective in advancing NET’s development programmes for its existing employees. From time to time, as with any transport system, NET can experience an operational incident if a driver makes a mistake. Once again, the simulator comes into its own as trainers are able to delve into the issue and provide appropriate corrective training. In addition, once a year, all Nottingham Tram drivers attend a continuous Driver Development Course, where the simulator is used to refresh defensive driving techniques and a smooth driving style. NET is convinced that its ongoing investment in technology is reinforcing its efforts to maintain the highest safety standards across its network. Refresher training in particular is contributing to an improved safety record because drivers are taught to expect the unexpected and think on their feet. Mike Mabey adds: ‘Road traffic collisions still occur from time to time, but incident reviews reveal that they might have been a lot worse had it not been for our drivers’ quick reactions. Ongoing training, and the simulator technology plays a big part in this, is therefore crucial to minimising the impact of road traffic collisions.’ Looking to the future, NET plans to capitalise on technological innovation to further improve its driver training, which has made a significant contribution to the network’s improved safety record. The TramPro’s newly introduced eco and comfort functionality, designed to promote smoother operation, is also expected to bring about key cost savings whilst also enhancing the customer’s experience. Ian Rowe of Tram Pro commented: ‘The Tram-Pro simulator has delivered a cost/ performance breakthrough in rail simulator technology and we are delighted that NET have really grasped the opportunities provided by this system and are using it to the full. ‘As rail operations specialists we are confident that our simulator development will continue to maintain its lead in industry innovation. We look forward to our continued partnership with NET and to bringing further new contributions to safety and training for the rail industry.’


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Competence and safety on urban lines David Jones, Director of Education and Training on the Executive Board of the Institute of Construction Management looks at the industrial progression of mass passenger transport and the greater integration of light rail systems of urban rail transportation into roads networks and highways systems

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ailway companies were first established in the UK legal system as legal entities to operate a railroad track or trains exactly two hundred years ago

in 1819. Now an important industrial progression is taking place with the advent of light rail systems of urban rail transportation. In this article I consider the important interfacing and increasing integration of new light rail systems directly with the community without the usual railway safety separation of secure fences, shared running on current highways, and the safety impact on urban environment of our cities and towns. The construction sector seems to have reached a low point where professional bodies are questioning if we are now experiencing signs of an institutional acceptance of error – not everywhere, but enough to ring alarm bells! And, it’s unlikely that this acceptance of error can be selfcorrecting without a change in culture. I was one of the very first tranche of 200 or so UK construction professionals around at the time during 1994 when the UK government had to enact EU Directive 92/57/EEC into UK law which was the very start of construction design and management (CDM) regulations. With the introduction of these new regulations the official post of Chief Inspector of Construction was established by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and Stuart Nattrass was appointed. Nattrass set about engaging with the sector generally through an extensive number of roadshows talking to professional groups across the UK. I recall Natrass making his general plea not to make CDM a ‘profession’ preferring to use a ‘competence for all’. In a prophetic way is it possible he actually feared how the professionals would eventually evolve CDM? When several small groups would seize the opportunity to set up several commercially competing CDM membership groups – which did create new membership subscription paying CDM professionals but fundamentally failed to create the embedded Rail Professional

CDM culture in the toolkit of competence across the sector as Nattrass had hoped! During the quarter of a century since that first enactment of CDM there have been a significant number of reiterations in the law (although the original EU Directive has remained fundamentally unchanged now for 27 years). The UK first set up a new CDM professional then called a Planning Supervisor – who neither planned nor supervised! Then, after a lengthy consultation, later morphed that into yet another CDM professional who was called the CDM Coordinator (shortened to CDM-C) who simply didn’t coordinate CDM too well but, in the process, the system did develop incredible paper chases and germinated a plethora of commercial consultants. Clearly all that hadn’t worked, CDM as a culture simply had been all but destroyed in the administrative farce frustratingly played out over the many years and many disasters – so another way had to be found. After yet another extensive lengthy consultation the UK Government re-enacted CDM in 2015 which replaced the external CDM role and forced designers to do the CDM role themselves for embedded cultural competence.

However, design teams working in the sector realised they simply had to manage CDM with a lead designer from within the team who would have fundamental control over the design process and is now more sensibly called the Principal Designer. By 2018 I had become aware the sector design teams had indeed largely accepted the new statutory role and responsibility but, then, re-engaged the defunct CDM-Cs as external CDM consultants! Competence The Institute of Construction Management (ICM) launched the National CDM Competence Registry™® at London Build 2018, the leading construction and design show at London Olympia on 23rd October. The ICM are making the National CDM Competence Registry™® available as a crosssector facility open to all construction and property professionals, their supporters and commissioning clients, essentially to foster a new culture of safe construction fit for the future. The overarching principle is that tramway design and related urban redevelopment should be integrated with respect to managing pedestrian safety and keeping all safe. Professionals working on, in or around


TRAM & LIGHT RAIL |

the integrated interface will need to understand there are currently two separate regulators to consider. For construction generally the HSE is the regulator but, for railways it’s the Office of Rail and Road (ORR). The ORR is an independent regulator, operating within the framework set by UK and EU legislation and is accountable through Parliament and the courts. Some of its responsibilities overlap with the HSE so designers and all duty holders working on, in or around the integrated interface will need to identify who is the regulator for any part of their designs and work. The two regulators have similar approaches to competence but have different definitions that need to be understood by all professionals operational around the integrated interface. The HSE states that a competent person is not someone who simply has the competence to carry out a particular task safely. In general terms, the definition of a competent person is someone who has the necessary skills, experience and knowledge to manage health and safety. The ORR defines competence in terms of the ability to work to an agreed standard on a regular basis which involves practical and thinking skills, experience and knowledge, and may include a willingness to follow agreed standards, rules and procedures. The combination required is dependent on what needs to be done, in what circumstances and how well. Competence is vital in controlling health and safety risks on the railway, especially in abnormal, degraded and emergency operations. Urban rail safety Light rail is an urban rail transportation system that uses electric-powered rail cars along exclusive rights-of-way at ground level, on aerial structures, in tunnels, or occasionally in streets. The operation is under full signal control and the current UK systems have full automatic train protection and, as the name suggests, the term light refers to operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulations, using lighter equipment at lower speeds than those used by heavy rail, such as services provided by train operating companies. A tram system, tramway or tram is a railway on which streetcars or trolleys run – typically built at street level, sharing roads with traffic, but may include private rights of way especially in newer light rail systems. Many older tram systems do not have platforms, which enables close integration with other forms of transport and pedestrians making simultaneous use of the streets. There is an immediate need for structured disruption and to bring about a cultural change in competence. Recently the Chief Inspector of Rail Accidents has attacked industry safety standards after another near miss incident, Simon French hit out after a report was released into an

incident in north London where a team of track workers narrowly avoided being hit by a passing train. The Rail Accident Investigation Branch report revealed the workers were placing a trolley on a line they mistakenly thought had been blocked. The report found ineffective safety practices and no clear ‘person in charge’. French said: ‘The number and type of near misses in recent years is hugely disappointing given the efforts made to address track worker safety during that time. Over the same period, Network Rail has introduced a number of changes to procedures, and several new initiatives, to try to reduce the risk. ‘One of these reintroduced the concept that there should be a ‘person in charge’ intended to make an identifiable and capable person responsible for all aspects of the planning and delivery of safe work, for each job and it is disappointing that our investigation found that the way in which this concept had been implemented lacked clarity, and the result of this was confusion on site. ‘As well as this organisational issue, we found that staff were disorientated, and did not know which line was which. This could have been readily solved if they had had proper diagrams, and if clear signs had been provided at the point where they entered the railway. RAIB has raised this issue before – it’s time that the industry thought long and hard about the way it provides critical safety information to its staff and contractors.’ In another ‘near miss’ incident a track worker removing cables from a rail line near Gatwick Airport station was narrowly missed by a passenger train which is now being investigated by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch. The worker was on the line just before midnight on 2nd December removing short-circuiting straps which had been temporarily attached to rails in connection with engineering work. He managed to move out of the way of an approaching passenger train less than two seconds before the train passed him travelling at 51 mph. He fortunately did not suffer any injuries! Investigators are examining the sequence of events that led to the near miss, including the actions of the track worker and other staff involved, rules and procedures, and any relevant underlying management factors. Then, just ten days later two track workers at Sundon, Bedfordshire were also involved in a night-time near miss, having to jump out of the way of an approaching passenger train that was travelling at 101 mph! The ICM’s work engaging widely across the industry to deliver the National CDM Competence Registry™® operationally started in January 2019 – first meeting with major consultant and some Tier 1 major infrastructure contractors has been set so I am really excited at the prospect of halting the race to the bottom – let as all make a New Year’s Resolution to agree the bottom

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has been found – the only way is up! The hunt will start in February for contractors to deliver a £100 million extension of the Docklands Light Railway Beckton Depot. An official contract notice is due to be published on 18th February by TfL. Maintenance and stabling facilities are being extended to handle a new fleet of DLR trains packaged into several contracts – earliest work packages include a £5 million design and build substation upgrade and £4 million to £7 million of Southern Sidings projects. This involves three new stabling sidings

and seven new switches and crossings units to be completed before the larger Northern Siding package worth £25 million to £40 million begins which involves building a new carriage wash, extension and modification to existing track, and the creation and modification of new stabling sidings. The largest project worth up to £45 million involves the design and fit out of the new maintenance facility and track connections. This will be built adjacent to the Northern Sidings and is one of the final packages to be delivered. I will shortly hope to engage with TfL project leaders on this new DLR project early stage to appraise them of the cutting edge work I did some years ago to author and produce online training for over 1,250 highways officers across the 32 London Highway Authorities involved in the range of statutory duties in compliance of the previous CDM law. This new Becton Depot project will be ideal to focus competence on the integrated interface and, of course, make for a safer culture!

David Jones is Director of Education and Training on the Executive Board of the Institute of Construction Management. He is a Chartered Surveyor and Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Building with some 45 years of experience in the construction industry. He was awarded a Health and Safety Champion by the HSE. Rail Professional


TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION |

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Digital transformation: how the rail industry is embracing the future Justin Southcombe, Commercial Director of Perpetuum examines how the rate of technological change is vigorously advancing customer experience on the railways

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rom drones and biometric implants to sensors monitoring the condition of rolling stock while it’s in use, the rate of technological change is faster than ever and shows no sign of abating. If anything, the pace of transformation is accelerating. Just over a decade ago mobiles phones were just something with which to make a phone call. Texting was the singular innovation. The launch of the iPhone in January 2007 changed all that and now the device in everyone’s pocket is a miniature computer. And it’s not just phones. Everywhere you look technology is changing the environment and the way people interact with it. The rail industry has, historically, lagged behind others in embracing new technology, at least as far as passengers might have been aware. Outwardly at least, the consumer experience today is very similar to that of a decade ago. But the latest innovations promise a quantum leap that will revolutionise rail travel making it not just safer and more reliable, but truly transforming customer culture. The digital transformation has had a marked impact on the way Swedish operator SJ runs its fleet. Last year it introduced the Swish payment service, an app allowing customers to purchase tickets directly from their mobile phones, so speeding up payment and improving customer satisfaction. It is also a pioneer of the use of the biometric chip for rail travel when last year it became the first travel company to allow passengers to travel using a chip implanted in their left hand. Around 3,000 Swedish people now have the microchip inserted so they don’t need to carry keycards or ID – or indeed some train tickets. Once passengers have paid for their ticket, the tiny chip, which has the same technology as an Oyster card and contactless

bank cards, can be quickly scanned to speed up service. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), better known as drones, is also improving the rail customers’ experience. These are a cost-effective method for surveying the railway and are particularly good for close-up examination of difficult to access structures such as bridges, the roofs of buildings, and overhead wires. The use of a drone avoids the need to shut track in order to send engineers onto lines and thus enables rolling stock to keep running. When Network Rail wanted to survey a cliff face at Teignmouth where the railway runs directly beneath, they used drones to do so. Network Rail used the detailed information from the drones to create a 3D model that allowed them to add options for different interventions. This operation was both much safer and less intrusive to the local community than traditional methods which might have entailed aerial examination by helicopter or engineers abseiling down the cliff face. It also allowed the track to remain open.

Robotics on the railways is also beginning to recast the travelling experience. It has been three years since Japan’s Keikyu Railway introduced a 1,200mm high humanoid robot attendant, Pepper, to greet passengers at Tokyo Haneda Airport Station. Now Eurostar has introduced the same robot to the Departure Lounge at London St Pancras. Designed to recognise principal human responses and adapt her behaviour accordingly, Pepper features an inbuilt tablet, where travellers can find an interactive station map, information about the on-board experience, as well as tips on their destinations. But such customer facing robots are only one aspect. As with the mining industry and other sectors where repairs and maintenance can be hazardous, industrial robots can do much of this work quicker and safer; a robot can venture onto track without the need to switch off the current. Robotics are also driving efficiencies in factory production and thus the delivery of new rolling stock in a timely manner. Mirroring the long-established use Rail Professional


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of robotics in automobile manufacture, robotics supplier ABB has been providing welding units and spray-painting booths to help manufacturers to drive efficiencies in raw materials consumption and deliver stock more swiftly to market. Artificial Intelligence (AI), digitalisation, Big Data and the Internet of Things are further shaking up the rail sector. With sensors installed in almost everything, more data than ever before is available for analysis. Had this data been available in the past, operators would have struggled to make sense of it. But now, through advances in processing power and AI analytics, it can be harvested and analysed effectively. AI can run complex algorithms to make accurate predictions and the promise for passengers is a marked change in efficiency and service. Even the most basic aspects of rail travel will be transformed by such innovation. Sensors recording footfall and capacity will be able to advise passengers in real time which carriage is emptiest and where a seat might be found; smart refrigerators and snack trolleys will not only know when perishables are in short supply, but order replenishments. Safety will also be much enhanced. Sensors could monitor a driver’s fatigue, and driverless trains are indeed a distinct possibility. Similarly, maintenance will

be streamlined. The days of rolling stock needing to be taken to a yard for inspection, and thus out of circulation, with all the attendant knock-on effects to the rail operator’s service that might entail, will be few and far between. Instead, most maintenance analytics will be conducted onsite while the train is in service. A good example can be seen in Perpetuum’s Remote Conditioning Monitoring (RCM). Perpetuum, who recently won the coveted European Railway Clusters Initiative (ERCI) Innovation Award for best SME, combine self-powered, wireless sensing technology, with vibration engineering expertise and rich in-depth analytics, to provide real time information on the condition of rolling stock, including its bogies and wheels, and the track it travels over. Perpetuum’s ‘in-flight’ maintenance solution analyses rolling stock in real time while in use, and alerts operators to any wear and tear that might need addressing before they become an issue. At 2018’s Innotrans, the company signed letters of intent with a number of other corporations including Knorr-Bremse RailServices, the global leader in rail braking systems. Perpetuum has also partnered with German engineering conglomerate Schaeffler, which manufactures rolling

element bearings, with the aim of offering a mileage/kilometre-based payment system for axle box bearings. Perpetuum is an example of the innovation that is driving change throughout the rail industry. From UAVs and robotics, to digitalisation, IoT, Big Data and AI, the rail industry is rapidly being transformed. The passenger experience has remained the same for a very long time, but it will soon look vastly different. It truly is an exciting time for the rail industry, its passengers and users, and the innovators who are identifying and seizing the opportunities cutting edge technology can provide. Justin Southcombe is Commercial Director of Perpetuum

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FARES |

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The troubles with train fares – part one Over the course of two articles, Ivan Viehoff looks at British rail fares. Part one asks: why are British rail fares so very complicated?

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ew other countries do rail fares quite like Britain. Our innovations such as cheap advance fares and yield management methods are increasingly being taken on board in other countries. But still no one seems to come near the complexity of British fares methods. How then, can we increase passenger’s satisfaction with our rail fare methods? It is unlikely that every rail passenger will ever be entirely content with every fare they are asked to pay. It is really nice to pay a bargain super advance fare, but mainly because you know it is so much cheaper than what other people are paying. Meanwhile fares on average have been going up persistently over time, which is doubtless a component of the dissatisfaction. Those super-bargain fares can only be a relatively small part of what we pay, even if they play an important role on some parts of our railway, notably intercity. On other transport modes – air, private car, minicabs – cost has generally been falling, and people wonder why this isn’t happening in rail. But we have to remember that the British railway loses a lot of money. There is a social decision to be made over what proportion of costs passengers should contribute. Despite a substantial increase in ridership, costs have risen faster, and this has driven various governments to allow fares to rise. Opinion polls suggest a large majority would choose to complete the renationalisation of the railway. Benchmarking studies routinely find that railway infrastructure maintenance and construction are much costlier to deliver in Britain than on the continent. Both these things have their consequences for fares. But these are much wider issues, and it would require deep change to the railway to alter them. In part one of this article, we consider Rail Professional


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Mainline rail fares revenue in Great Britain per kilometre and per journey for franchised operators, inflation adjusted, 1994/95=100. The franchised railway excludes Eurostar, Heathrow Express, Northern Ireland, local authority metros such as London Underground, heritage railways and trams. Open access operators, also excluded, have a share of about one per cent of this market by passenger-kilometres. Source: Author calculation on ORR data. Fares revenue includes all journey-related charges but excludes ancillary revenues such as catering. Inflation adjustment performed at source using the GDP deflator. the two principle ‘troubles’ as: • Why are some unrestricted (walk-up, anytime) fares so expensive, especially for longer distance trips? • Why are British rail fares so very complicated? The different kinds of rail fares in Britain Notoriously, there are numerous different kinds of rail fares in Britain – anytime, advance, off-peak, super off-peak, season tickets, open returns, etc. Within this zoo, we can identify two key distinctions, which help to understand what is going on and the proliferation of fare levels: Regulated fares and unregulated fares – some fares are regulated, i.e. have their price controlled, but others can be set at any level by the train company National fares and operator-specific fares – national fares are integrated, i.e. allow you to travel between two stations by any reasonable route and on any operator’s train, whereas others are limited to specific operators. This mixed system recognises that regulation and integration of fares can be important to customers, but it can also be an impediment to the entrepreneurialism of railway operators to tie them up in too much regulation. The troubles with train fares are to a substantial degree a result of the difficulties of making this mixed system hang together. We now look at this in these two distinctions in more detail. Regulated and unregulated fares The system of partial fares regulation was devised as a balance between: • Making reasonable social provision for the needs of customers at a controlled Rail Professional

price • Protecting against monopoly abuses • Keeping subsidies at a reasonable level • Allowing a significant degree of commercial freedom and innovation. The general rule is that for every potential rail journey provided by a specific operator, there is a regulated fare, but not necessarily at every time of day (some urban regional transport administrations, such as Transport for London, have powers to make local rules). It works roughly like this: • On routes designated as commuter routes, (mostly around London), the regulated fares are the peak (anytime) and season ticket fares • On other routes, the regulated fares are the off-peak (saver) fares and also season ticket fares. The rationale for regulating peak commuter fares, and season tickets more generally, is that commuters have limited ability to switch to other modes or other times of day. Universally, the unregulated off-peak fares on these commuter routes are substantially cheaper, thus Government does not feel a requirement to regulate these. On other routes, it is the off-peak ‘saver’ fare that is the main regulated fare. The idea is to make social provision for transport, in the sense that passengers should be able to travel at some time of day at this relatively modest, protected fare, although not necessarily at the time of their choice. Peak travel on these routes, especially intercity routes, includes a lot of business travel, which Government feels no need

to protect given competition from other transport modes. It also increases franchise revenue to reduce the burden on the public purse. National and operator-specific fares The other key distinction is between national fares and operator specific fares. Operator specific fares are only for the use of a specific operator’s trains. The operator retains all the revenue from such tickets. They do not have to permit others to sell such tickets, and in general they don’t. A unique national fare is available between any pair of stations, enabling travel by any reasonable route and any operator, thus creating a national integrated tariff. For each national fare, a specified lead operator has the power to set it. A national fare ticket must always be sold at exactly the price shown on its face. Any additional service charges a seller wishes to make, e.g., for additional agency services, must be an explicit fee charged separately. The revenue from national fares is divided among operators in proportion to the estimated contribution they make to supplying that journey to the passengers who make it. This calculation is done using an industry standard model, called ORCATS, operated by the Rail Delivery Group. There are procedures to recalibrate ORCATS when there is evidence that it is not dividing the revenue fairly. Nevertheless, operators are aware of the foibles of the model and may try to take advantage of them in their timetabling. Regulated fares are mostly national fares, but many national fares are unregulated. This is because the national fare has to cover the standard product list of anytime and


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FARES |

off-peak, etc, and generally one of these will be unregulated. Especially when the off-peak fare is regulated, operators will often undercut it with an operator-specific ticket. This is in part because they will keep all the revenue from that, and because they can control the selling of it. It also means they can use yield management techniques, by having a variety of fares with different restrictions, etc. Trouble one: why are peak long-distance fares so expensive? The great majority of people travelling on long distance services either pay off-peak regulated prices, or discounted operatorspecific fares. Many peak period intercity trains – with some notable exceptions such as Friday evenings – do not run particularly full. This is because the operators are more interested in protecting their high fare peak income than filling those particular trains. Aside from a few very popular trains, notably Friday evenings, many off-peak trains are busier, filled with passengers paying deep discount tickets. Part of the Government argument for leaving such fares unregulated is only approximate. For many city pairs, air and road are not good competition to rail for time-sensitive travellers. Air travel is an important source of competition only on specific routes. Especially in intercity rail’s ‘sweet spot’ of up to about 150 minutes, air has limited ability to offer competition. It is no surprise that journeys such as those between London and Manchester, Leeds, Bristol, and Birmingham are noted for particularly high fares, much higher than the equivalent on the continent. With standardised peak fares and substantial excess capacity on many trains, these fares are unlikely to be maximising consumer welfare. Railway investments, rarely profitable in themselves, are typically justified by careful cost-benefit analysis showing how there is a net social benefit from the investment. But no such analysis is applied to changing fares. Reducing peak fares, at least on some trains, could be a cheaper way of releasing valuable peak rail capacity than investment. This is not to say that devising regulation to make things better would be easy. Regulation is distortionary too, but with such clear welfare detriments, surely, we should examine other ways of doing it. Trouble two: why are fares so complicated? Many people complain about the complexity of the British fares system. Aside from short trips, and in cities or commuter zones with integrated fares systems, there’s often a large number of options, with different conditions as to when you can travel and on which trains. Locating the cheapest suitable option for your journey can be difficult. It gets even

harder when you realise the vast number of options that come from ‘splitting the ticket’, i.e., buying several tickets for parts of your journey, which can save you money, sometimes a lot. Even when you buy tickets from a station ticket clerk, or ticket machine, or the National Rail website, they don’t always offer you the best option among walk-up fares. It requires skill to buy the best tickets, wherever you buy them. Many station ticket machines only sell a selection of tickets. They are often set up to suggest full price tickets first, and it is not always obvious how to access cheaper options. Onboard ticket sellers typically have ticket machines with limited functionality too. And these sources of tickets will rarely if ever offer you ‘split tickets’ or other exotic money saving options. You may have better luck if you instruct them precisely what tickets you want, if they have the functionality to sell them to you. Railway operators’ legal responsibility in selling tickets, whether directly or through agents, as set out in the National Conditions of Carriage, is to provide you with the information to help you choose the best ticket for your requirements. One notable issue is that not every kind of ticket is available in every place tickets are sold. Clearly some fares are only available for advance purchase, but not even the full range of walk-up fares are available for sale from every machine or at every station. From 2015 a Code of Practice, overseen by the Office of Rail and Road, added some interpretation to this. The Code of Practice says that a train operating company should act as a neutral party in selling tickets. What neutrality might mean is a matter of interpretation. But we can say they have not been required to act as the customer’s agent in actively looking for the best option for that customer. The regulatory authorities seem to have concentrated on avoiding certain aspects of ticket sales behaviour seen as poor practice. It is perhaps unrealistic to expect that operating interests could be made to act as the customer’s agent, as there is a clear conflict of interest. But customers may remain disappointed if the main suppliers of tickets are not selling them the best offers and be expected to look after their own interests in such a complex market. Fares that don’t add up One way of trying to scope the vast complication of British rail fares is to look at the numerous and unpredictable ways in which fares ‘don’t add up’. On the one hand, a longer journey can be cheaper than a shorter journey. In general, you are not permitted to buy the longer ticket and travel short, but this is not always practically enforceable, depending on arrangements at the stations where the passenger starts and ends their journey. On the other hand, a longer journey

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Why air fares don’t add up either direct, non-stop flight between two locations is a superior product to a flight which stops or requires you to change plane on the way. Thus, the market value of a direct flight from Amsterdam to New York is more than a flight via London. This is reflected in a higher ticket price. Equally, a direct flight from London to New York will be more expensive than one via Amsterdam. If a customer could buy the indirect flight from London to New York via Amsterdam, as a cheaper way of getting the direct flight from Amsterdam to New York, that would devalue the premium value of direct flights. Flights are more efficiently provided and used if the more valuable service is charged at a higher price. Transport tickets are not like apples. If a shop sold 2kg of apples cheaper than 1kg of apples, then you could buy 2kg and discard the rest if you only wanted 1kg. But we can’t buy a flight from London to New York via Amsterdam and only use the Amsterdam-New York part, because the airline can prevent that. EU legislation specifically provides for transport operators to enforce this. This law exists for precisely the type of situation mentioned in this box. In the following article, we will look at rail fare pathologies in more detail, showing how they misbehave much more than elsewhere, and look at some options to try and fix it.

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can be so much more expensive than shorter journeys that you can save money by splitting the ticket. Sometimes you can save money by travelling away from your destination, or beyond it, and then coming back. Sometimes return tickets are more expensive than two singles. This is not a specifically British issue. There are many other countries where rail fares don’t add up in some of these ways. Fares ‘don’t add up’ in some other transport sectors too. In the text box, we discuss why that actually makes some good sense in the context of that industry. But they don’t add up in simpler ways, and agents and air fare search tools are designed to help us locate the best options. Thus, the air passenger doesn’t get the impression they are being taken for a fool as rail passengers in Britain might feel. Ivan Viehoff is Chief Economist at Cambridge Economic Policy Associates (CEPA), a global economic and financial consultancy that specialises in providing policy, regulatory and financial advice. In his career to date, Ivan has extensively worked on major transport issues, but brings a broad cross-industry perspective from the range of his experience. He has provided advice on the economics of rail transport and frequently assists transport regulators, operating companies and governments worldwide. Rail Professional


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LEGAL |

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All change In the first of a series of four articles on common areas of dispute and how to avoid them, Charlotte Heywood and Darren Fodey of Stephenson Harwood LLP provide their tips on dealing with change under franchise agreements

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any readers will be familiar with the change mechanism in franchise agreements and will recognise both the advantages and potential pitfalls associated with the process. In summary, the change mechanism allows the financials set out in the franchise agreement to be opened up and amended if a change event occurs. Put simply, the mechanism recognises that you cannot possibly pre-contractualise everything that may occur over the life of the franchise and allows for in-contract amendments to be made following a prescribed process, in order to offer certainty to both parties as far as possible. Although we refer to ‘franchise agreements’ throughout this article, the points made apply equally to other models based on the DfT franchise model, such as the TfL concessions and also the Grant Agreement in Wales. Change – how it works If a change happens then the prescribed process must be followed and the payments due to or from the train operating company (TOC) may then change. The result can work both ways: in favour of either the TOC, or the procuring authority. In simple terms, the process is as follows: 1. A change event as defined occurs and is notified to the procuring authority. 2. The amendments required to the financial and/or operational models that underpin the agreement are then established (either by agreement or by reasonable determination of the procuring authority). These amendments only apply to the ‘relevant inputs’ to the models, or to the data that is used in those models that is directly affected by the change event. 3. The amendments to the ‘relevant inputs’ or data within the models are then Rail Professional


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Future proofing against disputes, so far as possible, starts at the negotiation stage. Here, it is critical to ensure that all issues relevant to change are dealt with within the franchise agreement itself – while recognising that the scope for amendments is relatively limited in a highly competitive procurement process applied, before a run of the models is performed to generate new results. 4. The new results are used to re-state the elements of the periodic payment, which will result in an adjustment to the franchise payment to the extent that the new results are different from the original data. Potential for disputes In our experience, the operation of the change mechanism can be the cause of significant disputes. The sums involved can be large, emotions on both sides can be strong and, in certain circumstances, the future viability of the franchise could be at stake. This is particularly relevant given the current challenges being faced by many TOCs, where passenger numbers are not following historic trends for reasons that are unclear. It starts at the very beginning Future proofing against disputes, so far as possible, starts at the negotiation stage. Here, it is critical to ensure that all issues relevant to change are dealt with within the franchise agreement itself – while recognising that the scope for amendments is relatively limited in a highly competitive procurement process. At the negotiation stage, issues often arise that require amendments to the models used for tender purposes, but, understandably, in the pressure to get agreements concluded it is often agreed Rail Professional

that the models will be updated following completion. Such agreements are often verbal, or, if they are recorded in writing, are often done informally or in side letters, or even within the record of assumptions – which does not form part of the concluded franchise agreement. Such agreements are often not legally binding and are uncertain, which can create significant difficulties. In order to avoid this, ensure that clear wording is included within the franchise agreement confirming which changes are required and when and how such changes will be dealt with. The definition of what constitutes a change must also be carefully considered at the negotiation stage; if the definition is not met, the process will not be triggered. If the definition is not clearly and specifically drafted, it will likely lead to disputes as to what constitutes a change, and/or result in a TOC finding that circumstances occur which fundamentally change the financial reality of it operating the franchise. Where possible during the competitive bidding process, particularly where significant future circumstances are anticipated, these should be built in – perhaps with appropriate clarification questions being asked during the bid process to seek answers on how those circumstances will be addressed. In-life management Franchise agreements are lengthy and complex documents. However, it is crucial that all those who deal with administering them are familiar with the definition of change and the details of the change mechanism, which often varies between franchises. The first question, when a possible relevant event occurs, is to determine whether it is a change as defined. This is usually a lengthy definition that covers numerous events – with a number of individual components – and is not limited to obvious variations to the agreement. Not all changes will result in adjustments to the franchise payments; only ‘qualifying changes’ do. These are changes which automatically qualify as such, or ones whose financial impact is greater than a certain threshold. The TOC bears the financial impact up to this threshold in any year, although changes below the relevant threshold can be aggregated together within that year in determining whether the threshold is met. Give notice A common issue is a failure to give proper notice of change events, particularly those that the TOC does not expect to be qualifying changes, perhaps because it is below the threshold, or the impact is not yet clear. If a TOC considers that a change will be a qualifying change, then it must give notice to the procuring authority stating this

and confirming that it requires the change process to be engaged. The timing of the notice is critical as it must usually be given within six months of the TOC becoming aware of the change and a failure to do so could result in the TOC losing its right to an amendment to the franchise payments. Giving notice promptly is therefore essential. Failure to give notice in the format required can result in disputes. Notice must be given to the right party, to the right address, and in the correct format, each of which are prescribed by the franchise agreement. While this sounds obvious, these are long term agreements and as the parties become familiar with each other they understandably tend to develop usual practices; for example, sending correspondence by email rather than by hard copy letter. This will typically not cause any issue until such time as a dispute occurs and the other party takes the point that the contract has not been properly complied with. When dealing with change, it is important not to fall into the trap of relying on usual practice and to ensure that all procedural requirements are followed, particularly if the franchise agreement contains a ‘no waiver’ clause. Another common mistake relates to changes with a financial value less than the relevant threshold (so not yet Qualifying Changes but could be aggregated together to become one). It is still important to follow the contractual process for notifying these, even if the modelling process will not be triggered, to ensure that the change has been properly notified and can then be aggregated in due course if needed. Other impacts of change It is important to consider whether or not a change will also have an impact on the TOC’s ability to meet other requirements set out in the contract, such as standards of performance like cancellations and capacity requirements – as these can often be overlooked. Notice will usually have to be given as soon as reasonably practicable and before the revised inputs to the model have been agreed or determined. Generally, the TOC’s risk of failing to meet one of the performance requirements should be ‘held constant’ (i.e. it should remain the same following the change). If the effect of a change means it is more difficult to meet a performance requirement, the requirement should be relaxed, and vice versa. Again, the changes to the relevant standards of performance required as a result of a change are to be made either by agreement, or by the reasonable determination of the procuring authority. The process The process of dealing with the impact of a change can be lengthy and the parties often work collaboratively for extended


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LEGAL |

This will avoid situations where, for example, a particular side model produces an unsatisfactory result that is then said to be binding. It must be clear when any ‘revised inputs’ and/or amendments to the models have been agreed and when the ‘Run of the Financial Model’ is actually being carried out periods to try to understand and agree the amendments required to the relevant models and the revised inputs. As part of this process, the TOC will often perform numerous test runs of those models, or of bespoke side models that have been created to assist with the process. This can, however, lead to disputes as to the status of the particular documents,

models and results. It is, therefore, critical to clearly agree – in writing – whether particular documents and actions are being performed as part of the change mechanism or not. This will avoid situations where, for example, a particular side model produces an unsatisfactory result that is then said to be binding. It must be clear when any ‘revised inputs’ and/or amendments to the models have been agreed and when the ‘Run of the Financial Model’ is actually being carried out. Given that the process can be time consuming, it is worth remembering that the franchise agreement usually includes a mechanism for interim adjustments to the periodic payments, pending the outcome of the change process. The requirement is for the procuring authority to make estimated revisions, acting reasonably and with regard to the information available to it at the time. In our experience, this is often overlooked or not used, which can have an adverse impact on cash flow. Disputes can often arise as a result of the procuring authority exercising its power to ‘reasonably determine’. Such determinations are binding, unless it is agreed or is found to have been unreasonable. In such circumstances, the TOC will need to refer the dispute to the relevant dispute

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resolution process and will need to be able to clearly demonstrate on what basis the procuring authority’s determination was unreasonable and why the TOC’s alternative is reasonable. Top tips for avoiding disputes In summary, our top tips in connection with the change process are: • Think about change and how it will be dealt with during the negotiation process and, in particular, make sure that any agreements to amend the models are included in the franchise agreement, and are specific and legally binding. • When a change occurs, ensure the process is properly followed, including the giving of notices. • When dealing with the impact of a change, do everything in writing, making very clear the status of particular documents or adjustments. While we cannot guarantee that this will avoid disputes from arising, it should make the position clearer and any dispute easier to resolve. Charlotte Heywood and Darren Fodey are Senior Associates in the rail dispute resolution team at law firm Stephenson Harwood LLP

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Quality in chemicals Adomast Manufacturing has been manufacturing and supplying an extensive range of high quality construction chemicals for over forty years

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riginally based in Waltham Abbey, Adomast is now located in its new production facility near Barnsley. Its chemicals are used widely across all categories of construction and civil engineering projects. The company has built a solid reputation for supplying high performance construction chemicals at highly competitive pricing. Adomast has been an ISO 9001:2015 approved company for many years, where top-quality customer service is at the heart of the business, offering next day delivery service to over 90 per cent of the UK, including direct to site delivery if required. Being a manufacturer allows Adomast to offer a bespoke product service. New or existing products can be quickly developed to suit a specific construction application or project. Working closely together with the contractor and its team, Adomast can design and develop products created to give the highest performance. For many years, Adomast has manufactured a wide range of products for todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s demanding construction requirements. Working with its customers and suppliers, the Yorkshire-based company is continuously looking to update and improve its product technology. More recently, it has been progressively replacing traditional solvent based products with new environmentally and eco-friendly technology offering very low or zero VOCs, with no compromise in product quality or performance. Adomast offers an extensive range of construction chemicals, which include

formwork release agents, concrete curing compounds, surface-aggregate exposing solutions, admixtures and a variety of cementitious concrete repair grouts and mortars.

The product list also features a premium range of formwork auxiliaries including weather resistant formwork sealing compounds, jointing tapes and weather and corrosion protective waxes.

Formwork treatment and release agents The formwork release agents encompass every aspect of concrete casting. The technology includes traditional mould release oils to the latest in environmentally friendly, biodegradable, non-hazardous, emulsion technology. Every mould release agent on offer is designed to give reliable, repeatable, clean and easy release performance with every type of current formwork; all giving a high quality, uniform, sharp and defect free concrete surface.

Concrete curing agents and retarders A high efficiency, rapid drying, easy applied range of concrete curing agents and surface retarders maximise the curing of the concrete resulting in greater strength, reduced surface dusting and shrinkage which helps create concrete with a superior surface finish. The Safetard concrete retarding agents are WRAS approved and have been the primary choice retarding compounds in the UK construction industry for many years. Available for aggregate exposure on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. Resin repair and adhesives A variety of polyester and epoxy resin based rapid setting, chemical and weather resistant high strength compounds for the repair and bonding of all types of masonry, brick and concrete products. These repair resins are all supplied as pre-weighed, and easy-to-mix format allowing a precise and controlled application. Concrete dustproofing and sealing Adomast produces a variety of polymer coatings for the surface sealing of concrete and masonry surfaces. Penetrating the surface, they form a protective, weather stable, hard-wearing film. Also available are products which â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;case-hardenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, densify and dustproof concrete increasing the resistance Rail Professional


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to oil, water and chemical spills. For damp and weather proofing exterior surfaces, Adomast supplies an extensive range of bitumen and asphalt-based coatings. Cleaning and maintenance products Adomast manufactures a wide range of cleaning products to be used on construction tools and equipment after use, to ensure the quality is maintained for years afterwards. These include solutions for tools that have used polymer resins; for the removal of oil stains from concrete and for the cleaning and flushing-out of spray applicators. Adomast also has products to prevent concrete build-up and corrosion on mixing and plant equipment, allowing easy cleaning and storage afterwards. Admixtures Admixtures on offer include water reducing plasticisers and super-plasticisers, airentrainers and those which aid the acceleration of the initial setting time and initial strength invaluable for winter concreting. Admixtures are available for reducing water uptake, therefore increasing freeze-thaw resistance of concrete and masonry. Cementitious repair and bedding mortars Adomast offers the latest technology in high performance cementitious based mortars and grouts by reinforcing them with polymers. They impart high strength, rapid drying and very low shrinkage rates, allowing the repaired section to have greater strength than the original concrete. These products are designed for general construction repair to high strength structural work.

Adomast Manufacturing is supplying a multitude of products for the construction of Hinkley Point C power station. Working closely with one of the main contractors a high-performance curing compound was designed to combat the challenging environmental conditions experienced on site. The result was the creation of a crack free, high quality concrete surface. Following this, the curing agent became the top choice of the other contractors on site. The Crossrail Project for the redevelopment of the London Underground approached Adomast to supply release agents, surface exposing retarders and surface sealers and hardeners. Following the announcement of a new bridge being built across the Forth in Edinburgh, Adomast was contacted to supply construction chemicals. Given the location it was imperative that any chemicals used did not harm the local flaura and fauna. Adomast supplied WRAS approved products (products independently assessed to comply with The Water Regulations Advisory Scheme) including: Safelease â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an environmentally safe, nontoxic and highly effective emulsified mould release agent most suited for fair faced concrete. Safetard Liquid â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an environmentally safe, non-toxic and fully biodegradable surface retarder solution to expose aggregate for construction joints or decorative purposes. The Radcliffe Observatory Quarter is one of the most significant development projects the University of Oxford has undertaken in more than a century. Work has been ongoing

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on the historic Radcliffe Infirmary site since 2008 and Adomast was contacted in 2013 to help with the development of an important new physics laboratory. As the project was centred around the installation of a particle-accelerator, the area had to be a crack and defect free concrete chamber. The use of Safecure Super high efficiency curing compound ensured all the requirements for this large concrete cast were quickly achieved. Adomast is currently working with a company of marine engineering specialists aiming to conserve and reintroduce dwindling marine life to the sea shores around Devon. It is using a WRAS approved release agent and aggregate-exposing gels to produce reef-building blocks from marine friendly concrete. These specially crafted cubes are interlocked together on the seabed to create an artificial reef, encouraging the local under water plant and marine life to inhabit and develop it. Consequently, a wide variety of marine life has returned to the area, including the reappearance of the endangered white clawed crayfish. Tel: +44 (0)1226 707 863 Email: sales@adomast.co.uk Visit: www.adomast.co.uk Rail Professional


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An innovative type of connection When a blind steelwork connection needs to be made, most people will immediately think of the old, tried and tested tapping or welding solutions. But what if there was a better, cheaper option?

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ee Systems offers the BoxBolt® blind fixing solution, an alternative to the traditional fixing methods which could help you to make major savings on both cost and design time, and which is perfect for the myriad of engineering and construction challenges of the rail sector. BoxBolt® is fully tested and approved, suitable for use with rectangular, square and even circular hollow sections, and simple to install using the BoxSok® installation tool thanks to the hexagonal head design. BoxBolt® is perfect for when installation time needs to be kept to a minimum. BoxBolt® is available in three finishes; zinc plated for the less aggressive environments, hot dip galvanized for the more aggressive environments, and stainless steel for the most demanding of applications. These finishes combined with three lengths of BoxBolt® make it extremely flexible to suit its environment and application. Stainless steel BoxBolts® were used in the pictured application to create a splice detail (tube within tube) for the neat looking steel structure, which was then glazed to create a sheltered area for passengers in transit to wait before boarding their train. The BoxBolt® detail allowed for the neat tubular joint to be made but without the need for expensive labour or equipment on site. BoxBolt® v tapped solutions When it comes to a tapped connection solution you can encounter various issues which can slow you down and increase cost, such as design checks and installation considerations. BoxBolt® provides a guaranteed load every time and reduces the amount of design checks due to being less

reliant on the material it is connecting to. BoxBolt® also reduces time considerations. Tapped connections take more time to complete as you must be very careful to avoid crossed threads preventing the connection. BoxBolt® vs welded solutions Welding in any scenario can be a costly exercise, not least in the rail sector where platforms or entire sections of concourse may need to be closed for a period of time for work, creating a backlog of unhappy commuters. Welded solutions also require skilled labour and hot works permits, and the time it takes to prepare the surface, weld, cool and then test the weld can often add up and take up vital resources due to much of it requiring supervision. BoxBolt® also offers several advantages over welded connections. No skilled labour or special equipment is required, and you won’t need hot work permits or to put aside the often lengthy amount of time it takes to weld. In addition to all of this, BoxBolt® is CE marked and approved for use by Lloyds Register Type, ensuring total peace of mind. Other benefits of BoxBolt® include: • Access required to only one side of the connection – connections can be made

blind into hollow sections or where access is restricted • No need for close tolerance holes or tapping – new holes can be drilled quickly on site if needed, increasing flexibility and reducing site installation time. • Aesthetically pleasing – only the BoxBolt® head is visible when installed, offering more flexibility in architectural design • Simple to follow design procedure – BoxBolt® adheres to the AISC and Eurocode 3 method for designing connections, allowing designers to quickly deduce which bolted connection is needed, saving costs on competitive methods.

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| BUSINESS PROFILE

Industry leading bolting systems for all seasons HYTORC is one of the world’s largest and leading manufacturers of industrial bolting systems; boasting a superior line of hydraulic, pneumatic and electric torque and tension tooling

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YTORC is a family owned, internationally operated business established in 1968, focused on delivering safety, innovative high-quality, speed and industrial bolting systems. The company has always pushed the limits through innovation, thanks to the knowledge and work of its highly experienced engineering team, who lead the bolting industry with pioneering tool designs, specialist solutions and safety improvements for industries all over the world. Aerospace, Military Transport, Shipping, Petro Chemical Refineries, Nuclear Power Plants, and the Space Shuttle, to name a few have all become reliant on HYTORC tooling and services. HYTORC’s latest product line features patented industry-firsts like hands-free operation to keep tool operators at a safe distance from the application, on-board documentation systems to provide job accountability and assurance, and industry-leading bolt load accuracy to reduce nut loosening and joint failure. HYTORC’s rail specialists guarantee to deliver safe, controlled and precise bolting solutions to solve issues experienced throughout the sector with significant improvements in operator safety, speed, accuracy and ease of use. Rail Professional

The ground-breaking 36volt Lithium Series Battery Torque Gun – a Network Rail approved product – is the ultimate solution for portability and convenience on industrial bolting jobs. With the world’s first 36-volt industrial battery system, these tools are ready for heavy industrial use. The lightweight design and dual speed capability make this system the go-to choice for industrial maintenance and production environments worldwide. The Lithium Series has been redesigned from the ground up and HYTORC is excited to announce that the next revolution in handheld electric torque tools will be released in 2019 – the Lithium Series II. The LION Gun is an 18-volt lithium ion battery-powered torque gun. It is lightweight and portable, with no attachments to hoses, cords or compressors. The technology fully complies with industry noise and HAV requirements that allow it to be used with any additional safety measures. HYTORC has developed a new technology in the form of the HYTORC Washer™, which entirely eliminates the bolting crush points by removing reaction arms on torque wrenches. The HYTORC Backup Washers are capable of preventing counter nut rotation with the bolt, which

eliminates the need to use a backup wrench that creates a second crush point, which in turn could potentially lead to life changing injuries. In using hands-free technology, HYTORC’s Washer and Backup Washer remove the main hazard of industrial bolting and can essentially eliminate the risk of hand accidents when the technology is used correctly. Thanks to the HYTORC Washer system technology, employers can provide employees and contractors with a safer work environment while drastically reducing the amount of money lost as a result of incidents leading to injuries. The LITHIUM SERIES® and the LION Gun Series both work with the HYTORC Washer System. When the Lithium Series Battery Gun is combined with the HYTORC Washer™ customers have the ultimate solution for portability and convenience in industrial bolting. Together they are safer, faster and more accurate than all comparable systems. The gun is a precision torque/tension compatible machine that the user can set and achieve the desired load. The company’s ongoing mission is to make their customers’ jobs as safe and hasslefree as possible.

With offices worldwide HYTORC offers a 24/7 customer service for all rental, purchase and repair needs. Contact HYTORC today to find out how they can optimize bolting processes. Tel: 0167 036 3800 Email: info@hytorc.co.uk Visit: www.hytorc.co.uk


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Anglia Mk1 Electrification Renewals In 2007 Furrer+Frey began work on the renewal of the existing overhead electrification on the Great Eastern Line from London Liverpool Street to Chelmsford, later this project was further extended to Southend Victoria

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reat Eastern was electrified starting in the 1930s and rolling out at the end of the 1940s and throughout 1950s. The initial sections of the line were electrified with an overhead DC system. Overtime, this was changed to initially 6.25kV AC and later 25kV AC. Most of the original equipment was retained so many sections still had old DC equipment from the 40s and 50s. Gradually, this equipment became an increasing reliability issue. A rolling programme of electrification renewal has successfully been undertaken over the past ten years and is due to finish shortly. As this work reaches the final stages, Network Rail has looked to the next sections to be renewed once this project is complete. Their plan is to renew the line out of London Fenchurch Street, the Thameside route – previously known as LTS (London – Tilbury – Southend Line). Like Great Eastern, Thameside was initially electrified with DC equipment for the first section in the 1940s. This was further extended in the 1960s at 6.25kV AC, before finally being converted to the more common 25kV AC in the 1980s. As with Great Eastern, the initial DC sections were

installed using fixed termination equipment, this means there are no balance weights or tensioning devices to keep overhead wires taught and instead tension varies with temperature. This means in some areas on hot days wires can sag requiring speed restrictions to be put in place. Since the Thameside system was mainly installed in the 1960s, over time reliability had fallen and risk of service disruptions had become higher. The route has been installed primarily with Mk1 equipment,

which is an early UK electrification system, thus the current project has become known as the Mk1 Mid Life Refurbishment Project. Due to the age of this Mk1 equipment and its inherent reliability issues, there is an increased maintenance cost associated with this life expired equipment. The project will improve the long-term reliability of the electrification system. To minimise costs and possession requirements, Network Rail intends to renew the electrification equipment but

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BUSINESS PROFILE |

retain the structures wherever possible, initially on the Thameside route between Fenchurch Street to Pitsea on the Tilbury Loop Line. At the end of 2018 Furrer+Frey won the contract to be the Lead Designer on this project, for works starting in 2019. By awarding this contract to Furrer+Frey it is possible to replicate the success of the Great Eastern Project to Thameside. Network Rail awarded the project management support contract to CPMS, which is also the project manager on the Great Eastern Project. The installation will be carried out by Network Rail’s inhouse

construction team OCR, who also are undertaking the installation on Great Eastern. Finally, Furrer+Frey is supported by OLE, which also supported it on Great Eastern. Together with the Network Rail Project Team from Great Eastern the whole team from Great Eastern will be going forward to work on Thameside, ensuring continuity and experience from the previous project is fully exploited. A part of Furrer+Frey’s proposal included: • Minimising on-track work: for example, Network Rail will be utilising Fugro to

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conduct surveys using passenger train mounted equipment • Furrer+Frey implemented a range of systems to minimise the need for structure replacement and thus reduce project costs. On Thameside a substantial proportion are very slender structures, so a considerable body of work has been will be done to show these can be retained • The route travels through several Sites of Special Scientific Interest, so a lot of work will be done to carry out environmental and ecology surveys to understand and minimise environmental impact • Finally, Furrer+Frey is looking at utilising technology to support construction work as well as minimise on track time. For example, deploying new cloud based virtual designs. In total the project covers 165 wires runs to be renewed between London Fenchurch Street and Pitsea, to be installed over the next five years. Tel: +44 (0) 203 740 5455 Email: GB@furrerfrey.co.uk Visit: www.furrerfrey.ch

DEPOT SOLUTIONS FOR SAFE MAINTENANCE Furrer+Frey’s innovative Moveable Overhead Conductor Rail System for railway workshops and depots ensures safe maintenance work on rail vehicles and enables free access to the train roof. The overhead conductor rail is retracted away from the track, switched off and earthed. An integrated control system contributes towards efficient and safe working procedures. This revolutionary system has been supplied and is operational in over 125 depots worldwide.

gb@furrerfrey.co.uk gb@furrerfrey.co.uk @furrerfreyGB @FurrerFreyGB www.furrerfrey.co.uk www.FurrerFrey.ch

Rail Professional


INVICTUS RESOURCE LTD Invictus Resource Ltd offer a variety of engineering services to the railway industry specialising in Overhead Line Electrification. The company is dedicated to the provision of services to a broad spectrum of industry clientele providing a multitude of skilled staff to the rail industry. They maintain a comprehensive database of fully trained and experienced personnel that enables a dedicated recruitment team to quickly and efficiently identify suitably qualified personnel for your operation matching your specific needs, regardless of the level of seniority or whether the role is operational or office based. Invictus Resource Ltd specialise in the following disciplines operating throughout the UK rail and construction markets: • • • • •

Overhead Line Staff (Isolations / Construction) Civil Engineering Safety Critical Staff Permanent Way Engineering HV Cable Jointers

Tel: 01270 875393 Email info@invictusresource.co.uk Website www.invictusresource.co.uk


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RSP grows with new facility Plymouth-based Rail Signalling & Power (RSP) designs, builds and tests electrical and electronic railway signalling and power products

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he company has moved its headquarters to a new office, manufacturing and testing facility, just over the Tamar in Saltash, Cornwall. Ian Morrison, RSP’s Head of Production said: ‘The new facility will give us all the space we need to build and test our extensive range of Network Rail approved products and for building larger assemblies, such as FSPs, DNOs, PSPs and industrial switchgear panels. It will also give us the potential for future expansion as we continue to develop new products and capabilities.’ As well as taking on the new facility RSP has also achieved two other major milestones in preparation for CP6 (Control Period Six). Firstly, it has recently received all new Product Acceptance certificates from Network Rail for RSP’s full range of FSP switchgear, signal aspect flashing relays, magshields and plug coupler products. This provides all new railway catalogue numbers and ensures the PADS (Parts and Drawing System) website now shows RSP as the sole supplier of these products; an update required due to RSP owning the intellectual property rights for the old MGB Engineering product range. Secondly, it has upgraded its RISQS registration and achieved a five-star rating for the Sentinel audit. This now allows RSP to send qualified staff to undertake survey, installation and test works on-site. In line

with this qualification, RSP is already extending Personal Track Safety training across its staff and will have availability to undertake siteworks. Andy Jones, RSP’s Projects and Delivery Manager: ‘The Sentinel accreditation is a great achievement for us. We already have 3D modelling, design, build and test capabilities, so to be able to send qualified staff to undertake site activities really means we now have a complete and full range of services we can offer our clients at any stage of a project.’ The company is a member of the ArchOver Group, the UK’s premier peer-topeer (P2P) lenders. Angus Dent, CEO of ArchOver Group, commented: ‘In CP6, Network Rail has a broad range of exciting projects including cutting edge railway digitalisation, traditional enhancement schemes and patch and mend works. The opening of this new facility combined with investment in key

accreditations represents RSP’s commitment and readiness to lead the way in innovation and delivery throughout CP6. We have a well experienced and skilled team and look forward to helping update and modernise the UK rail network.’ Tel: 01752 969321 Email: enquiries@rsprail.co.uk Visit: www.rsprail.co.uk

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Safe and secure barriers Elite Precast Concrete is the largest manufacturer of interlocking concrete blocks and traffic management/security barriers in the UK

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lite operates from two factories in Telford where all of the precast concrete products are manufactured using the same high strength (50N/mm2) concrete which is batched on site from high quality BS EN approved aggregates and cement. The company has been in business for over eleven years and has never used recycled/waste materials in the concrete which is in turn therefore extremely durable and has got a design life of over a hundred years.

The interlocking blocks have a huge range of uses from the construction of material storage bays (see below), retaining walls (see below) to being used as counter weights (also known as Kentledge blocks) for perimeter hoarding and security fencing (see right). Elite’s concrete barriers are used throughout the UK for a huge variety of projects playing vital roles in temporary works schemes such as traffic management, edge protection, perimeter security and workforce safety (reducing the risk of collisions with HGVs). Elite is also approved for use in the rail, defence and nuclear industries and in the utility sector being proud holders of RISQS, UVDB and JOSCAR accreditations. The company holds kitemarks for a wide range of drainage products and uses the same highly regulated Quality Management Systems for the manufacture of all of the products. Whilst Elite has a proven track record in supplying many of the major infrastructure projects in the UK including the 2012 Olympics, the 2014 Commonwealth Games, Crossrail, HS2, Hinckley Point C, A14 and London Tideway, the company also prides itself on offering ‘good old-fashioned customer service’ to all of its clients. This means all clients (from private housebuilders to international joint ventures) get one to one personal service from one of Elite’s experienced technical sales team. Logistics are provided by one of Elite’s trusted partners which combined with Elite’s massive stock levels means that clients get 48-hour lead times and delivery via all types of vehicle including standard flatbed artics, rigids, crane off-load, moffat/ telehandler offload, FORS Bronze, Silver and Gold, Crossrail, CLOCS, Tideway and HS2/ Euro 6 compliant vehicles and a next day pallet line service for smaller orders. Founded in 2008 Elite Precast Concrete is one of the UK’s fastest growing precast concrete manufacturers offering a wide range high strength interlocking blocks, traffic management/security barriers and counterweight / kentledge blocks for perimeter security and hoarding/fencing projects (amongst many other products). Tel: 01952 588885 Email: sales@eliteprecast.co.uk Visit: www.eliteprecast.co.uk

Rail Professional


Quality precast concrete manufacturers... for a great range and even greater value Elite Precast Concrete are one of the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading precast concrete manufacturers combining the highest levels of customer service with always being the best value option. Our focus is on driving down the cost base and then passing these savings onto our customers. This enables us to provide constant and predictable price structures which in turn underpin our ethos of developing customer relationships over the long term. Every product we make is cast from the same premium quality, high strength (50N/mm2) concrete. We were also the first and by far the largest manufacturer of interlocking blocks for various temporary works; fire breaks; retaining, blast and push walls and also, by offering three block types, you can be certain that we have the solution you are looking for.

For more information on Elite quality concrete products phone 01952 588 885 or browse www.eliteprecast.co.uk


Competence Data at Your Finger Tips The AssessTech Competence Management System (ACMS) puts you in control. An up-to-date, real-time view of all your competence data helps you toâ&#x20AC;Ś

Make better safety and investment decisions

Support your existing business and manage change

Manage competence on the move

AssessTech is a technology and training company specialising in all aspects of Competence Management for the Railway Industry. We believe in Developmental Competence Management, which is a continuous process that achieves lower business risk and a reduction in incident rates through targeted training and development of people.

Technology

Training

We supply hosted systems and services to Train Operating Companies, giving them better visibility of their competence related data, which along with complementary training and consulting, means they are better able to assess risk, manage incidents and target spending accordingly.

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info@assesstech.com

Consulting AssessTech can help your business. Get in touch.

www.assesstech.com

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01483 338646


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Unlocking the value of your energy infrastructure UK Power Networks Services’ capital financing capability enables its clients to focus on their core business, their electricity assets’ performance and rely on certainty of cost so they can confidently plan for the future

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ntegrating design and construction with long-term operations and maintenance, and third-party financing ensures investment decisions are made with consideration to the longer-term operation and maintenance of the assets. This ‘whole-life’ perspective also offers economies of scale, shares risk and aligns objectives, as well as delivering economically sustainable infrastructure for consumers, Government and shareholders equally. As a strategic energy infrastructure partner to High Speed 1, UK Power Networks Services proudly contributes to the impressive reliability of High Speed 1’s line, which delivers network availability of 99.99 per cent. UK Power Networks Services designed and built, and owns, operates and maintains High Speed 1’s electricity assets and systems. It has invested over £150 million into the design, construction and commissioning of High Speed 1’s traction power and non-traction networks. In addition to UK Power Networks Services’ direct capital investment for construction, an efficient capital structure was deployed to competitively finance the operation of the infrastructure, for a term of 30 years after its construction. Any significant public railway infrastructure projects, like high-speed rail projects, must ensure value for money for the taxpayer through the way they are financed and the long-term economic stimulus they provide. High Speed 1 continues to deliver an outstanding legacy, having stimulated sustained growth for both

the national economy and local economies along the route during the period of private management. Research by Visit Kent and Destination Research identified leisure journeys increased nine-fold since the opening of the line, contributing £72 million to the region’s visitor economy in 2016 alone. In addition, High Speed 1’s overall economic contribution to Kent’s visitor economy since domestic services began ten years ago is approximately £311 million, and over £3.8 billion in overall economic and social benefits. An underlying principle of any financing proposal is to spread costs over time. UK Power Networks Services currently holds capital finance contracts ranging from 15 to 90 years, in sectors as diverse as rail, airports and defence. The company’s finance solutions significantly reduce its clients’ risk profiles, particularly when linked to its expertise in asset management. UK Power Networks Services can vary the profile of capital structures to match a client’s individual requirements and constraints. By spreading the capital costs of electricity infrastructure assets over time, this will provide clients with clarity of costs over the life of the contract. Additionally, certainty is delivered by a direct linkage to output based performance contracts where the risk of power outages, asset performance, asset reliability and asset condition can be passed to UK Power Networks Services. Many blue-chip companies rely on UK Power Networks Services for stewardship

of their electricity assets. Ownership of its clients’ electricity assets for a fixed period ensures they are expertly maintained and replaced when required, resulting in a secure and resilient power supply. As an ISO 55001 accredited business, clients can trust that UK Power Networks Services conduct this work to the industry’s highest standards for asset management. UK Power Networks Services works with businesses to design and implement unique investment, ownership and asset management opportunities. This enables businesses to leverage the value of their electricity network assets and manage their capital efficiently. Whether businesses are adding to or upgrading their existing electricity network, building a new private distribution network or looking for a long-term partner to own, operate and maintain their assets, UK Power Networks Services’ capital financing capability will help unlock the potential of their energy infrastructure. Email: enquiries@ukpowernetworks.co.uk Visit: ukpowernetworksservices.co.uk Rail Professional


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Tackling ‘Bridge Strikes’ head-on As the new year rolls in, old problems in our transit systems remain ever-present; in the case of ‘bridge strikes’, incidents where HGVs collide with a rail bridge due to being too high to pass underneath, the problem seems to be worsening

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ccording to Network Rail statistics, there were 1801 bridge strikes between 1st April 2017 and 31st March 2018, the highest in a decade. One bridge in Ely, Cambridgeshire, accounted for a staggering 32 of those incidents; that’s more than one for every two weeks in the year. In spite of clear signposting and yellow markings, vehicles seem to be hitting at an almost epidemic rate. The current standard methods of bridge strike prevention are clearly not sufficient… but that does not mean that a simple solution doesn’t exist. Coeval have been supplying intelligent signage for years; this signage can detect important parameters and warn drivers accordingly. This includes Overheight Vehicle Detection, which can warn and divert overheight HGV drivers well before they get to a low bridge. The problem For every incident where a vehicle hits a bridge, there is a risk of serious injury or even death for rail and road users. The danger to the public increases exponentially if the vehicle is carrying a hazardous load, with the potential spilling of toxic substances or flammable liquids. Bridge strikes even have the potential to derail trains passing over the affected bridge, a catastrophic event that should be prevented by any means possible. Bridge strikes also wage a heavy toll on

the public in cost and convenience. On a typical day, five bridge strikes occur around the UK, each costing roughly £13,000 and delaying trains by an average of two hours. In total, that comes to over £23 million and 3,650 hours of delays. These occurrences are as common as they are preventable; resolving the issue will prevent loss of life, save money, and result in a more reliable rail system. The cause If any real change is to be made in the occurrence of bridge strikes, it is important to address the underlying cause. In 2011, Network Rail conducted a survey among drivers to determine key factors behind the incidents. 32 per cent of the respondents named drivers not knowing their vehicle’s height as a cause; 22 per cent highlighted poor route planning, and 15 per cent indicated that drivers not understanding signs was a factor. These answers suggest that human error is at the root of the bridge strike problem, as well as a failure in communication. Educating drivers on the height of their vehicle, the focus of Network Rail’s ongoing bridge strike campaign, has proven to be an uphill struggle. Careful route planning is also easily cast aside in favour of more convenient satellite navigation, and without more effective communication, these incidents will continue to occur. The solution Coeval’s Overheight Vehicle Detection (OVD) System is designed to tackle the problem of bridge strikes at its root, with the power of intelligent technology. With a height tracking sensor, the system responds to the approach of an overheight vehicle, alerting the driver via an LED warning sign and diverting or stopping them before any damage can be caused. With this simple measure, Coeval’s OVD System directly addresses the issue of drivers not knowing the height of their vehicle. As well as the clear benefits of their responsive nature, the signs are robust,

Rail Professional

vandal resistant and visible in all conditions – an especially crucial benefit in the Winter, where driver visibility can be a challenge. The sign technology is fully customised so the message is bespoke to its location, providing specific instructions to the driver. These signs have been shown to reduce bridge strikes wherever they have been implemented. Coeval welcomes enquiries into how it can bring the benefits of Overheight Vehicle Detection to Britain’s rail bridges. With its industry-leading standards in designing, manufacturing, installing and maintaining bespoke signage, Coeval works alongside Highway agencies and City Councils to make UK railways and roads a safer place. Tel: 0141 255 0840 Email: info@coeval.uk.com Visit: coeval.uk.com


Modern problems require modern solutions, Stronguard™ RCS 75 has allowed us to make an ageing railway safer for the travelling public, with a robust cost effective product

TSB. PM Network Rail.

Reduce the risk of

Road Vehicle Incursion *

WITH VEHICLE MITIGATION PALISADE* stronguard The latest development in super strong, durable, ultimate security palisade TM

RCS 25 & RCS 75

Barkers StronguardTM RCS 25 & RCS 75 crash tested palisade to protect sensitive infrastructure on the railway. The first palisade fence system to gain the PAS68 accreditation.

* Stronguard RCS 25 PAS 68: 2010: 2500 (N1G)/48/90 0.0 Stronguard RCS 75 PAS68: 2010: 7500 (N2)/48/90 0.3 TM

has now got even better!

A major issue that faces the rail infrastructure is the threat, on a weekly basis, of unauthorized vehicle incursion, both criminal and accidental from the highway. Barkers StronguardTM RCS 25 & 75 PAS68 crash tested palisade fence, designed and accredited to stop up to

a 7.5 ton vehicles traveling at 30mph, is seen as a solution to help reduce these ‘accidents’.

Installed by Barkers Fencing approved installers to give unrivalled start-tofinish service.

The hostile vehicle mitigation perimeter is available at two levels and offers some of the highest levels of security for all sites that demand maximum security.

If you would like more information about our latest Barkers StronguardTM RCS 25 & RCS 75 PAS68 projects, then please call us today or email russellr@barkersengineering.com

TM

Great British engineering for over 150 years

Manufacturing from a single source Duke Street | Fenton | Stoke-on-Trent | ST4 3NS | Tel 01782 319264 | Fax 01782 599724 | sales@barkersfencing.com

Rail Professional


Air1 is a UK supplier of AdBlue solutions that reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) in diesel locomotives that are equipped with SCR systems.

Clean air solutions

Yara Nutriox eliminates odour and reduces the risk of exposure to toxic H2S gases produced through the biological decomposition of passenger effluent. Please call 01472 889250 for more information. www.yara.co.uk

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The MOSA division of Wilkinson Star Ltd is the sole importer and after power generation specialists, Network Rail, Crossrail & London sales service agent for the full range of Engine Driven Welder Generators, Underground contractors together with many overseas projects requiring Generating Sets & Lighting Towers manufactured by MOSA Italy, a the use of reliable equipment. company founded in 1963. With the backing of Wilkinson Star and a commitment to customer MOSA Engine Driven Welder Generators, together with MOSA Generating service, product innovation, competitive pricing and stock availability, Sets & Lighting Towers are supplied to a wide range of industry sectors MOSA offers you – the customer, a quality product with first class support. in the UK including plant & tool hire, welding & engineering distributors,

Rail Professional


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Cintec Rail – Holding it all together for Network Rail Cintec International continues to work with Network Rail and keeps going from strength to strength

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he patented Cintec reinforcement and anchoring system is straightforward: injecting a proprietary cementitious fluid grout into an anchor surrounded by a fabric sock, which has already been placed in an oversized drilled hole. The reinforcement system’s ingenuity lies in its versatility. Drawing on decades of experience and testing, Cintec’s designers can customize it to perform to suit any specification.

Cintec International supplies Network Rail with numerous anchoring solutions, the anchors having been used now on various projects both large and small including work on the electrification upgrades, station upgrades, retaining walls, bridge repairs and strengthening. Cintec and its partner companies offer a complete diagnostic service on all masonry and stone bridges and structures, from initial assessment and a finite element design process through to anchor installation and completion. Electrification projects The work, which is essential to the electrification process, involves utilising Cintec’s patented anchoring system to support the weight of the gantries which will hold the cables needed to electrify the lines, and in some cases to strengthen railway bridges and viaducts to which the gantries are attached. This work has continued over the last three years on the Northern Hub, Great Western Line and numerous projects throughout London including the complete Gospel Oak to Barking line. Yarrow Viaduct One of the more challenging projects that Cintec International have worked on in partnership with Network Rail has been the Electrification gantries at Yarrow Viaduct. The Clients preferred choice of gantry on Yarrow was an over spanning gantry across the complete width of the viaduct. Two anchors were to be used on the gantry. The top anchor would span the complete width of the viaduct and would be connected to the gantry legs at either side. These anchors would act as the main fixing anchors for the gantry but would also be used to provide additional strength to the viaduct by tying both sides together. The second anchors were used on the bottom of the bracket were to provide stability and would work with the top anchors to achieve the load requirements for the overall gantry. The most difficult part of the process was drilling a hole and lining up the anchor through the full width of the viaduct so that it was able to attach the premade Gantry

with a minimal amount of deviation from one side to the other. The anchor installers used diamond core drilling with mining barrels to achieve this. 9.6 metres long Cintec anchors, 24mm diameter in 100mm drill holes were used to connect from one side to the other. The lower Cintec anchors were 24mm diameter in an 86mm drill hole and were 1.65 metres long. Other projects During the past year other Network rail projects that have included Cintec anchors have been: • Hull Station to attach a new entrance canopy • Northern Hub Walkway. The future Cintec is proud to have been involved in the work that has already taken place improving the UK’s rail system and continues to expand into the rail upgrading programme including the Transpennine Route with partnering

arrangements with prime suppliers to Network Rail in addition to advising professional design practices on practical and cost-effective structural solutions. Ongoing product and engineering development work will enable Cintec to provide even more inventive solutions to structural problems within the rail assets to continue to improve the UK’s rail infrastructure. Tel: 01633 246614 Email: hqcintec@cintec.co.uk Visit: www.cintec.co.uk Rail Professional


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Making the right choice for power supplies on rolling stock In the past power on rolling stock was all about the considerations of traction equipment, lighting and basic signalling with 110VDC from onboard batteries connected to everything

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witchgear on the DC bus did not have surge and transient limiters on the basis that they would degrade with time and couldn’t be guaranteed to always function, so individual equipment had to withstand the full level of over-voltages, drop-outs and surges that resulted. It didn’t matter though that the lights occasionally brightened or dimmed. Today it’s very different – modern rail vehicles are packed with electronics for communications and control, with passengers also increasingly expecting cellular repeaters and Wi-Fi services with ‘clean’ AC mains and USB DC power available at each seat. Because of the environment and the diverse nature of connected equipment, power conversion is becoming increasingly distributed. Each converter that interfaces between the raw DC bus, the train electronics and passengers’ expensive portable devices has to be designed to meet the electrical specification of the bus voltage and also the harsh physical environment of a rail application. EN 50155 is the European standard for electrical equipment in rolling stock, covering functionality and performance under the particular rail environmental conditions. Electrical stresses are covered along with EMC, safety and mechanical conditions such as vibration, shock, bump, water-tightness and much more. Of particular concern to power supply manufacturers is the input voltage specification which has several possible nominals with dips, drop-outs, surges and transients. Figure 1 summarizes the specification in EN 50155 with a comparison to other older rail standards, British RIA-12, French NFF 01-510 and the USA. High kV transients are not shown and are attenuated by Tranzorbs or similar suppression devices. The ‘wide’ input ranges of standard commercial DCDC converters, 9 – 36V and 18 – 72V are given as a reference showing poor overlap to rail requirements. As examples, some Rail Professional

commercial DC-DC converters from the Bel Power Solutions range designed specifically for rail are also shown covering all of the nominal ranges. Fortunately, for the relatively low power distributed converters in communication and control equipment, the high energy surges lasting for up to a second and high voltage spikes are usually handled by a preconditioning stage, leaving just the wide continuous operating voltage to contend with. For example, a 110 VDC, EN 50155 nominal input can range from 77 to 137.5 VDC. If compliance with the RIA-12 standard is required with surges of 3.5 x nominal for 20 ms, up to 385 VDC, an active pre-regulator or similar is normally needed as the energy is too high to simply absorb in

transient limiter components. EN 50155:2017 also includes a specification for total supply interruption for 10 ms in some applications, designated ‘Class S2’ and interruptions for 20 ms, ‘Class S3’. Environmental tests Another way that commercial power converters are unlikely to match the specifications is in compliance with environmental tests. EN 50155 references EN 61373 for shock, vibration and bump with requirements split into three categories: body (class A and B), bogie and axle-mounted, the last being most severe. Depending on the intended locations other specifications may apply such as immunity to water ingress and salt mist.


BUSINESS PROFILE |

EMC of course is an additional consideration with specifications applicable for ESD, Surge and transient immunity, also RF susceptibility along with conducted and radiated emissions according to EN 501213-2. Dry and damp heat specifications also apply, and typical operating temperature ratings are -40 to +85°C but may be transient. Suppliers of power converters must also prove compliance by extensive test records, build documentation and predictions and proof of reliability of both hardware and any embedded software. All this is along with any application-specific requirements such as ‘useful lifetime’ which could be 30 years. Types of power converters typically used DC-DC converters with various form factors are used in rolling stock depending on the power level and application. Chassismounted parts are typical at higher power with appropriate ruggedization to meet the shock and vibration requirements with any open PCBs lacquered. Up to around 600 W, the Eurocassette style is very popular. This is a rack-mounting product using the standard DIN 41612 H15 connector and is available at many power levels and with many options. Both chassis-mounted and cassette style products will typically have ‘bus’ outputs of 12, 24 or 48 V and will often have options to include extra filtering, reverse polarity protection and extended hold-up time. ‘Hold-up’ or ‘ride through’ can be quite challenging for low nominal input voltages. For example, to hold up a 100 W supply at 80 per cent efficiency for 10 ms for ‘Class 2’ applications with an input range of 16-36 V around a

24 V nominal would need a capacitor on the input of about 8,000 µF rated at 40 V – about 2.5 cu-in or 40 cu-cm size. This is significant size and cost and a major contributor to the overall reliability and life time calculations. EN50155 describes interruptions as being caused by input short circuits, so a series input diode is also necessary to isolate the hold-up capacitor, which causes additional power loss and voltage drop requiring the input range of the converter to be extended. Other solutions for hold-up might be to internally boost the input to a higher voltage so a smaller capacitor can be used for the same energy storage but in any case, inrush current and charge rate into the capacitor has to be controlled and may limit the repetition rate of allowable drop-outs to one in ten seconds or so. Some products are able to connect converter outputs in parallel for extra power or redundancy with associated signalling. The input voltage range of the converters will often be wide to encompass as many nominal battery voltages as possible with their dips and surges. Note that accessible fuses are often not allowed in power supplies in rail applications so external fuses or contact breakers may be necessary. Board mounted products are also used at up to around 100 W giving tightly regulated low voltage outputs for digital and analogue circuitry. These

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may also be powered directly from the DC bus so often will need surge and transient as well as environmental protection. Isolation is generally required of DCDC converters with levels defined by the application but is typically BASIC or REINFORCED. EN 50155 includes a diagram identifying system EMC area A, B and C shown in abbreviated form in Figure 2 with the typical positioning of a DC-DC converter. Practical solutions With the Melcher branded products, Bel Power Solutions is a major supplier of DCDC converters that comply with EN 50155. Isolated, chassis-mounted parts are available in the RCM series from 150 W to 300 W with input ranges of 14.4 – 50.4 VDC and 43.2 – 154 VDC covering nominals of 24 V, 28 V, 36 V, 72 V, 96 V and 110 VDC with brown-outs to 0.6 x Vnom and surges to 1.4 x Vnom. 500 W and 1000 W parts are available with inputs of 43.2 – 100.8 VDC for 72 VDC nominal and 66 – 154 VDC for the 110 VDC nominal input also covering 0.6 x Vnom brown-outs and 1.4 x Vnom surges. Non-isolated cassettes are available up to 576 W in the PSK/PSS series with input voltage rating down to 18 V, dependent on

variant. Even board-mounted products are available in their PSA/PSR, PSB and IBX non-isolated series with wide input ranges that are suitable for rail applications. Tel: 01929 555700 www.relec.co.uk sales@relec.co.uk

Rail Professional


rail mancHe finance

RMF is a leading provider of railway reservation based international settlement and clearing services, providing sophisticated revenue and cost allocation, including business critical management information

Times House, Bravingtons Walk, Regent Quarter London N1 9AW Tel: +44 (0)20 7042 9961 david.hiscock@rmf.co.uk

www.rmf.co.uk


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2019 Rail Business Awards The rail industry is gearing up for the 21st staging of the Rail Business Awards which take place at the London Hilton on Park Lane on 21st February - this year hosted by Jeremy Vine

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his will be the first chance to reflect on the successes of 2018 and celebrate excellence across all aspects of Britain’s railways. Widely considered to be one of the best networking opportunities in the UK rail industry calendar, The Rail Business Awards will bring together more than 600 industry leaders, politicians and CEOs to the annual event which is once again being organised by the Railway Gazette Group. This year the evening itself will be hosted by presenter, broadcaster and journalist Jeremy Vine. Best known as the host of his own BBC Radio 2 show Vine regularly covers railway stories within the consumer affairs strand of the programme. No stranger to awards himself, Vine was named Speech Broadcaster of the Year at the 2005 and 2011 Sony Awards. The shortlist for the 2019 Rail Business Awards shows the breadth of talent and expertise across the UK rail sector, with nominees representing businesses of all sizes from across the UK rail supply chain. The awards recognise both the work done daily across the industry to keep passengers and freight on the move and also the research and innovation taking place behind the scenes as suppliers and operators strive to improve performance and efficiency as well as creating the foundations of the railway of the future. The importance of the awards can also be seen by the list of high-profile sponsors who continue to demonstrate their support for the hard work and effort of the many entrants and nominees, as well as the actual winners on the night. Much of the ongoing research and development is focussing on what has been branded the Digital Railway and a

number of projects shortlisted for the 2019 awards reflect this. In addition, safety continues to be the highest priority for Britain’s rail operators and the drive for continual improvement in this area stands out strongly across the many of this year’s shortlisted entrants. Best in class In 2018 one of the most coveted awards, Operator of the Year, was won by Chiltern Railways, with the judges commenting that it was ‘Chiltern’s year’. They noted that in addition to completing and launching the new route to Oxford, Chiltern had achieved impressive scores in the National Passenger Survey for punctuality, reliability and overall customer service. They also said that Chiltern was a ‘worthy winner’ and commended the company for carrying increased numbers of passengers without compromising its high service standards. On receiving the award Chiltern’s Managing Director Dave Penney said: ‘I am tremendously proud that Chiltern Railways has been recognised at the Rail Business Awards. It’s a huge achievement, one that would not be possible without the hundreds of people in the company that are committed to making journeys better and work tirelessly to help us put the customers at the heart of everything we do.’

A well-executed plan Winning the award for Sustainability and Environmental Excellence was a very positive endorsement for the Sustainable Development Plan developed by TransPennine Express. The judges commented: ‘Being sustainable is not simply about reducing emissions but being a net contributor to the area you serve.’ The award boosted enthusiasm for the company’s drive to encourage more people to switch from cars to trains as it introduced changes to rolling stock and also to its stations. Within the plan TPE committed to reducing waste through energy saving Rail Professional


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was recognised in the award for Digital Technology Excellence which was presented to Network Rail for its Track Decision Support Tool which forms a key part of the ORBIS (Offering Rail Better Information Systems) programme. The Track DST project aims: ‘To develop decision-making capabilities that enable Network Rail to make evidence-based decisions for renewals and refurbishment, for predictive and preventative maintenance, and to improve effectiveness.’ In practical terms this splits the railway into short lengths to enable Network Rail to see the history of each stretch in terms of work done and money spent, and also to use that history to build a predictive tool so that future problems can be treated before they cause problems with speed restrictions or line availability. The award also recognised the development and expansion of a tool originally designed to assist in the management of switch and crossing assemblies, to include all issues relating to plain line. Future work may see it developed further to cover other assets including fencing, drainage, earthworks, structures and even signalling and electrification. The selection of Track DST for an award is further endorsed by reports of interest from other railways outside the UK, offering the potential for Network Rail to export its technology around the world. Being nominated for an award is in itself a prestigious endorsement of work being done across all sectors of the industry and those shortlisted for consideration are now

and increased recycling, cutting carbon emissions through the introduction of introducing bi-mode and electric trains and low energy lighting supported by solar panels and creating more community support via a Sustainability Advisory Panel and the establishing of an annual communities and environment fund, supported by £50,000 of Transform Grants. On receiving the award the company commented that, notwithstanding environmental and ethical issues, in the current corporate climate gaining a reputation for supporting sustainability is the ‘right thing to be doing’. It also noted that other operators are developing similar schemes, noting: ‘People care about the bigger picture… other companies are doing really good things.’ Safety first TPE’s sister First Group TOC Great Western Railway won the Safety and Security award for its work with the Severnside Community Rail Partnership to resolve antisocial behaviour by school students. Again, the endorsement of work to ensure primary Rail Professional

school pupils understood the need to stay safe whilst on the railway and at the same time feel confident with using trains before progressing to secondary school gave a significant lift to GWR and the partner community organisations who worked together to develop the project. ‘Train the Teacher’ sessions also ensured that teachers are familiar with rail travel whilst schools were encouraged to make use of safety resources developed by Network Rail. Schools located near stations are encouraged to provide displays of pupils’ artwork at the station, not only brightening up the buildings and platforms but after giving the children a real interest in looking after ‘their’ station, the initiative has been shown to considerably reduce antisocial behaviour, vandalism and graffiti. It is no surprise that similar schemes have been introduced by other operators across the network. The drive to use new technology to improve the performance of the rail network is clear from a range of submissions for awards in 2019, and in 2018 this

anxiously awaiting the decision of the judges and the announcement of the winners on 21st February. The event promises to be an excellent evening with the awards ceremony itself being followed by an after-show party, as Railway Gazette Editor-in-Chief Chris Jackson notes: ‘These awards highlight the contribution made by so many individuals and companies throughout the UK rail industry who put a huge amount of effort, vision and skill into developing their business and serving their customers’. Tel: 020 8652 5216 Email: info@railbusinessawards.com Visit: www.railbusinessawards.com


BUSINESS PROFILE |

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3M delivers sustainability edge for Transport for Wales Transport for Wales’ trains are the first to apply graphics with non-PVC Envision Print Wrap LX480mC, aided by 3M and Platinum Partner Aura Graphics

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M, the science-based technology company, has supplied its non-PVC Envision Print Wrap LX480mC for the first branded Transport for Wales trains now running on the Wales and Borders network. Operated by KeolisAmey, the trains are the first to use the sustainability-focused film. 3M supported Aura Graphics, a 3M Select Platinum Partner and the main contractor for the project, in presenting the environmental benefits of Envision Print Wrap LX480mC from 3M to Transport for Wales. ‘Sustainability is a guiding principle for us, so when looking at vinyl options, we took the opportunity to choose a film with better credentials to update the graphics of our fleet’ said Colin Lea, Commercial and Customer Experience Director for Transport for Wales Rail Services. ‘The benign materials and processes used to produce Envision Print Wrap LX480mC from 3M, combined with the film’s outstanding performance and durability, keep our trains looking good for longer and allowed us to choose a less environmentally damaging material.’

The project involved stripping existing signage, full preparation of the underlying surfaces, corrosion treatment, and repainting, before applying digitally-printed Envision Print Wrap LX480mC from 3M, and finally dual-language labelling to the cars’ exterior. To maintain the best possible appearance throughout the lifetime, additional 3M Scotchgard 8993 Glossy Overlaminate and 3M Anti-Graffiti Wrap Gloss Overlaminate 8588G provide extra protection for the printed film. ‘The excellent material properties of Envision Print Wrap LX480mC from 3M, including features that aid application as well as compatibility with all inks and printer types, enabled us to deliver this project to a high standard and within a tight timescale’ commented Tim Locke, Director – Rail Division, Aura Graphics. ‘As a Platinum Partner to 3M, and with our unique breadth of inhouse technical and project-management competencies, we have the capabilities to take on those challenges and are qualified to provide the 3M product warranty on a back-to-back basis.’ Aura Graphics has also invested in employing local staff for the contract which has also benefited the local Welsh economy. The Aura Graphics team applied the printed films to two-car and three-car Class-175 diesel trains along with two twocar class 143 Pacer train sets serving the Wales rail network, working on the main train depot at Alston depot in Chester without having to have the trains moved to a special facility. Removable train parts such as cab skirting were taken to Aura Graphics’ fully approved inhouse paint shop for refinishing. The work was coordinated with the normal maintenance procedures for the trains, organised as continuous day and night-time shifts over a single weekend for each train set, to ensure zero disruption of passenger services. In addition to its sustainability advantages, Envision Print Wrap LX480mC from 3M ensures fast, efficient application and removal. Pressure-activated Controltac Adhesive Technology by 3M enables repositionability, easily allowing movement

of the film into the correct position. The film also features Comply Adhesive Technology by 3M which comprises of microchannels to eliminate air bubbles and ensure faultless application. Its high tensile strength not only assists handling and application, but also resists tearing for faster, cleaner removal at end of life. Company profile 3M applies science in collaborative ways to improve lives daily. With $31.7 billion (£24.9 billion) in sales, its 91,500 employees connect with customers all around the world. The UK and Ireland is home to one of the largest 3M subsidiaries outside the USA, employing 2,900 people across 20 locations, including nine manufacturing sites. Products manufactured in the UK include coated abrasives, personal safety equipment, adhesive tapes, industrial microbiology products and drug delivery systems. Tel: 01344 858000 Email: ukcommercialgraphics@mmm.com Visit: 3M.co.uk/graphicsolutions Rail Professional


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| PEOPLE

Arriva Rail London appoints new Engineering Director Arriva Rail London (ARL), which operates the London Overground on behalf of Transport for London (TfL), has appointed Kate Marjoribanks as the company’s new Engineering Director. With nearly 25 years in the railway industry, Kate brings a wealth of expertise in rolling stock engineering.

Evolvi Rail Systems appoints new Managing Director Kirstie van Oerle has been appointed Managing Director of Evolvi Rail Systems. She moves to the position from within Capita PLC, which owns Evolvi, having served as Business Development and Marketing Director across multiple business units within the group.

RSSB appoints new Chair of the board Rail industry body RSSB has appointed Barbara Moorhouse as the new Chair of the board. Barbara is a nonexecutive Director at Balfour Beatty, Microgen and Agility Trains. She is also a Trustee of Guy’s and St Thomas’ Charity.

RSK appointment to put rail sector on the right track RSK Group, the UK’s leading integrated environmental, engineering and technical services business, has appointed Adrian Calder as its Business Development Director for the rail sector. Rail Professional

Transport for the North announces new Programme Director Transport for the North has announced Jeremy Bloom, a senior industry leader with 28 years of experience, as Strategy and Programme Director. Jeremy is set to join the statutory body from Highways England, where for the last 13 years he’s led network strategies, programme delivery and investment planning, most recently as Network Planning Director.

Scott Parnell appoints National Rail Manager Scott Parnell Rail Division has appointed Sharon Rice as its new National Rail Manager. Sharon, who has 13 years’ experience in the rail sector for the precast concrete products industry, will be based in Cheshire and cover the UK.


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Excell Rail Railcan canoffer offer temporary permanent recruitExcell temporary andand permanent recruitment ment solutions for permanent way, on-track including on-track solutions for permanent way, including labour and plant, protection and warning staff and railstaff industry labour and plant, protection and warning and rail professionals. industry professionals. We are RISQS approved to provide the following:

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SAFE, RELIABLE RAIL RECRUITMENT SOLUTIONS

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ABOUT US

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114

| RECRUITMENT

Track Safety Trainer/Assessor Salary

£45k-£54k p.a. depending on experience

Location

Lenham, Kent

Position Type

Permanent

Vacancies

One

Start Date

1st April 2019

CCS Group Plc is a multi-disciplinary service provider to the Railway Industry. Our in-house training company, Infrastructure Training Service (I.T.S) has an opening for an experienced NSARE qualified Track Safety Trainer/Assessor based at our Training Centre in Lenham Kent.

The main purpose of the position

• Ensure discipline and control of learner during training and assessment events

• Licensed through NSARE as Track Safety Trainer and Assessor

Key Tasks & Responsibilities

• Excellent communication skills and different learning styles

• Accredited Level 3 Qualification in Training and Development

• Deliver both workplace assessments and NWR training programs

• Sound knowledge of track safety / RTAS / NSARE / Sentinel rules and working instructions

• Personal Track Safety PTS AC

• Deliver learning events which are conducted to the highest standard

• Facilitation skills to captivate E-Learning tools

• Individual Working Alone

Candidates Requirements

• Lookout

• City & Guilds 7331 or D32 / D33 or A1 Assessor qualification

• Controller of Site Safety (OLP/CRP)

Reporting to Training Manager – Lenham

• Motivate learners by creating an environment conducive to learning

• DCCR

• LXA/PO • SSOWP

For more information about this position please contact Gail Peters on 0208 733 8888

For more information about this position please contact Gail Peters on 0208-7338888

Looking to fill a key management vacancy? A recruitment advertisement in Rail Professional is the most direct route to the biggest pool of quality rail talent in the country. If you’ve got a key post to fill, Rail Professional is the magazine read by the professionals – 59 per cent of readers are managers or board-level executives.

Call 01268 711811 or email recruitment@railpro.co.uk

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Rail Professional


RECRUITMENT |

115

WE ARE RECRUITING The East West Rail Alliance is a ‘pure’ alliance consisting of VolkerRail, Atkins Global, Laing O’Rourke and Network Rail.

We have a number of fantastic opportunities within the East West Rail Alliance and we are welcoming CVs from interested candidates for: • • • • •

Commercial staff at all levels Engineers at all levels – civil or rail discipline Procurement Project management Administration

East West Rail phase 2 is a £1 billion programme and one of the most prestigious projects in the UK infrastructure pipeline - to provide a strategic route linking key centres of economic activity between Oxford, Milton Keynes, Aylesbury and Bedford.

Long-term positions will be based at either Bletchley or Bicester, however, successful applicants may need to spend a short time at the Alliance’s offices in Birmingham whilst the project office mobilises to site. To apply please submit your up to date CV to: recruitment@volkerrail.co.uk All appointments are subject to East West Rail Alliance approval.

Freightliner is hiring! If you’re looking for a rewarding career with competitive pay, enviable benefits and an excellent pension scheme, check the Freightliner website for our current opportunities in locations across the UK.

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railrecruitment@freightliner.co.uk

+44 (0) 207 200 3974

Rail Professional


Are you an experienced Rail Professional looking for a new career opportunity? At Colas Rail UK we work on some of the most exciting projects to keep the nation moving with operations spread across three divisions, Rail Services, Infrastructure and Urban. From turnkey multi-disciplinary projects, rail and tram track-laying, track renewal, track electrification, safety systems, telecoms and civil engineering to freight, plant and machinery operations - the opportunities are vast.

We are always on the lookout for talented people to join us and welcome applications from keen, motivated and enthusiastic people, who relish responsibility and who are looking for an exciting and challenging career. In return we offer exceptional career progression and support and encourage continued personal development. If you believe you have the skills to contribute to our future success, then we want to hear from you.

Opportunities across the UK » Depot Fitter » Driver / Route Conductor (UK Mobile)

Freight Train Driver

» Fitter/ Maintainer/ Operator (UK Mobile) » Freight Train Driver Fitter/ Maintainer/ Operator » Goods Inwards Inspector

Trainer /Assessor

» Locomotive & Wagon Fleet Coordinator » OTM Driver / Maintainer Goods Inwards Inspector

» Route and Competency Manager

TechnicalPlant Support » Strategic Operator / Fitter » Supervisor - Rail Grinding

Project Manager- Technical

» Technical Support - Rail Grinding

Route /and Competency Manager » Trainer Assessor OTM Fitter/Operator

» OTM Driver / Operator / Fitter

OTM Driver/Maintainer

If you have necessary skills and are ready for your next big adventure, then this could be a great opportunity for you. We offer an attractive salary and benefits with a culture of can do, empowerment and flexibility, to allow you to make a real difference. Please register your interest by sending your CV to recruitment@colasrail.com and we will provide you with further information. We are waiting to hear from you.

www.colasrailcareers.co.uk


Searching for a bright future? Opportunities with Frazer-Nash, UK-wide

At Frazer-Nash, we support moving people and goods around and between the big cities of an increasingly urbanised society. We have our eye on the future and we’re looking for problem solvers, like you, to join our growing rail business. With consultant and engineer opportunities across the sector, we’re keen to hear from specialists with safety, design, power, rolling stock, environmental, cyber/information systems, software, RAM engineering or fleet management expertise. If you have an eye on the future too and want to benefit from working in a culture that recognises and rewards your technical expertise, we want to hear from you. Invest in your future and be part of our success story.

Our offices UK: Basingstoke • Bristol • Burton • Dorchester • Dorking • Glasgow • Gloucester • Middlesbrough • Plymouth • Warrington Australia: Adelaide • Canberra • Melbourne Frazer-Nash is a leading systems and engineering technology company. We’re renowned for our work in the transport, aerospace, nuclear, marine, defence, industrial, power and energy sectors. The breadth of expertise and the insight we apply deliver successful outcomes.

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| RECRUITMENT

Driver Standards Manager Circa £63,500 on achieving competency Paddington, Reading & Oxford Join our team of Great Westerners and you’ll help to provide a great service to 100 million customers every year. You’ll also help us make history as we transform one of the world’s most prestigious rail networks and create a 21st century service to be proud of. Working as a Driver Standards Manager you will become a key part of our diverse Driver team. It’s an exciting time at GWR as we transition to one of the UK’s most modern traction fleets. You will be a role model and lead your Drivers through this major transformation whilst simultaneously ensuring that we operate a safe and reliable railway. We are looking for adaptable and dynamic individuals with the ability to prioritise in a fast moving and changeable environment. Whilst you will have a minimum of 3 years mainline driving experience for this technical role, the rest is down to your personal skills and passion for the job. You’ll be rewarded with all kinds of benefits, including a final salary pension scheme, free rail travel across the GWR network for you and your family, a company-sponsored health care plan and childcare vouchers. We’re unable to accept paper applications or applications via email. Please complete the online application. To apply please visit GWRcareers.co.uk

Driver Learning Manager, Training £64k Reading & Bristol Join our team of Great Westerners and you’ll help provide a great service to 100 million customers every year. You’ll also help us make history as we transform one of the world’s most prestigious rail networks and create a 21st Century service to be proud of. You’ll play an important role in our busy and vibrant Driver Training and Development team as you develop and deliver training and assessment to drivers and other colleagues across the business. You’ll also ensure that we continue to meet the highest standards, promote and demonstrate good safety behaviour, maintain training records, and give great feedback. Enthusiastic and flexible, you’ll be passionate about development, open to new ideas, and able to inspire your team. Training or coaching experience is essential, and you’ll already have spent at least 3 years as a main line train driver. You’ll be rewarded with all kinds of benefits, including a final salary pension scheme, free rail travel across the GWR network for you and your family, a company-sponsored healthcare plan and childcare vouchers. We’re unable to accept paper applications or applications via email. Please complete the online application. To apply please visit GWRcareers.co.uk

Rail Professional


Qualified Train Drivers £49,819-£50,977 rising to circa £62,000 by 2020 Reading, Oxford, Bristol, Gloucester, Westbury, Fratton, Plymouth, Exeter & Penzance

At GWR, we’re looking for Qualified Train Drivers who want to deliver a different kind of rail service. Where rewards are first class, and where salaries will rise to around £62k by 2020. Where the fleet is being modernised. And where you’ll get the chance to drive through some of the UK’s most beautiful countryside, across the South West of England and Wales. We’re setting a new standard for rail in the 21st Century – for our passengers and for our people. And we’re focused on creating a relaxing, fast, efficient, friendly, fun and special experience. Join us and you’ll use your drive, commitment, passion for customer service, and exemplary safety record to help over 100 million passengers travel between more than 275 stations, safely and on time, every year. It means you’ll need to work a variety of shifts and live within an hour’s travel of the depot you apply to. But in return, we offer a Defined Benefit Railway Pension Scheme, free rail travel across the GWR network for you and your family, a Health cash plan and much more. GWR celebrates diversity and is committed to creating an inclusive environment for all our employees. Join our team of Great Westerners and help us make history. To apply online please visit uk.firstgroupcareers.com


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Profile for Rail Professional Magazine

RAIL PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINE FEBRUARY 2019  

RAIL PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINE FEBRUARY 2019

RAIL PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINE FEBRUARY 2019  

RAIL PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINE FEBRUARY 2019

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