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INTERNATIONAL PERFORMING ARTS CENTER & HOTEL Flushing - Queens, New York | Project by Raymond Liu


INTERNATIONAL PERFORMING ARTS CENTER & HOTEL | FLUSHING, NEW YORK

THE SPITZER SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 5TH YEAR COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN

PROJECT by RAYMOND LIU PROFESSOR: LANCE JAY BROWN, FAIA FALL 2013 - SPRING 2014 DESIGN CRITICS: Carmi Bee Ed Baum John Cetra Richard Etlin Clair Fellman Robert Garneau George Ranali Jay Valgora

N

t r o

n r he

v Bl


vd

INTRODUCTION & SITE QUEENS, NEW YORK FLUSHING, QUEENS RKO KEITH: 135-29 NORTHERN BLVD

1-4

HISTORY OF THE RKO KEITH (1928-1980) LANDMARKED RELICS OF THE RKO KEITH RUINS

5-6

THE IMAGERY OF FLUSHING, QUEENS

7-8

PROGRAM / DEMOGRAPHICS / ZONING

9-10

STUDYING THE TRANSFORMATIVE THEATER WYLY THEATER, DALLAS - CASE STUDY THEATER ACTIIVITES STAGE CONFIGURATIONS

11-12

EARLY DESIGN PHASE & DEVELOPMENT PROJECT PARTI ACOUSTIC DIAGRAMS EXISTING BUILDING STRUCTURE DIAGRAMS STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: HEARST TOWER & STANDARD HOTEL SKETCHES MAIN LOBBY RE-IMAGINED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PLANS ELEVATIONS SECTION WALL DETAIL STRUCTURAL LEVEL DETAIL CURTAIN WALL DETAIL MATERIALS SUSTAINABILITY HVAC INTEGRATION STRUCTURAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION

13-16

SPECIAL THANK YOU

31

17-30

Ma in St re et


BA Y ING SH FLU

WILLETS POINT

1

FLU


USHING

The Starlight International Performing Arts Center and Hotel is a theoretical project and building that strives to be the foundation for international performing arts culture in Flushing, Queens. Main Sreet, being the commercial vessel in Queens is where this thesis project will be located. To be more specific, the Performing Arts Center caps the commercial district line, making it the terminal of all performing arts centers in Queens at Northern Boulevard. The original site, the RKO Keith Theater, has been through many tragic events, such as the disrepair of the building, irresponsible ownership, and ultimately leading to becoming an eye sore to the public. This project seeks to revive the theater, rebrand it, and preserve the soul and spirit of the RKO Keith in a glass box (theoretically.) There are three components to this building: a 1,600-seat transformative theater, a music educational facility, and a grand hotel. The educational facility serves to mediate between the higher decibel program (the major theater) and the more quietpreferred program (the hotel.) In an attempt to frame most views across the Flushing Bay, the new tower that rises above the original building, is situated towards the southwest corner of the lot. The views include, but are not limited to, the CitiField, the tennis tournament stadiums, the NYS Pavilions, the World’s Fair Unisphere, and the new master planning of Willets Point. Because the Starlight is at the end of Main Street, it becomes the focal point of social interaction, the new architectural language, and a desired destination. As for the façade concept, a vertical band of glass, which is directed towards and facing Main Street, carves into the building’s core creating an atrium and crosswalks inside. This allows the building to illuminate the busy street at night and become a beacon for the community. Ultimately, Starlight seeks to encourage and promote innovative and intercultural performing arts by reviving the abandoned theater and adding a music academy, all, while housing traveling artistes and tourists making a visit to Queens.


SITE FLUSHING TOWN HALL

QUAKER HOUSE

PARKING

PARKING

ST. GEORGE’S CHURCH

7 TRAIN INTERSECTION (MAIN STREET + ROOSEVELT AVE.)

LIRR QUEENS PUBLIC LIBRARY FREE SYNAGOGUE OF FLUSHING

USPS

HIGHLIGHTS 3

MAIN STREET AXIS


. LVD

NB

HER ORT

N

Q19/20A/20B/25/34/44/50/65/66

1 MIN.

3 MIN.

MA

TEMPORARY PARKING CAPACITY: 90 VEHICLES (4 FOR DISABLED)

IN

CAPACITY: 1,020 VEHICLES (22 FOR DISABLED)

EET

STR

CAPACITY: 87 VEHICLES (4 FOR DISABLED)

7 MIN.

Q17/19/20a/20b/27/44/50

9 MIN.

UE

7

Q12/15/15A

MAIN STREET FLUSHING - LAST STOP

N

E AV LT

E EV

OS

RO

KI

SS E

NA

15 MIN.

CAPACITY: 160 VEHICLES (6 FOR DISABLED)

BL VD .

Q17/25/27/34/65

Q20A/20B/44

T

E TRE NS MAI

VEHICULAR

BUS

PEDESTRIAN

SUBWAY

PARKING

LIRR

NAVIGATION

BICYCLE

RE-IMAGINED SITE PLAN 4


1930s

The RKO Keith in the early 1930s.

Foyer of RKO Keith (1928.)

Original RKO Keith Ground Level Plan by Thomas Lamb (1928.)

HISTORY OF RKO KEITH The RKO Keith’s Theater located on 135-29 Northern Boulevard in Flushing, Queens is a tragic story that once started out like a fairytale. It first opened as the Keith-Albee Theater on Christmas Day of 1928. The first opening night’s program consisted of vaudeville and musical acts, with an addition of a few short films. The ceiling came to life when painted and animated clouds would glide across the surface and it resembles the senses felt in a Spanish courtyard. All the whimsical decisions were made possible by the famous theater architect, Thomas Lamb. Many performers like Roy Rogers, Bob Hope, Jack Benny, and the Marx Brothers have once graced the stage of the RKO Keith-Albee Theater. After a good fifty-seven years of performances held in this landmarked building, the theater met its demise. The original owner has abandoned the theater and was later sold to a soul-less businessman, Thomas Huang. This man allegedly dumped thousands of gallons of waste oil into the basement of the theater and ultimately intoxicated the foundation and soil within a thirty feet radius of the theater. After he was arrest for his criminal deterioration of the once glorious theater, the city has finally decided to landmark the façade of the theater and finally shut down the building from anymore buyers.

5


2013

The current state of the RKO Keith (2013)

Above: Right staircase landmarked (1990.) Right: Left staircase landmarked (2007.)

The lobby with the Spanish Revival decoration has been designated as a New York City landmark. The current owner is Patrick Thompson. It’s hard to preserve the arts and especially performing arts nowadays. And it’s even harder to find someone who is passionate about the arts and would fund a project to rebuild the foundation of live performances. Rob Barron, the chair of the theater department of City College has kindly agreed to help revive the RKO Keith Theater (as a kind gesture for this thesis project) and bring it back to a functioning state. Yes, we are turning this machine back on! Barron will serve as a consultant in theater design and client to this project.

Foyer of RKO Keith (1993.)

As a theater advocate and a performer, Rob has been an amazing client who helps raise funds to support this project. And later on, the executive decision to add a new building for a performing arts academy above the RKO Keith’s, has been established and green lighted. This decision was made to keep the building active, even when there are no performances during the quiet season of the year. It was a design and financial decision and we are glad we made this move. 6


Original RKO Keith Longitudinal Sections by Thomas Lamb (1928.)

7


Main Street East

Main Street West

SITE Northern Blvd. South (+ Site)

Northern Blvd. North

THE IMAGERY OF FLUSHING AND ITS ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Many people know of Flushing, Queens. But not many of them know about this rich and quickly developing area. When I first told some of peers that I will be designing a performing arts center for my thesis project right in the heart of Flushing, they were confused and worried. I was heartbroken to learn that not many people, including my peers whom had studied architecture with me, understand and know about this fast-growing capital of commercial and social node. I visited Flushing almost every weekend when I was a young child. The 7 train runs above ground from Court Square to Willets Point, which meant I got to see from the fragmented highs and lows of Long Island City to the marshy waterfront of Flushing Bay and everything in between. I loved knowing that I was getting closer to Flushing when I saw the Unisphere (built in the 1960s) emerging above the trees in Corona Park. This was the “road sign” that says “Welcome to Flushing.” Just when you think Queens is nothing but suburban houses and a place of too-many-trees, you come up from Flushing - Main Street station and see the sea of diverse people and the sound of cars and buses, Chinese, Korean, English, Spanish dialects, and many more. Everything in Flushing pretty much revolved around this vessel that is Main Street. It is lively here. Main Street doesn’t appear to have any architectural language or design besides the new Queens Library at the south end of Main Street; a glass building with a stepped plaza where teenagers meet. I see neon signs, banners, storefront awnings with large Asian characters. Traffic is insane; you never know when to cross a street even with the guidance of crossing lights. There are countless times when I bump into someone or accidentally elbow someone in their chest. Maybe there isn’t a contextual language going on here in Flushing, but that’s probably because this energetic and quick-paced neighborhood is undergoing a transition from what used to be a quaint White community to a rowdy Asian capital of New York City. I don’t find architecture in Flushing to be “designed” and that is because they weren’t in the first place. These storefronts and building façades along Main Street are all just billboards for business. Maybe for these business owners, well-designed architectural façades don’t play a large role in how their business grows. This ultimately became my thesis idea. I decided: why don’t I design a building that can lead Flushing into an era that would peak interest to other architects who would want to take action in designing a better community for Flushing. This architectural endeavor would start with the south end library on Main Street and connect to the RKO Keith’s site (site of this thesis project) on Northern Blvd. This will be the revival of a theater and the re-imagination of a building that does it all. 8


PROGRAM BREAKDOWN PROGRAM NAME

QTY.

AREA (SF) HEIGHT (FT.) NOISY?

RKO KEITH LOBBY (total) LANDMARKED BOX OFFICE TURNED INTO CAFE LANDMARKED STAIRCASE FRONT DESK FOR HOTEL, THEATER, AND SCHOOL COAT ROOM

20 10 10 10 10

Y Y Y Y N

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PRIVATE

Y Y Y Y N

Intermission breathing; gift shops

1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 8

5150 50 1000 300 200 300 100 300 100 500 1500 800

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

N N N N N N N N N N N

PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N

Takes calls for directors and managers, greets For employees

1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 4

30370 16600 2270 1700 2000 2000 1200 1000 1000 1200 1000 400

50 40 N/A 20 40 20 10 10 10 N/A 10

Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y N

PUBLIC PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE

N N N N N Y N N N N N

Ideal for flexible arrangement Ideal for flexible arrangement Hovers over stage Clear circulation zone

54 74 3 1 1 1 1 4 2

50020 9720 33300 4000 1000 2000 10000 4000 1000 1000

10 10 15 10 15 20 20 10 10

N N N N Y/N Y Y N N

PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE SEMI PRIVATE SEMI PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N

Includes individual bathroom Includes individual bathroom Exclusive room for performers and "stars" Coffee machines, lounge chairs, sofas, etc Mainly for hotel guests but also public use Adjunct to building: open to public One kitchen for public; other for hotel Chairs, folding tables, etc. Meat, vegetables, fish, dairy, etc.

4 10 3 1 10

23500 8000 5000 2500 6000 2000

20 10 10 40 10

Y N Y Y N

SEMI PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE SEMI PRIVATE PRIVATE

Y N N N Y

For dance students + performers For students, local artists, performers, etc

12 12 3 3 3 1 1 1

18300 9800 1800 900 900 1000 900 1500 1500

10 10 10 10 10 10 40 10

N N N N N N Y Y

PUBLIC PRIVATE N/A N/A N/A N/A PRIVATE N/A

N N N N N N N/A N/A

Every floor Only for staff Separate from hotel, banquet, and theater Separate from hotel, banquet, and theater Separate from hotel, banquet, and theater

HOTEL PROGRAM (total) SINGLE BEDROOMS DOUBLE BEDROOMS PERFORMERS SUITE EMPLOYEE LOUNGE CAFÉ BANQUET HALL AND BALLROOM KITCHEN STORAGE for DINING EQUIPMENTS STORAGE for KITCHEN

MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM (total) DANCE SOUND + RECORDING BAND REHEARSAL BLACK BOX THEATER CLASSROOMS FOR MUSIC THEORY

SERVICES (total) RESTROOMS STORAGE MECHANICAL ROOMS ELECTRICAL ROOMS HVAC PLUMBING LOADING DOCK TRASH DISPOSAL

COMMENTS / NOTES

10600 500 400 300 600

THE KEITH-ALBEE THEATER (total) AUDIENCE SECTION - SEATING STAGE w/ FLY TOWER LIGHTING BRIDGE OVER STAGE BACKSTAGE AREA (behind curtains) SCENERY BOARD STORAGE GREEN ROOM (V.I.P ROOM) DRESSING ROOM (1-2 Performers) CHORUS DRESSING ROOM SOUND CONTROL ROOM LIGHTING PANEL/BOOTH RESTROOMS FOR PERFORMERS

NATURAL LIGHT?

1 1 3 1

ADMINISTRATION (total) RECEPTION OFFICES EXEC. DIRECTOR OFFICE ASSISTANT EXEC. DIRECTOR OFFICE THEATER DIRECTOR OFFICE STAGE MANAGER OFFICE HOTEL MANAGER OFFICE BANQUET HALL MANAGER OFFICE ACCOUNTANTS OFFICES CONFERENCE ROOMS STAFF RESTROOMS

PRIVACY

Employee runs Guest drops off coat w/o valuables

Like "Offices" but with copier, fax, etc. Large tables for meetings

Relaxation Exclusively private Controls audio tech Location: behind audience area Not open to public or building staff

Adjunct performance space for small prod. Sign-up for classes to learn; community

Direct transport to stage Smells, easy access for disposal

155,740 43,000

TOTAL SQ. FT. LOT SIZE SQ. FT. (RKO Bldg Size) F.A.R. FOR COMMERCIAL USES + COMMUNITY FACILITIES 4.80

206,400

2000

POPULATION

2010

2020

POPULATION OF FLUSHING

9,647 PEOPLE (AS OF 2010)

25 - 44 yrs

from census tract # 853 / 869 / 871.

2020

(total district 7)

2000

QUEENS DISTRICT 7

2010

DEMOGRAPHICS

-10 .6%

70,000 25 .3%

247,354 (HUMANS)

1.8% INCREASE

60,000

EST. 254,774 (HUMANS)

2.9% INCREASE

WHITE

ASIAN

OTHER

2+ (MIXED) HISPANIC

(INFO. FROM JULIA SHILDKRET REAL ESTATE)

FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

HOUSEHOLDERS (age)

HOUSING

BLACK

24.3%

(HUMANS)

242,952 (HUMANS)

45 - 64

yr s

50,000 5.6%

65 and over

40,000

20 - 24 yrs

7.4%

15,000 under 5 yrs

21.3%

28.7%

51%

18.8%

49%

15.3% RENTER OWNER

9

+

12.8%

51.1%

12.9%

6.0%

32.3%

NON-FAMILY HouseHolds 2.2% 15-24 YRS

30.8%

41.1%

25-44 YRS 45-64 YRS

26.0% 65+ YRS

-9.9%

5 - 14 yrs

12,000

-14. 8%

0.3 % 15 - 19 yrs

10,000

30.0%

0

NOW TRAJECTORY

EVOLUTION OF AGE GROUPS


LIGHT?

A A

PROGRAM ADJACENCY & USER PROFILES

COMMENTS / NOTES

PROGRAM ADJACENCY

LOBBY BOX OFFICE / TICKET BOOTHS FRONT DESK FOR THEATER FRONT DESK FOR HOTEL COAT ROOMS ADMIN. RECEPTION OFFICES EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OFFICE ASSISTANT EXEC. DIRECTOR OFFICE THEATER DIRECTOR OFFICE STAGE MANAGER OFFICE HOTEL MANAGER OFFICE BANQUET HALL MANAGER OFFICE ACCOUNTANT OFFICES CONFERENCE ROOMS STAFF RESTROOMS THEATER - AUDIENCE SEATING STAGE WITH FLY TOWER LIGHTING BRIDGE OVER STAGE BACKSTAGE AREA (behind curtains) SCENERY BOARDS STORAGE GREEN ROOM (V.I.P ROOM) DRESSING ROOM (1-2 PERFORMERS) CHORUS DRESSING ROOM SOUND CONTROL ROOM LIGHTING PANEL / BOOTH RESTROOMS (PRIVATE) BANQUET HALL / RESTAURANT KITCHEN STORAGE FOR DINING EQUIPMENTS STORAGE FOR KITCHEN HOTEL - SINGLE BEDROOMS HOTEL - DOUBLE BEDROOMS PERFORMERS SUITE EMPLOYEE LOUNGE HOTEL CAFE DANCE STUDIOS SOUND + RECORDING STUDIOS BAND REHEARSAL ROOMS BLACK BOX THEATER CLASSROOMS FOR MUSIC THEORY RESTROOMS STORAGE MECHANICAL ROOMS ELECTRICAL ROOMS HVAC UNITS / ROOMS PLUMBING LOADING DOCKS TRASH DISPOSAL UNIT

Intermission breathing; gift shops

Employee runs Guest drops off coat w/o valuables Takes calls for directors and managers, greets For employees

Like "Offices" but with copier, fax, etc. Large tables for meetings

Ideal for flexible arrangement Ideal for flexible arrangement Hovers over stage Clear circulation zone Relaxation Exclusively private Controls audio tech Location: behind audience area Not open to public or building staff

Includes individual bathroom Includes individual bathroom Exclusive room for performers and "stars" Coffee machines, lounge chairs, sofas, etc Mainly for hotel guests but also public use Adjunct to building: open to public One kitchen for public; other for hotel Chairs, folding tables, etc. Meat, vegetables, fish, dairy, etc.

LOBBY ADMINISTRATION MAJOR PERFORMANCE BANQUET / RESTAURANT HOTEL COMMUNITY / STUDIOS SERVICE

CRITICAL TO BE ADJACENT HELPFUL TO BE ADJACENT SHOULD NOT BE ADJACENT NO RELATION

For dance students + performers For students, local artists, performers, etc Adjunct performance space for small prod. Sign-up for classes to learn; community

Every floor Only for staff Separate from hotel, banquet, and theater Separate from hotel, banquet, and theater Separate from hotel, banquet, and theater Direct transport to stage Smells, easy access for disposal

VIEWERS LISTEN WATCH OBSERVE JUDGE APPLAUDE / CHEER CRITICIZE

PERFORMERS

MEMBERS (WORKERS)

SING PRACTICE / REHEARSE DANCE RECORD PLAY ENTERTAIN EMBODY A ROLE REACH THE AUDIENCE

PARTICIPANTS (GUESTS)

WORK CLEAN MARKETING, BUSINESS, PROMOTION REPAIR PREPARE ESCORT ENGINEER MAINTAIN SELL ADVERTISE DIFFERENT SHIFTS (SCHEDULES)

SLEEP (HOTEL) BRING FAMILY PLAY LEARN DANCE SPONSOR HOLD EVENTS BRING BUSINESS

ZONING & BUILDING ENVELOPE

R6 DISTRICT

+ COMMUNITY FACILITIES

F.A.R : (0.78 - 2.43) This range depends on the number of stories built. Ex: a single story of 0.78 or a 13 story building of 2.43. 70% of building must be used for dwelling.

F.A.R : 4.80 FOR COMMERCIAL USES AND COMMUNITY FACILITIES USES.

SKY EXPOSURE PLANE RATIO 5.6 TO 1

15 FT SETBACK

AFTER SETBACK, ALLOWED TO MAXIMIZE BUILDING HEIGHT TO 84’-0”

60 FT ABOVE STREET LINE

map 10a

20 FT SET BACK FROM REAR AFTER 60 FT 30 FT REAR YARD OF OPEN SPACE

+C2-2 OVERLAY

F.A.R : 2.0

IN MIXED USE BUILDINGS, RESIDENTIAL USES MUST ALWAYS BE ABOVE COMMERCIAL USES.

BASE HEIGHT 60 FT MAX. 40 FT MIN.

RECONFIGURED LAYOUT

STANDARD LAYOUT

10


THEATER ACTIVITIES

STAGE CONFIGURATIONS MUSICALS

CHINESE OPERA

BACKSTAGE

K-POP

ORCHESTRA

STAGE

AUDIENCE

activity / event

Ballet

qualification

ballet

yes

pop concert / rock concert

yes

philharmonic

yes

comedy

yes

musical / plays

yes

chinese opera k-pop (korean pop concert)

yes

orchestra

yes

yes

THE PROSCENIUM THEATER IS A TRADITIONAL CONFIGURATION OF A THEATER. IT CAN ALLOW FOR THE NEW FORMS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES TO TAKE PLACE (L.E.D LIGHTS, LASER LIGHT FIXTURES, ETC.) THE EIGHT DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES ABOVE CLEARLY INDICATE THAT A PROSCENIUM CONFIGURATION IS THE QUALIFIED CANDIDATE FOR A GOOD THEATER.

Musical / Plays

PROSCENIUM activity / event

Pop / Rock Concerts

qualification

ballet

no

pop concert / rock concert

yes

philharmonic

no

comedy

no

musical / plays

no

chinese opera k-pop (korean pop concert)

yes

orchestra

no

no

THE ARENA IS MADE TO LET THE AUDIENCE TO SEE THE PERORMERS IN A 360 DEGREE PERSPECTIVE. IF THE PERFORMER DANCES AND MOVES ON STAGE, THEN THE AUDIENCE WOULD BE ABLE TO SEE THE PERFORMER UP CLOSE AT LEAST ONCE DURING THE WHOLE PERFORMANCE. AN ARENA IS A NEW WAY OF THEATER DESIGN THAT INCORPORATES NEW TECH. THAT CAN ASSIST IN THE OVERALL POWER OF A PERFORMANCE. THE HONG KONG COLISEUM IS A GREAT EXAMPLE OF A SUCCESSFUL ARENA CONFIGURATION.

Chinese Opera

ARENA activity / event

Philharmonic

qualification

ballet

no

pop concert / rock concert

yes

philharmonic

no

philharmonic

no

musical / plays

no

chinese opera k-pop (korean pop concert)

no yes

orchestra

no

THE THRUST IS SEEN AND USED IN POP-CULTURE PERFORMANCES. MADISON SQUARE GARDEN AND THE OLYMPIC COLISEIUM IN SEOUL HAVE DEMONSTRATED A GREAT USE OF A THRUST STAGE. IT ALLOWS FOR THE PERFORMERS TO HAVE A MORE INTIMATE CONNECTION WITH THE AUDIENCE. BUT ACOUSTICALY AND VISUALLY, IT’S NOT COMPATIBLE WITH FIXED-PERFORMERS ON STAGE (i.e. Philharmonic Musicians, Ballet, Orchestra.) BALLET AND CHINESE OPERA ALL REQUIRE A DEMAND OF PERFORMER VERSUS AUDIENCE. IT’S VERY STRICT THAT THE PERORMERS ARE NOT DISTRACTED BY THE AUDIENCE.

KPop Concerts

THRUST activity / event ballet

Comedy

no

pop concert / rock concert

no

philharmonic

yes

comedy

yes

musical / plays

yes

chinese opera k-pop (korean pop concert)

no no

orchestra

no

A STUDIO OR A “BLACK BOX” THEATER IS GREAT FOR DEVELOPING ACTS / PERFORMANCES OR SMALL PERFORMANCES. PHILHARMONIC PERFORMANCES CAN BE SMALL IN PERFORMER-SIZES. MOST IMPORTANTLY, THERE IS NO “BACKSTAGE” AREA (i.e. Recital Hall by Renzo Piano) FOR THE PERORMERS TO QUICKLY CHANGE INTO NEW COSTUMES OR WARDROBE. BUT A STUDIO BRINGS IN A NEW DEFINITION IN THEATER DESIGN FOR THE NEW-SMALL-INNOVATIVE PERFORMANCES.

Orchestra

STUDIO 11

qualification


TRANSFORMATIVE THEATER CASE STUDY

THE NEW THEATER (THEATER PRECEDENT) THE WYLY THEATER ARCHITECT : REX + OMA BUILT : 2009 LOCATION : DALLAS, TEXAS - PART OF THE “ONE ARTS PLAZA”

What is a theater? What is a NEW theater? What do new theater productions need that didn’t occur back then? How can a linear procession of entering a theater into the stage area become anew in the current generation? The Wyly Theater is the perfect example of flexibility, verticality, modernization, and new-conception of a theater.

BALL

ACT

BALLE

POP /

PHILH

COME

MUSIC

CHINE

K-POP

ORCH

ST

PRO

SO WHAT? PROSCENIUM

THRUST

ARENA

TRANSVERSE

THEATER CONFIGURATIONS

FLAT FLOOR

STUDIO

PROSCENIUM

BIPOLAR

THRUST

SANDWICH

Our generation of theater has changed over the course of time since the 1900s and late 1890s. New technology is introduced to theater productions - lighting, sound equipments, LED screens, props, visual aids, etc. Studying the Wyly Theater helped me realize the configuration of theater is important to designing a new theater for multiple functions and activities. For example, the proscenium is the trademark of all theaters but because it evolved into what is now a thrust or an arena, program spaces must be accomodated during that shift in program displacement and placement.

THR

Flexibility is what this theater has and is what is needed for the International Performing Arts Center in Flushing, Queens. With modern day technology, we can raise seating (all at once) and lower ceiling panels, raise stages, shift the audience seatings, open up the back of the stage walls, etc. It is what the new theater productions need that makes us adapt to the configrations as architects.

12


PROJECT PARTI

ORIGINAL The Original RKO Keith building

RISE The new building programs (hotel and school) that rises above the original building.

ENGAGE

LIGHT

By aligning the tower An atrium brings with the front edge of in natural light and the original mass, I am daylight into the able to engage and building during the 1 / 3 2 ” =celebrate 1’-0” Main Street day and releases light and Northern Blvd as back to Main Street this project caps the at night - defining the INTERNATIONAL PERFORMING ARTS CENTER | FLUSHING, QUEENS axis. building as a beacon.

EXISTING STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

ACOUSTIC DIAGRAMS COLUMNS

FIRE SAFETY

LANDMARKED

A-A

PENETRATE (STRUCTURAL PRECEDENT)

1 /32 ” = 1 ’ - 0 ”

RAY DIAGRAM | PLANANALYSIS EXISTING STRUCTURE

RAY DIAGRAM | SECTION

PLAN THE HEARST TOWER

INTERNATIONAL PERFORMING ARTS CENTER | FLUSHING, QUEENS

ARCHITECT OF 6-STORY BASE : JOSEPH URBAN ARCHITECT OF TOWER : NORMAN FOSTER BUILT (ORIGINAL CAST STONE BUILDING) : 1928 BUILT (TOWER) : 2006

EXISTING BUILDING STRUCTURAL DIAGRAMS COLUMNS

FIRE SAFETY

TRUSSES

LANDMARKED

LANDMARKED

STRUCTURE STEEL FRAME

STEEL COLUMNS CIRCULATION

CAST STONE

A-A Exposed and new structures are introduced to carry the load of the tower. In order to do so, a very elegant decision of replacing the ceiling with skylights was designed and thus turned the lobby into a light-filled haven. The exposed structural steel adds to the glistening effect when the natural light dances around the lobby. The cast stone facade was kept as a tribute to what Joseph Urban was made a mark in history - a landmark.

SECTION A-A

SO WHAT? As an adaptive reuse project, knowing what to keep and what to remove/replace is very important and is a big part of the design process. In this case, the landmarked facade was kept but the interior was gutted to introduce new structure and new architecture. Overall, I think the idea was clear and didn’t disturb the built historic fabric of New York City - in which I can take and apply to my project for the International Performing Arts Center.

PLAN

13

STRUCTURES F L U S H I N G

R A Y

L I U

-

Q U E E N S

The Standard’s powerful 1 made possible by a steel t 65 steel members. Anchor


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

PENETRATE (STRUCTURAL PRECEDENT) THE HEARST TOWER ARCHITECT OF 6-STORY BASE : JOSEPH URBAN ARCHITECT OF TOWER : NORMAN FOSTER BUILT (ORIGINAL CAST STONE BUILDING) : 1928 BUILT (TOWER) : 2006

Designed in 1928, the original base was only built up to 6 stories tall. After it’s next phase of design, a tower was proposed but was put to a pause during the Great Depression. Norman Foster picked up the project and completed the tower in 2006.

STRUCTURE STEEL FRAME

STEEL COLUMNS

CAST STONE

Exposed and new structures are introduced to carry the load of the tower. In order to do so, a very elegant decision of replacing the ceiling with skylights was designed and thus turned the lobby into a light-filled haven. The exposed structural steel adds to the glistening effect when the natural light dances around the lobby. The cast stone facade was kept as a tribute to what Joseph Urban was made a mark in history - a landmark.

NEW STRUCTURE

A Diagrid system is introduced to brace the 46 story tall tower. This type of system allows for a better structural support for the building as well as use the steel frames as the structure and bracing all in one. 20% less of steel was used in this building than a typical 46 story tall building. A diagrid system also has better wind resistance and shear resistance.

EXISTING STRUCTURE

SO WHAT? As an adaptive reuse project, knowing what to keep and what to remove/replace is very important and is a big part of the design process. In this case, the landmarked facade was kept but the interior was gutted to introduce new structure and new architecture. Overall, I think the idea was clear and didn’t disturb the built historic fabric of New York City - in which I can take and apply to my project for the International Performing Arts Center.

CANOPY (STRUCTURAL PRECEDENT) THE STANDARD HOTEL HIGHLINE ARCHITECT : ENNEAD ARCHITECTS BUILT : 2009

The Standard’s powerful 100-foot straddle span is made possible by a steel truss of ASTM A913 Grade 65 steel members. Anchored at the east end to the concrete pier and at the west end to the shear wall, the truss’ total end-to-end length of 114 feet is constructed in two separate sections, of 65 feet and 49 feet respectively, which are joined at the center to complete the truss. Seven ASTM Grade 65 W14 members of varying lengths serve as the diagonal truss members. The majority of the ASTM A36 gusset plates and connections were shop-welded, and the intermediate framing was field-bolted with a combination of A325 and A490 bolts. SOURCE BY WWW.SINY.ORG

SO WHAT? Because zoning prohibited any shoring off of the Highline, the Standard Hotel chose to span over the highline, giving it shelter. I really like the idea of spanning over an existing structure - not being intrusive and actually giving back to the structure. Could it be possible to introduce a straddle span that can span over the RKO Keith’s, ultimately defend the existing building while building a new building above? That’s a direction, that’s interesting and worth spendng time design.

NEW STRUCTURE

114’-0” SPAN STRADDLE SPAN TRUSS

HIGHLINE

Due to the idea of bringing up a tower from the ruins of the RKO Keith, a new structure is needed to be introduced to hold up a tower; the original building’s roof is only designed to carry the weight capacity of the original building’s roof. After several weeks of research, analysis, and planning, the Standard Hotel’s (New York City) use of a truss called the Straddle-span Truss turned out to be the best choice as the new building structure. This method can allow a structure to span over 114 feet and allows a floor-to-ceiling height of 14 feet tall! With this new-found information, I was able to utilize the height of the truss to design a program that can be superimposed into the space where the 14 feet tall structure is. 14


THEATER FACADE SCHEME SKETCHES

During the early phase of design development, the theater was the only component to this project. This is before the hotel program was fully introduced. In order to capture the attention of potential guests and visitors of the theater, the entrance needs to be prominent in the facade - whether it be a marquee or the cutting out of the street wall. Above are iterations of facade schemes.

When the high rise was finally introduced and greenlighted in this project, I wanted to differentiate the new building from the old. Selecting a few iterations from the theater facade matrix (image to the left), I superimposed the base of the building to a new tower. Phase 1 Sketch of StarLight in Main Street context

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MAIN LOBBY RE-IMAGINED

The landmarked relics of the ruins wihtin the RKO Keith Theater are the grand staircases and the box office. Everything else is either removed or destroyed. By keeping the relics, I am able to remind the community that this used to be a beautifully highlighted moment in Flushing. This also posed an opportunity to merge the traditional elements with new materials - like glass, steel, LED lighting, etc. I didn’t want the overall feeling of the main lobby to be overly replicating Spanish Baroque Revival style (which was what it used to be) so I replaced the theater lobby wall with steel panels and turned the original box office into a cafe in which guests can gather above the booth. This way, I can animate the lobby just like Thomas Lamb did; this time, by yours truly.

Watercolor collage rendering of new lobby space with landmarked stairs

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Interior Rendering of StarLight Keith-Albee Theater

What rises from the ashes of the dead RKO Keith is a new theater that replaces the ruins with a new transformative stage in which it is compatible with both classical performances and contemporary performances. The ground level of the theater have paneled floors in which they can be moved, shifted, elevated, and rotated. The balconies and tiers above are the traditional theater balconies with fixed seating; a little bit of everything great. This allows for more flexible in stage design and production. This is the brand new Keith-Albee Theater.

2F PLAN 17

3F PLAN

4F PLAN


B-B

A-A

LOADING DOCK

THE KEITH-ALBEE THEATER

EXIT

EXIT

HOTEL LOBBY

THEATER LOBBY

EXIT

STARLIGHT HOTEL ENTRANCE

GUEST PICK-UP AREA

ALBEE THEATER ENTRANCE MUSIC ACADEMY ENTRANCE

B-B A-A

GUEST DROP-OFF AREA

GF PLAN 18


UP

UP

UP

UP

EXIT

DN

DN

UP

19

5F PLAN

6F PLAN

The 5th level is the structural load and transitional level; this is also the dedicated space for the music academy. Due to the high ceiling height created by the truss that is 14 feet tall, an average height person can meander through the spaces created by the structural bracing of the trusses. It provides an interesting opportunity for music-lovers and musicians to come to the building and recording music in portable acoustic pods wherever and however they choose.

The 6th level is the sky lobby where hotel guests move from the street level via elevators to the hotel. The center of the building is an atrium space that opens up to a skylight. Program spaces include: Cafe Retail Stores Outdoor Cafe and Lounge Hotel Reception Restrooms


UP

UP

UP

UP

UP

UP UP

UP

7F PLAN

8F PLAN

The 7th level is mostly designated to the admins and hotel staff of the building. Program spaces include:

The 8th level is the major dining area. The fan room for the hotel also diverges into ducts that run to the upper levels to reduce fan room spaces. Program spaces include:

Kitchen Conference Rooms Offices Restrooms Administration Offices

Banquet Hall Private Dining Rooms Restaurant Dining Hotel Staff Lounge Restrooms Fan room

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UP

UP

UP

UP

UP

UP

9-19F PLAN

20F PLAN

The 9th to 19th levels (20th also) are the hotel guestrooms. There are various types of units. Almost every room per level is unique and different from the others. The corner rooms are the hotel suites (mostly dedicated to the traveling and/or touring performing artists) with views of Flushing, Main Street, and Willets Point. Programs spaces include:

The 20th level is the last hotel guestrooms level which provides 15 feet tall ceiling height. Each suite on this level has a recording studio booth made of glass for the performers to record demos or tracks for their music career while on tour in a city like New York. Program spaces include:

Hotel Units A, B, C, D Laundry Closet Suites Reading Lounge

SLIVER SECTIONS

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Hotel Units A, B, C, D Laundry Closet Suite Reading Lounge


4 WORLD TRADE CENTER

FUMIHIKO MAKI (2013)

Taking the LEED in

Sustainability. source: http://4wtc.com/building/sustainability

Fuel cells generate electricity within the building and reduce emissions. Rainwater is harvested on the roof and used to cool the building. High-efficiency heating and cooling systems dramatically improve temperature control and conserve energy. 50% of the building’s wood is sustainably harvested. No ozone-depleting refrigerants are used, and all cleaning products are green. Building materials include significant recycled content. Preferred parking program for fuel-efficient vehicles.

RF PLAN The roof collects rainwater in a retention pool and filters down to the green terrace on the 6th level. The roof is also a dining and lounging area where hotel guests can socialize and observe New York City behind the glass wall that runs from the lower levels to the roof (serving as a full body parapet.) Program spaces include: Bar Lounge Cafe Garden

Fuel Cells So how does Fuel Cells work? Basically, it is a device (image to the left) that converts fuels into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen. With the Fuel Cell, a building can convert rainwater collected from roofs into electricity to reduce emission in the building.

Green Roofs

ZINC RAINSCREEN

TERRACOTTA

BACK-PAINTED GLASS

BEADBLASTED STEEL

source: theiscollective.com

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WALL FRAME

ACOUSTIC PANELS

VAPOR BARRIER

RAINSCREEN

Terracotta, Bead-blasted Aluminum, or Zinc

POURED CONCRETE

DRAINAGE MAT

2 WAY CONCRETE SLAB

GROUND LEVEL +0’-0”

WALL SECTION DETAIL 23

NORTH ELEVATION


STARLIGHT HOTEL

THE KEITH-ALBEE THEATER

MUSIC ACADEMY

MAIN STREET ELEVATION (SOUTH ELEVATION) 24


HVAC INTEGRATION DIAGRAM

STRUCTURAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM

By stringing the air ducts around the atrium, which is essentially, the core of the tower, the hotel units have equal and evenly distributed ventilation, air conditioning, and heat. The atrium also acts as an emergency exhaust shaft in case of fire and/or smoke. Cooling towers are located both on the 6th level outdoor terrace and on the roof top.

From the beginning of the project, when I realized that in order for a tall building to rise from the ruins of the RKO Keith theater, I need to introduce a rigorous structural element that can withhold the live and dead load of the tower. Looking into case studies, I came across the Standard Hotel designed by Ennead Architects down by the Highline in NYC, and learned that they introduced a long span megastructure - the Straddle Span Truss which is 14’-0” tall and can span up to 114’-0” long. This led to the development of a column grid system broken up by the atrium’s location that directs loads down to the three major mega trusses spanning across the main theater.

There are several HVAC systems integrated into this building. The larger performance space and lobby are using a CAV Multizone System, which then allows the school above the theater to share the same system. The hotel beginning at the 6th level, however, uses a VAV Reheat System which runs under one express duct but diverges into individual local ducts for the hotel units.


CENTRAL ALL-AIR SINGLE DUCT CONSTANT AIR VOLUME MULTIZONE SYSTEM

cooling tower

CENTRAL ALL-AIR SINGLE DUCT VARIABLE AIR VOLUME REHEAT SYSTEM

reheat fan coil located at diffuser cooling tower

OCCUPANCY

temperature control

ADVANTAGES

HOTEL (this is a very typical hotel HVAC system.)

+

HIGH DEGREE OF CONTROL IN AIR QUALITY. SIMPLE AND EASY TO MAINTAIN. SEPARATE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TEMPERATURE CONTROL. ONE UNIT FOR TEMPERATURE CONTROL. ONE ZONE FOR ALL NOISE PRODUCTION CONTAINED.

_ exhaust fresh air

HEATING

return ductwork

+

supply ductwork

return ductwork

supply ductwork

fan room

OCCUPANCY chimney

MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM + KEITH ALBEE THEATER

chimney

chilled water plant boiler

ADVANTAGES INDIVIDUAL CONTROL OF ROOM TEMPERATURE. CAN COPE WITH WIDE RANGE OF HEATING AND COOLING DEMANDS. MORE ENERGY-EFFICIENT THAN CAV REHEAT SYSTEMS.

fan room

DISADVANTAGES

_

exhaust fresh air

NO INDIVIDUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL. REQUIRES A LARGE SPACE FOR DUCTWORK IN VICINITY OF FAN. DUCTWORK IS RESTRICTED TO SMALL NUMBER OF ZONES WITH SHORT RUNS OF DUCTWORK TO FANS.

chilled water plant boiler

DISADVANTAGES *THIS IS A VARIATION TO THE VAV SYSTEM THEREFORE THERE ARE NO DISADVANTAGES TO BE COMPARED WITH THE ADVANTAGES LISTED.

HEATING

COOLING

COOLING

SUPPLY

SUPPLY

RETURN

RETURN

The CAV Multizone System is used to supply and return air for the theater and music academy.

The VAV Reheat System is used to supply and return air for the hotel.

EAST ELEVATION


TOUCH MULLION ALUMINUM WINDOW CLIP

STEEL ANCHOR

12’-0”

ACOUSTIC WOODEN PANELS FOR FINISHED CEILING

ONE SIDED REFLECTIVE GLASS 5’4” X 11’-0”

(AS USED IN 4 WORLD TRADE CENTER BY FUMIHIKO MAKI)

2 WAY CONCRETE SLAB

CURTAIN WALL DETAIL 27


SECTION B-B & WEST ELEVATION 28


STARLIGHT | COOPER JOSEPH

4 WORLD TRADE | MAKI

JAMES CARPENTER GLASS

The brilliant alignment of small light pieces forms a myriad of star-like atmosphere. This is the perfect lighting for the atrium of the hotel.

Fumihiko Maki, the architect behind the design of the 4th World Trade, used a high-reflectivity glass as a building facade which blends the building into the clear blue skies.

James Carpenter is known for his amazing glass art. He uses reflection as his main element of surprise along with the angle of the glass and the alignment of the edges.

SKY LOBBY 1’X1’ MARBLE TILES

GIRDER

INSULATION

RIGID CONNECTION WELDED AND BOLTED

ELEC. CABLES

ANECHOIC PANELS

SUPPLY AND RETURN DUCTS

8’-0” CLEARANCE

15’-0”

GALVANIZED ALUMINUM PANELS

STRUCTURAL LEVEL DETAIL 29


SECTION A-A

There are three components to this building: a 1,600-seat transformative theater, a music educational facility, and a grand hotel. The educational facility serves to mediate between the higher decibel program (the major theater) and the more quiet-preferred program (the hotel.)

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Special Thanks to Jay Valgora | AIA, AICP, LEED AP, Principal of Studio V Architects Karen Zabarsky | Marketing Coordinator of Studio V Architects Gregory Shanck | Director of the Harlem Stage House Rob Barron | Chair of the City College of New York Performing Arts Department Edward Baum | Professor of Architecture at University of Texas Arlington Richard Etlin | Architectural Historian Professor at City College of New York Tahvia Francis | Teaching Assistant to Professor Lance Brown Moe Myat Thu | 4th Year Architecture Undergrad at Spitzer School of Architecture Lester Li | 3rd Year Architecture Undergrad at Spitzer School of Architecture Lenny Chen | 3rd Year Architecture Undergrad at Spitzer School of Architecture


INTERNATIONAL PERFORMING ARTS CENTER & HOTEL Flushing - Queens, New York | Project by Raymond Liu

STARLIGHT International Performing Arts Center & Hotel | Thesis Portfolio  

by Raymond Liu, B. Arch 2014 Cum Laude | Spitzer School of Architecture