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a. b. c. d. e.

Market – Technology advancement due to L P G Money – Huge outlays due to global competition Men - Human capital with different specialization Motivation - A satisfied employee will only deliver quality output Materials – Selection of proper materials due to quality attributes such as surface finish, strength, ruggedness etc f. Machineries and Mechanisation - Upgradation of conventional machines with CNC machines and automated material handling systems g. Modern Information Methods - Computer based method of reporting will provide on-line information h. Mounting Product requirements – Product diversification to meet customer’s taste leads to intricacy in design, manufacturing and quality standards Drivers of Quality - Competition in the market - Knowledge explosion - Threat of survival - Demand from stakeholders - Promise of greater profit - Desire to do better KAIZEN 

Kaizen literally means – ‘Kai’ (change) to become ‘zen’(Good/improvement)

Kaizen , a Japanese word, means ‘Continuous or ongoing small improvements’

It is a culture of sustained continuous improvement focusing or eliminating waste in all systems and processes of an organisation

The Kaizen strategy begins and ends with people

Kaizen originated in Toyota Motor Company as part of Lean Manufacturing

Taiichi Ohno developed the Toyota Production System through Kaizen activity in the areas of Quality, Cost, Delivery, Safety etc

Kaizen has two aspects : o Improvement / change for the better o Ongoimg/continuity

If the improvements come in a large scale(drastic) with an investment of larger amounts of funds , then it is called ‘Innovation’

Key elements of Kaizen 

Elimination of waste an inefficiency 22

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