Project Team: Gkerliotou Vaia_Ntrenogianni Antonia_Savvoulidou Eirini_Steliou Spyridoula
Academic Year: 2015/2016_2nd Semester
Techne Project Tutor:
Symeonidou Ioanna Project Team:
Gkerliotou Vaia Ntrenogianni Antonia Savvoulidou Eirini Steliou Spyridoula 3
Introduction & Aims
The Deconstr_Arc is an experiment of a wooden Pavilion conceptualized in its physical fabrication placed on the area of
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
It is an experiment of a student team of the master class of
Advanced Design: Innovation and Transdisciplinarity
in Architectural Design Master Programme in Architecture in summer semester
2016. It is an experiment of an
academic pedagogy of intensive manufacturing.
This is a
project of four students. The two-week Induction Studio provides an intensive introduction to the techniques of contemporary design production. Design software tools are learned through a series of the two-week workshop.
These covered the fundamentals of 3d modeling, generative and parametric modeling techniques, and the principles of integration with digital fabrication. The intention was to provide the cohort with a shared foundation and confidence in these tools.
Navigation of design process
The process of
design and make agenda of the programme offers
an extraordinary opportunity for the team to push the boundary of an architectural design methodology beyond convention. Throughout the design process, a great amount of scale models and many sketches initiated key ideas which were followed through with ing with plans of an
1:1 scale. These prototypes tested
and verified directly on issues of constructability.
team engaged the design with physical models in order to generate and communicate thoughts thoroughly. Digital modeling came to take part in the process as well in or-
project was completed after the intensive work-
on how the tools could be used to create â€˜real-lifeâ€™, built
shop through which an integrated digital-material, de-
construction in contrast to the speculative parametric
sign-make methodology was established.
sive workshop techniques were learned and applied to
Each team had to select an existing construction tech-
the formation of an individual digitally-derived materi-
nique, research and analyze its process, and develop a
al-spatial speculation that is potentially relevant for the
generative parametric digital model that allows that
subsequent build project.
techniques to be deployed in a non-conventional way.
The project iteration was to be a fully articulated and
Then, each team fabricated a prototype in 1:10 scale with
documented proposition that exists as:
the appropriate material, which enhanced the design pro-
- a digital tool and representation
duced through this digitally-controlled technique.
der to refine and develop geometrically these sketches and prototypes.
a physical piece manufactured at
several mock-ups, drawings and
- a paper documentation of the process, the proposition
digital iterations, the design became more tangible and
and its applicability
moved towards spatial reality.
two-week workshop was divided into digital tool
tuition and presentations about relevant design projects and tutorials/design sessions on parametric tools in
Rhino and Grasshopper software. Emphasis was given 7
“Tectonics is primarily concerned with the making of architecture in a modern world. Its value is seen as being a
Concept Design Process
partial strategy for an architecture rooted in time and place, as well as an architecture of “depth.” In bringing
Fabrication Process Model Failures
the physical into the meta-physical, tectonics begins to talk of a poetic of construction.”
(Maulden, Robert, http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/78804)
The primary goal was to design and fabricate a parametric topology of an abstract figure in order to create a pavilion structure.
form features the fragmented corro-
sion of the whole. entity still
The broken pieces of an straggling to be, an emergent
condition that never ceases to evolve and transform.
the design priority
was a non rhythmic, non symmetric, non recurrent pattern.
the design was based on
a curve which
meant to become a walking path for the visitors inside the structure. This path would have been consisted of wooden panels so as to create a closed space -that of the pavilion structure.
Due to some
difficulties that arose during the construction
on the connections of the panels, led the
design to the use of a simpler curvature as a path.
in order for the structure to have
some protection from the weather conditions and a better static behavior the panels were placed on an arc assembly.
design helped to share the
forces and the weight of the panels on the ground uniformly.
In order to avoid obtuse angles on the connections of the panels, the curvature of the path was simplified, and connections were created vertically to the panels. The result was a linear path in which the arcs developed. In the end of the design process, a multi-layered structure, consisting of many sequential arches - each consisted of many separate componentsconnected together by joints, was developed. The intention was to create arches not in one piece but in many separate pieces, nevertheless able to stand and support. In order for the panels to be connect-
ed, a new type of joint of the components which we
called â€œcombâ€? or vertical joints was used, aiming to create a particularly complex and unapparent infrastructure system.
During the process
structural system problems led to a more struction-driven based design.
a few con-
Laws of physics are
inevitable and impose certain demands in selecting shape and especially size of the construction components.
Design Process digital
The techniques that were used on the prototypes were those of another assembling-industry (such as boat building) and contemporary techniques such as Japanese timber jointing, ship-lap, log-cabin. After finding the appropriate assembly technique for the project the team had to have an underlying component/geometric logic that can be extracted and codified within the Rhino/ Grasshopper interface. The
prototype had to be constructed at full component scale that should
demonstrate the capabilities of the system and how, through digital control,
the existing technique can be re-applied in a more sophisticated and flexible way.
digital control should lead to direct digital fabrication (i.e. through
a cnc workflow of a laser cut technique) of all parts and conjunction of
assembling parts of the whole pavilion structure. Inventive application and
acknowledgement of the interplay of digital, manual and machine processes were strongly encouraged.
[STEP_1 DEFINE THE INITIAL ARC]
[1_defining the initial geometry and then contour by 20 steps ]
[2_divide each curve by 19 division points]
[3_define the plane of each curve
in order to ensure the same planarity]
[4_extract the vector of each division point]
[6_move the remaped division points on the yâ€™y axis_ and create two lists of curves]
[5_remap the position of the division points]
[waving the contoured lines]
[highlight area] 16
[STEP_2 DEFINE THE FRAMES OF THE PANELS]
[7_define the second division point of each curve]
[8_join the division points in order to define the frames of each panel]
[9_define the frames of each panel]
[highlight area] 18
[STEP_3 DEFINE THE PANELS] [ii_row: extruding each face]
[i_row: extruding each face]
[srf to project]
[10_define the panels] [the split idea did not work]
from projected curve]
[highlight area] 20
[STEP_4 DEFINE THE VERTICAL JOINTS]
[11_define the diagonal
between two continounig panels]
[12_define the centroid of the diagonal]
[13_define the axes of the vertical joints
[14_extract the three axes
of the vertical joints]
[highlight area] 22
[STEP_5 DEFINE VERTICAL JOINTSâ€™ POSITIONS_ AND BOOLEAN WITH THE HORIZONTAL PANELS]
[15_creation of breps as vertical joints]
after booleaned with the panels]
[highlight area] 24
[STEP_6 CALIBRATE MANUALLY THE VERTICAL JOINTS IN ORDER TO ADJUST PROPERLY TOTHE PANEL]
[18_set of the model]
[highlight area] [highlight area] 26
Design Process The
main supporting structure of this pavilion was
created by thin wooden elements the â€˜vertical jointsâ€™ and the thinner wooden parts those of the addition-
al joints. The laser cut mdf pieces of the panels were connected and interlocked together with these joints and additional joints, forming a secure and assembly
construction. The assembly process of the prototype was a really tricky procedure.
The whole structure
was consisted of 216 wooden laser cut numbered parts which were iterations of trapeze shape. parts are the panels positioned
ditionally the engineering components of the pavilion
were 408 same, wooden, laser cut pieces and also the
These on 18 the arches. Ad-
same number of the additional joints. The whole de-
sign took into account the fact that the volume of the work, especially the fabrication and assembly time ,would be reduced dramatically if the wooden joints are all the same. At the same time the final morhology beacame doherent.
After placing on the working table the panels of the first row of the Pavilion, the first vertical joints had to be placed. Subsequently, the second row was placed and each part was passed through the vertical joints.
The process continued with the placement of
the third and the fourth row which also were passed through the joints.
having successfully the
first four rows with the joints inside each hole of the panels, the vertical joints had to slide and moved on the Z axis so as to interlock on the panels. Having
1st row 2nd row
additional joints on the same holes with the vertical joints so as to stabilize them.
all these parts in place, it is time to insert the wooden
Vertical Movement 29
Design Process structural details
vertical joints placing in the panels
panels placing 2nd row
placing 3rd row
placing 2nd row
panels placing 4th row
vertical joints vertical movement 1st row
additional joints placing
Fabrication Process numbering
In order to prepare each board panel for the laser cut machine the pieces had to be numbered so as to manage the assembling. Each piece had to be printed out on a layout for matching the borders of the laser cut machine.
Fabrication Process assembling
Mdf prototype model base: 700x510mm height: 350mm material: mdf sheet 3mm After having all the parts cutted on the laser cut machine the appropriate process to start connecting them together had to be found. It was required to connect them in a way so as to hold the whole structure stable on the correct curvature of the arc. This process took some time of experimentation so as to find the perfect position of the panels in order to have the ability to slice the vertical joint and junction parts in the rows of the panels.
the most appropriate way was to put the first row of the panels horizontal on the working table and not vertical because it wasnâ€™t feasible to keep them on an arc without having put all the vertical junctions and joints in order to make them rigid. The whole assembling process was a set of seven steps.
1. Placing first row of vertical junctions on first row of panels step 2. Placing first row of panels assembling them with the first row step
vertical junctions step 3. Placing second row of vertical junctions and assembling them on first and second row of panels step
4. Placing third row of panels assembling them with the first and the
second row of vertical junctions step
5. Placing fourth row of panels assembling them with the first and the
second row of vertical junctions step 6. Vertical movement on the Y axis of the two rows of the vertical junctions so as to slice in place step 7. Placing vertical joints to stabilize the two first vertical junctions and make them rigid on the cut slices of the panels
Looking the structure of the pavilion it is obvious that a pattern of trapeze panels and thin vertical joints consist an interesting pattern. It is a rigid and void pattern imagining the voids as important static parts that help the forces to be shared on each panel and follow the arc so as to minimize the static difficulties until they reach the ground. fascinating game of shadows.
These solid and void areas create a
the internal space created by the orientation and the arc positioning
of the wooden panels, an interesting game of shadows and lights takes place The dense geometry of the of the wooden parts and vertical joints generate beautiful shadows during the day. At night-time, it produces a visually mesmerizing effect, creating an illusion of more depth and density. The geometric secrets of the structure ,like the hidden wooden joints, create an interesting pattern of dark and lighten areas on the ground for every visitor to discover. It is really interesting the fact that the shadows themselves disclose the engineering parts of the structure on a night view.
Failures vertical joints
vertical joints small profile
Through experimentation on the first design outcome, serious infrastructure issues arose: the necessary structure stiffness was non-existent. The outcome was a need for a retrofitting due to: a) the combs (joints) were too small to withstand all the heavy load of mdf cardboard used, therefore they had to be significantly increased in shape (profile axis), b) enormous torsion forces applied on the combs, resulted in the collapse of the structure. This failure could be overcome by the use of transverse, supportive joints, an intent which was actually accomplished by duplicating the number of the vertical joints, putting them in couples, releasing many short length stringers for each arch. Furthermore, the length of the vertical joints increased, in order to transmit imposed
â€œThe Chain effectâ€? Failure in junction due to axis torsion
forces on a series of four sequential arches that would cooperate and work as one.