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Perancangan Ergonomis Stasiun Kerja Komputer (Office Ergonomics)

Sritomo W.Soebroto Laboratorium Ergonomi & Perancangan Sistem Kerja Jurusan Teknik Industri Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember SURABAYA


The office environment

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Office Ergonomics/Sritomo W.Soebroto

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Office Ergonomics


Office Ergonomics As of the year 2000, 75% of all jobs were using computers.


Office Ergonomics Impact Of Poor Ergonomics  Carpal tunnel syndrome  Tendonitis  Back pain  Inefficiency and Poor Morale


Working safely with computers

• Workplace environment

• Work organisation


Workplace environment • Chair • Desk • Computer equipment • Layout • Lighting • Heating/Cooling


Individual Workstation Modification Examples Before

With original shelving Can’t adjust monitor properly Could cause neck strain

After

With shelving removed Monitor can now be adjusted About a 15 minute project


Individual Workstation Modification Examples Before

No leg room Could cause back or shoulder problems due to overreaching.

After

Allows for plenty of leg room About a 1 hour project


4/25 Workstation / VDU Regulations

Workstation / VDU - Regulations Workstation design is covered by the Health and Safety (DSE) Regulations 1992 The term workstation includes: • Display Screen • Keyboard • Desk and Chair • Software and Systems • Environmental Factors • Lighting • Humidity • Noise

Copyright © The School of Applied Sciences The Robert Gordon University


Workstation / VDU - Regulations

4/26 Workstation / VDU Regulations

Ergonomics •

People come in all shapes and sizes. Different people have different strengths and weaknesses. • Ergonomics is about designing workplace tasks to suit the individual and in doing so eliminating strain both physical and mental.

Physical Strain • can result in aching back, arms, neck, shoulders and wrists. • Poor posture in the seating position can result in fatigue.

Mental Strain • usually caused by poor working environment or by pressure of work. • can be eased by doing varied work and by taking regular breaks. Copyright © The School of Applied Sciences The Robert Gordon University


Workstation / VDU - Regulations

4/27 Workstation / VDU Regulations

Seating • Swivel chairs with adjustable height and back rests are recommended • The chair should be comfortable with adjustable back rest to give required support. Arm rests are not recommended as they restrict movement. • The adjustable seat height should ensure that there is enough space between the seat and the desk to move legs freely. • A foot rest may be helpful for smaller users. Pain in the shoulders and back is usually as a result of poor seating and bad posture. Copyright © The School of Applied Sciences The Robert Gordon University


4/28 Workstation / VDU Regulations

Workstation / VDU - Regulations VDU Screens • The angle of the screen must be adjustable, as should the brightness and contrast. • The screen should be clear, non-reflective and flicker-free. • The screen should be cleaned on a regular basis. • The operator should sit at least 43cm from the VDU and the screen should be at approx. right angles to the line of sight to avoid reflecting light. • Some software allows the operator to alter the size of the text to make it easier to read. Copyright © The School of Applied Sciences The Robert Gordon University


4/29 Workstation / VDU Regulations

Workstation / VDU - Regulations Keyboards • Should be adjustable to lie flat or slope upwards at an angle. • The keys should have a non-shiny finish and should curve inwards to reduce the shock on the fingers, wrists and arms. • Good keyboard design is essential to reduce or prevent the chance of WRULD ( Work Related Upper Limb Disorder). RSI is the term used to describe aches and pains in the hands, wrists,arms, neck, shoulders and back

Copyright © The School of Applied Sciences The Robert Gordon University


Workstation / VDU - Regulations

4/30 Workstation / VDU Regulations

Posture

X

X

Too low

Too high Copyright Š The School of Applied Sciences The Robert Gordon University


Workstation / VDU - Regulations

4/30 Workstation / VDU Regulations

Correct Copyright Š The School of Applied Sciences The Robert Gordon University


Chair • • • •

5 star base for stability Castors on carpet,not on hard floors Adjustable back rest for lumbar support Adjustable seat height


Desk : • Height: 680-720mm. • Adequate leg space • Continuous work surface for mouse and keyboard • No sharp edges, corners or rough surfaces


Computer equipment Computer screen • Distance:

~ arm’s length from user

• Height: No higher than 400mm above the work surface • No glare or reflections • Adjustable


Computer equipment Keyboard • Use with straight wrists • Fingers should be curved • Rest hands while waiting for response from computer • Alter position according to tasks


Computer equipment Mouse: • Use at same height as keyboard • Use on mouse pad • Place the mouse pad as close as possible to the keyboard • Use with alternate hands


Computer equipment: Accessories • Footrest • Document holders


Using laptop or notebook computers If using for > 2 hours in one sitting: • Attach a separate mouse and keyboard to the computer and place the laptop on a box at the correct height • Attach a separate mouse and cheap monitor and use the laptop keyboard


Workplace environment: • Work surface layout

• Workplace layout


Minimising eye strain • Take a short break • Relax the eyes • Change focus • Consult an optometrist before using eye drops


Where is your eye gaze? The monitor should be placed so that your eye gaze is limited to + 15 degrees of a straigt horizontal line

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Is your head a yo-yo? Avoid this action.. .

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Comfortable positions

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If you use your computer/desk less than 30 minutes at a time, you should consider a work/stand workstation with a chair designed for that purpose.

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This man should not be using this chair...why? He needs a work/stand ergo chair and possibly even an anti-fatigue mat (sore feet), and maybe even a slanted footrest

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Ambient Environment (Noise, Temperature)

Elements of the Office Environment Workstation Design (Physical)

Work Organization (Job design)

Psychosocial (Job control, etc)

Health Outcomes

PERSON

Job Satisfaction

Productivity/Quality


Model of How the Office Environment Leads To Musculoskeletal Outcomes

Physical Demands

Office Technology

Biomechanical Strain

Individual Factors

Detection/ Sensatioin

Labeling/ Attribution

Musculoskeletal Outcomes Symptoms

Work Organization

Psychological Strain

Health Care Utilization

Disability

Source: Amick et al, 1999 as adapted from Suater and Swanson, 1997


Physical Office Environment • Lighting and vision –

Monitor glare and monitor interface

• Furniture –

Chair, Table, Trays

• Computer Input devices –

Keyboards and pointing devices


Lighting and Vision Overhead lights

• Potential Problems: – Visual fatigue – Accommodation/Occularmoto r fatigue: blurring, shadow images Walls – Headache

Task Lamp

– Eye soreness/dryness Monitor

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Window s 35


Lighting and Vision

• Probable causes: – Environment: lighting, glare, low humidity – Screen design: flicker rate, contrast, brightness, character or image size – Task requirement: duration on task, task complexity, task frequency, etc. – Personal: lack of proper vision correction


Lighting - Some Useful Definitions • Glare - the sensation produced by luminance within the visual field that is sufficiently greater than the luminance to which the eyes are adapted to cause annoyance, discomfort, or loss of visual performance and visibility – Direct Glare is caused by one or more bright sources of light that shine directly into the eyes – Reflected Glare is caused by light reflected from an object or objects that an observer is viewing


Lighting Summary • Diffuse (indirect) lighting is appropriate for most VDT work • Minimize differences in illumination – Create a uniform visual field, reduce glare

Overhead lights low glare lenses or louvers

Task Lamp Walls

Monitor Source: Jack Dennerlein 10/7/13 Harvard School of Public Health

Office Ergonomics/Sritomo W.Soebroto

Windows Line of sight 38


Workstation Design • Furniture – Chair – Keyboard and mouse surface & position – Table and monitor stand

• Adjustable is key! • Managing your comfort zone is essential! 10/7/13

Office Ergonomics/Sritomo W.Soebroto

39Jack Dennerlein Source: Harvard School of Public Health


General • Keep it comfortable – Do what works

• Keep it in reach – Place frequently used stuff near

• Consider sit-stand workstation designs 10/7/13

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Chair • General Design

Backrest

– Easy to adjust – 5-leg base -- stability – Swivel and wheels -ease of reaching & getting in & out

95120° Arm Rests

Seat Pan

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Chair Design • Seat Pan:

Backrest

– Slightly concave

95120°

– Softly padded – Rounded, waterfall edge- reduce edge compression

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Arm Rests

Seat Pan

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Chair Design • Foot rest

Backrest

– only if necessary – should be big & solid

95120°

• Backrest: – Supports entire back: head-lumbar ~ 85 cm – Relieve spinal and muscle load

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Arm Rests

Seat Pan

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Adjust the chair • Seat Height:

Backrest

– Feet flat on floor 95120°

– Knee should be at 90°

• Armrests: Arm Rests

– Supports upper extremity – Adjustable vertically and horizontally – Vertically for shoulders – Horizontally to keep elbows in

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Seat Pan

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Keyboard and mouse • Vertical Position – As low as possible – Arms parallel – g-h key height = elbow height – mouse and keyboard at the same height – larger surfaces are better than trays

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Keyboard and mouse • Horizontal Position – Keyboard: Directly in front of worker – Mouse: Right or left of keyboard – Mouse: Directly in front (mouse intensive tasks) – Trays can limit horizontal adjustments 10/7/13

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Keyboard and mouse • Angle – Keyboard: Flat or negative sloped

• Keep wrists straight or slightly flexed – Wrist pad (obstacles) can help (bio-feedback)

Negative slope

Flat

Wrist pad 10/7/13

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Monitor Positioning • Vertically adjustable – Top of screen not to exceed the operator’s eye level (preferably 1-2 inches below eye level) – Viewing angle 15°- 30° W/R to horizontal

18-24”

15°- 30°

• Horizontally adjustable – Directly in front – 18-24” distance

• Same for document holder

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Workstation (summary) • Flexible/comfortable/adjustable workstations • Vary posture throughout the day – Function of task – Posture support- back, arms, legs, feet

• Other equipment should be close and reachable


Task and interface issues • Vary work – Enlarge tasks -- include non-repetitive tasks – Programmed short breaks – Use office automation (i.e. the copy machine stapler)

• Look towards software – Keyboard mapping (Macros) – Well designed usability (reduces stress)


OFFICE ERGONOMICS ASSESSMENT


PERMASALAHAN…. CIDERA KERJA

OFFICE ERGONOMIICS ASSESSMENT

PENINGKATAN KUALITAS KERJA


PERKEMBANGAN  “Working Americans spend about 2,000 hours a year in the workplace. Not surprisingly, all of these hours can take a toll—on your eyes, your back, your arms, and your neck.”  Menurut sebuah penelitian di Amerika, 57% kecelakaan kerja didominasi oleh MSD (Musculoskeletal Disoerder) MSD

Awkward Postur

Ergonomic & Workstation Desain

Computer Workstation Design


ASSESSMENT COMPONENT CARA DUDUK Tinggi tempat duduk harus disesuaikan dengan jangkauan kaki pengguna agar kaki tidak menggantung atau terlalu landai

Jika ingin mempertinggi posisi kursi hendaknya menggunakan penyangga kaki agar tidak menggantung


Ada sandaran punggung ďƒ¨ sehingga mencegah kelelahan


Penggunaan Komputer Jarak antara pengguna dan komputer

Posis dan jarak pandang yang ideal

Posisi keyboard dan mouse


Pengaruh Lingkungan

TEMPERATUR

KEBISINGAN

PENCAHAYAAN

Temperatur normal dalam ruangan kerja biasanya berkisar 22-28 derajad celcius ďƒ¨ temperatur yang terlalu panas atau dingin akan menyebabkan kurangnya konsentra Batas kebisingan nornal dalam bekerja yaitu 85 Db. Kebisingan dapat menyebabkan ganguan fisiologis, ganguan psikologis, ganguan komusikasi dan ketulian. Mempertimbangkan posisi lampu agar tidak tegak lurus dengan meja kerja dan tidak menimbulkan efek cahaya yang berlebihan dan menyebabkan silau, dan kelelahan mata.


CASE STUDY


POINT PENGMATAN Kursi yang digunakan sudah ergonomis dari segi adanya penyangga badan maupun tinggi kursi. Selain itu, jenis kursinya memberikan kemudahan untuk moving bagi pekerja.

Terdapat ruang untuk kaki sehingga dapat mengurangi beban kelelahan


CONT‌ Namun, cara duduk pekerja kurang baik ďƒ¨ pekerja duduk terlalu di tepi kursi sehingga menyebabkan kurangnya penyokong untuk tulang punggung ďƒ¨ MSD

Cara duduk terlalu kaku ďƒ¨ sehingga lebih sering menimbulkan kelelahan pada pekerja


ALAT – ALAT KERJA

Tempat menyimpan dokumen sudah teratur

Mouse yang digunakan kurang memberikan kenyamanan pada pekerja karena skrol nya sering macet dan kurang sensitiv ďƒ¨ kelelahan pada tangan


LINGKUNGAN

Jarak pandang dari komputer sudah pas

ďƒ¨ Pencahayaan ruangan dan temperatur sudah cukup memberikan kenyamanan pada pekerja


Lain – lain

ďƒ¨Hampir 60 % kegiatan yang dilakukan adalah pada kondisi duduk dan berhadapan dengan komputer


ALTERNATIF SOLUSI Pekerja diberikan sejenis pengarahan cara duduk yang baik Dilakukan penggantian mouse yang lebih baik Diberikan terapi senyum untuk mengurangi stress pada pekerja  sehingga dapat meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan


[thank you]


Office Ergonomics