Instruction Manual for 9018
Quick Hoops™ High Tunnel Bender Copyright © 2010 Johnny’s Selected Seeds. All rights reserved. 955 Benton Ave., Winslow, ME 04901 Home Garden: 207-861-3901, Fax: 800-437-4290 Comm: 800-854-2580, Fax: 800-738-6314 Email: email@example.com Web Site: www.johnnyseeds.com
Overview: Congratulations on your purchase of the Quick Hoops™ High Tunnel Bender! You can now create your own hoophouses at a much lower cost than pre-fabricated kits! You will be able to extend your growing season and increase both crop quality and yield by protecting your crops from wind, rain, hail, insects, and disease pressure. The advantages to protected cropping are numerous and you are on your way to more profitable crop production.
June 2010, Caterpillar Tunnel trial at Johnny’s research farm, Albion, ME
This manual has two components: First, we discuss bending hoophouse ‘bows’ with the Quick Hoops™ High Tunnel Bender, then we will go through the steps needed to build your own walk-in style caterpillar tunnel. While the bender is not in any way limited to that style of house, it is the style that we chose to build and trial at our Albion farm in the summer of 2010. We chose caterpillar tunnels, because we see them as an increasingly popular style and a low cost option for growers who would like to expand their protected acreage in the most efficient manner, while at the same time, minimizing their investment to do so. Many of the images shown here illustrate the construction of the four 100 ft. tunnels at our farm and the smaller 40 ft. tunnel that we built for the Maine Organic Farmers & Gardeners Association (MOFGA) and then showcased in our demo garden at the 2010 Common Ground Fair. 1-3/8” top rail for chain link fence is the recommended material that this bender has been designed to bend. There is more information about that and where to obtain it and all needed materials at the end of this manual.
Lever bar (for “finishing” the bend)
Two 1/4" x 5" lag screws for mounting to wood surfaces and two 1/4" x 4-1/2" carriage bolts, nuts, and washers for mounting to metal surfaces
Mounting: The Quick HoopsTM Benders may be mounted to any solid surface, such as a workbench, a picnic table, hay wagon, etc. It may be lag-screwed or thru-bolted into place. 5/16” mounting holes are provided on benders. Screws, bolts, etc. are included. By securing the bender in a fixed position, and pulling the tubing around the bender, the operator can maintain precise control of the tubing being bent.
Wherever it is mounted, it is important to have both enough room to accommodate the infeed and outfeed of pipe, as well as some type of support at the outfeed end about ¾” above the mounting surface. This will prevent ‘corkscrewing’ and ensure that the hoophouse bows created are in a single plane. This is accomplished most easily with something similar to 1 x 4” slats (actually ¾” thick), illustrated above.1” plywood or something similar would also be adequate.
Site selection: We recommend taking a look at High Tunnels - Using Low-Cost Technology to Increase Yields, Improve Quality and Extend the Season, a 74 page reference guide, by By Ted Blomgren and Tracy Frisch and distributed by the University of Vermont Center for Sustainable Agriculture. http://www.uvm.edu/sustainableagriculture/hightunnels.html You can purchase written copies or download free ones from this link. We found this to be a tremendous resource for our trial work. It has a section dedicated specifically to site selection for your high tunnel.
Bending the pipes:
1. After determining how many bows your high tunnel will have, set aside twice that many pipes to be bent. 2. Mark these pipes with spray paint or permanent marker on one end so that half are marked on the swaged end and half on the female end. 3. Insert the unmarked end of a pipe into the holding strap at the end of the bender as shown. If this is the swaged end, insert just past the swage to prevent canting or kinking that portion of the pipe. 4. With a smooth motion, pull back as if on a long oar (do not push), and bend the pipe all the way around the bender until the pipe just touches the end of the bender closest to you. Stop. Do not bend past the end, or the arc you create will not be smooth. 5. Release tension until the pipe is loose in the holding strap, and move it to the left through the holding strap about half the length of the bender itself. 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until about three feet of unbent pipe remain beyond the closest end of the bender or, if bending becomes too difficult. 7. Depending on the orientation of the pipe, insert the lever bar into the female end or over the swaged end of the unbent end of the pipe. This effectively makes the pipe longer and will instantly give you more leverage for bending the rest of the pipe.
8. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the point where the lever bar meets the pipe is even with the closest end of the bender. Pull back and bend only half way around the bender. This will leave a straight portion that will easily slide into the ground post later on.
9. Repeat for all other unbent pipes, always inserting the unmarked end of the pipe (regardless whether swaged or not) into the bender holding strap first. 3Â
Assembling the bows:
1. Find a flat surface on which to lay two bent pipes. This could be the ground, a hay wagon, etc. We happened to have a spare greenhouse table that worked very well. 2. Insert the unmarked swaged end of one bent pipe into the unmarked female end of the other. 3. About 1” from the end of the outer female end, drill through both pipes with a ¼” metal bit. We found cobalt bits to be a little more costly, but well worth it, because they held their edge much longer. 4. Thru-bolt with one ¼" x 1-3/4" hex head bolt and ¼” nylock lock nut. 5. The bow is complete. You will notice that they bow is 13-15 ft. wide. That is perfect, because having preloaded stress on the bow when you compress it into 12 ft. spaced ground posts will make the structure stronger. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for the rest of the pre-bent pipes.
Creating ground posts: 1. Determine how many bows your high tunnel will have. Purchase the same number of 1-5/8 x 6 ft. vertical chain link fence posts. 2. Cut them in half with a band saw, reciprocating saw, or hack saw (if not doing too many) to create two 1-5/8 x 3 ft. vertical ground posts.
3. Pre-drill a ¼” hole 11” from one end of each 3 ft section of ground post. Drill in the center, through both sides. 4. Make a mark 12” in from the end with the hole you just drilled. This will be a guide for insertion into the ground.
Soil Level 36”
Making up the lacing bolts: 1. We made ours out of 1/4" x 6" carriage bolts, nuts, and lock-washers. Because the bolts were threaded fully, we added ¼” tubing to prevent the lacing from chafing on the threads. You could use many different types of connectors here like threaded hooks, etc. These are simply what we chose to use, and they worked well. 2. You will need twice as many of these as bows.
Designing your structure: Use the following diagram to help determine the size, spacing, and layout of your structure. For those that are building a caterpillar tunnel, the red and green lines indicate individual pieces of lacing.
Notes: (1) Determine the desired overall length of tunnel. In this example, our tunnel is 40 ft. long.
(2) Pick a distance between bows that will divide into that number. We chose 5 ft. between bows because we wanted to build a strong tunnel. This could be as close or as far (within reason) as you want.
40 ft. (1)
(3) The width of the tunnel will be 12 ft.
5 ft. (2) C1 C2 12 ft. (3)
(4) Distances A and B must be equal for the tunnel to squared off and be a true rectangular shape.
Hints on setting the corner ground posts: Use the following diagrams to help you set the corner posts in a perfect rectangle.
d. Lay the notched end of the gauge at that measurement spot.
f. Adjust the un‐notched end of the gauge to that measurement spot.
c. Measure out from C2 the desired tunnel length.
e. Measure out from C1 the desired tunnel length.
a. Set the first corner post C1.
A > B Tunnel is crooked.
b. Using the gauge, set the second corner post C2.
C1 C2 g. Take measurements A and B above.
h. Adjust the gauge to the right or left until A and B are equal.
i. Set corner posts C3 and C4.
Tunnel forms a perfect rectangle.
A = B Tunnel is squared off.
Site preparation and setting the ground posts: 1. Prepare the footprint of the tunnel as if you would open soil in a field. Do as much of the tilling, rotovating, plowing, mulch-laying, etc. before the tunnel is erected, to avoid having to resort to smaller equipment to accomplish these tasks later. 2. Create gauges: a. Using one 2’ x 4” x 12’ piece of wood, create one gauge for setting posts by simply cutting a small notch in one end. This will be the gauge between ground posts for a single bow. b. Use another 2” x 4” that is a foot longer than the spacing you want for your bows. Cut 1-3/4” slots with centers 6” from each end of the board. This will be the gauge for the distance between bows. The bows in our trials were set 5 ft. apart.
3. Set the four corner ground posts first.
a. Place the first corner post (1 pictured above) in the desired location with the pre-drilled hole closest to the top. Insert the mushroom-shaped ground post driver (JSS # 9482) into the top of the post and drive it in to the mark with a sledge-hammer, until the pre-drilled hole is an inch or so above the soil surface. Try to have one of the pre-drilled holes facing toward the outside of the tunnel and one facing in, to prevent adjustment later. b. Place the notched end of the 12 ft. gauge you made in Step 2 against post 1. Swing the opposite end the gauge to where you would like post 2 to be. Holding the new ground post against the un-notched end, drive it in place. c. Using a long tape, measure out from post 2 to where the opposite end of the tunnel will be. Mark approximately where you expect to put post 3. In our case, this was 40 ft. d. Lay the notched end of the gauge down at that spot. e. Then measure out from post 1 to where post 4 will be. 8
Adjust the un-notched end of the gauge to that measurement spot. g. Measure from corner post 1 to the notch in the 12 ft gauge. Then measure from corner post 2 to the unnotched end of the gauge. These measurements should be the same for the tunnel to be square and true. h. Adjust the gauge to the right or left (lengthwise) until they are. i. Set corner posts 3 and 4.
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4. Run the long tape from corner post 1 to corner post 4. Secure one end to post 1. Pull it tight and secure the other end to post 4. Secure with duct tape, clamps, or something similar. This will serve as a gauge as well as a straight line for setting the other posts.
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5. Use the smaller wooden gauge and the tape as guides, set the rest of the posts for this side of the tunnel. 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the other side of the tunnel.
7. The ground posts are now set.
8. With a pipe wrench or similar tool, rotate any ground posts as needed so that the pre-drilled holes are perpendicular to the length of the tunnel (facing out and in).
Erecting the bows: 1. It is now time for the tunnel to take shape! Make a mark on each of the bows about 13â€? from the end. This will be used as a general guide for insertion into the ground posts. 2. Transport the first â€œend wallâ€? bow to the furthest corner posts and insert to the marks made in step 1.
3. Repeat step 2 for the rest of the bows.
4. Loosely attach the ridge pole. The procedure following discusses installation with JSS part# 9542 Cross-connectors. You may also thrubolt the ridge pole to the bows if desired. a. Loosen the nuts on the crossconnectors as much as possible, without taking them completely off. b. Slip one over the top center of each bow as shown. c. Slide a section of 1-3/8” top rail through the last two (or three) crossconnectors on one end of the tunnel shown. JSS #9542 Cross‐connectors (sold in pairs)
d. If you find there is too much friction when inserting the pipes in the crossconnectors, loosen them if possible and/or spray with water to lubricate. e. Repeat c above with swaged ends fitting into the next pipe’s female end, until they are run the entire length of the tunnel. f.
Similar to the bow construction, somewhere around the middle of the swaged area of each pipe (about 3” from the end of the outer female end), drill through both pipes with a ¼” metal bit. Then thru-bolt with one ¼" x 1-3/4" hex head bolt and ¼” nylock lock nut. Repeat for all points where the ridge pole sections come together.
5. At this point, the ridge pole is solid. Adjust the cross-connectors from side to side until it runs straight down the length of the tunnel. 6. Stand back and view the structure critically from the sides and very ends. Adjust the bows up or down within the ground posts until the structure is symmetrical and straight to the eye. You will see some bows higher than others. It does not in any way need to be level, but it should run smoothly from end to end. Ensure that you can still see the metal of the bows through the pre-drilled holes in the ground posts. 13
7. Tighten the nuts on all the cross-connectors. We found that a battery-operated ratchet driver with a 7/16â€? socket was the ticket for this job. The following procedure will keep your bows uniform. a. Run the long tape measure the length of the tunnel on top of the center of the bows. b. Tighten cross-connector at the end wall where you started. Secure the end of the tape measure to the crossconnector at that end. Allow the weight of the tape to hold it taught on the opposite end. c. Move to the next bow and using the tape measure as your guide, move the bow so that it is exactly the same distance from the end wall bow as the spacing of the ground posts â€“ 5 ft. for us. Tighten the cross-connector. d. Repeat until all cross-connectors have been tightened. e. Cut off any excess ridge pole protruding beyond the end of the end wall bow with a hacksaw or reciprocating saw. 8. Install purlins (optional). You may want purlins for trellising vine crops such as cucumbers and tomatoes. Note: Purlins will make the structure considerably stronger, but will allow water to pool in the plastic above them, which will of course need to be emptied after storms.
a. Hang a plumb bob (or any weight with a string – we used a fishing sinker), from one side of the end wall directly over the point where you’d like your crop row to be located. b. Slip a cross-connector over the bow at that point. c. Immediately slide the piece of scrap 1-3/8” straight pipe you cut off the ridge pole into the crossconnector. Tighten the nuts on the cross-connector. d. Go to the opposite end of the tunnel. Repeat steps a & b above. Slide a crossconnector over the next bow as well e. Immediately slide a new 13/8” straight pipe into the cross-connectors so that the female end is facing out. Tighten the nuts on the end wall crossconnector. f.
Move the tape measure down from the ridge. Attach the end to the cross-connector you tightened in step e above, and hang the reel over the opposite end wall’s crossconnector.
g. Continue down the tunnel as you did for the ridge pole, installing crossconnectors, adjusting the spacing, tightening crossconnector bolts, and thrubolting the straight pipes together as you go. h. Run the purlin all the way to the end wall, removing the piece of scrap at the very end. i.
Cut off any excess ridge pole protruding beyond the end of the end wall bow with a hacksaw or reciprocating saw.
Repeat a through i above, for the opposite side.
9. Using the pre-drilled holes in the ground posts as a guide drill through the inserted portion of each bow. a. Drill through one side and stop. b. Start on the other side and drill through. c. Then run the drill through both holes to ensure that bolt will pass easily through. d. Install lacing bolts as shown with bolt head facing the outside of the structure and tighten.
e. Slip a large box-end wrench over each lacing bolts and bend it downward at a 45 degree angle as shown. f.
Cut off any excess ridge pole protruding beyond the end of the end wall bow with a hacksaw or reciprocating saw.
g. Install duct tape over the ends of the ridge pole and purlins (if installed) and wrap the tops of each ground post to prevent plastic from getting torn on any metal burrs that may be present.
h. Framing is complete!
Covering the tunnel:
There are many options and methods for covering your tunnel and creating access and ventilation points, including wiggle wire, board strapping, rigid end-walls, roll up sides, roll down sides, etc. We are discussing only one design in this manual – Caterpillar or Walk-in style. We encourage you to build whatever structure suits your needs. However, since we have experience with and have tested this design, we are presenting it here. Here are the steps we went through. 1. Obtain four T-posts from your local farm supply or home improvement store. We use these at our research farm to trellis tomatoes. They were handy at the time we built the tunnels, and ended up working extremely well. 2. As shown above, drive two T-posts, side-byside, at about a 45 degree angle, 5 ft from each end of the tunnel, using a heavy cylindrical post pounder. Drive as close together as possible, with the ribs facing toward the other T-post. T‐Post
3. Time for plastic! Your greenhouse film should be 20 ft wide, and must be longer than the house by at least 15 ft. Unroll the plastic, spreading it up and over the tunnel. It is much easier to do this when there is no wind. Saving this for morning is usually a good idea, unless you have many hands to help.
4. When the plastic is centered laterally, ensure you have at least 7-8 ft beyond each end of the tunnel. 5. Secure one end of the plastic with weights, clamps, people, or the roll itself if itâ€™s long. 6. At the opposite end, with the plastic draped smoothly over the end and even laterally, gather the end of the plastic in a big pony tail. Start in the center, and worked out to each side, pulling the plastic snug as you go. You should have what looks like the end of a very large bread wrapper in your hands when you are done. 7. Twist the pony tail, and with two helpers spreading the T-posts apart, insert the pony tail between them and slide it as close to the bottom as possible. Take care not to snag it on the ribs of the T-bars. Then, wrap it around one of the T-posts and back through again. 8. While still holding the pony tail, release the T-posts and compress them onto the plastic. 9. Tie the end of the pony tail with parachute cord or rope to prevent it from uncurling. Then tie the T-posts tightly together. 10. Go to the opposite end of the tunnel. And repeat steps 6 through 9, except that this time, when you gather the plastic and insert it into the T-posts, pull it lengthwise as tightly as you can. 11. At this point the tunnel should have plastic tied off at the ends and draping loosely, but smoothly over it.
Lacing the tunnel: Parts of this process are not unlike lacing your boots. Refer to the diagram on page 6 for the pattern. There are many lacing materials that you could use. We tested military parachute cord, which has great availability online and is low cost. It has a high tensile 550 Lb. test multi-strand core and a smooth over braid which slid over the plastic effortlessly. It tested very well for us, without one breakage, and we highly recommend it. The following is a two-person operation with each person positioned on opposite sides of the tunnel. 1. Lacing: a. Tie the end of a spool of parachute cord, or similar strong twine material of your choice to lacing bolt on one of the corners of the tunnel. b. Throw the whole spool over to the other side of the tunnel and loop under the next bowâ€™s lacing bolt. c. While holding some light tension on the cord, throw the spool back over the tunnel. d. Repeat steps b & c until you reach the bow at the other end of the tunnel. Temporarily tie off the cord on the last corner lacing bolt on that end. e. Repeat steps a through d, starting at the same bow, but on the opposite side.
2. Tensioning: a. Start in the same positions you started at in step 1.a. above. b. Pick one of the cords, and with one person keeping tension, while the other cinches up the cord, working back & forth down the tunnel until you reach the end. c. Tie off permanently on the last corner lacing bolt. d. Repeat steps a through c, starting at the same bow, but on the opposite side, for the other cord.
3. Tunnel construction is complete!
Access and venting: Access and venting is accomplished the same way, by simply lifting the plastic up. 1. Starting at one end of the tunnel, grasp the bottom edge of the plastic between the first and second bows, and raise it to the desired ventilation level.
2. Move to the gap between the next two bows and repeat.
3. Repeat down the entire length of the tunnel.
4. Repeat 1 through 4 for the opposite side of the tunnel to ensure good air circulation. 21
5. Seasonal operation: a. Early Spring and late Fall - You will generally want to leave the tunnel sides fully closed, day and night for maximum warming. b. Mid-to-late Spring and early-to-mid Fall - Closed at night, vented a foot or two high during the mid day.
c. Summer â€“ Pretty much opened all the time, except for stormy days. This design relies on friction to hold the plastic at a given ventilation height. We found that in the intense heat of the summer, the plastic expands substantially, beyond the point of adjustment by tensioning the lacing. To avoid having to readjust the pony tails within the T-posts, we found that spring clamps were the answer. They kept the now loose plastic perfectly suspended at any height we desired. They were about $1 each at a home improvement store and well worth the investment. We also found that we could use them for extra security to hold the plastic to the bottom of the bows during storms.
d. Winter – Layup during the winter couldn’t be easier. Simply rotate the plastic all the way over to one side and leave it there. Tying it around it to every other bow is a good idea, to prevent wind from wreaking havoc with it. In early spring, the plastic can be rotated back into place and used to melt the snow, allowing a super early start on the season.
e. Rain – Rainwater will inevitably collect in the bunched-up plastic (if left vented during a storm) and in the plastic above the purlins. Simply empty this water after every storm to prevent damage to the tunnel or crops. We were amazed at just how much water these structures could support. They are very strong.
Acquiring materials: This system was designed to construct high tunnels from mostly locally available components. The two main components come from chain link fencing. This can be acquired at your local home improvement store or fencing store. Various connectors, nuts, bolts, etc. can also be acquired either locally or online. We have provided 1‐3/8” top rail for bows, a couple ridge pole, and purlins examples of a cost calculator on the following two 1‐5/8” fence posts pages that for ground posts should give you some idea of what your tunnel may cost. A downloadable version of this MS Excel spreadsheet will be available for use at Johnnyseeds.com. All other items shown here may be purchased from Johnny’s. We sincerely hope you find this product and manual useful and that they help you become a more successful grower. Thanks!
Part# Qty Unit Source Description 9018 1 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Quick Hoops High Tunnel Bender 18 each Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8" fence top rail for bows fence top rail for bows Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8 4 each Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8" fence top rail for ridge pole 8 each Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8" fence top rail for purlins 9 each Local home improvement store 6 ft length of 1‐5/8" fence post for ground posts 9482 1 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Ground post driver 9542 14 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Cross Connector for 1.315" x 1.315" Pipe, pkg of 2 198 21 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4"‐20 x 1.75" hex head bolt for bows 2624 21 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4" nylock lock nut 2764 18 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4"‐20 x 6" carriage bolt for lacing connection** 4 feet Local home improvement store 1/4" inner diameter polyethylene tubing 2648 42 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4"‐20 hex nut 3024 42 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4" lock washers 1 1 each www.parachute‐cord.com 1000 ft. spool of white parachute cord for lacing T‐post anchor for ends 4 each Local home improvement store 1 each Local home improvement store Post pounder (for T‐post) 9630 1 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Tufflite IV Greenhouse Film, 20 x 65 ft. * Estimations. Prices will vary and do not include shipping costs or tax. ** Fully threaded is best. Must have a minimum of 2" of threaded.
Dimensions, Spec's Length 40 feet Spacing 5 feet # Purlins 2 plus the ridge pole Width 12 feet 8.00 # Segments Must be an even number # Bows 9
***Fill in the items in red below and the calculator will do the rest.***
Caterpillar Tunnel Calculator
Ext $69.00 $169.38 $37.64 $75.28 $92.52 $24.95 $83.30 $2.52 $1.05 $4.86 $0.96 $2.10 $2.10 $38.95 $17.80 $26.00 $149.00
Price $69.00 $9.41 $9.41 $9.41 $10.28 $24.95 $5.95 $0.12 $0.05 $0.27 $0.24 $0.05 $0.05 $38.95 $4.45 $26.00 $149.00
Square Feet Cost / Sq. Ft.
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Part# Qty Unit Source Description 9018 1 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Quick Hoops High Tunnel Bender 42 each Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8" fence top rail for bows fence top rail for bows Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8 10 each Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8" fence top rail for ridge pole 0 each Local home improvement store 10 ft length of 1‐3/8" fence top rail for purlins 21 each Local home improvement store 6 ft length of 1‐5/8" fence post for ground posts 9482 1 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Ground post driver 9542 11 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Cross Connector for 1.315" x 1.315" Pipe, pkg of 2 198 31 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4"‐20 x 1.75" hex head bolt for bows 2624 31 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4" nylock lock nut 2764 42 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4"‐20 x 6" carriage bolt for lacing connection** 9 feet Local home improvement store 1/4" inner diameter polyethylene tubing 2648 62 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4"‐20 hex nut 3024 62 each www.boltdepot.com 1/4" lock washers 1 1 each www.parachute‐cord.com 1000 ft. spool of white parachute cord for lacing T‐post anchor for ends 4 each Local home improvement store 1 each Local home improvement store Post pounder (for T‐post) 9644 1 each Johnny's Selected Seeds Tufflite IV Greenhouse Film, 20 x 125 ft. * Estimations. Prices will vary and do not include shipping costs or tax. ** Fully threaded is best. Must have a minimum of 2" of threaded.
Dimensions, Spec's Length 100 feet Spacing 5 feet # Purlins 0 plus the ridge pole Width 12 feet 20.00 # Segments Must be an even number # Bows 21
***Fill in the items in red below and the calculator will do the rest.***
Caterpillar Tunnel Calculator
Ext $69.00 $395.22 $94.10 $0.00 $215.88 $24.95 $65.45 $3.72 $1.55 $11.34 $2.16 $3.10 $3.10 $38.95 $17.80 $26.00 $286.00
Price $69.00 $9.41 $9.41 $9.41 $10.28 $24.95 $5.95 $0.12 $0.05 $0.27 $0.24 $0.05 $0.05 $38.95 $4.45 $26.00 $286.00
Square Feet Cost / Sq. Ft.
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