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Church History

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Index of Contents • The Age of Jesus Christ and the Apostles – 6 BC to AD 70 • The Age of Catholic Christianity – 70 to 312 • The Age of the Christian Roman Empire – 312 to 590 • The Christian Middle Ages – 590 to 1517 • The Age of Reformation – 1517 to 1648 • The Age of Reason and Revival – 1648 to 1789 • The Age of Progress – 1789 to 1914 • The Age of Ideologies – 1914 to …….

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The Age of Jesus Christ and the Apostles Death of Stephen Death of Paul Birth of Jesus

BC

0

25

50

75

Death of Jesus

100

Destruction of Jerusalem Nero

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Christianity – The only major religion to have as its central event the humiliation of its God!

• Crucifixion – Barbarous Death / Agitators, Pirates and Slaves • Some victims were whipped and then punished to carry the heavy cross beam for his own death. • Notice pinned with “criminal’s name and crime” • Jesus = INRI (Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum = Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews)

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Jesus and the Church • Jesus was Jew, from a Jew family, studied the Jewish law and observed the Jewish religion. • The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John reveals Jesus plans for a company of followers to carry His work. • Two years – Teaching the disciples about “Life and the Kingdom of God”. • Jesus taught them about the “new covenant” bounding them together in forgiveness and love. • To follow Jesus meant to break with “world rules” and loyalty to those rules – beginning of Jesus Christ’s church.

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Palestine in Jesus’ Days • Lacked of loyalties • Crossroads of culture and peoples – about 2,000,000 • Ruled by Rome – divided by region, religion and politics. • The Holy City – Jewish priests offered sacrifices to the Lord of Israel • Sebaste – 30 miles away, pagan priests held rites in honor of the Roman god Jupiter. • Jews – only 50% of the population • Romans brought the Hellenistic (Greek) culture (Sirians had tried to do that a century before)

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Palestine Map on the Times of Jesus Christ

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• Prophets of Israel promised for centuries – the Lord would deliver His people from pagan rulers. • The messiah will be sent to establish the Kingdom of Heaven. • Book of Daniel – popular on those days – final cosmic struggle , evil led by Satan and good led by the Lord. • World order would be destroyed and a new kingdom without end would be created (Dn: 7:13-22) • Pharisees (separated ones) – Emphasis on Jewish laws and traditions – apart from pagan culture. • Pharisees – intolerance to “ritually unclean” people. • Some Jew found Roman rule an advantage.

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• Sadducees (political group) - enjoyed the GrecoRoman sophisticated manners and fashion / Some took Greek names. • Zealots – Armed resistance to all Romans - Hills of Galilee – guerrilla bands against symbols of Roman authority in Palestine • Essenes – little or no interest in politics or war – in the Judean wilderness they studied the Scriptures and prepared themselves for the Lord’s Kingdom. • Jesus has to call for His followers loyalty without confusing the purpose of His mission.

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Jesus’ Ministry •Jordan River / North of Dead Sea – busiest part of the region – crowds of people to hear John. • John preached to people repent of their sins and the coming day of judgment by the baptism in water. • many tough he was the Messiah but he always denied • That call drew Jesus to the Jordan – Message was the truth of God. • Jesus submitted to Johns baptism and soon afterward began His own mission. (Mark 1:15) • Instead of the deserts, Jesus chose begin His mission in Galilee.

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Church History