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o For eg. Industrial products like washers, nuts, bolts, pipe fittings, plastic components, rubber components -

Flow Production o This is a conversion process in which successive units of output undergo the same sequence of operations using specialised equipments usually positioned along a production line o The plant, equipments and machineries are designed for a specific product o For eg. Industries like Cement, Chemicals, Sugar, Petroleum, Steel

Difference between Mass and Flow production Suppose the order / demand for the existing products falls down or ceases or no more requirement at all, the plant and equipments can be used for producing new product ranges after necessary modification in case of mass production, whereas the plants and equipments cann’t be used for someother production in case of Flow production. Comparison Sl.No. 1

Characteristics Volume of production

Job order One or few jobs

2 3

Product variety Layout

4 5 6

Set up time Mfg cycle time Materil flow


10 11 12

Equipment and Machinery Flexibility Production, Planning & Control WIP inventory Cost per unit Skill of labour

Large Process (or) Functional High Large Non-uniform, discontinuos and travel long distances General purpose

13 14 15

8 9

Batch production Limited number of small lots Medium or few Process (or) Functional High and frequent Medium Discontinuos

Mass production Large

High Complex

Generela purpose with high production rate High Complex

Special purpose and dedicated Very low Simple & routine

High High Highly skilled

Medium Medium Skilled

Investment Material Handling

Low Manual

Plant utilisation & productivity


Medium Manual/semiautomatic Medium

Low Low Semiskilled/unskilled High Automated

One or few Product (or) Line Low Low Uniform and uniterrupted



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