Issuu on Google+

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Bachelor of Arts in Communication Research Alleli Rae C. Dantes

Your Style Handbook: A Study on the Influence of Fashion Blogs on the Fashion Clothing Involvement of Filipino Female Undergraduate Students Aged 16 to 24 Years from Katipunan Area Campuses and Universities within U-Belt Manila

Thesis Adviser: Professor Julienne Thesa Baldo - Cubelo College of Mass Communication University of the Philippines-Diliman

Date of Submission April 2014

Permission is given for the following people to access this thesis: Available for general public Available only after consultation with authors/thesis adviser Available only to those bound by confidentiality agreement

Students’ signature: Signature of thesis adviser:

Yes No No


UNIVERSITY PERMISSION

I hereby grant the University of the Philippines non-exclusive worldwide, royalty free license to reproduce, publish and publicly distribute copies of this thesis in whatever form subject to the provisions of applicable laws, the provision of the UP IPR Policy and any contractual obligations, as well as more specific permission marking on the Title Page. Specifically, I grant the following rights to the University: a) to upload a copy of the copy of the work in the database of the college/school/institute/department and in any other databases available on the public internet; b) to publish the work in a college/school/institute/department journal, both in print and electronic or digital format and online; and c) to give access to above-mentioned work, thus allowing ‘fair use’ of the work in accordance with the provisions of the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (Republic Act No. 8293), especially for teaching, scholarly and research purposes.

____________________________ Alleli Rae C. Dantes

April 2014


YOUR STYLE HANDBOOK: A STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF FASHION BLOGS ON THE FASHION CLOTHING INVOLVEMENT OF FILIPINO FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AGED 16 TO 24 YEARS FROM KATIPUNAN AREA CAMPUSES AND UNIVERSITIES WITHIN U-BELT MANILA

ALLELI RAE C. DANTES

Submitted to the COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION University of the Philippines Diliman In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH

April 2014


YOUR STYLE HANDBOOK: A STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF FASHION BLOGS ON THE FASHION CLOTHING INVOLVEMENT OF FILIPINO FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AGED 16 TO 24 YEARS FROM KATIPUNAN AREA CAMPUSES AND UNIVERSITIES WITHIN U-BELT MANILA

by ALLELI RAE C. DANTES

has been accepted for the degree of BACHELOR OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH by

Professor Julienne Thesa Baldo- Cubelo and approved for the University of the Philippines College Of Mass Communication by

Professor Rolando B. Tolentino, Ph. D. Dean, College of Mass Communication


BIOGRAPHICAL DATA PERSONAL DATA Name

Alleli Rae C. Dantes

Permanent Address

50 Maria Street, FB De Jesus Subdivision, Novaliches, Quezon City

Contact Number

639268355409

Email Address

raedantes@gmail.com

EDUCATION Secondary Level

Mater Carmeli School, Sacred Heart, Novaliches

Primary Level

With Honors, Mater Carmeli School, Sacred Heart, Novaliches

ORGANIZATIONS

Finance and Corporate Affairs Manager, UP Advertising Core, Nov 2013 - Apr 2014; Public Relations and Promotions Manager, UP Advertising Core, Apr 2013 – Nov 2013; Vice President for External Affairs Committee, UP ASTERISK, AY 2011 – 2012; Member, UP Sigma Beta Sorority

WORK EXPERIENCE

Contributing Writer / Research Analyst, Nov 2013 Present; Intern, Strategic Planning Department, April – May 2013, DYLL Communications Inc. Nestle Production Assistant, Wildfire Inc., 2012

ACHIEVEMENTS

College Scholar: 1st semester, AY 2009 – 2010; 2nd semester, AY 2012 – 2013


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I've been UP, down, and in between. I tried to keep cool but I know I would not have made it without the help of these people: I want to thank the Guy up there, who has been my best friend ever since I was young, who has helped me get through the trying times, and who never ceased to lift my faith and hope in all the things I do. I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to my family. To my parents and grandparents who have been my sources of strength and inspiration. To my aunties and uncle abroad who, in some way, provided support for my schooling. To my dear friends who are always ready to offer a hand, give me a pat on the back and a shoulder to cry on especially when I need the most. I would like to send my deepest gratitude to my thesis adviser, Ma’am Baldo - Cubelo, who gave me support and words of encouragement. To Josvanne, for her help with data gathering. To my proof-readers’ Che and Ruth and to my statistician, Jeco, for carefully checking my data and write-up. To all the people I met during my stay at Mass Comm – my college professors, friends, and RADE - who I spent with most of my days and late nights working for papers and presentations. I would also like to thank UP ASTERISK and UP AdCore for giving me the opportunity to hone my skills and interests. With you I found my second home at UPD. To my sisters at UP Sigma Beta Sorority, who instilled in me the values of a strong dignified woman, who supported me in my endeavors and who understood my shortcomings. To the respondents and informants who willingly participated on my survey and discussions.

This material owes its existence to all of you.

My sincerest thanks,

Rae


DEDICATION For the Youth That they may strive to find Beauty in everything they do For Women That they may appreciate Beauty despite imperfections For lovers of Fashion That they may see Beauty beyond Style


viii ABSTRACT Dantes, A.R.C. (2014). YOUR STYLE HANDBOOK: A Study on the Influence of Fashion Blogs on the Fashion Clothing Involvement of Filipino Female Undergraduate Students Aged 16 to 24 Years from Katipunan Area Campuses and Universities within U-Belt Manila, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication.

This study was aimed to determine how exposure to fashion blogs influence the fashion

clothing

involvement

(fashion

innovativeness,

fashion

interpersonal

communication, fashion interest, fashion knowledge and fashion awareness) of young adult Filipino women. Anchored on Media Systems Dependency Theory and Uses and Gratifications Theory, this study looked into fashion blog readers’ preference in content, exposure to fashion blogs, motives for reading fashion blogs, and involvement with fashion clothing. Using a qualitative and quantitative approach, an online survey and focus group discussions with female undergraduate students, aged 16-24 years, from colleges and universities within Katipunan Quezon City and University Belt Manila were conducted. The results of the online survey showed that majority of the respondents read fashion blogs for more than once a week. The most commonly read and sought after contents fall under General Fashion Trends or Products (i.e. latest fashion trends and product/clothing store information), Non-Clothing Information (i.e. how to articles or advices on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories and apparel), Layout and Pictures, Street Style and Travel Photos, and Blogger’s Daily Outfits. Fashion Interest was found to be the dominant characteristic present among fashion blog readers: the respondents generally scored high in Fashion Interest. From the FGDs, it was discovered that inspiration, knowledge improvement, self-expression, entertainment and leisure are the


ix motivations in reading fashion blogs. In general, fashion blogs aid in the improvement of one’s personal style, preference in clothes, and knowledge in fashion.

Keywords: Fashion Blogs, Fashion Clothing Involvement, Fashion Innovativeness, Fashion Interpersonal Communication, Fashion Interest, Fashion Knowledge, Fashion Awareness, Clothing, Style, Trends


x TABLE OF CONTENTS Page University Permission (1)

i

University Permission (2)

ii

Title Page

iii

Approval Sheet

iv

Biographical Data

v

Acknowledgment

vi

Dedication

vii

Abstract

viii

Table of Contents

x

List of Tables

xiii

List of Figures

xiii

I. INTRODUCTION

1

A. Background of the Study

1

B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives

6

C. Rationale and Significance of the Study

7

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

10

A. Fashion Blog

10

B. Media Exposure and Media Content

13

C. Motivations and Preferences of College Students

16

D. Fashion Clothing Involvement

22

E. Synthesis

26


xi F. Research Gap III. STUDY FRAMEWORK

28 30

A. Theoretical Framework

30

B. Conceptual Framework

36

C. Operational Framework

38

D. Operational Definition of Terms

41

IV. METHODOLOGY

43

A. Research Design and Methods

43

B. Concepts and Indicators/ Variables and Measures

43

C. Research Instruments

44

D. Units of Analysis and Sampling Scheme

45

E. Data Generation/ Construction

46

F. Data Analysis Procedures

47

G. Scope and Limitations

47

H. The Researcher

48

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

49

A. Respondents’ and Informants’ Profiles

49

B. Exposure to Fashion Blogs

52

C. Content of Fashion Blogs

55

1. General Fashion Trends or Products

55

2. Non-clothing Information

58

3. Layout and Pictures

61

4. Advertising

66


xii 5. Street Style and Travel Photos

72

6. Fashion News or Events

74

7. Blogger’s Personal Life

76

8. Blogger’s Hobbies or Interests

78

9. Blogger’s Daily Outfits

80

10. Blogger’s Comments or Suggestions

82

D. Motives in Reading Fashion Blogs

87

E. Fashion Clothing Involvement

89

F. Relationship between Exposure and FCI

94

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

98

A. Summary

98

B. Conclusion

101

VII. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

104

A. Theoretical Issues

104

B. Methodological Issues

105

C. Practical Issues

108

Bibliography Appendices APPENDIX I:

Categories of Fashion Blog Content

APPENDIX II:

Matrix of Objectives

APPENDIX III:

Focus Group Discussion Guide

APPENDIX IV:

Questionnaire

APPENDIX V:

FGD Transcriptions


xiii LIST OF TABLES Number

Title

Page

1

Timetable

47

2

FGD Participants’ Profile

50

3

Exposure to Fashion Blogs

52

4.

No. of times spent reading fashion blogs

53

5

Top 10 Local fashion blogs followed by the respondents

54

6

Fashion blog contents read by all respondents

84

7

Fashion blog contents read by majority of respondents

85

8

Frequency of reading fashion blog content

86

9

Components of FCI and their Median Scores

90

10

Fashion Innovativeness

92

11

Fashion Interpersonal Communication

92

12

Fashion Interest

92

13

Fashion Knowledge

93

14

Fashion Awareness

93

15

Fashion Clothing Involvement

94

16

Correlation between Exposure to Fashion Blogs and FCI

94

17

Correlation among 5 FCI Components and Exposure to Fashion Blogs

95

LIST OF FIGURES Number 1

Title Uses and Gratifications Theory Model

Page 30


xiv 2

Media Systems Dependency Theory Model

31

3

Media Systems Dependency Theory Model 2

32

4

Integrated Theoretical Model

35

5

Conceptual Model

37

6

Operational Model

40

7

EMODA store and clothing products

55

8

Giordano store and clothing products

56

9

How-to articles on hairstyles and apparel

58

10

Healthy diet and exercise features

60

11

Break My Style layout

63

12

Thirsty Thought layout

64

13

Camille Tries to Blog layout

65

14

Banner advertisements

67

15

Pay per Click or Pay per View advertisements

68

16

Review advertisements

68

17

Dress giveaway

70

18

Travel photos

72

19

Street style photos

73

20

Giordano store opening

74

21

EMODA fashion show

75

22

Blogger’s sentiments

76

23

Blogger’s gathering with friends

77

24

Blogger’s hobby: Surfing

79


xv 25

Blogger’s interest: Calligraphy

79

26

Kryz’s OOTD

80

27

Camille’s OOTD

81

28

Laureen’s OOTD

81

29

Blogger’s comments

82


1 I.

INTRODUCTION

“We are living in an ever-changing new media environment in which people and media interact and influence each other in various ways.” – Cho, 2009 (p. 1)

A. Background of the study 1. Traditional vs. New Media According to 2011 Nielsen Southeast Asian Digital Consumer Report, the internet has overtaken traditional media like print, television, and radio in terms of usage among young consumers from Southeast Asian countries. With the advent of social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Blogspot, Flickr, etc., new media is now becoming more influential (Arellano, 2012) to a large number of people. There were already 625 million active users of the internet around the globe (Universal McCann, Social Media Tracker Wave 4, 2009) and the number still continues to grow. In this day and age, new media usage is considered mainstream (InsideCounsel Survey, 2013). Time spent reading blogs is now at par with time spent reading print media like newspapers and magazines (Universal McCann, Social Media Tracker Wave 6, 2012). 2. User-Created Content and Filipino Internet Users User-Created Content (UCC), also known as User-Generated Content (UGC), refers to “content made publicly available over the internet reflecting a certain amount of creative effort, however, created outside of professional routines and practices” (Duval & Ochoa, 2008, p. 1). Examples of UCC include blogs, wikis, reviews, pictures, profiles; audio and video platforms (Hagemann & Vossen, 2013). Users of UCC can choose the content they want through “use of search engines, subscriptions to exclusive information


2 and the like” (Macasinag, & Novela, 2012, p. 2). The internet has allowed individuals to adapt their exposure to media depending on their needs (Ku et al., 2006 as cited in Macasinag, & Novela, 2012). It was projected that by the year 2013, 155 million internet users already consume user-created content in the U.S. (Verna, 2009 as cited in Dominguez, 2011). In the Philippines, there were already 4.2 million active users of the internet in the year 2009 alone (Universal McCann, Social Media Tracker Wave 4, 2009). ComScore, a leading internet technology company that measures what people do as they navigate the digital world, reported a significant increase in internet usage among Filipinos, 15 years old and above (ComScore, 2011 as cited in Arellano, 2012). Findings of 2011 Nielsen Southeast Asian Digital Consumer Report showed that Filipinos spend an average of 3.6 hours reading print newspapers, 6.3 hours listening to radio, 13.3 hours watching television, and 21.5 hours browsing the internet. 3. The Blogosphere Increase in the use of blogs has been very consistent in the last few years (Universal McCann, Social Media Trackers’ Wave 3, 2008; Wave 4, 2009; and Wave 6, 2012). According to Technorati (2007), the state of the blogosphere is strong and maturing as it has become an important portion of the web (Sifry, 2007). Technorati is known widely for quarterly ‘State of the Blogosphere’ reports which analyze trends on blogs. 120, 000 new weblogs were reported being created worldwide each day (Sifry, 2007) and women bloggers were reported being influential on the blogosphere (Sobel, 2010). In a 2012 survey by Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, it was shown that young adults are more likely than people from other age groups to use


3 social media (Brenner & Duggan, 2013). Majority of the people who spend time reading blogs are between the ages of 16 to 24 (Universal McCann, Social Media Tracker Wave 6, 2012). In terms of creating blogs, Philippines became second to China (Universal McCann, Social Media Tracker Wave 4, 2009). Blogs were described by Goldwin-Jones (2006, as cited in Ducate & Lomicka, 2008) as large “interwoven net of information” wherein blog entries are “linked, referenced, and debated” (p. 10). According to Williams and Jacobs (2004, as cited in Ducate & Lomicka, 2008) blogs assist in “knowledge sharing, reflection, and debate” (p. 10). Ducate & Lomicka (2008) said blog is a kind of online writing that boosts articulation of ideas and opinions, promotes critical analysis, and stimulates debate. Blogs allow users to engage in an online activity where they can leave comments, document entries, share hyperlinks, images or audio with others instantly (Ducate & Lomicka, 2008). Furthermore, it “encourages feedback and represents both a reading and writing activity” (Goldwin-Jones, 2006, as cited in Ducate & Lomicka, 2008, p. 10). 4. Blog as a popular space among the Youth Blog, which many consider as an online diary, became a popular space for the youth (Kadjer and Bull, 2003, as cited in Chittenden, 2010). The culture of young people is now entrenched in participation at virtual communities and social networking sites (Palfrey and Glasser, 2008, as cited in Chittenden, 2010). Young adults establish social interactions and develop a sense of belonging to a community of readers and writers (Murrray and Hourigan, 2006, as cited in Chittenden, 2010). They engage in complex expressions of identities through the processes of reading, writing, and commenting on blogs (Chittenden, 2010).


4 Since many young adults are involved in reading and writing blogs, this platform is considered a significant need during young adulthood (Chittenden, 2010). Williams and Jacobs (2004, as cited in Ducate & Lomicka, 2008), explored the potential of blogs as “learning spaces for students” (p. 10). According to Ducate & Lomicka. (2008), as blog helps students become regular readers and writers, it enhances interpretive and presentational skills of students. 5. The Rise of Fashion Blogs Dominguez (2011) said fashion has become one of the industries facing the test of technological advancement in terms of content publication. Since 2006, Corcoran has foreseen a rising number of fashion and shopping-related blogs. Fashion blog is a kind of user-created content that involves fashion bloggers as producers or creators of fashionrelated content. Such content was bound exclusive for fashion designers, fashion magazines and editors before. Fashion bloggers, later on, became a part of this exclusivity. In the Philippines, with the presence of local bloggers like Tricia Gosingtian, Laureen Uy, Kryz Uy, and Camille Co who received a huge number of followers, visitors in their respective sites (source: bloggers’ page views and topblogs.com.ph), and invites to different fashion events here and abroad; certainly, a new breed of writers and creators of content related to fashion have found their spotlight (Dominguez, 2011). These creators of fashion content, or more commonly known as fashion bloggers, have increasing influence on their readers and visitors (Arellano, 2012). According to Constance White (as cited in Corcoran, 2006), style director of eBay and a former journalist, the power of blogs gives the idea that “the whole population is taking control and ownership of fashion” (p. 1). Meaning to say, anyone is entitled to become a fashion


5 critic. Blogs are becoming a popular means where anyone can express his or her opinion, in a similar manner that fashion blogs are becoming popular because fashion as a subject “encourages endless discussion” (Allen, 2009, p. 3). 6. The Current State of Fashion and Retail Industry in the Philippines Filipinos’ taste in fashion is influenced by different cultures. Each of us has his or her inspiration when it comes to fashion. Some look up to famous personalities, some search for trends outside the country, while some get inspiration from the streets. Fashion advertisements, in the form of commercials or billboards, dominate our television screens and fill the stretch of our busy cities and highways. New malls are constructed here and there. Numerous foreign clothing brands are coming in the country to open a new store or add another store. Just recently, shops like Uniqlo from Japan, Cotton On from Australia, Miss Selfridge from UK, H & M from Sweden, Aeropostale and Forever 21 both from USA came to Manila and opened new stores. On the other hand, our local brands such as Bench and Penshoppe already embarked the challenge of becoming a global brand. According to Frederick Go, President of the Philippine Retailers Association (PRA), this year marks a growth in the retail industry as foreign brands continue to flock the domestic market and local brands test overseas markets (Philippine Star, 2013). 7. Young Consumers of Fashion Clothing Fashion clothing refers to any clothing item owned or admired by the consumer (Bougoure & Hourigan, 2012). It is said that fashion clothing has a relationship with one’s identity. The clothes people wear can express their identities in terms of class, race, gender and sexuality (Barrett, 2005). Clothing has gone through centuries of


6 experimentation and technological evolution as well as different stages of development – from mere protective covering to fashion statement. Young adulthood is a time when socializing and self-expression becomes important (Chittenden, 2010). It is also a time when young people figure out their style preference and their niche in the society. Young adults particularly in East Asia and Pacific region are shaped by global influences (UNICEF Annual Report, 2006). The global youth culture stimulates a culture of consumerism and desire for material possessions. Access to designer clothes gives some young adults a sense of popularity among others; this is an example of “how cultural capital (wearing a particular fashion label) can generate social capital (membership of the in-crowd)” (Chittenden, 2010, p. 507). The desire of the youth to look good (Croll, 2005) and own fashionable items makes them vulnerable to advertisers and companies selling various products in the market. In a survey conducted at U.S. by Piper Jaffray (2013), a leading investment bank and asset management firm serving clients in the U.S. and internationally, it was found that young adults turn to media for their source of information. The youth are said to be heavy users of mass media (Achtenberg, 2006). As a result, they often spend their money in a wide selection of durable products such as clothing, CDs, video games, and jewelry to non-durable products such as food, snacks, soda and ice cream (Mediamark Research Inc., 2004). B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives Seeing the vast number of people who are now into blogs and the youth’s growing interest in fashion clothing, the researcher asks:


7 Problem of the study: How does the level of exposure to fashion blogs influence the degree of fashion clothing involvement (FCI) of young adult Filipino women? General Objective: To determine how the level of exposure to fashion blogs influence the degree of FCI of young adult Filipino women. Specific Objectives: 1. To determine the level of exposure of young adult women to fashion blogs; 2. To describe the content of fashion blogs read by young adult women; 3. To identify the motives of young adult women in reading fashion blogs; 4. To measure the degree of FCI of young adult women based on five components: a. Fashion innovativeness b. Fashion interpersonal communication c. Fashion interest d. Fashion knowledge e. Fashion awareness; 5. To find out if there is a significant relationship between the level of exposure to fashion blogs and the degree of FCI of young adult women. C. Rationale and Significance of the Study This study sees its significance in the communication field, the blogosphere, and the clothing retail industries. More importantly, this study is deemed relevant to women and young adults who are exposed to user-generated websites such as blogs. The present study primarily contributes to the field of Communication since blog is a medium that enables relatively high discourse between the blogger and the audience (i.e. blog readers). User-generated websites such as blogs create a platform wherein the


8 receiver or the audience can actively participate and engage in multitude of discourses through the internet. This study mainly seeks to explore the changing phase of fashion communication. As the researcher recognizes the importance of examining the content of fashion blogs and the influence of these blogs among readers, the researcher adds another aspect worth studying in this area of communication. Fashion blogs feature an array of fashion-related content that are constantly being updated by bloggers and viewed by the readers. Exposure to such kind of content can have an effect on the interest, knowledge and awareness to fashion clothing of young adults, who happen to be frequent readers and visitors of the blogs (Universal McCann, 2012). More importantly, this study is deemed relevant to Filipino young adults who are active users of the internet (Universal McCann, 2009; Nielsen, 2011; ComScore, 2011, as cited in Arellano, 2012) and frequent readers of blogs (Universal McCann, 2012). Hence, this study is rooted in providing a clear picture with regard to the topics of fashion clothing involvement and fashion blogs. In particular, this study seeks to gather insights from female college students regarding their preferences on fashion clothing and motives on reading fashion blogs. College students who value clothes and adapt styles depending on their environment (Cai, 2005) are more likely to be exposed to content found in fashion blogs, likewise, they are more likely to pay attention to clothes and follow current trends. Fashion bloggers and advertising agencies can both benefit from this study. Results of the study can help bloggers and advertisers determine what type of blog content will increase their readership especially among female college students. By


9 knowing what content is essential to readers, they can place advertised products in a position at par with products advertised in a magazine. Moreover, findings of this study can be used by clothing retail businesses that target young consumers, particularly college students. They can utilize the findings of the study in order for them to find out how they can effectively reach their target market. Lastly, this study holds significance for women at large. It is deemed important to continue to revisit, from time to time, the study of fashion clothing to better understand what drives women’s purchase of clothing, preference in style, and reception towards external factors that could help in their knowledge-building and construction of identity.


10 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A.

Fashion Blog 1. Fashion

Fashion is a reflection of the society people live in. The cultural identity, values, status and lifestyle of the people in a community can be observed through the study of fashion (Ng, 2004). Furthermore, fashion reflects not just one’s culture but also how one defines himself or herself (Holmberg & Ohnfeldt, 2010). Fashion has been present since people started to clothe themselves. In the earlier times, it was an indicator of class status and only aristocrats can afford to wear fashionable clothes. However, as time went on, fashion became interesting to individuals regardless of status. Fashion is used in at least two senses – “fashion as a garment to wear” and fashion as “…a way to distinguish the act of simply wearing clothing from the act of attempting to influence style and tastes” (Davis, 1992, as cited in Metcalfe, 2010, p. 14). According to Metcalfe (2010), fashion is often used with reference to garment or clothing. The term ‘fashion clothing’ which refers to styled clothing is used in this study. 2. Nature of Blogs Blogs are regularly updated websites that display information through entries arranged in chronological order (Arellano, 2012). Rebecca Blood (2000 as cited in Arellano, 2012) described blogs as link-driven websites that filter web content. Blogs are often seen as equally personal and public because aside from information being provided, blogs contain accounts of the blogger’s life (Fox et al., 2008 as cited in Macasinag &


11 Novela, 2012). However, there are instances that information read from blogs is filtered by the blogger (Bolt et al., 2007 as cited in Macasinag & Novela, 2012). According to Allen (2009), “the personal nature of blog discourse gives the reader a feeling of personal conversation” (p. 5). She argues that a blog has the capacity to tap into someone’s consciousness and even tap into somebody’s dreams. A blog usually use a conversational communication style. It contains pictures and texts. Moreover, it communicates “a sense of informed knowledge, if not, an ‘insider’ knowledge” (Allen, 2009, p. 6). 3. From Fashion Magazines to Fashion Blogs Rosser (2010 as cited in Dominguez, 2011) refers to fashion blog as “an example of the shifting mode between the alternative and the classical fashion press made by fashion magazines” (p. 24). Fashion blogs, with content almost similar with fashion magazines, are increasingly becoming a part of the mainstream fashion press. Fashion magazine has the primary function to report and interpret news (Stone, 2004 as cited in Bailey, 2008). It is generally comprised of advertisements for apparel cosmetics, and accessories; reader surveys; fashion forecasts of colors and styles for upcoming seasons; and pictures of fashion trends with editorial credits (Stone, 2004 as cited in Bailey, 2008). The dualism of fashion magazines’ agenda is evident on the advertisements and the information on latest trends magazines provide (Bailey, 2008). The current study explored this agenda as applied in the context of fashion blogs. Information or content found in fashion magazines can be classified under any of the following categories: general fashion trends/products, non-clothing information, celebrity news, layout/presentation, advertisements, etc. (Bailey, 2008). On the other


12 hand, fashion blog content consists of the following categories: activities and daily outfits of the blogger, news/announcements about fashion, hobbies/interests of the blogger, and fashion collections or events attended by the blogger usually make up a fashion blog (Dominguez, 2011). Fashion blogs, just like fashion magazines, feature posts that range from topics such as fashion, art, and photography. However, compared with fashion magazines, fashion blogs rely heavily on pictures than on texts. Dominguez (2011) found in her study that fashion blog posts contain a lot of visual elements such as pictures (91.4%) and videos (3.7%). Fashion blogs continuously receive a huge number of audience and readers to date. This type of blog has spread all over the world (Marwick, 2011 as cited in Dominguez, 2011). Fashion blogging may consist of amateur writers who post content about themselves and their everyday outfits as well as writers who share fashion tips and review fashion collections and events (Dominguez, 2011). According to Marwick (2011 as cited in Dominguez, 2011), fashion blog is a medium where fashion bloggers feature their personal style. Fashion media such as fashion magazines and fashion blogs have become influential in the fashion industry. One serves as more likely to be a complementary rather than a competing factor for the latter (Wilson, 1997 as cited in Guo & Sun, 2013); thus, each medium is as important as the other. According to Guo & Sun. (2013), the “two forms of media tend to coexist in their joint fulfillment of human information, entertainment, and communication needs� (p. 120). However, in this study, the researcher only dealt with fashion blog since it is relatively new compared to fashion magazine. Moreover, fashion magazine already became a focus of several past studies.


13 B. Media Exposure and Media Content 1. Media Exposure Media exposure refers to the amount of time an individual devotes to media (Banducci & Xezonakis, 2010). According to Harrison (2006), media exposure may result to internalization among young female audience. For example, those with higher thin-ideal internalization and experiencing body anxiety were reported to have been more exposed with media (Harrison, 2006) compared to those who were less exposed with media. Varnado-Sullivan et al. (2006) found out in their study that exposure to thin-ideal images in media predicted greater internalization of distorted body images. On the other hand, McFatter (2005) said media exposure is the best predictor of fashion clothing involvement (FCI). To evaluate this, McFatter (2005) asked the participants of his study to indicate their source of fashion information: magazines, television shows, movies, catalogues, celebrities, and the internet. He also asked questions regarding participants’ utilization of fashion source/s. The researcher of this study was interested to find out whether exposure to fashion blog containing various texts and images related to fashion or clothing predicts one’s FCI. In order to assess the relationship between exposure to fashion blogs and FCI, the researcher first evaluated fashion blog usage of readers. 2. Measuring Exposure and Describing Media Content In studying media effects in observational or survey-based research, two models are used: 1) measuring exposure only and 2) measuring exposure and describing media content (Banducci & Xezonakis, 2010). In this study, the researcher was interested to look at both media exposure and media content. This research 1) measured readers’


14 exposure to fashion blogs, 2) determined readers’ preferences in blog content, and 3) categorized the contents preferred by readers. The first step in determining media effects is examining whether exposure to message is accompanied by change in behavior (Banducci & Xezonakis, 2010). According to Banducci & Xezonakis (2010), little attention is paid to content when measuring exposure to media. Thus, they developed ways to measure exposure to news content. After conducting content analysis on news items published/aired within three weeks before election, they arrived at a list of content coded and used for survey. Instead of asking general exposure questions, they asked respondents regarding their exposure to specific media outlets (days spent watching or reading news over television, radio, or newspaper), news programs (days in a week spent watching particular programs), and other channels (days in a week spent watching other TV channels/programs). This study measured the exposure of female college students to fashion blogs by gauging students’ frequency of reading fashion blogs or duration of blog use (number of times spent reading fashion blogs). 3. Impact of Media Content on Young Women The role of media and media ownership are essential in the struggles taking place in the fashion industry (Khaled, 2012). Aside from fashion magazines, fashion blogs are important sites for advertising and sale of commodities. Apostol (2010) conducted a study on blogging and blog advertisements. He interviewed some professional bloggers and found out that majority of these bloggers make use of blog advertisements as their primary source of income. Bloggers, users of UCC, are now being compensated for content they publish (OECD Publishing, 2007 as cited in Dominguez, 2011).


15 Media has the ability to influence individuals to desire more than what they need (Chinwe, 2009). According to Caputo (2008), consumption is a likely result of women’s reading experience. Women frequently seek for advice when it comes to relationships, health, beauty, and fashion (Zuckerman, 2003). Content such as images found in media influence women on how they should look or dress (Massoni, 1999). Young consumers, on the other hand, are the target audience for several brands because they are seen to be easily persuaded. Striking taglines (Lanuza, 2003), significant stories (Santos, 1997), and good photos (Sarmiento, 2009; Lanuza, 2003) are proven to be effective for younger audience (Lanuza, 2003). Such finding supported this study’s inclusion of advertising content (e.g. blog promos and giveaways) and layout/pictures (e.g. blog design, photos and videos) content of fashion blogs. Teodosio (2011) found in his study that majority of women who read magazines are moderately affected by the clothing choice of celebrities. Arellano (2012) found in his study that readers of fashion blogs are likely to buy products recommended by bloggers. They are also more likely to adopt the style and clothing choices of the blogger (Reodica, 2010). Reodica (2010) said constant exposure to fashion blogs may result to trust, admiration and imitation of the blogger. 4. Media Exposure and Fashion Clothing Involvement Guo & Sun (2013) examined the relationship between media exposure and involvement in fashion clothing of young residents, ages 18-30 years old, in Guangzhou, China. Media exposure was measured by asking respondents how frequently they use fashion magazines and fashion websites. Regression analyses were performed to test the predictive power of exposure to fashion magazines and fashion websites on fashion


16 involvement. Findings of the study showed that exposure to fashion websites has slightly, though not significantly, higher impact on young residents’ involvement in fashion clothing than fashion magazines. The researcher of this study was interested to find out if readers’ exposure to fashion blogs is connected with their fashion interest, fashion innovativeness, fashion knowledge and fashion awareness. Furthermore, the researcher was interested to know if the reader is more likely to engage in fashion interpersonal communication or discussions regarding fashion clothing after being exposed to fashion blogs. C. Motivations and Preferences of College Students 1. Motives for Clothing Consumption Clothing is a unique dimension of behavior where consumers are able to express their identity (Rathnayake, 2011). It is used as a means to evaluate one’s level of creativity and genuine commitment to subculture (Khaled, 2012). Kwon (1994, as cited by Rathnayake, 2011) examined the perceived effects of clothing on self-esteem. He said college students perceived themselves as more competent, more sociable, and more positive when they feel good about their clothing. On the other hand, Haytko et al. (2008) explored the motivations behind students’ clothing consumption behavior and preferences. Several categories of variables emerged from the results of his study: a. Freedom and Finding Oneself Freedom is manifested through experiences of college students that provide them a feeling of breaking free from influence of people around them (i.e. family). In particular, college students experience freedom whenever they get to choose what they


17 wear and eventually buy things on their own. Finding oneself, on the other hand, is manifested through use of products that aid young adults in defining who they are. According to Haytko et al. (2008), “college-aged consumers figure out who they are, what is important to them, and what they value most in life” (p. 620). For example, they purchase certain products and wear brands that are significant to them and reflective of their values (Haytko et al., 2008). b. Value-seeking Consumers commonly seek for the following values – basic cost or benefit, investment or built-to-last, accomplishment feelings and connectedness feelings - when purchasing products (Haytko et al., 2008). In line with basic cost or benefit, consumers are usually after both quality and quantity (i.e. price) of products. With investment, consumers intend to buy products they can keep with them for long time. Accomplishment feeling occurs when the consumer found the best price and benefits combination; whereas, connected feeling occurs when consumer’s product turns out to be a good investment after long time use (Haytko et al., 2008). Furthermore, there are other values related to clothing in particular such as status symbol (political values), appearance (aesthetic values), conformity (social values), fashion or style (political values), modesty (religious values), management in clothes (economic value), and experimentation in clothes (exploratory value) (Jain, 2011). c. Blend in/Blend out: Conformity vs. Individuality “Blend in or stand out” happens when an individual expresses individuality or conformity to peer groups and societal trends. The participants of Haytko et al.’s (2008) study said they want to blend in the crowd but still want to look nice. Meaning to say,


18 although college-aged students in the study would like to conform, they still like to have their own style. Brand personality involves a comparison made by the participants between their personality and the personality of the brand they wear. This variable is based on the premise that people would like to portray the image they wish by consuming the products they have chosen (Higgins, 1987, Malhotara, 1988, Sirgy, 1982 as cited in Haytko et al., 2008). Thus, the participants consume brands that say something about their personality and self-image. Aside from the attributes of the product, the participants undeniably give importance to brand name (Haytko et al., 2008). d. Comfort of Brands Comfort of brands happens when consumers feel great confidence and trust on a particular brand. It was found in the study that college-aged student participants seek for expensive brands yet believe the brand should be worthy of price by possessing good quality. It was also found in the study that college-aged students are brand embracing, which means they trust and have affection for brands that have proven themselves as they are willing to establish lifelong relationships with these brands (Haytko et al., 2008). Consumers use branded items to identify themselves apart from others (Ashmun, 2012). In a study by Ashmun (2012), he found that luxury consumption or buying branded items becomes necessary to Asian consumers such as Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean consumers to satisfy their need for belongingness while luxury consumption to American consumers becomes necessary to elevate their status. On the other hand, in a study on local consumption and fashion or brand-buying practice of Hong Kong consumers, Lee (2003) found out that 1) Hong Kong consumers’ identities are largely shaped society and interpretation of the situations; 2) Hong Kong


19 consumers fashion choices are a result of compromise between their rational and emotional mindset (Lee, 2003) buying non-label fashion is an option for Hong Kong consumers who attempt to construct a sense of difference by dressing differently in different situations; thus, Hong Kong consumers are not entirely dependent on brand names. Furthermore, Comer (2010) studied the impact of branding among individuals - a group of very loyal consumers of Harley Davidson. He found out that consumers look to the past (i.e. experiences) to define their present. Meaning to say, consumer buy brands depending on the previous experience/s they had with the brand. However, societal and economic issues are still concerns when making consumer decisions; thus, socioeconomic status dictates who is able to shop with a socially conscious attitude (Blake, 2007). e. Individualism and Collectivism Lin (2009) made a comparison and analysis of cultural values reflected in Chinese and US women’s fashion print ads. He found out that Western countries have dominant individualism and modernity values while Eastern countries have collectivism and traditional values. Gao (2009), on the other hand, evaluated the influence of cultural orientation on Chinese consumers’ intentions to purchase luxury goods. He found out that both individual motives and social pressure can influence consumers’ intentions to purchase luxury goods while cultural orientation has indirect effect on consumers’ intentions to purchase luxury goods. Conformity and individuality are important foundations of fashion according to Piamphongsant (2006). Based on the study he conducted, he found out that individuals


20 have the tendency to seek variety in their possessions in order to display conformity or individuality. He also found out that conformity and individuality in fashion clothing of career women does not differ between Eastern and Western cultures. f. Modernism and Environment: Comfort and Practicality “Campus environment” and “Modern young” are the key characteristics of college students which they often adopt in their fashion sense and dressing styles (Cai, 2005). Economic status is usually reflected on the clothes worn by the student (Cai, 2005). Caragay (2006) specified the varying clothing style and preferences of students in UP Diliman. According to her study entitled “Youth Culture Fashion in UP Diliman”, the clothing preference of students is not only influenced by mass media but also by the environment or community they are part of. Aside from being fashionable, UP Diliman students value comfort and practicality when choosing clothes to wear (Caragay, 2006). UP Diliman campus is situated in an abundant space where students have to travel from one building to another, hence casual comforting clothes such as jeans, shorts and shirts are common among students. Dela Cruz (2006) also took into consideration the influence of environment on women’s shopping practices. In her study on clothing shopping practices of selected Japanese women in Metro Manila, Dela Cruz (2006) determined the factors a Japanese woman considers when shopping in Metro Manila. She found out in her study that Japanese women are influenced by what they see on the television, the internet and their peers.


21 The motives written above were considered in this study as the researcher was interested in finding out the motives of female college students in reading blogs that features clothes and fashion in general. 2. Motives for Reading Media Content Liu (2010) examined the 1) impact of psychological and sociological motives of female college students in reading fashion magazines and the 2) relationship between their social background and individual media use. He found out that students from three socio-economic classes (high, middle, and low socio-economic status) did not differ from each other in terms of psychological and sociological motives tested. Their psychological motives of enhancing their current and future body image as well as displaying high socio-economic status are significant predictors of their fashion magazine use. On the contrary, their sociological motives of consumerism, feminism, experiencing an affluent lifestyle, and escaping political propaganda did not significantly influence their magazine use. Students held rational attitude about fashion magazines and what they contain (Liu, 2010). They didn’t regard fashion magazines as major source of information to assist them in socialization (Liu, 2010). Nonetheless, Maslow’s basic needs, mainly self-esteem and need for belongingness as well as social system and media, which include magazines, affect the way of thinking and lifestyle of teenagers (Teodosio, 2011). On the other hand, blog readers are usually motivated to read blogs for entertainment, occupational, scientific or educational reasons; and because of curiosity on other people’s lives (Zajac & Rakocy, n.d.). In a survey by Arellano (2012) on working women in Metro Manila, she found that some of the reasons why women read fashion blogs are the following: 1) to check reviews on fashion and beauty products, 2) to search


22 for new trends, and 3) to join blog giveaways. Moreover, an interesting finding of the study was no respondent chose the option “to pass time” from the list; thus, all respondents have prior intention or goals in reading fashion blogs. To find out the motives of young adult women in reading fashion blogs, female fashion blog readers who are currently in their college years were invited to participate in a discussion about opinions and personal experiences on reading fashion blogs. The discussions executed for this study were aimed to determine whether penchant for reading fashion blogs has something to do with one’s involvement with clothes. D. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. Fashion Consciousness Nam et al. (2006, as cited by Rathnayake, 2011) explain fashion consciousness as ‘‘a person’s degree of involvement with fashion or clothing’’. Furthermore, Gould and Stern (1989, as cited by Rathnayake, 2011) explain that ‘‘the concept of selfconsciousness suggested by Fenigstein et al. (1975) is the basis for construct of fashion consciousness’’. Fashion consciousness involves seeking for opinions regarding fashion information (Piamphongsant, 2006). The underlying motive for opinion-seeking is the desire to come into a group whose values and beliefs are the same as yours. Piamphongsant (2006) found in a study that Western career women conform to group norms because their values are congruent with the group’s values. Fashion conscious individuals seek for variety when shopping (Ghert, 1996 as cited in Piamphongsant, 2006). They invest time and energy to maintain up-to-date fashion information (Ghert, 1996 as cited in Piamphongsant, 2006). They also enjoy shopping for fashion clothing every new season (Ghert, 1996 as cited in Piamphongsant,


23 2006). Fashion consciousness is almost the same as fashion clothing involvement. However, the present study made use of the term ‘fashion clothing involvement’ instead of ‘fashion consciousness’. 2. Definition of Fashion Clothing Involvement Rothschild (1979 as cited in Guo & Sun, 2013) defines involvement as the “motivational fettle of arousal and interest of an individual caused by both external factors such as situation, product, communication and others, and internal factors such as ego, center and values among others” (p. 118). Furthermore, Zaichkowsky (1985, as cited in Guo & Sun, 2013) refers to involvement as “a person’s perceived relevance of an object based on inherent needs, values, and interests” (p. 118). According to Guo & Sun (2013), studies on consumer behavior often have the tendency to associate involvement with possessions and a person’s psychological attachment to possessions. As applied in this study, involvement refers to one’s perceived importance of fashion clothing or Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI; O’Cass, 2001). FCI is a growing topic in research that describes how important, meaningful, and relevant fashion clothing is to the lives of consumers (Bougoure & Hourigan, 2012). In his most recent study, Guo & Sun (2013) defined FCI as “the extent to which the consumer views fashion clothing as a central part of his or her life” (p. 118). Fashion is a high involvement topic since many students or young adults have well developed opinions and behaviors when it comes to clothing (Goldsmith & Hofacker, 1991). These young adults pay much attention to fashion compared to people from other age groups (Auty & Elliott, 1998); therefore, college students, particularly female students, became the focus of this study.


24 3. Components of Fashion Clothing Involvement Some researchers utilized O'Cass (2001) four 5-point Likert scale to measure FCI in their studies. Items include “Fashion clothing is a significant part of my life” and “I pay a lot of attention to fashion clothing” (Guo & Sun, 2013, p. 123). On the other hand, FCI index developed by Tiger, Ring, and King (1976) became the basis of measuring FCI for some studies (McFatter, 2005). To measure FCI, the following dimensions are taken into account: fashion innovativeness, fashion interpersonal communication, fashion interest, fashion knowledge, fashion awareness (McFatter, 2005). Responses from the items (one item per dimension) are standardized and averaged to arrive at a single score (McFatter, 2005). The said measures were adopted by the researcher but further developed items on the scale. a. Fashion Innovativeness Goldsmith & Hofacker (1991) developed measures for innovativeness which he successfully modified with topics such as fashion. Innovativeness refers to the “degree to which an individual is receptive to new ideas and makes innovative decisions independently of the communicated experience of others” (Midgley and Dowling, 1978, p. 236 as cited in Muzinich et al., 2003). Fashion clothing innovativeness is positively correlated with the following: awareness and purchase of new clothing, fashion magazine readership, clothing store visits, watching fashion shows and lifestyles, and fashion clothing opinion leadership. The fashion innovator is described as someone who is very interested in new designer fashions or clothing. He or she knows a lot about the latest trends, shops and owns many designer clothes, and frequently buys new clothing products in advance.


25 b. Fashion Interest Fashion interest, according to Gurel et al. (1974 as cited in Drake, 2002), refers to “the attitudes and beliefs about clothing, the knowledge of and attention paid to clothing, the concern and curiosity a person has about his/her clothing and that of others” (p. 5). Drake (2002) conducted a study on fashion interest, store patronage, satisfaction with fit of clothing and reference groups of teen girls. According to him, despite the need for clothing in everyday life, interest in its necessity varies among individuals. Past studies have shown younger shoppers tend to be more involved with clothing products compared with older shoppers (Fairhurst et al., 1989 as cited in Drake, 2002). Furthermore, studying fashion interest is important if one wish to measure fashion clothing involvement (Drake, 2002). c. Fashion Knowledge In the context of fashion clothing, product knowledge is characterized by one’s knowledge of brands (Vieira, 2010). In addition, product knowledge is characterized by one’s frequency of use and experience with fashion clothing (Vieira, 2010). Knowledge about fashion can come from exposure to media, advertisements, peers, product experiences, interactions with sales people, previous decision-making or consumption, and usage experiences held in memory (Vieira, 2010; O’Cass, 2001). Fashion knowledge is evident among college-aged consumers as they are very upto-date with the latest trends (Haytko et al., 2008). More often than not, they know the celebrities who have worn similar products and brands. Participants of Haytko et al.’s (2008) study were able to determine what are in-style and out-of-style. They also have thorough knowledge and opinions on retailers, products and brands.


26 d. Fashion Awareness Bougoure & Hourigan (2012) found in their study on FCI that Ongoing Information Search (OIS) is a significant outcome of FCI. OIS include activities such as reading fashion magazines, engaging in interpersonal communication or discussion on latest trends, visiting clothing stores, and browsing through fashion catalogues and websites like blogs. OIS serve as a means of maintaining one’s fashion awareness. To measure OIS, Bougoure & Hourigan (2012) developed a four-item index. E. Synthesis Two models are used in studying media effects in observational or survey-based research, one is measuring exposure only and the other is measuring exposure and describing media content (Banducci & Xezonakis, 2010). In order to understand the effect of reading fashion blogs on the readers, this study included both media exposure and media content. Fashion websites such as fashion blogs play an important role in the fashion industry (Guo & Sun, 2013). Content found in fashion blogs include fashion news announcements, activities and daily outfits of the blogger, hobbies/interests of the blogger, fashion events attended by the blogger, and many more (Dominguez, 2011). Fashion blogs consist of many visual elements such as pictures and videos (Dominguez, 2011). Massoni (2009) found in her study that women are influenced by the images they see in media. Such images have an effect on their behavior and way of dressing. Exposure to media (i.e. fashion blogs) can influence the clothing preference of the reader. Some women are influenced by the clothes worn by celebrities (Teodosio, 2011); on the other hand, some are influenced by recommendations and clothing styles of


27 bloggers (Dominguez, 2011). In addition, exposure to fashion websites such as fashion blogs has an impact on the involvement of young people with fashion clothing (Guo & Sun, 2013). Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI) is defined as “perceived importance of fashion clothing” (O’Cass, 2001, as cited in McFatter, 2005, p. 4). In addition, it is “the extent to which the consumer views fashion clothing as a central part of his or her life” (O’Cass, 2004, p. 870 as cited in Guo & Sun, 2013, p. 118). There are suggested ways to measure FCI, one of which is Tigert et al.’s (1976 as cited in McFatter, 2005) five components of FCI: fashion innovativeness, fashion interpersonal communication, fashion interest, fashion knowledge, fashion awareness. In order to arrive at a single score, responses from the items are standardized and averaged (McFatter, 2005). FCI is a growing topic in research that describes how important, meaningful, and relevant fashion clothing is to the lives of consumers (Bougoure & Hourigan, 2012). According to Goldsmith & Hofacker (1991), fashion is a high involvement topic since a lot of students or young adults have developed opinions and certain behaviors when it comes to clothing. Kwon (1994, as cited by Rathnayake, 2011) found in his study that college students perceived themselves as more competent, more sociable, and more positive when they feel good about their clothing. Moreover, females possess much stronger involvement with fashion clothing than males of the same age group (O’Cass, 2001). Arellano (2012), in her study on working women in Metro Manila, found that women read fashion blogs in order to: check reviews on fashion and beauty products, search new trends, and join blog give-aways. Interestingly, no one from her respondents answered “to pass time”; thus blog readers have intention or goals prior to consumption


28 of media. On the other hand, according to Zajac & Rakocy (n.d.), blog readers are motivated to read blogs for entertainment, occupational, scientific or educational reasons; and because of curiosity on other people’s lives. Fashion blog is the fashion information source closely examined by the researcher as this was deemed to have high consumption and influence on female college students. Exposure to fashion blog and its content, instead of exposure to the medium alone, was taken into account as the researcher was interested to find out the type/s of content female college students look for in a fashion blog. Specific types of content found in fashion blogs haven’t gained much attention especially when studied in relation to FCI. Furthermore, the researcher tried to find out if there is a significant relationship between exposure to fashion blogs and FCI. Lastly, motives for reading fashion blogs were explored to find out factors that cause an individual’s continuous use and exposure to fashion blogs. F. Research Gap The present study fills the gaps, first, by examining a particular type of media outlet (i.e. fashion blogs). Second, this study selected a sample limited to younger consumers (college-aged students) since most of the earlier studies have studied an older segment of the population who are more capable of buying products such as clothes with their own money. Third, this research focused on measuring exposure to media and classifying media content (i.e. fashion blog content) instead of simply measuring exposure to media. Fourth, the key motives of female students in reading fashion blogs were identified by the study. Finally, the concept of FCI or Fashion Clothing


29 Involvement, as it is considered as an important construct in the fashion segment, was explored and further studied.


30 III. STUDY FRAMEWORK A. Theoretical Framework 1. Uses and Gratifications Theory Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT) by Karl Rosengren (1974) explains the use of media to individuals, groups, and the society at large. This theory has three objectives: 1) to explain how media are used to gratify one’s needs, 2) to discover motives behind one’s media use, and 3) to identify positive and negative effects of media use. The theory posits “a medium will be used more when the existing motives to use the medium leads to more satisfaction” (utwente.com). With the theory lies the assumption that the audience actively seek out mass media in order to satisfy their needs.

Figure 1. Uses and Gratifications Theory Model

UGT Model by Rosengren (1974)

2. Media System Dependency Theory


31 Dependency Theory, also known as Media System Dependency Theory (MSDT), was initially proposed by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur in the year 1976. This theory was based on UGT as it identifies “how people use and become dependent on media” (utwente.com). The theory posits that there exists an important relationship among the audience, the media, and the social system. It is said that people depend on media for information. There are several factors that influence a person’s degree of media dependence and one of which is the fulfilment of needs or goals. As explained in the theory, a person will become “more dependent on media that meet a number of his or her needs than on media that provide just a few”; consequently, people depend on media in order to achieve their goals (utwente.com).

Figure 2. Media Systems Dependency Theory Model

MSDT Model by Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur (1976)

People vary in terms of their exposure to media. Some undergo either selective exposure (active selector) or incidental exposure (casual observer); some had dependency


32 on the media content activated during exposure, while some had no activation of dependency (utwente.com). Furthermore, MSDT predicts that media dependence is linked with importance of media (Littlejohn, 1999). Such importance or dependence on media can result to audiences’ [degree of] involvement (the concept of involvement will be further discussed on the next page). Aside from exposure to media, involvement can be brought about by arousal (i.e. attention, liking/disliking) on media content. It is said that “the greater the arousal on media content, the greater the involvement in information processing”; thus, “the greater the involvement in information processing, the greater the probability of cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects from media”. Figure 3. Media Systems Dependency Theory 2

MSDT Model by Ball-Rokeach & DeFleur (1989)


33 Step 3 refers to the individual’s involvement or participation in information processing. On the other hand, Step 4 reveals the possible cognitive effects (attitude formation, creation and resolution of ambiguity, etc.); affective effects (alienation/ desensitization – effects caused by emotions and feelings); and behavioral effects (activation - action done in response to media messages, deactivation - action not done in response to media messages) the individual experiences after processing information from the media. For this study, the communication process arrived only until Step 3 - Involvement in information processing - which is the core of the study. The researcher was primarily interested to know the relationship between the [level of] exposure to fashion media (i.e. fashion blogs) and the [degree of] fashion clothing involvement or FCI. 3. The Concept of Involvement Dibb & Michaelidou (2008) describes the concept of involvement as “an individual difference variable that influence consumers’ decision making and communicative behaviors” (p. 3). Involvement is measured and applied in several contexts. Consequently, there are several types of involvement: advertising involvement (Zaickohwsky, 1985 as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008), brand involvement (Kirmani et al., 1999, as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008), product involvement (Dibb & Michaelidou, 2006, Brisoux et al., 1990, and Bloch, 1981, as cited in Dibb, et al., 2008), personal involvement (Zaickhowsky, 1985 as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008), purchase involvement (Slama et al., 1985, as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008), purchase decision involvement (Mittal, 1989, as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008), issue involvement (Cacioppo et al., 1981 as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008), service


34 involvement (Ganesh et al., 2000, as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008), and task involvement (Tyebjee, 1979 as cited in Dibb & Michaelidou, 2008). In this research, product involvement is linked to media exposure in an attempt to highlight the potential influence of fashion blog and its content among readers. According to Zaickhowsky (1985, p. 42 as cited in Guo & Sun, 2013), product involvement refers to ���a person’s perceived relevance of an object based on inherent needs, values, and interests” (p. 118). 4. Integrated Theoretical Framework Following Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur’s model, the medium, the content, the audience, the exposure, the dependency and the involvement were taken into account in this study. On the other hand, motives were analyzed through the lens of UGT. As proposed in the communication model, the audience is exposed to content from the medium. The audience has motives in using the medium. This is where UGT comes in. Exposure to the medium and its content could vary from high to low; thereby the audience can range from active or casual observers. Active observers are those individuals with high exposure to the medium; on the other hand, casual observers are those individuals with low exposure to the medium. MSDT is necessary to highlight the connection between media exposure and media dependency. Active observers have higher chances of dependency (on the medium) whereas casual observers have lower chances of dependency being activated. Furthermore, guided by the concept of Involvement, involvement of the audience after being exposed to the medium and the content was further explored. (See Figure 4).


35 Figure 4. Integrated Theoretical Model

Medium

Audience

Content

Motives for media use

Uses and Gratifications

Casual Observer

Active Observer

Low Exposure

High Exposure

Dependency ACTIVATED

Dependency NOT ACTIVATED

Involvement

Media Systems Dependency


36 B. Conceptual Framework For the purpose of this study, the medium is identified as the fashion blog; the message is the content of the fashion blog; and the receiver of the message is the reader of fashion blog (See Figure 5). The fashion blog reader has motives in reading fashion blogs. As explained in Uses and Gratifications Theory, every individual has motives for media use. In this study, media use refers to fashion blog reading. Frequent exposure to fashion blogs increases reader’s dependency on this particular type of media. That being said, high exposure to fashion blogs may activate one’s dependency. On the other hand, low exposure to fashion blogs may not activate dependency. Dependency activation, in this research, means readers are dependent on fashion blogs to satisfy a portion of their need, getting information on latest fashion trends for example. Since fashion blog features fashion-related content (i.e. information on fashion trends and clothing products), exposure to fashion blogs can result to fashion clothing involvement (FCI) of the reader. However, degree of FCI may vary depending on the extent of exposure to fashion blogs and the amount of information regarding fashion or clothing the reader was able to process.


37

Figure 5. Conceptual Model

Fashion blog/s

Content of Fashion Blog/s

Fashion Blog Reader

Motives for reading Fashion blog/s Uses and Gratifications

Low Exposure to

High Exposure to

Fashion blog/s

Fashion blog/s

Dependency NOT ACTIVATED

Dependency ACTIVATED

Fashion Clothing Involvement

Media Systems Dependency


38 C. Operational Framework Blogs are becoming a popular way in which anybody can share any information they like at any time of the day. As purported by Allen, Blogs can connect with their readers in two ways. First, by the conversational communication style of the blog content, this includes both written discourse and visual communication. Second, by the fact that blogs can be accessed by the readers using their own devices, bloggers through their blogs establish a relationship with their readers in a most unconventional way (2009, p. 5). In the Philippines, there are many promising bloggers that create blogs with fashion-related content. Some of our famous local fashion blogs include Break My Style by Laureen Uy, Camille Tries to Blog by Camille Co, V <3 V by Vern and Verniece Enciso, Tricia Will Go Places by Tricia Gosingtian, and Paradigma by Patricia Prieto (See dark blue box). Bloggers and owners of these fashion blogs, specially Laureen, Camille, and Tricia, are in the list of highest paid fashion/lifestyle bloggers in the country based on their ad rate cards and the number of ad rates on their sites (source: Grace, a PR executive, as featured by Cheche Moral in an article at Philippine Daily Inquirer last August 11, 2013). Their blogs receive a huge number of followers and visitors each day (source: bloggersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; page views and topblogs.com.ph). In view of that, the researcher wanted to know the type of content essential among the visitors or readers of these fashion blogs. In addition, the researcher was interested to know the motivation/s of readers in reading fashion blogs. This research looked into the reading habits and preferences of young adult Filipino women - female undergraduate students from Katipunan area campuses in Quezon City and universities at University Belt Manila, ages 16 to 24 years (See purple box).


39 Content of fashion blogs read by young adult Filipino women were categorized as follows: General Fashion Trends/Products, Non-clothing Information, Layout and Pictures, Advertising, Street Style and Travel Photos, Fashion News/Events, Blogger’s Personal Life, Blogger’s Hobbies/Interest, Blogger’s Daily Outfits, and Blogger’s Comments/Suggestions (See orange box). On the other hand, young adult Filipino women’s motives for reading fashion blogs fall under the following categories: Inspiration, Knowledge Improvement, Self-expression, Entertainment and Leisure (See light blue box). The measures that were studied in this research, as has been identified in the conceptual model, are readers’ [level of] exposure to fashion blogs and [degree of] involvement to fashion clothing. Exposure of young adult Filipino women to fashion blogs was measured in terms of Exposure Frequency: Number of times spent reading fashion blogs; duration of fashion blog use. Low Exposure Frequency (EF) means reader does not often read fashion blogs (See green box); therefore, dependency to fashion blogs is not activated (See brown box). On the other hand, High EF means reader often reads fashion blogs (See red box), thus, dependency to fashion blogs is activated (See yellow box). Furthermore, FCI or the fashion clothing involvement of young adult Filipino women was measured based on five components: fashion innovativeness, fashion interest, fashion interpersonal communication, fashion knowledge, and fashion awareness (See white box). Dependency on fashion blogs is associated with the extent of EF; moreover, exposure to fashion blogs (EF) is linked with FCI. (See Figure 6).


40

Figure 6. Operational Model Content

[Local] Fashion Blogs (Break My Style, Camille Tries to Blog, V<3V, Tricia Will Go Places, Paradigma, etc.)

General fashion trends/products Non-clothing information Layout and pictures Advertising Street style and travel photos

Fashion events/news

Young adult Filipino women

Bloggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s: Personal life Hobbies/interest Daily outfits Comments/ suggestions

(16 to 24 y/o; undergraduate student; Katipunan area campuses and universities at U-Belt)

Motives Inspiration Knowledge improvement Self-expression Leisure

Uses and Gratifications

Low Exposure Frequency (EF)

High Exposure Frequency (EF)

Dependency NOT ACTIVATED

Dependency ACTIVATED

Media Systems Dependency

FCI

Fashion Innovativeness

Fashion Awareness

Fashion Interest

Fashion Knowledge

Fashion Interpersonal Communication


41 D. Operational Definition of Terms 

[Local] Fashion Blog – a web blog that features anything related to fashion. For this study, fashion blogs are the blogs identified by the readers: Break My Style, Camille Tries to Blog, V <3 V, Tricia Will Go Places, Paradigma, etc.

[Fashion Blog] Content – content or information found in fashion blogs; can fall in any of the following categories: General Fashion Trends/Products, Non-clothing Information, Layout and Pictures, Advertising, Street Style and Travel Photos, Fashion News/Events, Blogger’s Personal Life, Blogger’s Hobbies/Interest, Blogger’s Daily Outfits, and Blogger’s Comments/Suggestions

[Fashion Blog] Reader – regular reader of fashion blogs; reads at least once a month. The readers studied in this research are female undergraduate students, aged 16-24 years from Katipunan area campuses and universities around U-Belt, comprising young adult women segment of the society.

Motives – reasons why an individual reads/visits fashion blogs: For 1) inspiration; 2) knowledge improvement; 3) self-expression; 4) entertainment and leisure

Exposure Frequency - duration of blog use. In this study, this refers to the number of times the reader allot for reading fashion blogs

Dependency - dependence on a medium (i.e. fashion blog); the importance given to fashion blogs

Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI) – the extent to which the readers view fashion clothing as a fundamental part of their lives


42 o Fashion Innovativeness – openness to new fashion ideas; makes fashion purchases ahead of time; the person who easily adopts new clothing is called a “fashion innovator”  Fashion Innovativeness in this research means when the reader found out about a new clothing trend, she is more likely to buy. She also owns a lot of clothes compared to her friends. o Fashion Interest – the concern and curiosity a person has about his/her clothing (Drake, 2002)  As used in this study, Fashion Interest reflects the strong interest and attention paid to clothing by the reader. o Fashion Interpersonal Communication – engages in conversations or shares information regarding fashion with classmates, friends, etc.  As applied in the study, Fashion Interpersonal Communication refers to reader’s activities such as participating in discussions about fashion or clothing, commenting on friends’ outfits on social networking sites, and sharing recent clothing purchases to a friend or group of friends. o Fashion

Knowledge

knowledgeable

about

fashion;

knows

clothing

brands/trends  Fashion Knowledge is reader’s ability to identify a particular brand of clothing. She also knows the recent clothing trends; thus, she is more likely to be asked for advice by her friends whenever they buy clothes. o Fashion Awareness – monitors changes in fashion; familiar with clothing brands/trends  Fashion Awareness is reader’s attentiveness when it comes to the latest trends. She is familiar with clothing trends and keeps herself up-to-date although she’s not that knowledgeable in fashion


43 IV. METHODOLOGY A. Research Design and Methods To determine the level of exposure to fashion blogs and to measure the degree of fashion clothing involvement (FCI) of young adult Filipino women, this study was anchored on a descriptive approach. It used a cross-sectional, quantitative-qualitative treatment of data to determine the 1) level of exposure to fashion blogs; 2) content of fashion blogs read; 3) motives in reading fashion blogs; 4) degree of fashion clothing involvement; as well as the 5) relationship between exposure to fashion blogs and fashion clothing involvement of young adult Filipino women. Survey on the [level of] exposure of young adult Filipino women to fashion blog content and the [degree of] FCI of young adult Filipino women was employed in the study. On the other hand, focus group discussions (FGDs) with young adult Filipino women who read fashion blogs were conducted. The method was used to provide an efficient and comfortable avenue for the informants to engage themselves more, hence, getting the most insights from the groups. B. Concepts and Indicators/ Variables and Measures This study looked into the influence of fashion blogs, through their content, on the FCI of young adult Filipino women. To assess the level of exposure of young adult Filipino women to fashion blog, this study measured Exposure Frequency: Number of times spent reading fashion blogs (duration of fashion blog use). Fashion blog content was classified according to the

following

categories:

General

Fashion

Trends/Products,

Non-clothing

Information, Layout and Pictures, Advertising, Street Style and Travel Photos,


44 Fashion News/Events, Blogger’s Personal Life, Blogger’s Hobbies/Interest, Blogger’s Daily Outfits, and Blogger’s Comments/Suggestions (See Appendix I). On the other hand, the motives of young adult Filipino women in reading fashion blogs were classified under the following categories: Inspiration, Knowledge Improvement, Self-expression, Entertainment and Leisure (See Appendix II). Furthermore, degree of Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI) of young adult Filipino women was measured based on five dimensions: Fashion Innovativeness, Fashion Interest, Fashion Interpersonal Communication, Fashion Knowledge, and Fashion Awareness (See Appendix II). C. Research Instruments A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guide was used to assist the researcher in addressing the second and third objectives of the study (See Appendix III). The participants were asked regarding their reading habits and preferences – frequency in reading fashion blogs, the list of fashion blogs they read, and the content they read. They were also asked regarding their motives in reading fashion blogs. In addition, they were encouraged to describe the effect/s brought about by reading fashion blogs in their lives. On the other hand, to address the rest of the objectives of the study, the researcher used a questionnaire (See Appendix IV). The questionnaire was divided into three parts: Part 1 – Respondent’s Personal Information, Part 2 - Exposure to Fashion Blogs, and Part 3 - Fashion Clothing Involvement.


45 D. Units of Analysis and Sampling Scheme The units of analysis for this study were young adult Filipino women, 16-24 years old; undergraduate students from three Katipunan area campuses at Quezon City (Ateneo De Manila University, Miriam College, and University of the Philippines Diliman) and universities located within University Belt Manila (Centro Escolar University, Far Eastern University, University of the East, and University of Santo Tomas). Filipino young adults, ages 16-24 years, comprise majority of the readers of blogs in the country (Universal McCann, 2012). For the purpose of this study, the researcher opted to focus on female undergraduate students who are currently in their college years. Females were proven to be significantly more likely than men to pay close attention to clothing (Auty & Elliott, 1998; Browne, 1997; Goldsmith et al., 1996; Tigert et al., 1980 as cited in Guo & Sun, 2013). On the other hand, college students are said to be early adopters and heavy users of the internet (Pew Internet & American Life Project by Jones, 2002). Furthermore, college students often adopt their fashion sense and dressing styles depending on their campus environment (Cai, 2005). Non-probability sampling was employed for both survey and focus group discussions (FGDs). Since the respondents are internet users, people who visit the internet to read and check blogs on a regular basis, this study utilized an online survey. The respondents and participants were selected using purposive sampling guided by the following criteria: 1) female undergraduate student aged 16 to 24 years; 2) from any of the universities and colleges in Katipunan Quezon City and University Belt Manila; and 3) reads fashion blog/s at least once a month. Snowball and volunteer sampling methods were utilized to increase probability of reaching the minimum required number of respondents for survey


46 and participants for FGDs. The researcher conducted a total six FGDs with student participants from the different schools mentioned earlier. E. Data Generation/ Construction For an effective carrying out of the proposed methods, the researcher utilized connections â&#x20AC;&#x201C; students from different universities. Informal letters of invitation for focus group discussion (FGD) was sent to female students via text, e-mail or through social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. FGDs were conducted to places within or near the universities. At least two FGDs were executed before the survey. One of the goals of FGD in this study, aside from exploring young adult womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s underlying reasons and goals for dependency or use of fashion blogs, was to identify possible variables or categorization for motives of young adult women in reading fashion blogs. Likewise, the researcher also employed the aforementioned social networking sites for survey. In addition, the researcher posted the link of the survey form on different groups and pages where the target respondents were presumed to be part of. To achieve the target number of respondents, the researcher became open for referrals. Data gathering was undertaken for a period of three months, from December 2013 to February 2014. Initial data gathering for FGDs happened during the month of December 2013. January 2014 was the start of the actual survey. By mid-February, initial part of the data gathering for both FGD and survey was accomplished, thus, the researcher started the analysis and write-up. Consultation with the adviser regarding the findings of the study also happened simultaneously during the same month until the next. March and April was devoted by the researcher to deepen the analysis.


47 Table 1. Timetable. Thesis Proposal Consultation and Editing

Initial Data Initial Data Write-up Gathering Analysis and Write-up; Consultation Second Part of Data Gathering

Editing and Final Submission

November December January February March April

F. Data Analysis Procedures For the qualitative part, coding and categorization of data from focus group discussions (FGDs) were done. From the transcribed data, the researcher identified the motives of female college students in reading fashion blogs. In addition, importance of different types of fashion blog content emerged from the findings of the study. For the quantitative part, statistical software SPSS 19 was used to analyze the survey data. Frequency was used to assess the exposure of young adult women to fashion blogs. Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI) median composite score was drawn from the median composite scores obtained from responses in the five dimensions of FCI. Bivariate correlation was generated to compare results of exposure to fashion blogs and FCI. Spearmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rho was used to find out if relationship exists between [level of] exposure to fashion blog and [degree of] FCI. G. Scope and Limitations The FGDs and the survey were limited to Katipunan area campuses and universities within University Belt Manila only. Survey, on the other hand, was conducted online and


48 the method used was purposive. Additionally, this study only included female undergraduate students. H. The Researcher The researcher of this study is an undergraduate student of University of the Philippines Diliman under the program of Department of Communication Research in College of Mass Communication. She has taken courses on Communication Planning, Mass Media Research Methods, Data Interpretation and Reporting, Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses in Communication Research, Journalism 101, Broadcasting Communication 100, Introduction to Speech Communication, and Interpersonal Communication which guided her through analysis of the findings and careful execution of the research at hand. Furthermore, her experiences at UP ASTERISK, an art organization based at the College of Arts and Letters and UP AdCore, an advertising organization based at the College of Business Administration, developed her appreciation for the arts. Rae, as she is fondly called by her peers, has a keen eye for detail and an undying love for fashion.


49 V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents the results of the online survey and focus group discussions, as well as the analyses of findings in relation to the objectives cited at the beginning of the study. A. Respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and Informantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Profiles Female undergraduate students from three Katipunan area campuses at Quezon City (Ateneo De Manila University, Miriam College, and University of the Philippines Diliman) and universities located within University Belt Manila (Centro Escolar University, Far Eastern University, University of the East, and University of Santo Tomas) comprised the survey sample. A total of 103 respondents participated in the survey. More than half (87) of the respondents were 18-21 years old; the average age of the respondents was 19.33 years. Majority (95) of the respondents belong to families with monthly income of not lower than P20, 000. In addition, majority (82) of the respondents have P15, 000 or less average monthly allowance. A total of six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among students from Ateneo De Manila University, Centro Escolar University, Far Eastern University, Miriam College, University of Santo Tomas, and University of the Philippines Diliman. Twenty one female undergraduate students who participated in the FGD were 17-20 years old. Since all FGD participants are students, they still depend on their parents for allowance. Five participants allot a segment of their allowance (i.e. savings) for their clothing needs while the rest are strictly parent-dependent. When it comes to their budget for clothes, one participant allot P800 to P1,500 from her monthly allowance, two allot exactly P3,000, two designate P3,000 to P5,000, and one allot an exact amount of P5,000.


50 On the other hand, eight participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; budget for clothes range from P5, 000 to P10, 000; however, the rest of the participants had no definite answer. Some participants shop once or twice a week, some two to three times a month, and some purchase only when needed and during special occasions. Moreover, participants when asked regarding their sense of style, they described theirs as Chic, Casual, Feminine, Classic, Sporty, Sophisticated, Elegant, Vintage, Urban, and Boho (See Table 2).

Table 2. FGD Participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Profile Name / Age / School

Sense of Style

Monthly Budget for Shopping Clothes

Financial Source for Shopping

Who Buys the Clothes

Frequency of Buying

Kikat, 18, ADMU

Casual

P 10,000

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant

Once a week

Deanna, 20, ADMU

Casual

P 5,000 to 6,000

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant

Twice a month

Sammy, 18, ADMU

Feminine, Sophisticated, Classic

(Parent Dependent)

Parents

Parents

Once a month

Hannah, 18, ADMU

Casual

P 3,000 to 5,000

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant

Once or twice a month

Marla, 18, CEU

Chic, Casual, Feminine

P 5,000 to 10,000

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant

Once a week

Alessandra, 18, CEU

Casual, Feminine, Elegant

P 6,000 to 8,000

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant/ Relatives Abroad

Occasional, Once a week


51

Ria, 18, CEU

Chic, Sophisticated

P 5,000 to 7,000

Parents & Savings

Parents/ Sibling/ Relatives/ Boyfriend

Once or twice a month

Jeannel, 20, FEU

Chic, Casual, Feminine

P 3,000

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant

Twice a month

Julie,17, FEU

Casual, Feminine

P 3,000 to 5,000

Parents & Boyfriend

Parents/FGD Participant/ Relatives/ Boyfriend

3 times a month

Queenie, 20, FEU

Chic, Casual

P 5,000

Parents & Savings

Parents/FGD Participant/ Boyfriend

3 times a month

Genica, 18, Miriam

Casual, Feminine,

P 5,000 to 10,000

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant/ Relatives

2-3 times a month

Isabela, 18, Miriam

Classic, Urban

P 5,000 to 10,000

Parents & Savings

Parents/FGD Participant/ Relative

2-3 times a month

Advent, 18, Miriam

Classic, Feminine, Casual

P 6,000 to 10,000

Parents & Savings

Parents/FGD Participant

2-3 times a month

Inna, 18, Miriam

Chic, Classy, Casual

(Parent Dependent)

Parents

Parents

Occasional

Anna, 18, Miriam

Chic, Feminine, Vintage

(Parent Dependent)

Parents

Parents

Occasional

Angela, 18, UST

Sporty, Chic, Vintage

P 800 to 1,500

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant/ Sibling

Only if needed

Eyteen, 18, UST

Chic, Boho

P 3,000

Parents & Savings

Parents

Occasional


52

Erlcy, 18 UST

Femine

(Parent Dependent)

Parents

Parents/FGD Participant

Every Vacation

Elle, 20, UPD

Casual, Classic

(No definite answer)

Parents

Parents

Once a month

Dani, 20, UPD

Casual, Feminine

(No definite answer)

Parents

FGD Participant

Once a month during occasions

Leanne, 20, UPD

Casual, Chic

(No definite answer) A big portion from her allowance

Parents

FGD Participant

Occasional

B. Exposure to Fashion Blogs The respondents reported a moderate level of exposure to fashion blogs with a median score of 3. This was measured by computing for the median score of respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; scores on Exposure Frequency: Number of times spent reading fashion blogs. A median score of 3 has a moderate value; on the other hand, a score less than 3 has high value and a score higher than 3 has low value. A median score with moderate value means moderate exposure to fashion blogs. Moreover, a score with high value means high exposure and a score with low value means low exposure.

Table 3. Exposure to Fashion Blogs No. of times spent reading fashion blogs

Median 3


53 1. Number of times spent reading fashion blogs Majority of the respondents read fashion blogs some days in a week. 42 out of 103 respondents (40.78%) said they read fashion blogs some days in a week. Twenty nine respondents (28.16%) read fashion blogs some days in a month; thirteen respondents (12.62%) read once a month; eleven respondents (10.68%) read once a week; and eight respondents (7.77%) read fashion blogs every day. Table 4 shows that, majority of the respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; aged 19 years and below (6 out of 9 respondents for 16-17 years; 21 out of 27 respondents for 18-19 years) read fashion blogs some days in a week. On the other hand, more than half (23 out of 40) of the respondents aged 20 to 21 years read fashion blogs some days in a month. Bulk of the respondents, regardless of their monthly allowance; opt to read fashion blogs for some days in a week.

Table 4. No. of times spent reading fashion blogs, by Socio-demographic characteristics

Age 16 to 17 (n = 9) 18 to 19 (n = 47) 20 to 21 (n = 40) 22 to 23 (n =7) Monthly Allowance 15, 000 PHP and below (n = 82) 15, 001 and above (n = 21)

Everyday

Some days in a week

Once a week

Some days in a month

Once a month

0 4 3 1

6 21 13 2

0 10 1 0

2 7 23 2

1 5 5 2

5

34

5

25

13

3

8

6

4

0

Among the FGD participants, only two read fashion blogs every day. Four read some days in a week; six read once a week; while the rest read some days in a month. The FGD


54 participants disclosed that because of their tight academic schedules, they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have the luxury of time to visit blogs every day. 2. Fashion blog sites read Majority (73) of the respondents read Break My Style by Laureen Uy. This is followed V <3 V blog by Vern and Verniece Enciso and Camille Tries to Blog by Camille Co, which ranks second and third, with 68 readers with 66 readers respectively. Tricia Will Go Places by Tricia Gosingtian rank fourth with 52 readers. Paradigma by Patricia Prieto rank fifth with 32 readers. Other local fashion blogs that received a significant number of readers are the following: The Capricious Club by Bestie Konisis with 27 readers; Miss Jones by Kim Jones with 25 readers; Scene Stealer by Lissa Kahayon with 21 readers; Nicole Anderssonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s blog and Konichiwear by Dominique Tiu, both with 18 readers.

Table 5. Top 10 Local fashion blogs followed by the respondents Name of the Blog No. of Readers Break My Style 73 V <3 V 68 Camille Tries to Blog 66 Tricia Will Go Places 52 Paradigma 32 The Capricious Club 27 Miss Jones 25 Scene Stealer 21 Nicole Andersson 18 Konichiwear 18 N = 103


55 C. Content of Fashion Blogs One of the aims of this study is to describe the content of fashion blogs read by young adult women. The qualitative part of the study gathered insights among readers regarding content found in blogs. 1. General Fashion Trends or Products According to the Media Systems Dependency Theory, the audience depends on media for information to fulfill their needs. Most of the FGD participants who want to get information about where they can buy stylish clothes utilize fashion blogs by reading clothing product and clothing store suggestions featured in this type of blog.

Figure 7. EMODA store and clothing products

Photos by Tricia Gosingtian (www.triciagosingtian.com)

A prior knowledge of where to shop for the clothes featured online gives the participants an edge over the other shoppers as they learn in advance where the stores are located. According to some of the participants:


56 “It is easier to have a glimpse (of where to buy) online…” – ADMU student, 20 “It adds sa prior knowledge para kung example coincidentally mapadaan ako sa isang area where that shop is, pwede ko na madaanan. Utilized time, di ba?” [It (clothing product/store information) adds to (my) prior knowledge; so that for example, (in case) I coincidentally passed by a specific area where that shop is (situated), I could drop by. (I was able) utilized time, right?] – ADMU student, 19

Figure 8. Giordano store and clothing products

Photos by Nicole Andersson (nicoleandersson.blogspot.com)

Clothing product information is very important for some readers. It is of great help especially when the reader is very particular about the quality of clothes she is going


57 to buy. One participant mentioned some of the advantages of reading product information before buying a particular piece of clothing: “Kasi may mga tela ko na sinusuot na madalas nangangati (ako) kaya gusto ko meron (product information)… Para pag bibilhin ko… at least alam ko na. May assurance ako na pag sinuot ko yun comfortable all day…” [(I look forward reading posts on clothing product information because) There are fabrics that often cause me some itchiness that’s why I want there is (product information). So that when I buy… at least I already know. There is an assurance that when I wear it (clothing) is comfortable all day.”] – UST student, 18 On the other hand, the participants have different opinions regarding fashion trends. Some are curious to try it while some do not conform. “(Do you read fashion trends?) Kaunti lang. Pero pag start na ko nakakakita ng trends, nacucurious rin ako i-try.” [Just a bit. But once I start seeing trends, I am curious to try it.] - UST student, 18 “When we see a trend in blogs... we don’t conform. (We) more like we think of a unique way to stand out.” - UST student, 18 The participants barely mentioned interest on fashion forecasts as they find it inapplicable yet in their lives. The fact that the Philippines have only two seasons, the trend in fashion clothing is not constantly changing unlike in countries with four seasons. Posts about designers and their clothing lines are also not quite given much emphasis by the participants since they do not attend gatherings yet that require clothes with designer labels.


58 2. Non-clothing Information Articles on accessories, apparel, cosmetics, and hairstyles as well as information on health and fitness comprise this category. a. Articles on accessories, apparel, cosmetics, and hairstyles How-to articles, also known as DIYs (Do it Your Own), on accessories, apparel, cosmetics, and hairstyles are deemed as one of the content that FGD participants look forward seeing in a fashion blog. For them, the presence of this content serves as an added knowledge for the readers.

Figure 9. How-to articles on hairstyles and apparel

Blog entries by Kryz Uy (www.kryzuy.com)


59 Since FGD participants are still college students, how-to articles help them to become stylish without spending so much. It helps them make use of the resources they already have. As one participant shared: “Ako particularly interested dito kasi may isang blogger na nakita ko lang... na nag-feature ng… bead works sa mga vest at shirts. Sobrang laking tulong yun for me kasi nagamit ko.” [I am particularly interested in this (how-to articles or DIYs) because there was this blogger who featured (how to make) bead works on vest and shirts. It really helped me a lot because I was able to apply it (the information).] - ADMU student, 20 Participants from schools with no uniform encountered difficulties such as avoidance of repeating clothes which intensified their preference of reading how-to articles. This content showed them how they can give a new twist and further improve the look of their old clothes (Refer to the image on the previous page). “Ako gusto ko yun. Kunyare yun old na pantalon tapos binabago. Natry ko kasi yun tapos parang ang galing talaga. Naaliw ako...” [I like that (how-to articles or DIYs). For instance, there was this old jeans of mine that I tried to alter. I must really say that I did a great job. I was amused.] - UST student, 18 b. Information on health and fitness Information on health and fitness obtained a negative response from some of the participants. They said it is unlikely for a fashion blog to post tips on ‘how to exercise’ or ‘what diet meal to follow’. As some of the participants said: “Not necessarily. I feel like there should be a specific site for health alone.” – UST student, 18 “Ako parang hesistant if it should be in a blog kasi parang out of place… think of it na lang na parang you are checking out on this look tapos bigla may picture ng


60 broccoli or protein shakes after… nasisira yung fashion momentum.”[I am quite hesitant if it (information on health and exercise topics) should be in a (fashion) blog because it seems to be out of place. Think of it like you are checking out on this look and as you scroll further, you see a photo of a broccoli or protein shakes… I guess that ruins the fashion momentum.”] – ADMU student, 20 “Fashion blogs must consist of who you are wearing, what you wearing... and why are you wearing it only.” - CEU student, 18

Figure 10. Healthy diet and exercise features

Blog entries Lissa Kahayon (www.lissakahayon.com)

On the other hand, some participants saw the advantage of having information regarding health and fitness incorporated in the fashion blog. For them, beauty should not be limited to external factors such as clothing. Other factors such as “ways on how to take care of yourself” and beauty regimens from bloggers also help. An informant said “you need to be healthy in order to sport a good outfit”. Fashion bloggers need to be in good shape because according to one of the participants,


61 “…as a blogger, you should be fit because whether she (fashion blogger) likes it or not… people look up to her.” - UST student, 18 Moreover, fashion bloggers have this responsibility to go beyond the meaning of sexy. “Just because the society says that you should be extra skinny does not mean you should be (like) that. It is why it’s nice that fashion bloggers state (in their blogs) that being sexy is different from being healthy... and that sometimes, being healthy is more beautiful.” - UST student, 18 In general, the non-clothing information content of fashion blogs is accepted by the participants because it assists the readers and imparts creativity among them. It gives fashion blogs a more personal touch. 3. Layout and Pictures The most sought after part of every fashion blog is its high quality photographs and overall design. Each FGD participant emphasized how important this content whenever they read fashion blogs. When photos are low in quality and texts are hard to read, the participants withdraw from their reading. Statements of the participants include the following: “Ako gusto ko yun simple lang. Ayoko ng maraming design. Halimbawa dun sa list ng fashion blogs, may nakita ako dun na pagkabukas ko pa lang in-ex (cancel) ko na kaagad. Ayoko kasi ng maraming nakalagay (e.g. link)... tapos ang bright pa ng pagkakadesign nya ng website nya kaya ayoko.” [I prefer a simple blog layout. I don’t want too much design. There was this instance when I encountered a fashion blog that I just opened; I immediately closed (the link). I don’t want (a fashion blog) that has a lot in it… including a (too) bright design.] -UST student,18


62 “Okay nga yun kahit simple lang, kahit white nga lang eh, basta maganda lang yun headline.” [It is okay if the blog is simple… even (just) a white background (is okay)… as long as it has good headline.] - UST student, 18 “Cute patterns of layout are alright in the fashion blog so long as it won’t over power the entire blog...” – Miriam College student, 18 Simplicity is mainly preferred by the participants. A fashion blog is usually made visible to the public, thus, it should be ‘visitor-friendly’ in order to attract and invite readers. The texts should be easy to read and the buttons to be clicked should be easily seen in order to avoid confusion among visitors who come to the blog. Moreover, the parts of the blog should not be difficult to navigate. One participant said: “A blog should be pleasing to the eyes… the simpler the better, and must be easy to navigate. It is inconvenient when too tacky that there’s just so much color and things going on… I hate it when it is loaded that you have to scroll and scroll endlessly and do this or that to see a single picture. I prefer to see a blog that it’s all there… Simply there.... No complications but simply divine. Not tiring per se. I like that of Laureen’s, Kryz’s, and Camille’s… – UST student, 18


63 Figure 11. Break My Style layout

Blog layout by Laureen Uy (www.breakmystyle.com)

“Picture and background must come hand in hand...” -Miriam College student,18


64 Figure 12. Thirsty Thought layout

Blog layout by Kryz Uy (www.kryzuy.com)


65 Figure 13. Camille Tries to Blog layout

Blog layout by Camille Co (www.itscamilleco.com)

Photos are considered as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;heart and soulâ&#x20AC;? of every fashion blog. Readers of fashion blogs are not so much fond of reading text heavy portions mainly because they did not intend to visit a literary blog. They want to see and be blown away with good photos made by the blogger. For that reason, fashion bloggers should go to a careful


66 selection of pictures to be posted in their blogs. It is the deciding point of every reader if they will scroll down to older posts or close the window and look for other blogs instead. Some participants when asked if they look forward seeing high quality photos on the blog said: “Oo… para detalyado yung damit (composition) and added factor din na pag maganda ang photography, ibig sabihin effort. Try mo kung OOTD tapos selfie cam lang gamit mo? Parang di naman ata tama yun”. [Yes (I look forward seeing high quality photographs in the blog) so that details of clothes are seen. Also, it is an added factor if the photography is excellent because it shows effort (on the part of the blogger). Posting an outfit of the day using a low quality camera is not right I guess.] – CEU student, 18 “The picture must be the focus... it should be equipped with excellent lighting and it should accentuate the clothes that the bloggers wear.” – Miriam College student, 18 4. Advertising Most well-known fashion blogs are sustained by the income fashion bloggers get from advertisements. Much as readers despise them, advertisements are inevitable. In this digital age, online advertisements are everywhere; sometimes it it’s in the form of stealth advertising, sometimes it is through blogger’s promo or giveaway. a. Advertisements There are three types of advertisements that can be found in the blogs. First, banner advertisements; second, pay per click or pay per view advertisements; and third, review advertisements.


67 Figure 14. Banner advertisements

Blog advertisement by Aisa Ipac (www.aisaipac.com)

Blog advertisements by Lissa Kahayon (www.lissakahayon.com)

Blog advertisements by Vern and Verniece Enciso (www.vernverniece.com)


68 Figure 15. Pay per Click or Pay per View advertisements

Blog advertisement by Vern and Verniece Enciso (www.vernverniece.com)

An example of pop-up ad; Blog advertisement by Bestie Konisis (www.bestiekonisis.com)

Figure 16. Review advertisements

Blog advertisements by Patricia Prieto (www.itspatriciaprieto.com)


69 Majority of the FGD participants find advertisements, especially the pop-up ads, as destructions when reading. If given the chance, they want to eliminate them. “Nakakainis kasi ang hassle. It tends to discourage readers. Pero I understand na source of income nila yun eh…. so part na. Pero as much as possible I don’t like seeing such...” [It is irritating because it is a hassle. It (ads within blogs) tends to discourage the readers. I understand that ads are a source of their (bloggers) income so it has to be there. But as much as possible, I don’t like seeing such.] – Miriam College student, 18 Although some participants had negative reaction towards advertisements, some understood that they are still a vital content in any fashion blog. Some participants covet fashion bloggers’ work. “I feel envious but amazed at the same time because they (fashion bloggers) get paid (through the ads) for doing the thing they love… So long as it (ads) is not irritating… it is okay.” – Miriam College student, 18 To a certain extent, advertisements strengthen the reputation of a fashion blogger because a particular company or brand is attached to the blogger’s name. b. Promos and Giveaways In terms of blog giveaways, one participant admitted that a lot of them like to join this kind of promos. “We are such a bunch of (fashion blog give away) addicts.” – ADMU student, 19


70 Figure 17. Dress giveaway

Blog giveaway by Bestie Konisis (www.bestiekonisis.com)

Promos and giveaways are widespread among fashion blogs. These are giveaways that usually come from the sponsors of the bloggers. The usual procedure of every blog promo begins with bloggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s instruction to like the Facebook page of a particular product for giveaway. Slowly, the readers who liked the page are being briefed about the product as they go through the page. Aside from liking the Facebook page, blogger also instruct readers to follow the Instagram and Twitter account of the product. More guidelines are waiting when readers finally arrived at the two accounts. Sometimes the use of hashtags (#) is necessary to make the brand visible or trend online. The period of the promo varies. Sometimes it can last a year, a month, and a week to some days in a week depending on the product to be given away. Announcements of winners are eventually posted on


71 blogger’s Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram account. One participant disclosed how she finds the whole process of joining as tiresome: “I join for as long as I like the product they give away and, yes, I look forward sa kung anong maooffer nila saakin or saamin pero ang nakakatamad kasi ang tedious ng process. Lalo na pag gadgets or concert tickets. Pero para kasing walang nananalo eh kasi di ako nakakakita minsan ng proof.” [I join for as long as I like the product they give away and, yes, I look forward to what they could offer to us (readers). But I find the process really tedious especially if the bloggers are giving away big time items such as gadgets or concert tickets. Sometimes, I feel like no one’s winning because I don’t see any proof.] – Miriam College student, 18 Some FGD participants recognized how tough the competition could be, yet, they still choose to participate. “Look at how plenty their (the bloggers) followers are. Of course, the competition is tough.” – ADMU student, 19 “I join a lot. I share this, I like that. I do this; I do that… although until now I never won any (give away).” – ADMU student, 20 Moreover, one FGD participant related an experience from her sister who is an avid fashion blog reader. According to her, the process her sister went through was very tedious that she lost her interest in joining. “I remember my older sister who won a Ponds product from a blogger’s give away... I saw how tedious the process was in order to win and all she gets was a mini cream that is easily purchasable in the supermarket. From then on I lost the drive to join.” - ADMU student, 18


72 5. Street Style and Travel Photos There are fashion bloggers who love to take pictures of their trips abroad or anywhere in the country. This content received a positive reaction among the FGD participants. “..I am obsessed with travel photos.” – ADMU student, 18 “Me too (obsessed with travel photos)… I light up (like it) when they (fashion bloggers) conduct their shoots abroad... because you don’t only see them and the clothes they wear, but the fashion objects within that place and the culture of that specific country… is showcased too.” – ADMU student, 20 Figure 18. Travel Photos

Photos by Tricia Gosingtian (www.triciagosingtian.com)


73 Moreover, travel photos also give the readers an idea of how people from other places dress like. “I like it and I look forward to it because they bring us to the other part of the world in style. It is a plus. You see the place and you get an idea on how to be (or how to look) beautiful and stylish when in that place.” – UST student, 18 There are fashion bloggers who are fond of taking photos of people’s outfits during their travel or small trips. Pictures taken from the streets of a city or town are called ‘street style’. A street style can be done discreetly or with permission from the person whom you’re going to take a picture. Sometimes this is done discreetly by the blogger to avoid disturbance from people.

Figure 19. Street Style photos

Photos by Tricia Gosingtian (www.triciagosingtian.com)

At the beginning of the discussion, some participants were not familiar with the aforementioned content while some were not aware that what they usually see in fashion


74 blogs is already ‘street style’. When explained further, the participants showed a positive feedback regarding this content: “I look forward to it because it gives voices sa ordinary people na nag shishine through their style. It’s like the bloggers become a pedestal... di lang laging sila.” [I look forward seeing (street styles) because it gives voices to ordinary people who shine through style. It’s like bloggers give support (to other people by featuring them to their blogs).. It’s not always them.] -Miriam College student, 18 6. Fashion News or Events Fashion events can be in the form of a fashion show, a product launch; a fashion competition or simply, a gathering of people from the fashion industry. Fashion blog readers look forward seeing news about these events. “..I prefer seeing that (fashion news or events). I’ve been in the Bench event. I like it when it is featured in the fashion blog because it intensifies the reputation of the blogger/s.” – CEU student, 18 Figure 20. Giordano store opening

Photos by Nicole Andersson (nicoleandersson.blogspot.com)


75


76 Figure 21. EMODA fashion show

Photos by Tricia Gosingtian (www.triciagosingtian.com)

Fashion bloggers are expected to update their readers about the recent news in the fashion world. Their posts or features regarding fashion events benefit the readers as one FGD participant disclosed: “Hindi rin naman kasi namin napupuntahan... If ever, parang shineshare na rin nya kung ano yun nangyari sa event. Kasi nakaka-curious rin naman, at least, malaman mo kung ano nangyari nun. Tapos pag may bago dun sa event, at least, nashashare nya rin sa viewers nya.” [We can’t go to those events. If ever, she (fashion blogger) shares (to us) what happened at the event. You’re curious, at least, you found out what happened (in the event). Then if there’s something new, she (the blogger) can also share it to her readers.] – UST student, 18


77 7. Blogger’s Personal Life The blogger’s personal life and activities with family, friends, and other significant people in her life comprise this content. Based on the findings of the study, the attitude of the FGD participants towards this content is somehow negative. They believe that a fashion blog is different from a personal blog or a literary blog that contains a lot of emotions. As one participant disclosed: “Kapag (picture/post with) boyfriend okay lang. Love is a cute thing... Love and fashion together is even cuter. Pero yung dull or sad... medyo ang bigat sa dibdib… Let fashion be fashion.” [If it is a photo or post with the (blogger’s) boyfriend, I find it okay. Love is a cute thing… Love combined with fashion is way cuter. But if it is (about) a sad thing, it feels heavy inside… Let fashion be fashion.] – Miriam College student, 18 Figure 22. Blogger’s sentiments

Blog entry by Joanna Ladrido (www.joannaladrido.com)

Moreover, one participant touched the aspect of privacy by stating that fashion bloggers are now public figures.


78 “Ako, ayoko silang nagshashare ng ganun kasi at least may ma-keep siya sa kanya na private lang. Yun iba kasi pag public na lahat lahat, wala na nakakainis na rin.” [I don’t prefer seeing this (blogger’s personal activities) because I don’t like the bloggers to share their personal feelings and thoughts. It is better that she could keep something that is personal for herself. Some bloggers tend to publicize everything that it gets irritating already.] – UST student, 18 Figure 22. Blogger’s gathering with friends

Blog entry by Vern Enciso (www.vernverniece.com)

The participants had a difficult time understanding why an emotional disclosure or an intimate family event is present in a fashion blog. Some suggested that bloggers should use a separate platform (e.g. Twitter, Instagram, Facebook) to share their personal sentiments. On the contrary, one participant said: “…ako yung tinitignan kong fashion blog, may mga emotional write ups siya (fashion blogger) dun. Kumbaga, kalakip na din ng pagdadamit nila kung ano yung nangyari sa kanila sa instance na yun... like why did they dress up that way… Iba parin kung may ‘puso’ yung fashion blog...” [The fashion blog I’m reading has emotional write ups (from the blogger). For instance, there’s a reason


79 (or a story) behind the clothes she wear or the way she dress up… A fashion blog with a ‘heart’ is different.] – CEU student, 18 If there are things that should comprise a fashion blog, they are photos, styles and insights about fashion according to one of the participants. “Gusto kong basahin yung blogs as a whole na may articles about fashion. ... di ako gaanong nagtatagal (magbasa) kasi more often than not it is all about them (fashion bloggers).” [I want to read blogs as a whole if the articles are about fashion. I don’t last reading if it’s all about them (the bloggers).] – UP student, 20 The difference lies on how fashion bloggers present their entries in such a way that will make their readers feel that fashion identity is still evident on their blog. 8. Blogger’s Hobbies or Interests Some FGD participants said they like to know the hobbies or interests of the fashion bloggers they follow. According to one of the participants: “Ako nahihilig ako sa pagbabasa ng hobbies o mga hilig nila (fashion bloggers)... kasi parang gusto ko rin magkaron ng new adventures by myself. So kapag nagshare siya nang kung anong ginawa nya... gusto ko rin ma-try yun.” [I am getting fond of reading their (bloggers) hobbies and interests because I want to have (experience) new adventures for myself. When the blogger share what keeps her busy, I also have this desire to try it.] - UST student, 18


80 Figure 24. Blogger’s hobby: Surfing

Photos by Kim Jones (www.kimcamjones.com)

Figure 25. Blogger’s interest: Calligraphy

Photos by Tricia Gosingtian (www.triciagosingtian.com)

Much as they want to read such content, the participants said posting entries about hobbies and interests should happen in moderation. One FGD participant even suggested a section where the blogger can post her hobbies or interests: “…dapat in moderation. Not naman every hour or every minute kasi posting something every time lessens the anticipation. Or better ilagay na lang nila yung hobbies nila sa ‘about me’ ng blog…” [(Posting hobbies/interests) should be done in moderation. Not every hour, every minute. Better yet, why don’t they just post their hobbies in the ‘about me’ section of their blogs…] – UST student, 18


81 9. Blogger’s Daily Outfits Fashion blogs are usually not complete without photos of blogger’s daily outfits. There are numerous readers who really look after this content. When asked whether they look for blogger’s outfits, one FGD participant immediately answered “Oo naman… magaling sila mag OOTD eh.” [Of course, they are good with OOTD (outfit of the day)]. a. Bloggers as human billboards The fashion bloggers’ photographs of their daily outfits are commonly seen on a fashion blog. Bloggers make it a point to take photos of their actual get-up for a specific day. Daily outfit or more popularly known as OOTD (outfit of the day) photo is usually comprised by the following elements: clothes, accessories, shoes, make-up and hair-do.

Figure 26. Kryz’s OOTD

Photos by Kryz Uy (www.kryzuy.com)


82 Figure 27. Camille’s OOTD

Photos by Camille Co (www.itscamileco.com)

Figure 28. Laureen’s OOTD

Photos by Laureen Uy (www.breakmystyle.com)

b. Bloggers as human mannequins Some participants admitted that although it upsets them whenever they look at bloggers’ outfits, this gives them the inspiration especially when it comes to finding out what they are going to wear. “Oo (looks at blogger’s daily outfits). …kasi kung yung post pwedeng pwede naman gayahin or madali lang siya then why not (look at it) di ba.” [Yes (I look at blogger’s daily outfits) because if her (blogger’s) post (or outfit) is easy to follow or imitate then why not (look at it).] – FEU student, 20


83 “Yung OOTD di siya ganun ka useful (at start)... pero minsan naka inspire din...”

[(Pictures of) OOTD may not appear as useful (at the beginning), but sometimes it inspires you.] – UP student, 20 "Once they (fashion bloggers) post (an outfit of the day) they are opening themselves to the tendency of being copied or imitated. This goes to show that fashion bloggers are trendsetters.” - CEU student, 18 10. Blogger’s Comments or Suggestions In order to maintain a healthy relationship with their readers, fashion bloggers make it a point to interact with them. Some bloggers allot a portion of their blog for comments and suggestions.

Figure 29. Blogger’s comments

Blog comments by Dominique Tiu (www.konichiwear.com)

Bloggers’ comments or suggestions are hardly noticeable for the FGD participants since some of them rarely ask while some never tried asking at all. Few were even unsure whether the bloggers will respond.


84 Some of the participants said that bloggers should limit their comments or suggestions. They felt that the bloggers already provide ample tips in the fashion blog that they could already figure out how to address their concerns. Some participants even stressed that bloggers should avoid comments that are very detailed. As one of the participants disclosed that a mere comment or suggestion from the blogger could instantly persuade the reader; thus, the reader will be lead to a certain belief: “Onti lang (dapat yung comments/suggestions from blogger)... Minsan kasi yun iba pag nagbabasa ng ganun, masyado sila na-oovercome nung sinabi nun blogger na nawawala na yun ‘self’.” [Comments or suggestions from the blogger should remain just a few… Because sometimes, when other people read (comments or suggestions from bloggers), they were overwhelmed by what the blogger said that they lose their sense of self.] – UST student, 18


85

All (103) respondents read “Information on latest fashion trends” (General Fashion Trends/Products), “List of clothing product information and clothing store information” (General Fashion Trends/Products), and “How-to articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories and apparel” (Non-clothing Information). Moreover, they look for “High quality photographs and videos” (Layout/Pictures). Table 6. Fashion blog contents read (look for) by all respondents No. of respondents No. of respondents who said “Yes” who said “No” Information on latest fashion trends 103 0 List of clothing product information and 103 0 clothing store information How-to articles or advice on cosmetics, 103 0 hairstyles, accessories and apparel High quality photographs and videos 103 0 *N = 103 Majority of the respondents also read or look for “Photographs during trips abroad” (Travel Photos and Street Style); “Attractive layout, well-organized pages, and texts that are easy to read” (Layout/Pictures); “Photographs of street style and urban wear” (Street Style and Travel Photos); “Blogger’s wardrobe and daily outfits” (Blogger’s Daily Outfits);

“Information

on

health

and

fitness”

(Non-clothing

Information);

“Advertisements on apparel, cosmetics, and accessories” (Advertising); “Blogger’s comments and/or suggestions on clothing and fashion trends” (Blogger’s Comments or Suggestions); “Blogger’s hobbies/interests” (Blogger’s Hobbies or Interests); “Updates on fashion week, gatherings, and special events in the fashion industry” (Fashion Events/News); “Blogger’s personal activities and everyday musings” (Blogger’s Personal Life); and “Blog contests and giveaways” (Advertising).


86 Table 7. Fashion blog contents read (look for) by majority of respondents No. of respondents No. of respondents who said “Yes” who said “No” Photographs during trips abroad 102 1 Attractive layout, well-organized pages, 101 2 and texts that are easy to read Photographs of street style/ urban wear 100 3 Blogger’s wardrobe and daily outfits 99 4 Information on health and fitness 98 5 Advertisements on apparel, cosmetics, 97 6 and accessories Blogger’s comments and/or suggestions 97 6 on clothing and fashion trends Blogger’s hobbies/interests 94 9 Updates on fashion week, gatherings, 96 7 and special events in the fashion industry Blogger’s personal activities and 92 11 everyday musings Blog contests and giveaways 88 15

The top content respondents constantly look for when reading fashion blogs are “High quality photographs and videos” (Layout/Pictures). Moreover, the respondents frequently look for and consider the following contents: “Attractive layout, wellorganized pages, and texts that are easy to read” (Layout/Pictures); “Photographs during trips abroad” (Street Style and Travel Photos); “Photographs of street style and urban wear” (Street Style and Travel Photos); “How-to articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories and apparel” (Non-clothing Information); “Information on health and fitness” (Non-clothing Information); “Information on latest fashion trends” (General Fashion Trends/Products); “List of clothing product information and clothing store information” (General Fashion Trends/Products); “Blogger’s wardrobe and daily outfits” (Blogger’s Daily Outfits); “Blogger’s comments and/or suggestions on clothing and


87 fashion trends” (Blogger’s Comments or Suggestions); “Updates on fashion week, gatherings, and special events in the fashion industry” (Fashion Events/News). On the other hand, “Advertisements on apparel, cosmetics, and accessories” (Advertising);

“Blog

contests

and

giveaways”

(Advertising);

“Blogger’s

hobbies/interests”; and “Blogger’s personal activities and everyday musings” (Blogger’s Personal Life) are least preferred contents by the respondents.

Table 8. Frequency of reading(looking for) fashion blog content Median High quality photographs and videos 1 Attractive layout, well-organized pages, and texts that are 2 easy to read Photographs during trips abroad 2 Photographs of street style and urban wear 2 How-to articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, 2 accessories and apparel Information on health and fitness 2 Information on latest fashion trends 2 List of clothing product information and clothing store 2 information Blogger’s wardrobe and daily outfits 2 Blogger’s comments and/or suggestions on clothing and 2 fashion trends Updates on fashion week, gatherings, and special events in 2 the fashion industry Advertisements on apparel, cosmetics, and accessories 3 3 Blog contests and giveaways Blogger’s hobbies/interests 3 Blogger’s personal activities and everyday musings 3 ** (Median) 1 = Always, 2 = Often, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Seldom, 5 = Never


88 D. Motives in reading fashion blogs Four categories emerged as motives of young adult women in reading fashion blogs. Findings showed that readers primarily visit fashion blogs for 1) inspiration, 2) knowledge improvement, 3) self-expression, 4) entertainment and leisure. 1. For Inspiration Majority of the FGD participants said they read fashion blogs for inspiration: “Never ending search for inspiration…” – UP student, 20 “For inspiration... Minsan, kahit fashionista ka, di naman laging may alam ka kaya nga kailangan mag rob ka ng ideas from others.” [(I read blogs) for inspiration. Sometimes, even if you are a fashionista, you don’t necessarily know everything… that’s why you need to get ideas from others.] - FEU student, 20 a. To avoid being overdressed Each participant has her own reason for reading fashion blogs. One participant, when asked what motivates her to read fashion blogs, said “Kasi nakaka-frustrate pumorma, kasi nakakatakot mag-overdress (kaya ako nagbabasa ng fashion blogs)… For Inspiration.” [Because it is frustrating to dress up, because I fear that I might overdress (that’s why I read fashion blogs)… For inspiration.] – CEU student, 18 b. To get a sense of what to aspire for On the other hand, seeing a person all dolled up heightens one’s admiration. Interestingly, two participants revealed: “(I read fashion blogs) for inspiration… because it is like reading an open book of someone...” - Miriam College student, 18 “Nakaka determine na sana maging ganun ka din, and sana makabili ka ng ganun, ganyan. To enhance yung self-image.” [It prompts my determination to be like her (fashion blogger) and I am hopeful that someday I will obtain these (clothes) and that. Most of all, (I read fashion blogs) to enhance my self-image.] – CEU student, 18


89 2. For Knowledge Improvement a. To acquire knowledge or opinion from fashion bloggers Fashion bloggers, who receive a huge number of followers, are look up to by most of their readers. The FGD participants recognized the importance of fame and reputation among bloggers. According to them, when a blogger is already wellknown and of good reputation, her followers will continue seeking for her opinion. An informant said “Expertise, knowledge, and suggestion of bloggers… what they (fashion bloggers) have to say are the factors why I read (fashion) blogs.” b. To get information regarding clothing products Aside from blogger’s reputation, readers are also motivated to visit fashion blogs in order to get clothing store or product information. As some of the participants have mentioned: “We’ve been very vocal naman in saying na lahat kami after sa clothing information.” [We’ve been very vocal in saying that all of us are after the clothing information.] - ADMU student, 20 “Kasi the more you read mas lumalawak yun options na nakukuha mo.” [‘cause the more you read (fashion blogs), the more options you get.] – UP student, 20 c. To excel in a particular field Fashion blog became a medium used by the participants to understand their own personalities and sense of style. Moreover, being equipped with information provided by fashion blogs gave them an edge in terms of their preferences in clothes. Furthermore, fashion blogs helped the participants enhance their passion in the field of photography for instance. “Sa (photo) shoot... dahil sa kakabasa ko ng blogs, naaaral ko ang angle.” [During (photo) shoot, because I just read (fashion) blogs, I was able to study (or pick) the angle.] – ADMU student, 18


90 3. For Self-expression Some participants revealed how reading fashion blogs taught them a new perspective. One participant shared: “Hindi naman porket di ka nakikisabay sa uso eh it makes you less of a person. I think reading fashion blogs is expressing human rights na manamit. Wala namang nagsabi na bawal sayo yan, di pwede sayo yan, as long as feel mo sa sarili mo na ako ‘to eh. Bakit hindi?” [Being unable to go with what’s in doesn’t make you less of a person. I think reading fashion blogs becomes an expression of our rights to dress up freely. No one said that this doesn’t suit you or that doesn’t look good on you... as long as you are able to express yourself, then why not?] – CEU student, 18 With the presence of fashion blogs, bloggers are not the only ones who get the chance to express themselves but also the readers. 4. For Entertainment and Leisure Many participants said that reading fashion blogs is one of the most productive and informative leisure activities. Some participants said they read fashion blogs for “entertainment”. On the other hand, there were participants who read fashion blogs solely to “pass time”: “Kasi may mga long breaks ako in between, so yeah, for pass time.” [Because I have long breaks in between that’s why I read (fashion blogs) for pass time.] – ADMU student, 18 “Past time, kapag ka walang magawa.” [Past time, if you have nothing to do.] – UP student, 20 E. Fashion Clothing Involvement Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI) has five components: Fashion Innovativeness, Fashion Interpersonal Communication, Fashion Interest, Fashion Knowledge and Fashion Awareness. To measure the components of FCI, items (addressing each component) were provided in the questionnaire. The respondents were asked if the items or the statements apply to them. When a respondent answers “All the time”, it is equivalent to a score of


91 1.0. “Most of the time” is equivalent to a score of 2.0; “Neutral” is equivalent to a score of 3.0; “Sometimes” is equivalent to a score of 4.0; and “Not at all” is equivalent to a score of 5.0. The median scores for each component were computed. Results on Table 9 revealed that respondents of the study are interested in fashion clothing to begin with. As shown in the first few items, the respondents are greatly attentive to information about fashion clothing. However, as shown in the last few items, the respondents are least focused on fashion activities such as discussions with friends about fashion trends and their recent clothing purchases. They are also less likely to purchase clothes ahead of time. The items on the table below were grouped depending on their median scores. A median score of 2 has a higher value than a median score of 3.

Table 9. Components of Fashion Clothing Involvement and their Median Scores Item Median (FI) Fashion clothing is my interest. 2 (FI) I am interested in reading news/information about fashion clothing. 2 (FI) I pay a lot of attention to style and clothes. 2 (FI) I am very much interested in fashion clothing. 2 (FA) I am familiar with clothing trends and/or clothing brands. 2 (FA) I am updated with the latest trends in fashion/clothing. 2 (FK) I am knowledgeable about fashion. I know certain 2 kinds of clothes although I’m not brand conscious. (FK) I am likely to be asked for advice by my friends whenever they will buy new clothes. 2 (FA) I read fashion blog/s regularly to get an inspiration with my style. 3 (FA) I read fashion blog/s regularly to keep my wardrobe up to date with the latest clothing trends. 3 (FK) I know a lot about the recent clothing trends. 3 (FK) More often than not, I know right away the brand of 3


92 clothing the moment I see it. (F Innov) If I heard that a new clothing trend is available in store, I would be interested enough to buy it. 3 (F Innov) In general, I am the first in my circle of friends to know the latest clothing trends. 3 (F Innov) In general, I am among the first in my circle of friends to buy a new clothing trend that just appeared in advertisements. 3 (F Innov) Compared to my friends, I own a lot of new clothes. 3 (F IC) I never fail to discuss things related to fashion clothing. 3 (F IC) Whenever I read/watched news about the latest clothing trends, I always make it a point to share it to a friend. 3 (F IC) I usually comment on my friend/s outfits whenever they post their outfits on social networking sites. 3 (F IC) I always talk to my friends regarding my recent clothing purchases. 3 **FI – Fashion Interest; FA – Fashion Awareness; FK – Fashion Knowledge; F Innov – Fashion Innovativeness; F IC – Fashion Interpersonal Communication. The level of each component was assessed based on three levels – low, moderate, and high. High level requires a score ranging from 1-2.4; a score ranging from 2.5-3.4 for moderate level, and a score ranging from 3.5-5 for low level. The respondents of the study have a moderate level of Fashion Innovativeness, with a median composite score of 3 (Table 10). The respondents of the study also have a moderate level of Fashion Interpersonal Communication, with a median composite score of 3 (Table 11). On the other hand, the respondents of the study have high Fashion Interest, with a median composite score of 2 (Table 12).


93 Table 10. Fashion Innovativeness Item Item 1. If I heard that a new clothing trend is available in store, I would be interested enough to buy it. Item 2. In general, I am the first in my circle of friends to know the latest clothing trends. Item 3. In general, I am among the first in my circle of friends to buy a new clothing trend that just appeared in advertisements. Item 4. Compared to my friends, I own a lot of new clothes. Median Composite Score Table 11. Fashion Interpersonal Communication Item Item 5. I always talk to my friends regarding my recent clothing purchases. Item 6. Whenever I read/watched news about the latest clothing trends, I always make it a point to share it to a friend. Item 7. I never fail to discuss things related to fashion clothing. Item 8. I usually comment on my friend/s outfits whenever they post their outfits on social networking sites. Median Composite Score Table 12. Fashion Interest Item Item 9. Fashion clothing is my interest. Item 10. I am very much interested in fashion clothing. Item 11. I am interested in reading news/information about fashion clothing. Item 12. I pay a lot of attention to style and clothes. Median Composite Score

Median 3 3 3

3 3

Median 3 3 3 3 3

Median 2 2 2 2 2

Furthermore, the respondents of the study have moderate level of Fashion Knowledge, with a median composite score of 2.5 (Table 13); and moderate level of Fashion Awareness, with a median composite score of 2.5 (Table 14).


94 Table 13. Fashion Knowledge Item Item 13. I am likely to be asked for advice by my friends whenever they will buy new clothes. Item 14. More often than not, I know right away the brand of clothing the moment I see it. Item 15. I am knowledgeable about fashion. I know certain kinds of clothes although I’m not brand conscious. Item 16. I know a lot about the recent clothing trends. Median Composite Score Table 14. Fashion Awareness Item Item 17. I am updated with the latest trends in fashion/clothing. Item 18. I read fashion blog/s regularly to keep my wardrobe up to date with the latest clothing trends. Item 19. I read fashion blog/s regularly to get an inspiration with my style. Item 20. I am familiar with clothing trends and/or clothing brands. Median Composite Score

Median 2 2 3 3 2.5

Median 2 3 2 3 2.5

Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI) composite score is the median of all respondents’ FCI. To measure each respondent’s FCI, the median of their composite scores in five components - Fashion Innovativeness (F Innov), Fashion Interpersonal Communication (F IC), Fashion Interest (FI), Fashion Knowledge (FK), and Fashion Awareness (FA) – was computed. A score of 2.5 was derived for FCI (Table 15). Hence, the respondents have a moderate level of involvement with fashion clothing.


95

F Innov F IC FI FK FA

Table 15. Fashion Clothing Involvement FCI Component Median Composite Score 3 3 2 2.5 2.5 FCI Composite Score 2.5

F. Relationship between Exposure to Fashion Blogs and Fashion Clothing Involvement Respondents’ fashion clothing involvement appears to be significantly related with their exposure to fashion blogs. Bivariate correlation, specifically Spearman’s rho, was used to determine if exposure to fashion blogs and fashion clothing involvement of the respondents are significantly correlated with each other. Fashion clothing involvement or FCI was found to have a moderate positive correlation (ρ=0.522) with exposure to fashion blogs at a 0.01 level of significance (Table 16). Meaning to say, exposure to fashion blogs is directly associated with one’s involvement with fashion clothing. A positive correlation, on the other hand, implies that when exposure to fashion blogs increases, fashion clothing involvement also increases.

Table 17. Correlation between Exposure to Fashion Blogs and FCI FCI Exposure to fashion blogs .522** N = 103 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

F Innov, F IC, FI, FK, and FA were likewise tested for their correlation with exposure to fashion blogs. All components of FCI were found to have a moderate positive


96 correlation with exposure to fashion blogs at a 0.01 level of significance (Table 17). This indicates that readers’ exposure to fashion blogs has moderate direct relationship with their Fashion Innovativeness, Fashion Interpersonal Communication, Fashion Interest, Fashion Knowledge and Fashion Awareness.

Table 17. Correlation among 5 FCI Components and Exposure to Fashion Blogs FCI Components F Innov F IC FI FK FA Exposure to 0.486** 0.379** 0.446** 0.500** 0.506** fashion blogs N = 103 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The relationship between exposure to fashion blogs and fashion clothing involvement was supported by the findings derived from the qualitative data of the study. In the focus group discussions, the participants shared how fashion blogs became an instrument in their improvement on several aspects of fashion clothing involvement. 1. Fashion blogs aid readers’ style and preference in clothes Majority of the FGD participants believe they went through “a process of metamorphosis” in terms of their personal style. They said fashion blogs contributed a lot in their style evolution. “I am more confident with my look now because I can refer (and seek help) to fashion blogs… unlike before that I keep on trying styles which later on made me look odd and bizarre…” – Miriam College student, 18 “...mas careful na ko magdress. More inspired and put together when you go out. Parang mas okay yun style mo.” [I became careful with the way I dress. More inspired and put together when going out. My style is better.] – UP student, 20


97 As they grow and mature, the participants believe their preferences in clothing have improved. Constant exposure to fashion blogs is a big factor for them. According to one of the participants: “Sobrang laking tulong (ng fashion blogs)… it made my style, preference (in clothes) enriched.” [(Fashion blogs are) really a big help. It made my style, preference (in clothes) enriched.” - Miriam College student, 18 2. Fashion blogs serve as readers’ guide for fashion must-haves and must-dos Many participants said that reading fashion blogs increases one’s knowledge about the fashion realm. Readers are given the essential fashion information; in return, they become aware of the necessary things to avoid when dressing up. Some of the participants disclosed: “I became aware of what to wear and what not to wear. Like trends.” – UP student, 20 “…you were exposed to trends kahit di mo gusto. May rules kahit di mo gusto.” [You were exposed to trends even though you don’t like. There are rules although you don’t like.] – UP student, 20 Some participants, on the other hand, stated that fashion blog is not their only source of fashion information. Constant exposure to mass media and life’s everyday experiences made them realize which of their look or clothing style needs improvement. “On the contrary, nakikita ko yun trends in real life like sa school ganyan. Sa tingin ko yun blogs di ko alam kung yun ba yun source ng mga tao sa trends or it’s the other way around.. napapakita lang ng blogs yun trends ngayon.” [On the contrary, I see trends in real life (e.g. schools). I think blogs, I’m not sure if they are people’s source of trends or it’s the other way around… blogs just show the trends of today.] – UP student, 20


98 3. Fashion blogs heighten readers’ desire to look good and be fashionable The participants arrived at a realization that reading fashion blogs can help one to look good and be fashionable at the same time; thus, it aids in attracting the opposite sex. As one of the participants revealed: “Usually kasi ang boys na-iinlove sa mga girls na palaayos, and usually, dahil sa pagbabasa ng fashion blogs na eenrich yung sense of fashion namin… little by little we try to apply it.” [The boys usually want girls who (know how to) fix themselves. Usually, because of reading fashion blogs our fashion sense grows. Little by little we apply it (what we learn from the blogs).] – FEU student, 17 Interestingly, one participant raised the argument that being fashionable is different from looking good. When asked to rate how important (in a scale of 1-10, 10 being the highest) is being fashionable and looking good to them, some participants answered: “To be fashionable, 3 points. To look good, 5 points. Di naman kasi siya tungkol sa kung anong trend, kung ano yun feel mong suotin.” [It’s not about the trends; it’s about what you feel like wearing.] – UST student, 18 “To be fashionable, 5 points. To look good, 7 points. For me, being fashionable is not so important but looking good yes... Looking good, decent, and not looking bad is important because it can help your self-esteem. If you feel good about yourself you’ll be more comfortable (when) presenting.” – UP student, 20 As a whole, the participants believe that girls will definitely come to a point in their lives when they will realize the importance of dressing well, finding their own style, and choosing clothes that are suitable with their bodies. The participants also believe that this is where fashion blogs come in. Fashion blogs give readers the opportunity to assess their style, improve their preference in clothes and overall look.


99 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION A. Summary 1. Exposure to Fashion Blogs The respondents showed moderate exposure to fashion blogs. This indicates that the respondents do not always read fashion blogs but they spend some time reading it. Majority of the respondents read fashion blogs for more than once a week. From the focus group discussion (FGD) participants, only few were reading fashion blogs every day. Some read once or several days in a week. Participants who least read fashion blogs said they cannot spend a lot of time reading because of their tight schedule and heavy academic workload. Break My Style by Laureen Uy, V <3 V by the Enciso sisters, Camille Tries to Blog by Camille Co, Tricia Will Go Places by Tricia Gosingtian, and Paradigma by Patricia Prieto are the top five local fashion blog sites read by majority of the respondents, fashion blog readers or female undergraduate students from Katipunan area campuses and universities within University Belt Manila. 2. Contents of Fashion Blogs Based on the findings of this study, Layout and Pictures (i.e. high quality photographs and videos), General Fashion Trends or Products (i.e. information on latest fashion trends and product/clothing store information), Non-Clothing Information (i.e. how to articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories and apparel), Street Style and Travel Photos, Fashion News/Events, Bloggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Daily Outfits and Bloggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Comments/Suggestions are the most sought after contents in a fashion blog.


100 It is important for the respondents and informants of this study to acquire information regarding the latest fashion trends, clothing items, and location of shopping stores. These fashion blog readers like reading or watching tutorials on make-up and hairstyles; also, “how-to articles” on designing clothes, accessories and the like. In addition, they love seeing travel photos of fashion bloggers. It is their way of getting acquainted with the customs and culture of people from different places. It is also their way of learning the kind of style appropriate and popular among those places. Moreover, majority of the FGD participants are in favor of simplicity for blog layouts while good quality photographs are deemed as a must in any fashion blog. They like advertisements in the form of blog promos and giveaways. Most of the participants said they like joining these contests despite the tedious process they have to go through. However, they don’t like so-called pop-up ads or those advertisements that suddenly open when you scroll down a blog. Furthermore, some of the participants said they don’t want to see personal entries of the blogger (e.g. an emotional disclosure and an intimate family occasion) being featured on the blog as they raised the issue of privacy. However, there are some who like reading this content as they mentioned the “heart” of the fashion blog lies on the background or the personal stories of the blogger. Information on health and fitness received both positive and negative responses from the participants. Some are in favor because they believe they can get something from it while some say it is not necessary for a fashion blog. On the other hand, entries on the blogger’s hobbies or interests are preferred by some readers. The participants said such entries inspire them to try a new adventure or hobby. Moreover, majority of


101 participants look after photos of blogger’s daily outfits for inspiration with regard to their style and clothing choices. 3. Experiences in Reading Fashion Blogs a. Motives in reading fashion blogs The focus group discussion (FGD) participants read fashion blogs for inspiration and for guide. Some of the participants developed an admiration to the bloggers that they want to become like in the future. On the other hand, some of the participants read fashion blogs because they simply want to avoid being overdressed. The FGD participants also read fashion blogs to improve their knowledge and skills. They found better options from fashion bloggers regarding clothing products and stores available in the market. Also, fashion blogs helped the participants hone their skills – in photography for instance. On the other hand, there are participants who read fashion blogs for self-expression; whereas, there are participants who read fashion blogs for leisure. Some participants said they read fashion blogs for “entertainment” while some participants said they read to “pass the time”. b. Benefits of reading fashion blogs According to the FGD participants, fashion blogs are a contributing factor to their development (transition from teenage years to young adulthood) especially when it comes to their personal style. Moreover, constant exposure to fashion blogs made them more aware about things to avoid when dressing. They were inspired by the bloggers to dress well, yet, not lose their own sense of identity. In fact, according to some, they were


102 able to find their own style with the help of fashion bloggers’ posts. Furthermore, they gained knowledge about fashion clothing by simply reading fashion blogs. 4. Fashion Clothing Involvement Respondents have a keen interest in fashion but are less interested and seldom participate in fashion activities such as discussion with friends regarding things related to fashion clothing. They maintain a high level of Fashion Interest, which indicates that they pay much attention to style and clothing; and moderate level of Fashion Innovativeness, Fashion Interpersonal Communication, Fashion Knowledge and Fashion Awareness, which suggests that they are open to new fashion ideas. They have no strict rules and schedule in purchasing clothes; they engage in occasional conversations with friends regarding clothes they purchase and seasons’ fashion trends; they have an adequate amount of knowledge when it comes to fashion, clothing brands and trends; and lastly, they keep themselves reasonably up-to-date with matters concerning fashion clothing. B. Conclusion The length of readers’ exposure to fashion blogs may contribute to their degree of fashion clothing involvement or FCI and vice versa. The influence of fashion blogs has been recognized because of this age of new media when social networking sites, primarily blogs, continue to proliferate. This notion is backed by the findings of this study. Content is an essential aspect of any fashion blog. This is evidenced by readers’ preferences and opinions regarding contents that are necessary to be part of a fashion blog. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concludes that fashion blog readers follow a certain amount of criteria in choosing which fashion blogs to read. The


103 sample of the study (Filipino female undergraduate students, ages 16 - 24 years, from Katipunan area campuses and universities within University Belt Manila) look after fashion clothing information, good layout and quality pictures, latest news about the fashion industry, travel and style photos, sample of bloggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wardrobe, and some recommendations, tutorials and health information in a fashion blog. Among the five components of Fashion Clothing Involvement, Fashion Interest appears to be the principal characteristic of fashion blog readers, as the respondents reported high scores in this domain (regardless of their status). On the other hand, the respondents

scored

fairly

in

Fashion

Innovativeness,

Fashion

Interpersonal

Communication, Fashion Knowledge and Fashion Awareness. The findings of the study revealed fashion blogsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; positive impact on individuals who have been exposed to it. Thus, exposure to fashion blogs is deemed relevant to anyone who is interested in fashion clothing. From the focus group discussions, the researcher discovered how fashion blogs played a vital role in the lives of the participants. Fashion blogs were used by the participants as a tool to improve their personal style, preference in clothes and knowledge in fashion. Some of the participants mentioned that as a result of reading fashion blogs, they were able to assert themselves by choosing clothes that match their personalities. The participants are motivated to read fashion blogs for inspiration, knowledge improvement, self-expression, entertainment and leisure. However, it was noted that along with fashion blogs, there are also other factors that contribute to the development of style among readers like other mass media channels such as television and magazines


104 and community settings such as schools and malls which may have an effect on readersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; style and clothing preferences as well.


105 VII. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. Theoretical Issues This study was guided by the concepts of Uses and Gratifications Theory, Media Systems Dependency Theory and Involvement in examining the exposure to fashion blogs of young adult women and how it affects their fashion clothing involvement. Taking from the arguments of the two theories, it was posited that media (i.e. fashion blog), which aids in the construction of knowledge among the readers, 1) influence readers’ involvement in media content (i.e. information on fashion clothing); and 2) gratify readers’ needs and motives for media use (i.e. reading of fashion blogs). The findings of the study support this framework as it was found that components of fashion clothing

involvement

such

as

fashion

innovativeness,

fashion

interpersonal

communication, fashion interest, fashion knowledge and fashion awareness were attained because of the information (re fashion clothing) the readers were able to process after being exposed to fashion blogs, which as a result improved their style and clothing preference. For future studies, the researcher suggests theories such as Medium Theory and Agenda Setting Theory. Marshall McLuhan, proponent of the Medium Theory, said that “the medium is the message” (utwente.com). In relation to the findings, some of the FGD participants pointed out that the simplicity of blog design and the strength of photos convey the fashion message. A poorly designed blog, for example, can create a negative impression among readers and could thereby send a wrong message to those who read it. Medium Theory will allow future researchers to examine further the aspects of the medium, which in this case the fashion blog. Agenda Setting Theory, on the other hand,


106 can be used by future researchers in order to examine the agenda of fashion bloggers for the content they present in their blogs. This theory can be beneficial for a reason that fashion bloggers have the ability to provide information that encourages consumerism. This will help future researchers in examining bloggers’ posts. Moreover, the researcher suggests theories that could explain the nature of fashion clothing involvement among readers. Future researchers may also look into the concept of ‘Networked Individualism’. Barry Wellman (2001), who coined the term, said “people are highly individualized in terms of the combination of (social) networks they maintain, their individuality evolves within and through these networks” (p. 227). This can explain the changes that occur among fashion blog readers after being exposed to fashion blogs. On the other hand, critical theories such as Elite Conflict Theory by C. Wright Mills can be used by those who are interested to critique the political economy of fashion blogs. It was posited by the theory that elites in a ‘mass society’ have the capacity to manage and manipulate public opinion; in this case, fashion bloggers, as the elites may have the power to influence opinion of fashion blog readers regarding fashion clothing. B. Methodological Issues The present study made use of quantitative and qualitative methods to understand the effects of fashion blogs on the readers. Since the target respondents of this study were people who read fashion blogs in the internet, the online survey was deemed appropriate for data gathering. Links of the online survey were circulated through the social media sites of different university groups. On the other hand, online messages were sent to possible students and fashion blog readers from target colleges and universities. Moreover, the researcher utilized connections from different universities for referrals.


107 The researcher realized that although online survey posed a significant limitation, it nevertheless gave a near assurance that those who were able to read the online survey have been perhaps exposed to blogs; thereby assuring that one criterion for respondent qualification (i.e. fashion blog reader) was met. Moreover, as the researcher scrutinized the recipients of the link or the online groups where the link was posted, those reached by the survey would most likely be undergraduate college students, again effectively screening for another important respondent qualification (i.e. female undergraduate student). Related researches which were reviewed for this study indicated that young adult women, especially those in high school and college, engage in many online activities; hence, it is more fitting for them to answer a survey online. Furthermore, the online survey has freed the researcher the difficulty of having to distribute survey forms, if done in pen and paper, to students from colleges and universities within Katipunan Quezon City and University Belt Manila. Despite its advantages, the method of online survey has its disadvantages too. Since it was done online, there was a huge tendency that some people terminated the survey as these potential respondents might find the survey lengthy and time consuming. Unlike the written survey, there was no presence of a data gatherer to assist respondents in answering the survey. Hence, this led the researcher in giving respondents a chance to win pre-loved items from fashion blogger/s to encourage more online participation. Moreover, more time should have been allotted for the dissemination of the survey link to increase the number of respondents. Aside from the online survey, focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to gain more insight from fashion blog readers. The casual friendly vibe of the FGD enabled


108 the participants to share their value for clothes, their experiences in reading fashion blogs and their opinions regarding the medium without any hesitation. Furthermore, the FGD enabled the researcher to probe further with regard to participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; motives in reading fashion blogs. Through the data from FGDs, the researcher was able to make sense of the quantitative findings. Thus, the researcher suggests the same method to be applied by future researchers. The researcher also recommends future researchers to conduct interviews with fashion bloggers to know their opinions regarding content of fashion blogs. This will aid in understanding the process fashion bloggers go through in selecting topics to discuss or content to cover in their blogs. This will allow future researchers to determine if the most read/preferred content by the followers correspond to the most attended content of the blogger and make a comparison from there. Furthermore, the researcher encourages future researchers to conduct participant observation in fashion events attended by fashion bloggers and fashion blog readers (e.g. Bloggersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; United) in order to see how these people present themselves and interact with each other. A separate observation can also be done to observe fashion bloggers practice of acquiring content (e.g. photographs, fashion information, etc.) they post in their blogs. In addition, readersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; fashion clothing involvement can be reflected on their accounts in other social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram; thus, a close observation is recommended. It would be interesting to find out how they talk about or comment on fashion clothing when using these sites. Lastly, the researcher suggests future studies to use a bigger sample size for the quantitative method to allow more indepth analysis of the findings obtained.


109 C. Practical Issues This study has added knowledge on user-created media, particularly in the context of fashion blogs. The findings of this study reaffirm the capacity of fashion blogs to influence readersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perceptions regarding fashion clothing. Fashion blog readers proved the benefits an individual can get from reading fashion blogs especially in the improvement of personal style and overall self-image. With such influence being recognized, the researcher deems it is important that fashion bloggers reassess the content of their blogs and encourage development of self-esteem among readers. In addition, the findings of this study show that today, young adult Filipino women who read fashion blogs are no longer limited to admiring photographs of bloggersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; daily outfits and travels abroad. They are constantly in search for information that would suffice their interest when it comes to fashion. Therefore, the researcher suggests fashion bloggers to acquaint their readers regarding the subject. Moreover, since fashion as a subject is significant among readers, fashion bloggers can use this as a means in helping budding local designers and clothing businesses promote their products. A creation of a fashion blog with an important goal in mind such as promoting locally made products and/or services is recommended as bloggers owe something to their country and fellow citizens. Future studies regarding fashion clothing involvement of young professionals, who already have the purchasing power, is also proposed by the researcher. On the other hand, it would be interesting to study fashion bloggers who are not in any way connected with the fashion industry such as doctors, nurses, dentists, lawyers, teachers, etc. Likewise, it would be interesting to study fashion blogs that are not that popular yet receive a loyal


110 following from some blog readers. Related future studies may also look into the potential of fashion blogs as both alternative and mainstream advertising venues. Furthermore, by using fashion blogs as an inspiration and a tool in honing oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s passion, reading fashion blogs support potential careers of readers. Hence, future researchers can examine how fashion blog reading progresses other careers such as styling and photography.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, C. (2009). ‘Style Surfing’ changing parameters of fashion communication – where have they gone?. In: 1st Global conference: Fashion exploring critical issues, 25-27 September 2009, Mansfield College, Oxford. Apostol, K.A. (2010). A Blog’s Life: A Case Study of Blogging and Blog Advertisements. Unpublished Undergraduate Dissertation, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. Arellano, K.G.U. (2012). Blogwagon: A study on the influence of fashion and beauty blogs in the brand attitude and purchase intention. Unpublished Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. Auty, S. & Elliott, R. (1998). Social identity and the meaning of fashion brands. European Advances In Consumer Research, 3 pp. 1--10. Ashmun, L. (2012). Identity and branding: Consumer behavior and the shaping of the self --- A cross-cultural analysis of east asian and american luxury consumers. (Order No. 1510688, Dartmouth College). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 145. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1018062027?accountid=47253. (1018062027). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Bailey, L. R. and Seock, Y. K., (2010), The relationship of fashion leadership, fashion magazine content and loyalty tendency, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol.14, No. 1, pp. 39-57. Banducci, S. & Stevens, D. (2014). News Media Coverage and Information in Combined Elections Report prepared for Electoral Commission. Centre for Elections, Media and Parties, University of Exeter. Banducci, S. & Xezonakis, G. (2010). Measuring Exposure to News Media Content in Cross-National Electoral Studies. pp. 18--19. Barrett, K. T. (2005). Fashion and power: The representation of gender in store window displays. (Order No. 1429608, Florida Atlantic University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 124-124 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305415664?accountid=47253. (305415664). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Black, H. L. (2012). The art of the distinguished: How fashion magazines influence the definition and understanding of modern glamour. (Order No. 1512670, Clemson University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 93. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1023801477?accountid=47253. (1023801477). [Accessed: July 2013].


Blake, S. (2007). Socially conscious consumerism: Why are we doing it? (Order No. 1446379, Southern Connecticut State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 53. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304738682?accountid=47253. (304738682). [Accessed: July 2013]. Bougoure, U. and Hourigan, S. (2012). Towards a better understanding of fashion clothing involvement.Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 20 (2), pp. 127--135. Brenner, J. & Duggan, M. (2013). The Demographics of Social Media Users â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2012. Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved January 2014, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/02/14/the-demographics-of-socialmedia-users-2012/ Cai, X. L. (2005). Fashion culture and college students' dressing---study on modern college students' dressing under the context of fashion. (Order No. H415037, Donghua University (People's Republic of China)). PQDT - Asia, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1026939210?accountid=47253. (1026939210). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Caputo, R. (2008). Reader response to product placement in women's magazines. (Order No. 1453943, University of Denver). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 393. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304656110?accountid=47253. (304656110). [Accessed: July 2013]. Chittenden, T. (2010). Digital dressing up: modelling female teen identity in the discursive spaces of the fashion blogosphere. Journal Of Youth Studies, 13 (4), pp. 505-520. Caragay, K. T. (2006). Youth Culture Fashion in UP Diliman: A Study on the Clothing of Selected Student Organizations. Chang, H. J. (2012). An investigation of self-concept, clothing selection, and life satisfaction among disabled consumers. (Order No. 3525745, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 205. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1080791683?accountid=47253. (1080791683). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Chinwe, O. (2009). Clothing Problems of Upper Middle Socio-Economic Group (Females) in Nigeria.African Research Review, 3 (4). Chittenden, T. (2010). Digital dressing up: modelling female teen identity in the discursive spaces of the fashion blogosphere. Journal Of Youth Studies, 13:4 pp. 505-520. doi:10.1080/13676260903520902 [Accessed: January 2014].


Cho, Y. (2009). New media uses and dependency effect model: Exploring the relationship between the new media use habit, dependency relation, and possible outcomes. Ph D. Graduate School-New Brunswick Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Cole, A. R. (2010). A content analysis of two contemporary magazines for adolescent girls. (Order No. 1485479, University of Central Missouri). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 73. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/744300451?accountid=47253. (744300451). [Accessed: July 2013]. Collins, L. F. (2012). Fashion in bad faith: Framing the clothed self in an existential phenomenological lens. (Order No. 3493901, Temple University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 167. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/920877239?accountid=47253. (920877239). [Accessed: Sept 2013]. Comer, E. (2010). Lifestyle, identity and social impacts of branding a group. (Order No. 1502954, Gonzaga University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 45. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/913106035?accountid=47253. (913106035). [Accessed: July 2013]. Conflict Theory: Three Models. (n.d.). [e-book] http://www2.hawaii.edu/~manicas/pdf_files/New_Courses/ConflictTheory.pdf [Accessed: Feb 2014]. Corcoran, C. (2006). The Blogs that Took Over the Tents. [online] Monday, February. Retrieved from: http://images.glam.com/112/5357928-3225643e817df00f30.pdf [Accessed: Feb 2014]. Craig, C. (2007). Goods and goodness: The expression of socially-conscious consumerism in the postwar "new yorker". (Order No. 3274595, Tufts University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 190. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304789896?accountid=47253. (304789896). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Croll, J. (2005). Body image and adolescents. Chest (in), 40 (35), p. 50. Daglas, C. (2009). Point of view: Examining the magazine industry standard. (Order No. 1481448, University of Missouri - Columbia). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 200. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304942520?accountid=47253. (prod.academic_MSTAR_304942520). [Accessed: July 2013]. Dean, S. P. (2004). Curious fashion and careful generosity: Concepts connected to clothing in the works of hans sachs and other sixteenth-century writers. (Order No. 3150263, The University of Utah). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 303-303 p.


Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305135271?accountid=47253. (305135271). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. De Young, J. R. (2009). Women in black: Fashion, modernity and modernism in paris, 1860--1890. (Order No. 3355748, Northwestern University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 450. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304963028?accountid=47253. (304963028). [Accessed: July 2013]. Dela Cruz, N. M. (2006). A Study on the Clothing Shopping Practices of Selected Japanese Women in Metro Manila. Dibb, S. and Michaelidou, N. (2008). Consumer involvement: a new perspective. Marketing Review, 8(1), pp. 83â&#x20AC;&#x201C;99. Dominguez, M. (2011). Blogging is the new black: An analysis of user created content related to fashion and its impact in the fashion media industry. MA. Erasmus University of Rotterdam. Drake, E. H. (2002). A Survey of Young Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Fashion Attitudes: Fashion Interest, Store Patronage, Satisfaction with Fit and Reference Groups. A.B., The University of Georgia. Ducate, L. C. & Lomicka, L. L. (2008). Adventures in the blogosphere: from blog readers to blog writers. Department of Languages, Literatures, & Cultures, University of South Carolina, USA. Duval, E. and Ochoa, X. (2008). Quantitative analysis of user-generated content on the web. pp. 1--8. Engdahl, M. M. (2012). Effects of fashion ads on young adults' physical self-assessments. (Order No. 1503890, Marquette University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 72. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/917651155?accountid=47253. (917651155). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Entwistle, J. (2010). Global flows, local encounters: Spatializing tacit aesthetic knowledge in high fashion. SPACES online, Vol. 8, Issue 2010-02. Toronto and Heidelberg: www.spaces-online.com. Francisco, K. (2011). TV Wannabe, Pinoy Wannabe: A case study on traces of media convergence, participatory culture and new media usage as seen from Pinoywannabe production experience. Unpublished Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. Gao, L. (2009). Understanding consumer purchasing behaviour regarding luxury fashion-


related goods in China. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Givan, A. M. (2011). A two-essay examination of the retail world of adolescent girls. (Order No. 3478580, The University of Alabama). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 152. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/903793151?accountid=47253. (903793151). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Goldberg, O. (2005). Adolescence: A time of change for children, parents. Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/351417967?accountid=47253. [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Goldsmith, R. and Hofacker, C. (1991). Measuring consumer innovativeness. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19 (3), pp. 209--221. Guo & Sun, S. (2013). Media Use, Social Comparison, Cognitive Dissonance, and Peer Pressure as Antecedents of Fashion Involvement. Hong Kong Baptist University. Hagemann & Vossen, S. (2013). Categorizing user-generated content (extended abstract). University of Munster, Germany. Haytko, D., Noble, S. and Phillips, J. (2009). What drives college-age Generation Y consumers?. Journal of Business Research, 62 (6), pp. 617--628. Holmberg, J. & Ohnfeldt, R. (2010). The female fashion consumer behaviour-From the perspective of the shop Fever in Gothenburg. Inglessis, M. G. (2008). Communicating through clothing: The meaning of clothing among hispanic women of different levels of acculturation. (Order No. 3340721, The Florida State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 265. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230662277?accountid=47253. (230662277). InsideCounsel Survey 2013. (2013). 2013 In-House Counsel New Media Engagement Survey. [online] Available at: http://insidecounselsurvey.com/2013-survey/ [Accessed: Oct 2013]. Ivleva, V. V. (2009). Fashion and sartorial discourse in eighteenth-century russian literature and culture. (Order No. 3368030, The University of Wisconsin Madison). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 418. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305032213?accountid=47253. (305032213). Jain, R., Singh, R. & Rankawat, K. (2011). General values and clothing behavior of college-going students. Studies Of Home And Community Science, 5 (1), pp. 13--20. Jones, S. (2002). The Internet Goes to College: How students are living in the future with


todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s technology. [e-book] NW: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Available through: www.pewinternet.org http://www.pewinternet.org/files/oldmedia/Files/Reports/2002/PIP_College_Report.pdf.pdf [Accessed: Jan 2014]. Khaled, H. (2012). The politics of fashion in american consumer culture. (Order No. 3542820, University of Pennsylvania). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 241. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1153608856?accountid=47253. (1153608856). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Knopf, J. S. (2011). Images of change: Magazine cover art of the tumultuous late progressive era. (Order No. 3459331, Drew University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 435. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/875994933?accountid=47253. (prod.academic_MSTAR_875994933). [Accessed: July 2013]. Lanuza, F.V T. (2003). Attitude of Young consumers Towards Apparel Brand Logos. Lee, T. S. & Ra (2003). A study of consumer's self and purchasing behaviour in fashion brand image marketing. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Li, N. (2011). Chinese urban women's consumerism in the globalization era. (Order No. 1506091, Dartmouth College). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 166. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/921658112?accountid=47253. (921658112). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Li, S. (2008). Fashionable people, fashionable society: Fashion, gender, and print culture in England 1821--1861. (Order No. 3305024, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 280. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304572478?accountid=47253. (304572478). Lico, R. C. (1998). Acceptance of Internet Garment Retailing by Some Internet Users and Local Garment Retailers in Metro Manila. Lin, Y. (2009). Comparative analysis of advertising value appeals reflected in U.S. and chinese women's fashion print advertisements. (Order No. 1466730, East Tennessee State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 59-n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304874025?accountid=47253. (304874025). Littlejohn, S. W. (1983). Theories of human communication. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co. Liu, Z. (2010). Fashion magazines in the lives of shanghai's female college students: Psychological and sociological motives for uses and gratifications. (Order No. 1476382, Iowa State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 134. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/366453971?accountid=47253. (366453971). [Accessed: July 2013].


Lynn, H. G. (2004). Fashioning modernity: Changing meanings of clothing in colonial korea. Journal of International and Area Studies, 11(3), 75-93. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/223822321?accountid=47253 Macasinag, G. M. & Novela, J. G. (2012). Blogging to fame: Reflection of blog celebrities' identities on their personal blogs. Unpublished Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. Massoni, K. (2007). Bringing up "baby": The birth and early development of "seventeen" magazine. (Order No. 3291425, University of Kansas). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 350. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304857634?accountid=47253. (prod.academic_MSTAR_304857634). [Accessed: July 2013]. McFatter, R. (2005). Fashion Involvement of Affluent Female Consumers. MA. McNeese State University. McLeod, J. L. (2002). The closet door: The gateway to the self? fashion, identity, and self-expression. (Order No. MQ68392, Concordia University (Canada)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 146-146 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305521334?accountid=47253. (305521334). Mediamark Research Inc.. (2004). Teen Market Profile. [report] New York, NY: Magazine Publishers of America. Metcalfe, J. R. (2010). Native designers of high fashion: Expressing identity, creativity, and tradition in contemporary customary clothing design. (Order No. 3407963, The University of Arizona). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 409. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/577639724?accountid=47253. (577639724). [Accessed: Sept 2013]. Mills, C. (2014). The Power Elite by C. Wright Mills 1956. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.marxists.org/subject/humanism/mills-c-wright/power-elite.htm [Accessed: Feb 2014]. Muzinich, N., Pecotich, A. and Putrevu, S. (2003). A model of the antecedents and consequents of female fashion innovativeness. Journal of retailing and consumer services, 10 (5), pp. 297--310. Ng, Y. M. J. (2004). Hong kong fashion in a social and cultural context. (Order No. 3151498, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 607-607 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305041558?accountid=47253. (305041558).


Nielsen. (2011). Southeast Asian Digital Consumer Habits. [online] Available at: http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/reports/2011/south-east-asian-digital-consumerhabits.html [Accessed: Oct 2013]. Nielsen. (2011). The Digital Media Habits and Attitudes of Southeast Asian Consumers. New York, USA. Retrieved from http://www.grahamhills.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/11/71370794-The-digital-media-and-habits-attitudes-of-SouthEast-Asian-Consumers.pdf [Accessed: Oct 2013]. O'cass, A. and Siahtiri, V. (2013). In search of status through brands from Western Asian origins: Examining the changing face of fashion clothing consumption on Chinese young adults. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20 pp. 505-515. Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Cass, A. (2001). Consumer self-monitoring, materialism and involvement in fashion clothing. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 9 (1), pp. 46--60. O'cass, A. and Julian, C. (2001). Fashion clothing consumption: studying the effects of materialistic values, self-image/product-image congruency relationships, gender and age on fashion clothing involvement. Massey University Press. Occenola, P.G.C. (2012). Fashion and Social Media Marketing: A descriptive study of fashion advertising in the age of Web 2.0. Piamphongsant, T. (2006). A cross-cultural study of fashion clothing behaviors: Specific situations and in-group differences among career women in cosmopolitan city contexts. (Order No. 3277176, Thammasat University (Thailand)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 502-n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304914326?accountid=47253. (304914326). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Philstar.com. (2013). | philstar.com. [online] Available at: http://www.philstar.com/business/2013/08/08/1063601/retailers-see-sustained-growt [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013]. Piper Jaffray, I. (2013). News Release Content. [online] Available at: http://www.piperjaffray.com/2col.aspx?id=287&releaseid=1863548 [Accessed: Oct 2013]. Poon, J. (2008). Assimilation as an impact of globalization: A comparative study of women's magazines in Singapore and the united states. (Order No. 1456909, State University of New York at Buffalo). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 82-n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/250188442?accountid=47253. (250188442). [Accessed: July 2013]. Rathnayake, C. V. (2011). An empirical investigation of fashion consciousness of young fashion consumers in Sri Lanka. Young Consumers: Insight And Ideas For


Responsible Marketers, 12 (2), pp. 121--132. Reodica, R.K.L. (2010). A Descriptive Study in the influence of fashion bloggers on clothing selection of their fashion blog readers. Robinson, T. R. (2003). Clothing behavior, body cathexis, and appearance management of women enrolled in a commercial weight loss program. (Order No. 3142020, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 244-244 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305301275?accountid=47253. (305301275). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Rowe-Cernevicius, B. (2011). As seen on TV: Brand placement and its influence on the identity of emerging adults. (Order No. 3493156, Bowling Green State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 182. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/919041496?accountid=47253. (919041496). [Accessed: Sept 2013]. Santos, M.L.M. (1997). Fashion Advertsing: A Factor Related to the Clothing Buying Preferences of Selected Female Teenagers in Metro Manila. Sarmiento, M.A.A. (2009). A Semiotic Reading of Fashion Advertisements in the Lifestlye format. Sifry, D. (2007). Sifry's Alerts: The State of the Live Web, April 2007. Sifry.com. Retrieved November 2013, from http://www.sifry.com/alerts/archives/000493.html Smith, C. J. (2005). "Cosmopolitan" culture and consumerism in contemporary women's popular fiction. (Order No. 3169534, University of Delaware). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 252-252 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304992510?accountid=47253. (304992510). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Sobel, J. (2010). State of the Blogosphere 2010. Technorati.com. Retrieved November 2013, from http://technorati.com/social-media/article/state-of-the-blogosphere2010-introduction/ Sowell, J. R. (2012). Food to fashion: A comparative study of two women's magazines representing women's identities. (Order No. 1521432, Stephen F. Austin State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1220967050?accountid=47253. (1220967050). [Accessed: July 2013]. Strassel, A. E. (2008). Redressing women: Feminism in fashion and the creation of American style, 1930--1960. (Order No. 3317280, Yale University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 289. Retrieved from


http://search.proquest.com/docview/304395726?accountid=47253. (304395726). [Accessed: July 2013]. Teodosio, I. (2010). Spotlight: Teen Magazine's Cover Celebrities and their Effects on the Lifestyle of High School Students Quezon City: College of Mass Communication, University of the Philippines, Diliman. Toscano, K. (2011). The effect of media on body image as mediated by gender. (Order No. 1495138, Kean University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/876610019?accountid=47253. (876610019). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. UNICEF. (2013). UNICEF - UNICEF Publications - Annual Report 2006. [online] Available at: http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_39860.html [Accessed: Oct 2013]. Universal McCann. (2012). Social Media Tracker, Wave 6. [online] Available at: http://www.universalmccann.de/wave6/downloads/wave6_insights_international.pdf [Accessed: Oct 2013]. Universal McCann. (2009). Social Media Tracker, Wave 4. [online] Available at: http://universalmccann.bitecp.com/wave4/ [Accessed: Oct 2013]. Universal Mccann. (2008). Social Media Tracker, Wave 3. [online] Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/3836535/Universal-Mccann-on-Social-Media [Accessed: Oct 2013]. Utwente.nl. (2014). Uses and Gratifications Approach. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Communication %20and%20Information%20Technology/Uses_and_Gratifications_Approach-1/ [Accessed: Feb 2014]. Utwente.nl. (2014). Dependency Theory. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Mass%20Media/ Dependency%20Theory/ [Accessed: Feb 2014]. Utwente.nl. (2014). Medium Theory. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Media,%20Cultur e%20and%20Society/Medium_theory-1/ [Accessed: Feb 2014]. Vahlberg, V. (2010). Fitting into their lives: A survey of three studies about youth media usage. Newspaper Association of America Foundation. Varnado-Sullivan, P., Horton, R. & Savoy, S. (2006). Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms. Eating And Weight Disorders-Studies On Anorexia, Bulimia And Obesity, 11 (3), pp. 118--125.


Vieira, V. A. (2010). Determinants of the purchase or non-purchase of fashion apparel: an exploratory study. Revista De AdministraCc~Ao, 45 (2). Walsh, L. A. (2010). Get real, girl: You'll never be perfect: An analysis and comparison of feminine identity construction in popular teen magazines and the novels of Laurie halse Anderson. (Order No. 3425777, Arizona State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 191. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/757909481?accountid=47253. (prod.academic_MSTAR_757909481). [Accessed: July 2013]. Wellman, Barry. (2001). "The Rise of Networked Individualism." in Community Networks Online, edited by Leigh Keeble. London: Taylor & Francis. Wilson, L. A. (2011). 'De novo modo': The birth of fashion in the middle ages. (Order No. 3474156, Fordham University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 318. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/896956708?accountid=47253. (896956708). [Accessed: Aug 2013]. Zajac, J. M. & Rakocy, K. (n.d.). Blogs and Blogosphere from the Perspective of Social Networks. [e-book] http://sm.id.uw.edu.pl/Numery/2007_3_30/zajac.pdf [Accessed: Feb 2014]. Zuckerman, N. F. (2003). The correlation between reading women's magazines and adolescent girls' body image. (Order No. 3091308, Columbia University Teachers College). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 98-98 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305339401?accountid=47253. (305339401). [Accessed: July 2013].


APPENDIX I Categories of Fashion Blog Content

FASHION BLOG CONTENT Category 1. General Fashion Trends/Products (2)  The fashion blog provides fashion forecasts of colors and trends for upcoming seasons.  The fashion blog contains an analysis of current fashion trends.  The fashion blog provides websites on where to purchase the clothing styles featured in the fashion blog.  The fashion blog posts about designers and their latest clothing lines and gives designer product information.  The fashion blog features a range of retail venues that sell current fashion trends. Category 2. Non-Clothing Information (2)  The fashion blog features “how to” articles or advices on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories, and apparel.  The fashion blog provides information on health and exercise topics. Category 3. Layout and Pictures (2)  The fashion blog has well-organized pages and texts are easy to read.  The fashion blog has high-quality photographs and videos.  The fashion blog has good headlines and an attractive layout. Category 4. Advertising (2)  The fashion blog provides advertisements for apparel, cosmetics, accessories, etc.  The fashion blog provides contests and giveaways. Category 5. Street Style and Travel Photos (2)  The fashion blog features photographs of street fashions and urban wear.  The fashion blog features photographs of styles and clothes through travel/s from other countries. Category 6. Fashion News/Events (1)  The fashion blog features fashion weeks, gatherings, and special events inside the fashion industry. Category 7. Blogger’s Personal Life (1)  The fashion blog features a description of blogger’s feelings and thoughts.  The fashion blog features blogger’s activities with family, friends, etc. Category 8. Blogger’s Hobbies/Interest (1)  The fashion blog tells about the blogger’s interest. Category 9. Blogger’s Daily Outfits (1)  The fashion blog features blogger’s wardrobe or outfit of the day (OOTD). Category 10. Blogger’s Comments/Suggestions (1)  The fashion blogger posts comments and/or suggestions regarding certain clothes and fashion trends.


APPENDIX II Matrix of Objectives

Objectives 1. To determine the level of exposure of young adult women to fashion blogs

4. To measure the degree of FCI of young adult women based on five components: a. Fashion Innovativeness (F Innov) b. Fashion Interpersonal Communication (F IC) c. Fashion Interest (FI) d. Fashion Knowledge (FK) e. Fashion Awareness (FA)

Variables Exposure Frequency (EF)

Measures - No. of times spent reading fashion blogs; duration of fashion blog use/ exposure

Method Survey

Theory Media System Dependency Theory

Fashion Clothing Involvement (FCI)

Components/dimensions

Survey

Media System Dependency Theory

a. F Innov Item 1. If I heard that a new clothing trend is available in store, I would be interested enough to buy it. Item 2. In general, I am the first in my circle of friends to know the latest clothing trends. Item 3. In general, I am among the first in my circle of friends to buy a new clothing trend that just appeared in advertisements. Item 4. Compared to my friends, I own a lot of new clothes.


b. F IC Item 5. I always talk to my friends regarding my recent clothing purchases. Item 6. Whenever I read/watched news about the latest clothing trends, I always make it a point to share it to a friend. Item 7. I never fail to discuss things related to fashion and clothing. Item 8. I usually comment on my friend/s outfits whenever they post their outfits on social networking sites. c. FI Item 9. Fashion is my interest. Item 10. I am very much interested in fashion and clothing. Item 11. I am interested in reading news/information about fashion and clothing. Item 12. I pay a lot of


attention to style and clothes. d. FK Item 13. I am likely to be asked for advice by my friends whenever they will buy new clothes. Item 14. More often than not, I know right away the brand of clothing the moment I see it. Item 15. I am knowledgeable about fashion. I know certain kinds of clothes although Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not brand conscious. Item 16. I know a lot about the recent clothing trends. e. FA Item 17. I am updated with the latest trends in fashion/clothing. Item 18. I read fashion blog/s regularly to keep my wardrobe up to date with the latest clothing trends. Item 19. I read fashion blog/s regularly to get an inspiration with my style. Item 20. I am familiar with


clothing trends and/or clothing brands. Correlation

Media System Dependency Theory

Method FGD Survey

Theory Media System Dependency Theory

5. To find out if there is a significant relationship between the level of exposure to fashion blogs and the degree of FCI of young adult women

Objectives

Concepts / Variables Content Categories

2. To describe the content of fashion blogs read by young adult women

a. General Fashion Trends/Products b. Non-clothing Information c. Layout & Pictures d. Advertising e. Street Style & Travel Photos f. Fashion News/Events g. Blogger’s Personal Life h. Blogger’s hobbies/interests i. Blogger’s Daily Outfits j. Blogger’s Comments/ Suggestions

Indicators / Measures a. General fashion trends/products  Information on latest trends in fashion  List of clothing product and clothing store information b. Non-clothing information  How-to articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories, and apparel  Information on health and wellness c. Layout & pictures  Attractive layout, well-organized pages, and texts that are easy to read


 d.

e.

f.

g.

h. i. j.

High-quality photographs/videos Advertising  Advertisements on apparel, cosmetics, accessories, etc.  Blog contests and giveaways Street style & travel photos  Photographs of street style and urban wear  Photographs of style/s and clothes from travels abroad Fashion news/events  Updates on fashion week, gatherings, and special events in the fashion industry Blogger’s personal life  Blogger’s personal activities and everyday musings Blogger’s hobbies/interests Blogger’s daily outfits Blogger’s comments/suggestions  Blogger’s comments and/or suggestions on clothing and fashion trends


Objectives

Concepts Motivations for reading

1. For Inspiration 2. For Knowledge Improvement 3. For Self-expression 4. For Entertainment and Leisure 3. To identify motives of young adult women in reading fashion blogs

Indicators 1. For inspiration - To avoid being overdressed - To get a sense of what to aspire for 2. For knowledge improvement - To acquire knowledge or opinion from fashion bloggers - To get information re clothing products - To excel in a particular field 3. For self-expression 4. For entertainment and leisure

Method FGD

Theory Uses and Gratifications Theory


APPENDIX III Focus Group Discussion Guide

FGD # ________ Date: ______________ School: _________________________________ Name of Discussants: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Venue: ___________________________________________________________________ Mood: ___________________________________________________________________ Starting Time: _______________ Time Ended: _______________ REMARKS: ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________

LIST OF SCHOOLS FOR THE FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION:

Schools that are NOT wearing School Uniform 1. University of the Philippines Diliman 2. Ateneo De Manila University 3. De La Salle University (Main Campus) De La Salle University â&#x20AC;&#x201C; College of St. Benilde Schools that ARE wearing School Uniform 4. Far Eastern University 5. Centro Escolar University 6. University of Sto. Tomas 7. Miriam College 8. University of the East 9. Trinity University of Asia

Introduction Researchers/ Facilitators will introduce themselves. State what the thesis is all about. Good day! First of all, thank you for coming today. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re very glad you are here with us. We are (insert name/s). We are Communication Research majors from the University of the Philippines Diliman and we are currently conducting a study about Fashion Blogs and its readers for our undergraduate thesis. Rest assured, all the data you will entrust to us will be confidential and that everything will strictly be used for academic purposes only.


Participants will introduce themselves. They must state their name, age, year level, and whatnots. Getting to Know the Participants: Each participant will be asked. (Optional) a.

What is your sense of style? -Boho -Feminine -Chic -Couture -Elegant -Bold -Sporty -Glam -Sophisticated -School Girl (Prep Style)

-Nautical -Goth -Earthy -Polished -Urban -Classic -Statement -Festival -Vintage -Other (Please specify: ____________)

b. Who is your fashion inspiration? c. How important is being (i., ii.) for you? i. Fashionable ii. Looking good d. How much is your budget for clothes? e. How frequent do you buy clothes? f. Where do you usually buy clothes? FGD Proper Directions: 1. Participants can immediately answer right after the question has been asked. Raise your hands for you to be called. 2. Respect must be observed at all times. 3. There is no limit for every answer. Every discussant could speak for as long as they want. *Stress that there is no wrong or right answer. Warm Up Question/s: Ask any of the following for icebreaker. a. b. c. d. e.

What is your impression when you see a fashion blog? What do you think of the blogger upon seeing her all dolled up? Who among you here have a fashion blog? For those who don’t have, do you plan to have one? Have you tried posting your own (#OOTD)? How did you feel? 

Part I. READING HABITS 1.

How often do you read fashion blog/s? 1a. How many times in a month? 1b. How many hours in a week?

2. What fashion blog/s do you read? Ask them the name of blogger/s and title of the blog/s. 2a. From the blogs /bloggers you’ve mentioned, which of them do you often read or follow the most? Why? 3. What content/information do you look forward reading/seeing? a) General fashion trends/products  Do you anticipate analysis of current fashion trends?  Do you eye websites that feature where to purchase the clothing products in the fashion blog?  Do you look forward to the posts about designers and their latest clothing lines?


Do you read product information?

b) Non-clothing information (i.e. tutorials, info on health and wellness)  Do you look forward seeing “how to” articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories, and apparel?  Do you look forward seeing information on health and exercise topics? c)

Layout/pictures (i.e. blog design, photographs and videos)  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with well-organized pages and texts that are easy to read?  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with good headlines and an attractive layout o Can you name a blog that you think possesses a wellorganized layout?  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with high-quality photographs and videos? o Can you name a blog that often presents high-quality photographs and videos?

d) Advertising (i.e. advertisements/promos)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which provides advertisements on apparel, cosmetics, and accessories?  Do you participate in fashion blog contests and giveaways? e)

Street style and travel photos  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that has photographs of street style and urban wear?  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that has travel photos?

f)

Fashion news/events  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that features fashion weeks, gatherings, and special events inside the fashion industry?

g) Blogger’s personal life  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features a description of blogger’s feelings and thoughts?  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features blogger’s activities with family, friends, and colleagues? h) Blogger’s hobbies/interests (tells about what the blogger likes or enjoys doing)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which tells about the interest/s of the blogger? i)

Blogger’s daily outfits (blogger ‘s post regarding what he/she wears for the day)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features posts of the blogger regarding what she wears for the day? #OOTD

j)

Blogger’s comments/suggestions (blogger’s comments and/or suggestions regarding certain clothes and fashion trends)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blogger’s comments and/or suggestions regarding certain clothes and fashion trends?

3a. From the contents/information you’ve mentioned, which do you find most useful? 3b. How does it benefit you?  Do you actually consult a blog for your outfit of the day?


Part II. Motives for Reading Fashion Blogs 1. Why do you read fashion blogs? 1a. Aside from the content, what motivates you to continually read/visit fashion blogs? Probe. Part III. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. How would you describe the effect of reading fashion blogs on you? Can you cite any of your experiences? 1a. In terms of your personal style? 1b. In terms of your preference in clothes? 1c. In terms of your knowledge in fashion? 1d. In terms of your fashion consciousness? Explain what “fashion consciousness” is. 1e. Others? Probe. 2. As a student from a school which doesn’t require uniform, do you feel updated with the trending clothes of today? / As a student from a school which requires uniform, do you feel outdated with the trending clothes of today? 3. Does being enrolled in a school that does not require a school uniform intensify your interest to look into fashion blogs or not? / Does being enrolled in a school that requires a school uniform intensify your interest to look into fashion blogs or not?

Thank you and Have a Nice Day! ☺

------ END -----


APPENDIX IV Questionnaire

Fashion Blogs and Fashion Blog Readers A Study on the Influence of Fashion Blogs on the Fashion Clothing Involvement of Young Adult Fillipino Women

Good day! I am a Communication Research student from the University of the Philippines Diliman. I am currently conducting a study about fashion blogs and fashion blog readers for our undergraduate thesis. My study aims to find out the influence of fashion blogs on the fashion involvement (e.g. fashion interest, fashion knowledge/awareness, etc.) of the readers - in this case the female undergraduate students, who comprise the young adult Filipino women segment of Metro Manila. In line with this, I would like to ask few minutes of your time to answer our survey. Rest assured that all the information you will provide will remain confidential and will only be used for the purposes of this study. I. Personal Information Name (Optional): _________________________________________ Age: ____ University/College: ____________________________________________ Year: ______ Course: __________________________________ Average Monthly Family Income: ___ 10, 000 PHP and below ___ 10, 001 – 50, 000 PHP ___ 50, 001 – 100, 000 PHP ___ 100, 001 – 150, 000 PHP ___ 150, 001 – P200, 000 PHP ___ 200, 001 and above Average Monthly Allowance: ___ Less than 5, 000 PHP ___ 5, 000 – 10, 000 PHP ___ 10, 001 – 15, 000 PHP ___ 15, 001 – 20, 000 PHP ___ 20, 001 – 25, 000 PHP ___ More than 25, 000 PHP Do you have a fashion blog? If yes, can you share to us the URL or the name of your fashion blog? (Optional) _____________________________________________


Locally, what fashion blogs have you visited/read? Please check all that apply. BREAK MY STYLE by Laureen Uy CAMILLE TRIES TO BLOG by Camille Co DEATH BY PLATFORMS by Kookie Buhain DROWNING EQUILIBRIUMS by Aisa Ipac FASHION ATE WORLD by Tin Iglesias JENNI EPPERSON KONICHIWEAR by Dominique Tiu LACEY FASHIONISTA by Maria Hazel MISS JONES by Kim Jones NICOLE ANDERSSON ONLY THE MARVELOUS by Joanna Ladrido PARADIGMA by Patricia Prieto SCENE STEALER by Lissa Kahayon STYLE AND SOUL by Melai Entuna STYLE IS ETERNAL by Dani Baretto THE CAPRICIOUS CLUB by Bestie Konisis THE SECOND by Lexi Gancayco THIRSTY THOUGHT by Kryz Uy TRICIA WILL GO PLACES by Tricia Gosingtian V V by Vern and Verniece Enciso Others (_____________________________________) Are there foreign fashion blogs you have read/ visited? If yes, please indicate on the space provided. (Optional) __________________________________________________


II. Exposure to Fashion Blogs Kindly check the box that best corresponds to your answer. 1. How often do you visit/read fashion blogs?  Everyday  Some days in a week  Once a week  Some days in a month  Once a month 2. How often do you look for /read the following content? 1 – Always, 2 –Often, 3 – Sometimes, 4 – Seldom, 5 – Never 1 1. Information on the latest trends in fashion 2. List of clothing product information and clothing store information 3. How-to articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories, and apparel 4. Information on health and wellness 5. Attractive layout, well-organized pages, and texts that are easy to read 6. High-quality photographs/videos 7. Advertisements on apparel, cosmetics, and accessories 8. Blog contests and giveaways 9. Photographs of street style and urban wear 10. Photographs during trips abroad 11. Updates on fashion week, gatherings, and special events in the fashion industry 12. Blogger’s personal activities and everyday musings 13. Blogger’s hobbies/interests 14. Blogger’s wardrobe and daily outfits 15. Blogger’s comments and/or suggestions on clothing and fashion trends

2

3

4

5


III. Fashion Clothing Involvement Please check the blank that corresponds to your answer. The following are statements that allow you to describe yourself. As you read each statement, think how often it applies to you. 1 –All the time, 2 – Most of the time, 3 – Neutral, 4 – Sometimes, 5 – Not at all 1

2

Fashion clothing is my interest. I am interested in reading news/information about fashion clothing. If I found out a new clothing trend is available in store, I would be interested enough to buy it. In general, I am the first in my circle of friends to know the latest clothing trends. Whenever I read/watched news about the latest clothing trends, I always make it a point to share it to a friend. I never fail to discuss things related to fashion clothing. I usually comment on my friend/s outfits whenever they post their outfits on social networking sites. In general, I am among the first in my circle of friends to buy a new clothing trend that just appeared in advertisements. I always talk to my friends regarding my recent clothing purchases. Compared to my friends, I own a lot of new clothes. I am very much interested in fashion clothing. I am updated with the latest trends in fashion/clothing. I am likely to be asked for advice by my friends whenever they will buy new clothes. I pay a lot of attention to style and clothes. I read fashion blog/s regularly to get an inspiration with my style. I am familiar with clothing trends and/or clothing brands. I am knowledgeable about fashion. I know certain kinds of clothes although I’m not brand conscious. More often than not, I know right away the clothing brand the moment I see it. I read fashion blog/s regularly to keep my wardrobe up to date. I know a lot about the recent clothing trends.

Thank you for participating! ❤ ❥ ♡ ♥ ღ ɞ

------ END ------

3

4

5


APPENDIX V FGD Transcriptions FGD # 1 School: Ateneo De Manila University Participants: A. Kathrina, 18 B. Deanna, 20 C. Sammy, 20 D. Hannah, 19 Venue: Coffee Break Vigan (December 2013), Moshi and Moshi Katipunan (February 2014) Introduction Getting to Know the Participants g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

What is your sense of style? -Boho -Goth -Feminine -Earthy -Chic -Polished -Couture -Urban -Elegant -Classic -Bold -Statement -Sporty -Festival -Glam -Vintage -Sophisticated -Other (Please specify: -School Girl (Prep Style) ____________) -Nautical A: Hmmmm... Casual lang... shorts and shirt.. ganun lang B: I like shorts din and a sheer top kasi ang init sa class C: What do you call that style? Casual style? D: Ako lose shirt and super shorty shorts... A: Oh welcome to shorts clubs (laughs) B: We are stereotyped as the ‘shorts’ school LOL C:I think UP mas shorty shorts D: (Laughs) Pajama kaya sila doon (laughs) Who is your fashion inspiration? A: I like how casual Anne Curtis could be... and how elegant she could become.. B: I like Nina Dobrev talaga.. C: Wala masyado.. I guess I like that of Kathryn Bernardo’s sa Got to Believe D: Ako wala... How important is (i., ii.) for you? iii. Looking good iv. Fashionable A: Mga 5 lang because minor lang yun.. if she can’t pull of the outifit it becomes pointless..., looking good, I am giving it 8 because it is the most important thing B: Ako 7... kasi there is confidence... pero looking 8 because it is extra extra confidence C: In fact pag looking good din a kailangan ng confidence diba, kaya looking 10.. fashionable mga 2 lang yan for me D: Looking good is 10. Short and sweet lang. I don’t care as much kung fashionable... kasi kung chararat.. wala na. (Everyone laughs) How much is your budget for clothes? A: Mga 10 K.. B: 5 to 6, 000 kasi ang dami kong expenses sa food.. C: Di ako gaanong bumibili.. pag lang dinadalaw ni mama siya na din buminili (laughs) D: Same with Sammy and Shane, as a dormer.. ang hirap mag alot ng sobrang laking budget for clothes.. pero pag ako mga 3,000 to 4,000 How frequent do you buy clothes? A: Once or twice every two weeks...


l.

B: Huh? Ang labo? C: Parang once a week din yun Kat? A: Bakit ba mas marunong pa kayo sakin? Okay fine... once a week (laughs) B: Ako mga twice a month lang.. very rare.. C: Once a month.. kasi once a month dumadalaw si mama (laughs) D: Once or twice a month.. Where do you usually buy clothes? A: Green Hills, Malls... B: Loyal ako sa Divi and Green Hills... F21 at Cotton On C: Same.. The Ramp... Bayo.. D: Uniqlo okay din...

FGD Proper Warm Up Question/s: f. What is your impression when you see a fashion blog? A: It is the place where fabulous people belong... B: Another reason why I question my existence.. LOL C: Wow... D: Yeah.. just wow.. oh she is so pretty.. oh the clothes are trendy.. oh her body... g. What do you think of the blogger upon seeing her all dolled up? A: There she goes again.. the pretty girl I will never be (laughs) B: Bakit ang lakas ng hugot natin? (Laughs) eh maganda siya.. siya na! C: Pretty... D: Pretty... pretty din.. h. Who among you here have a fashion blog? A: Wala... photography blog dahil sa bookings ko (laughs) B, C, D,: None... i. Have you tried posting your own (#OOTD)? How did you feel?  A: Ata? Okay lang.. nagmamaganda.. B: Nope I haven’t.. C: When people appreciate it, I find it okay... I feel good to be honest.. D: Agrees to C Part I. Reading habits/Preferences 4. How often do you read fashion blog/s? 1a. How many times in a month/? A: Twice a month siguro... B: Three? Or more.. C: Twice din.. busy kasi.. D: Pag nataon lang... wala na kasi akong free time.. 1b. How many hours in a week/ day? A: 1-2? There’s not much to scan siguro kasi short posts lang naman... B: 30-40 minutes lang or less.. C: 1 hour at most.. D: 15-30 minutes lang... 5. What fashion blog/s do you often read? A: Laureen, Tricia, Camille.. B: Pareho tayo... na Kim Jones ate! (refers to me the discussant) C:Patricia, Laureen, Camille, Tricia, D:Same with Kat.. 6. What content/information do you look forward reading/seeing? General fashion trends/products  Do you anticipate analysis of current fashion trends? o Are you aware of any latest fashion trends? A: Shorty shorts? (Laughs) Yung high waist.. B: Yes the combine that medyo crop top.. C: Or floral and plain color.. D: Neon kasi si laureen mostly proponent nun.. o Do you look forward to features of stores that sell current fashion trends


A: Funny thing is, lahat na ata ng uso nasa Divisoria na (laughs). I mean pag nagdidivi nga lang ako ko nalalaman na uso pala Aztecs and the like.. B: True True.. or sa GH for that matter.. C: Pag nagwiwindow shopping nakikita naman na.. Do you eye websites that feature whereto purchase clothing products in the fashion blog? A: Ay oo! It’s where I see kung saan pwede bumili... may blogger kasi na kapareho ko ng body type so more often than not, kung ano yung bagay sa kanya.. sa body type niya nagiging bagay na din saakin.. B: Ako din tinitignan ko yan kasi gusto ko malaman saan ko mahahanap yung ganun style... C: I feel you guys.. it is easier to have a glimpse online din.. D: Yes it adds sa prior knowledge para kung example coincidentally mapadaan ako sa isang area where that shop is, pwede ko na madaanan. Utilized time diba? (Everyone agrees) o Do you personally have notable shops or places where you purchase your clothes? Why is it your preferred store or place? A: Mas ako thrift shopper kasi I want my every peso to mean a lot.. . so GH and Divi tops my list.. B: Online Shops talaga kasi yung iba sobrang mura.. and so far wala pa akong bad experience doon.. C: Divi, Green hills, Tiangges and bazaars... pero I go sa mall din.. D: Nasabi niyo na ata lahat (laughs)

Non-clothing information  Do you look forward seeing “how to” articles for advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories, and apparel? A: Hindi masyado.. di ako artsy fartsy.. B: Ako particulary interested dito kasi may isang blogger na nakita ko lang by chance.. forgot her name eh.. basta nag aano siya.. feature ng home made art na pencil holder.. frames.. and bead works sa mga vest at shirts. C: ahhh talaga may ganun? D: Oo meron din yun nag momodify ng mga damit...  Do you look forward seeing information on health and exercise topics? A: No din kasi I am not really interested.. I’d rather read women’s health.. B: ako parang hesistant if it should be in a blog kasi parang out of place.. think of it na lang parang you are checking out on this look tas bigla may picture ng broccoli or protein shakes after.. nasisira ung fashion momentum C & D (laughs and agrees) Layout/pictures  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with well-organized pages and and texts that are easy to read? Also, do you look forward reading a fashion blog with good headlines and an attractive layout? A: As a budding photographer, I read blogs din to enrich my concepts.. gain from there.. and study their poses for my clients (laughs) B: Ako naman I want to see yung background nila.. kasi usually they put it diba sa baba.. and I get to aim na mapuntahan din yung places na iyon C: Gusto ko nga yung malalaki and super high definition yung photos.. yung kita yung pores nila (laughs)... D: Loka kayo... well ako na ooff ako pag nahihirapan ako i-navigate yung blog.. may mga maarte kasi na blogs.. ako gusto ko andun na lahat.. simple and the photos are strong enough to carry the entire blog.. Advertising (i.e. advertisements/promos)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which provides advertisements for apparel, cosmetics, and accessories?  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog contests and giveaways? A: Nananalo yung ate ko dati ng Ponds.. tas may note ni tricia ata o Camille.. forgot na kasi ang tagal na.. B: And? A: Well si ate ang dami niyang ginawa noon na kung ano anong steps tas mini cream lang na pwedeng mabili sa supermarket makukuha niya? Parang wala lang nawalan din ako ng gana.. C: Ako I join a lot.. I share this.. I like that.. I do this.. I do that.. and until now di pa rin ako nananalo.. D: Sa dami ba naman ng followers nila... syempre marami ka kumpentensya... A: Ang aadik pala natin...


So you all look forward sa promos? All: Yes... Eh ads? All: Nooo... A: I hate such.. B: Me too.. Street style and travel photos  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog features photographs of street style and urban wear? A: Okay naman.. B: Yes positive din attitude ko towards that kasi they give chance for others to shine.. C (Agrees) D: Okay lang din saakin..  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that has travel photos? A: Yes! I am obsessed with travel photos.. B: Me too.. I light up when they conduct their shoot aborad... kasi di lang di lang sila and yung clothes and nakikita kundi pati yung mga fashion objects or ung asset ng place itself.. Fashion news/events  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that features fashion weeks, gatherings, and special events inside the fashion industry? C: Hmmm.. it’s okay if they include it.. pero ako I don’t anticipate it as much.. D: Ako din.. Blogger’s personal life  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features a description of blogger’s feelings and thoughts? A: Eh mukha na siyang dear diary you mean? Ah no no.. not fond of it sorry.. B: Ako okay lang basta creative yung pag portray niya.. C: Hmm.. Parang hindi ko ma-imagine.. D: Okay lang.. basta fashionably sad or happy siya (laughs) A: It’s not the right place to put such eh. Well opinion ko lang naman..  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features blogger’s activities with family, friends, and colleagues? A: Parang hindi rin.. B: Kapag fashion event.. okay lang.. Blogger’s hobbies/interests  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which tells about the interest/s of the blogger? A: Diba nasa ‘about me’ section na nya yun.. or pag sikat ang blogger madami ng biographical write up about her diba.. so dun na lang yun.. or instagram pwede pa.. B: Paano kung fashion ang interest niya? I think okay lang.. C: Agree ako with Kat.. parang di ko ulit ma imagine D: 50/50... di ko alam eh.. Blogger’s daily outfits  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features posts of the blogger regarding what she wears for the day? #OOTD A: Oo naman.. tsaka mas magaling sila mag OOTD eh.. B: Oo nga high quality mega photoshop pa rin kahit OOTD lang.. C: Eh normal lang yun kasi may reputation na silang inaalagaan.. alangang pixelized eh kahit ako mawawalan ng gana.. Blogger’s comments/suggestions  Do you look forward seeing fashion blogger’s comments and/or suggestions regarding certain clothes and fashion trends? A: I think this is good .. I take a glimpse pero not the kind na iniisa isa ko kasi nakaka-umay din... B: Do they even respond? C: Yes they do! D: On a rare occasion.. and by rare.. I mean rare... o Do you actually consult a blog for your outfit of the day? A: Nope..


B: Hindi rin.. C: Minsan.. D: Refer lang.. magkaiba naman yun diba? Part II. Motives for Reading Fashion Blogs 1. Why do you read fashion blogs? 1a. Aside from the content, what motivates you to continually read/visit fashion blogs? o Reading as pass time A: Kasi may mga long breaks ako in between so yah...for pass time.. o Information on latest trends B: We’ve been very vocal naman in saying na lahat kami after sa clothing information.. lalo na ako and etong si Sammy.. o Enhancing one’s image and sense of style C: To give myself a new perspective lalo na at I am mending a broken heart.. I need a new me.. D: Lol... Ako for inspiration... cause i’m gonna buy her.. her entire clothes.. and her blog (laughs) o Passion / Inspiration A: For my passion din which is photography lalo na at subject ko palagi tao.. and mga ka age nating girls.. whenever we meet and think of a concept.. maganda rin na may ma suggest ako na concept.. sa shoot itself naman.. dahil sa kakabasa ko ng blogs.. naaaral ko ang angle.. B: For inspiration.. Part III. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. How would you describe the effect of reading fashion blogs on you? 1a. In terms of your personal style? A: Ang pangit ko nung high school.. shit.. B: Sino bang hindi? C: sobra kayo.. we were beautiful back then.. kasi that is what the society dictates as okay.. (laughs) D: But through time.. we metamorphosized. (LOL) A: Well may role din ang blogs pero minimal lang.. 1b. In terms of your preference in clothes? A: Nagka taste ako! (Laughs) B: Ako din.. C: Mas may edge tayo kasi we know before hand what is in.. D: And to avoid it (laughs) 1c. In terms of your knowledge in fashion? A: Thanks sa blogs kasi gaya ng sinabi ko kanina, we could avoid na maarrest ng fashion police.. B: Kasi nga we know better now.. C: And.. we matured din to know what is not right.. D: And what is right for our own. 1d. In terms of your fashion consciousness? A: Yes naging conscious.. B: Me too.. 2. As a student from a school which doesn’t require uniform, do you feel updated with the trending clothes of today? A: Yes.. B:Ako oo din.. kasi may instant exposure eh C and D: (Agrees) 3. Does being enrolled in a school that does not require a school uniform intensify your interest to look into fashion blogs or not? A: Not really.. I think wala naman gaanong strong connection.. B: Ako oo kasi these guys influenced me to check out this and check out that.. C: Been reading since high school and naka uniform pa tayo then so I guess it is a personal choice.. D: Medyo medyo.. o How did your interest in reading fashion blogs help in your day to day style? A: Something in my mind stirs up.. like I tend to become wiser in my clothing choices.. B: Gumaling ako manlait (laughs) C: Reading blogs made me ahead of the rest who don’t (read) kasi I know something they don’t know.. D: Like makikita mo right there and then if they are sporting the look well.. ------ END -------


FGD # 2 School: University of Sto. Tomas Participants: A. Angela, 18 E. Erlcy, 18 Venue: University of Sto. Tomas, Q Pavillion Introduction Getting to Know the Participants a. What is your sense of style? -Boho -Feminine -Chic -Couture -Elegant -Bold -Sporty -Glam -Sophisticated -School Girl (Prep Style) -Nautical

-Goth -Earthy -Polished -Urban -Classic -Statement -Festival -Vintage -Other (Please specify: ____________)

A: Mix. Depends on what event I’m going to. Mostly I wear kind of sporty but mix with chic. Seldom I do wear vintage clothes.. not confident in wearing that. E: Madalas feminine. Gusto ko elegant pagdating sa parties, vintage.. At times sporty, mas comfortable, sa mall.. School girl bihira. Gustung-gusto ko classic at vintage. A: Ako pag events minsan gusto ko sinusuot yun striking colors. Pero di yun buong outfit ko.. basta dapat may isang outfit akong nag-sstand out b. Who is your fashion inspiration? E: Ako si Taylor Swift, Miranda Kerr.. kahit anong damit bagay.. Olivia Palermo ;) A: Pareho sa kanya. Taylor Swift, Beyonce, yun Korean artist na si TL from 2NE1.. isa talaga sya dun sa mga gusting-gusto ko na nagsusuot ng damit kasi parang ang weird ng suot nya nadadala nya. So yun fashion nya kahit weird yun damit nya nadadala nya dahil sa confidence.. Nagiging maganda at nagiging trending yun damit nya dun sa Korea. Aside from celebrities, do you have other fashion inspiration? A: Oo, yun professor namin. Si Ma’am Baesa. Teacher namin siya sa Biology. c. How important is being (i., ii.) for you? v. Fashionable vi. Looking good A: Fashionable, 3; Looking good, 4. Minsan kasi pag fashionable, parang pag naging trend na sya sobrang dami mo nang kapareha (E: Oo). Pero, kunyare, pag ikaw yun gumawa nun sa sarili mo, ikaw nag-start.. Iba kasi yun kapag nag-stand out ka mas nakaka-attract kasi ng ibang tao yun. E: Nakakasawa kasi kapag lahat na lang like naka skater skirt.. sobrang common na niya. (A: Oo) A: Di na siya kagaya dati na sobrang gandang tignan. Pag ngayon, parang normal na yun kasi andami nang nakaganon. E: Fashionable, 3; Looking good, 5. Di naman kasi sya tungkol sa kung anong trend, kung ano yun feel mong suotin. d. How much is your budget for clothes? Let’s say in a month. A: Kung galing sa savings, tina-try kong mag-ipon ng 1.5K. Kasi alam kong mahal ng presyo ng mga damit ngayon. Pero pag tiangge, kunyari Greenhills, bazaars.. 800Php okay na siguro.. kasi di naman ako isang bagsakan pag bumibili. E: Ako hindi ako nagbubudget.. Kasi mama ko yun bumibili.. Minsan sasama lang ako.. tapos kung ano yun makita ko, “Mama, gusto ko ‘to”.. ayan.. pero di ako sosobra sa tatlo na bibilhin sa isang araw. Sobrang bihira lang ako lumabas kasi ayun nga busy sa school. e. How frequent do you buy clothes? E: Sobrang bihira pag kailangan lang. A: Di naman kasi ganun kailangan kasi may school ganyan. Pero pag walang class, kunyari summer, madalas.


f. Where do you usually buy clothes? A: Forever 21, Greenhills, bazaars.. E: Robinsons, SM Department Store.. Minsan sa Tutuban, San Lazaro.. Tsaka may isa pa e.. Kung san bumibili si Achi, same size kasi kami. Hehehe. FGD Proper Warm Up Question/s: a. What is your impression when you see a fashion blog? E: Maganda siyang past time. Pag nag-start ako, wala na tuluy-tuloy na siya. Older post ng older post. A: Ako rin. Minsan nauuubos na yun oras ko dun. b. What do you think of the blogger upon seeing her all dolled up? Dressed up from head to toe? A: Super confident. Kasi to think na kaya nila mag-pose ng ganun. Sobrang masikap. Kasi minsan hind ilang naman kailangan yun damit yun maganda pati yun background ganyan. Di naman kasi Pwede kung saansaan ka lang mag-picture. Minsan maghahanap pa sila ng ganun. Tsaka, may kaya minsan. E: Kasi makikita mo yun hair talaga ganyan.. make-up.. accessories and all. Ako kasi di ako mahilig sa accessories. Naloloka ko minsan andami nilang suot na bangles. Pano kaya nila nasusuot yun. (Laughs) c. Who among you here have a fashion blog? A and E: Wala pa For those who don’t have, do you plan to have one? A: No pero pinangarap ko dati ngayon ayoko na. E: Ako rin. Bakit? A: Nahihiya rin kasi ako e. Di kasi ako pala-picture or what. E: Pag picture with friends okay lang yun pero by myself.. (A agrees) nahihiya ako d. Have you tried posting your own (#OOTD)? How did you feel?  E: For profile picture A: Nakakaproud E: Kasi parang nag-break ako ng boundary ko.. Nagawa ko yun. Parang small award.. achieved. Part I. Reading habits/Preferences 1. How often do you read fashion blog/s? 1b. How many times in a week/ day? E: As in isang bagsakan. Kunyare no classes. A: Kapag maluwang yun time, at least two times a week. E: Actually may site ako palagi tinitignan, Pinterest. A. Ako WeHeartIt. 2. What fashion blog/s do you often read? E: Camille Co. Sa kanya talaga ko nag-start. Nung napanood ko siya nun sa Kris TV.. because of the shampoo as well that she endorses. May kasama rin siya nun e pero mas natandaan ko siya kasi pati yun hairstyle niya tinackle nya. A: Camille Co and Laureen Uy. Ako kay Laureen ako nagstart. Second, si Camille Co. Kasi may pinost ata nun si Laureen na kasama nya si Camille Co tapos nacurious ako.. ayun na yun. Ang ganda rin kasi ng damit nya nun. 3. What content/information do you look forward reading/seeing? General fashion trends/products  Do you anticipate analysis of current fashion trends? E: Hindi ako masyado mahilig sa trends.. more of getting to know the person mismo. Kasi tinitignan mo san sya nakakarating.. yun experiences nya. A: Kaunti lang. Pero pag start na ko nakakakita ng trends, nacucurious rin ako i-try.  Do you eye websites which feature where to purchase the clothing products in the fashion blog? o Do you personally have notable shops or places where you purchase your clothes? A: Yun yung gustu-gusto kong nababasa. E: Yun parang anong madalas nila binibili. A: Malalaman mo kasi na okay yun shop na yun. E: Kunyari malalaman mo na “ahh, magaganda yun damit ng shop na ‘to”.  Do look forward to the posts about designers and their latest clothing lines? A: Ako medyo. Kasi may mga tela ko na sinusuot na madalas nangangati kaya gusto ko meron.. kunyari nagpost siya ng damit, para pag bibilhin ko, sana lang at least alam ko na. May assurance ako na pag sinuot ko yun comfortable all day. E: Yun masasabi mong long lasting din sya.


o

Do you have your personal favourite designer? A: Jeremy Scott E: Favorite ko si Hello Kitty

Non-clothing information  Do you look forward seeing “how to” articles for advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories, and apparel? A: Ako gusto ko yun. Kunyare yun old na pantalon tapos binabago. Natry ko kasi yun tapos parang ang galing talaga. Naaliw ako. Nung pinakita ko sa mom ko tinanong nya san ko nabili sabi ko ginawa ko lang yan.. (Laughs) E: Sa youtube A: Ako mas gusto ko pag video siya kaysa pictures. Kasi minsan kasi yun kiuhanan ng pictures, may daya. E: Ako gusto ko rin may pictures.. kasi pag nakita mo alam mo na agad gagawin.  Do you look forward seeing information on health and exercise topics? A: Minsan kasi di masyado marami yun health e bihira lang. More on sa look sila nagfofocus. o But just in case you are to read fashion blogs, do you want features on health? E: Not necessarily. Feeling ko may specific na site for health lang talaga. A: Ako gusto ko. Kasi minsan kasi pag nagsusuot ka ng damit, naiiba sya e. Pag iba yun figure ganyan. Parang may mga damit na dapat para sa mga ganto para sa mga ganyan.. Layout/pictures  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with good headlines and an attractive layout E: Medyo. Maganda kasi tignan yun blog kapag yun layout pa lang.. A: Ako gusto ko yun simple lang. Ayoko ng maraming design.. Halimbawa dun sa list ng fashion blogs, may nakita ako dun na pagkabukas ko pa lang inex (cancel) ko na kagad. Ayoko kasi ng maraming nakalagay (e.g. link).. tapos ang bright pa ng pagkakadesign nya ng website nya kaya ayoko.. E: Okay nga yun kahit simple lang, kahit white nga lang e. Maganda lang yun headline.  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with high-quality photographs and videos? A and E: Yes basta di blurred  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with well-organized pages and texts that are easy to read? A and E: Yes. E: Kailangan na kailangan talaga yun. A: Minsan kasi may pagka-OC ako. Pag nakita kong magulo, ayoko talaga. Advertising (i.e. advertisements / promos)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which provides advertisements for apparel, cosmetics, and accessories? E: Okay lang basta di lang yun nagpa-pop up na advertisements (A agrees)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog contests and giveaways? E: Mahilig din ako pag dating Philippine Fashion Week, tumitingin na ko e. (A agrees) Street style or travel photos  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that features photographs of street style and urban wear? A: Gusto ko rin ng ganun. Lalo na yun sa magazine meron din ganun minsan dun din ako nagfofocus. Kasi iba talaga pag nakakita mo sila sa iba’t ibang places. (E agrees)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blogs that has travel photos? A: Gustung-gusto ko rin yun kasi mahilig din akong mag-travel. (E agrees) Fashion news/events  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that features fashion weeks, gatherings, and special events inside the fashion industry? E: Gusto ko rin ng ganun. A: May blogger kong nakita nun na pinost nya yung sunud-sunod na Fashion Week E: Hindi rin naman kasi lahat mapupuntahan.. If ever, parang shineshare na rin nya kung ano yun nangyari sa event. Kasi nakaka-curious rin naman at least malaman mo kung ano nangyari nun. Tapos pag may bago dun sa event at least nashashare nya rin sa viewers nya. Blogger’s personal life


Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features a description of blogger’s feelings and thoughts? A and E: Ok lang wag lang over E: Ok lang cause you get to know the person pero huwag naman yun sobrang exagge. A: Ako ayoko silang nagshashare ng ganun kasi at least may mai-keep sya sa kanya na private lang. Yun iba kasi pag public na lahat lahat, wala na nakakainis na rin. Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features blogger’s activities with family, friends, and colleagues? A: Ako hindi masyado. (E agrees) E: Ok lang yun sa friends, wag lang yun sa family.. A: Oo kasi private matter na yun. E: Mas maganda kung sa sarili na lang nya yun..

Blogger’s hobbies/interests  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which tells about the interest/s of the blogger? A: Ako nahihilig din ako sa ganun.. sa pagbabasa ng hobbies o mga hilig nila.. kasi parang gusto ko rin magkaron ng new adventures by myself.. so kapag nagshare sya nang kung anong ginawa nya, at least gusto ko rin ma-try yun. (E agrees) E: Nagka-idea ka rin kung anong gagawin. Blogger’s daily outfits  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features posts of the blogger regarding what she wears for the day? #OOTD A and E: Yes. Blogger’s comments/suggestions  Do you look forward seeing fashion blogger’s comments and/or suggestions regarding certain clothes and fashion trends? A: Onti lang. Kasi iba-iba rin naman yun tastes ng tao. Minsan kasi yun iba pag nagbabasa ng ganun, masyado sila na-oovercome nung sinabi nun blogger na nawawala na yun self. (E agrees) Mas gusto nyo ba yun comments/suggestions ng bloggers ay nasa isang post o nasa comment box? A: Mas gusto ko yun nakapost na para di nagiging masyadong specific dun sa person.. At least, generalize man lang yun gagawin nya.. Ah, so parang entry na talaga nya sa blog? A: Oo. 3a. From the content/information you’ve mentioned, what do you find most useful? E: Yun sa may hobbies nya at travel photos. Interests of the blogger, Fashion weeks A: Street style. Fashion events Part II. Motives for Reading Fashion Blogs 1. Why do you read fashion blogs? 1a. Aside from the content, what motivates you to continually read/visit fashion blogs? A: For fun E: Ahh. Wala lang. Nung bata kasi ako, mahilig na talaga ako. Parang gusto ko din maging fashion designer… A: Pag fashion blogs kasi connected talaga siya sa life mo.. kasi lahat naman tayo nagsusuot ng damit.. (Laughs) yun. Part III. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. How would you describe the effect of reading fashion blogs on you? 1a. In terms of your personal style? A: Before parang ang baduy baduy ko. Kasi parents ko pa pumipili nun.. pero ngayon na nalaman ko, nakakaapekto rin pala sa social life mo yun sinusuot mo na damit.. feeling o dapat talaga lahat nagbabasa ng fashion blogs E: Nasabihan ako ng maarte nun nagsstart na ko (A agrees) 1b. In terms of your preference in clothes? Mas naging picky ba kayo? A: Oo. E: Sobra. Pag ayaw mo talaga, di mo susuotin. A: Yun pag bibili ng damit dapat minsan di mo na kasama parents mo. Ngayon mas matagal na ko bago makabili ng damit..


E: Ako rin.. Sister ko kasama ko bumibili kasi pag parents may limitations talaga.. A: Ako friends.. kasi wala akong sister. So sa kanila ako nakiki-share ng ideas. 1c. In terms of your knowledge in fashion? E: Super lumawak A: Mas madali ko nalalaman kung anong mas bagay at mas tama talaga.. 1d. In terms of your fashion consciousness? Do you consider yourself as fashion conscious? A: Minsan.. Kasi ako, ayoko talagang may tumitingin sa suot mo e. Parang gusto ko na lang yumuko. Nako-conscious ako.. may mal iba sakin ganyan.. E: Lalo na dito kasi puro naka-uniform kaya pag may naka-civilian, pagtitinginan.. A: Parang “anong meron, ba’t sya nakaganyan?”.. Lalo na pag babaeng naka-heels. Yun talaga sobrang nagsstand out yun dito sa UST. After heels, papansinin yun lakad mo.. tapos nun ayun na, yung damit mo.. mapapansin na rin. E: Ako nun naka-heels.. kasi pag naka-heels parang nakakapagpataas ng confidence.. 1e. Others? Are you grateful that there are fashion blogs the moment you entered college? Do you see yourselves still reading fashion blogs after few years? A and E: Super. E: Depende na lang kung matanda ka na.. A: Kung ano na lang talaga masuot mo nun.. Although gusto ko pag tumanda ako looking good pa rin.. Yun halimbawa pag kasama mo anak mo.. 2. As a student from a school which requires uniform, do you feel outdated with the trending clothes of today? E: Parang di ko naman nafi-feel yun. No care kasi. A: May days naman na nag-cicivilian so kung ano gusto mo suotin.. 3. Does being enrolled in a school that requires a school uniform intensify your interest to look into fashion blogs or not? E: Mahilig lang talaga tumingin sa ganyan.. A: Kapag may time in a week kami nagbabasa para at least di kami na-leleft out with our friends.. At least alam pa rin namin yun sinasabi nila.. How did your interest in reading fashion blogs help in your day to day style? A: Nakakapag-try ka ng bago E: Naiinspire ka na mag-iba ng look o damit. Kasi pag tumingin tingin ka parang magkakaron ka na lang ng idea na.. “ay, mag aayos ako. Mix n match”. Yun nakikita mo naaapply mo. A: Pero iibahin mo ng konti. ------ END -------

FGD # 3 Schools: Far Eastern University & Centro Escolar University Participants: D1. Julie, FEU, 17 D2. Marla, CEU, 18 D3. Zoe, CEU, 18 D4. Jeannel, FEU, 20 D5. Queenie, FEU, 20 Venue: Cobo Awesome PossibiliTEAS Recto Introduction Warm Up Question/s: Who among you here have a fashion blog? D2: Ako. Ang mga makikita dun mga random posts pa rin tapos last year, 2013, I decided na why not i-try kasi marami na rin naman na akong nakita na parang inspiration, at para ma i-share na din.. Yung taste mo sa fashion? D2: Oo, kasi malay mo diba may mga di kayang gawin yung iba na pwede kong gawin. Tas ano.. ayun.. pero sa ngayon, as a student I seldom update my blog.. It depends na lang kung may event, kung may availability of clothes and kung may Internet. Bale so far nakikita ko naman na parang sa


mga readers, well may mga readers naman (smiles) kahit na di siya (blog) gaanong updated, may mga pangilan ilan na nagbabasa. Kaya never did I imagine na may titingin. Meron kang photographer? Make up-artist? Stylist? D2: Actually wala po kasi... D1: Sariling sikap yan kahit mag-isa... D2: Kasi.. Kasi.. well stylist po wala.. and di rin po ako sanay mag make up. Okay na po ako sa kilay and lip tint lang. Well photographer po kung sino lang yung available na friend, tipong “uy pashoot naman.” Tapos.. nag take na din po ako ng fashion photography seminar, and natutunan ko po kung paano yung do’s and don’ts kung di ka naman professional, kumbaga hobby ko lang naman siya. Si Jeanelle may i-shashare D4: Well ayun ako po kagaya niya din lang na nag blogblog but I don’t call it purely na about fashion kasi parang online diary ko lang po siya. Well nag start ako and na-inspire lang ding gumawa ng blog dahil kay Laureen Uy EVERYONE: Ahhhh.... D4: Yep so siya po talaga yung start ng lahat tapos ano.. ahm... tapos ayun minsan mag uupdate lang ako ng post pag may maayos na outfit ako.. Minsan nga puro outfit of the day lang, mostly po puro kwentu-kwentuhan lang. For those who don’t have, do you plan to have one? D1: Ay nako! Matagal na kaso tong kaibigan ko di ako tinutulungan kung paano magsimula eh. (Refers to D2) Naano kasi ako, na inspire ako kasi habang nag-uupdate siya ng blog niya, ang gaganda ng mga damit tapos nag try kami dun sa closet ko, nag mix and match kami hanggang sa napunta sa ano, sa inuman then later on narealize ko.. okay naman pala akong manamit... carry ko naman pala. Siguro ang nagiging problema ko lang talaga is that kailangan kong magpapayat muna para pag nag posepose ako walang double chin para boom agad. Sino pa girls ang may gusto? D5: Ako oo... So ano naghihinder sayo? D5: Time, time talaga kasi kapag busy sa school kaya siguro after graduation na lang. Ikaw Queenie gusto mo? D3: Ako siguro kapag mayaman na talaga ako at sobrang dami ng pera para maganda yung blog. Tsaka meron kasi yung kuntento na ako sa Instagram kasi di na rin ako mahilig yung mag explain explain. D1: Pwede na rin yun as of now... OOTD muna. I see, kasi minsan diba kapag nag bloblog ka required ka pang maglagay ng short description D1: Oo! Kung saan mo nakuha (yung damit na suot mo). So paano kung puro Divisoria yung suot mo, nakakahiyang ilagay yun sa blog diba. D5: Oh pero may nakita akong blog na ganun, bata pa siya... puro divisoria kaya... D1: Well it goes to show na pwede kahit hindi labelled or mahal yung mga brand na i-bloblog mo... D5: Yup kasi ang lakas ng confidence niya ha.. hindi high quality yung photos niya kasi tipong nasa Divisoria lang siya pipicturan niya yung shop ng divi eh ano ba namang itsura ng shops ng divi diba? So ayun ganun lang talaga parang stall stall. Pero maganda siya mag mix and match knowing na high school pa lang siya. May fashion sense. Have you tried posting your own (OOTD)? How did you feel?  *almost everyone* Anong feeling? I mean bait niyo ginagawa in the first place? (OOTD) D1: Nakakapikon. (Boisterous Laughter) Yung kapag inimagine mo okay sayo pero pag pinicturan mo na ang pangit mo pala... D3: Ay oo grabe! Yung tipong nag make-up ka na, nag bihis ka na tas pag pinicture-an mo anak ng.. puta ang pangit.. D1: Sinungaling yung imagination ko! (Laughs) D3: Yung pag nakita mo sa manikin ang ganda tapos kapag suot mo na ang sagwa.. (laughs) D1: Well okay naman masaya naman kasi parang nashashare mo yung fashion sense mo tapos pag may nag cocomment na maganda ka, pinaniniwalaan ko na yun. (Laughs) Eh paano kapag walang nag like? Anong feeling? D5: Nakakaasar.. D2: Effort kasi ang OOTD eh... effort mag share... Part I. Reading habits/Preferences 1. How often do you read fashion blog/s? 1a. How many times in a month?


D1: Depende kapag natripan ko. Well minsan kasi pag pina-follow ko sa Instagram, nakikita ko yung post, ayun click na the link (to the fahion blog) then go basa. Walang necessary time or span ng oras... minsan kasi nabababad na ako eh so like mga four hours to three. D2: Saakin depende talaga eh kasi yung internet availability saamin , ah wala kasi kaming sariling wifi tas may bayad yung internet kaya kapag kailangan na gumawa ng homework, minsan kasabay ng tab ko yung pag scan ng fashion blogs. Nadadaanan na rin.. so siguro sa isang buwan... 4 times. D3: Siguro ako mga twice a month... kasi more like sa TV ko nakikita.. sa ETC channel yung mga fashion din D4: Ako po bihira.. kasi busy diba kasi college na... di naman gaya ng high school na kahit araw arawin okay lang kasi walang ginagawa... 2. What fashion blog/s do you read? D3: Sa net lang, walang halong blogs... Kina Laureen Uy ganyan... D4: Ano lang... Laureen Uy.. minsan browse lang sa Google ng katulad ng kina Avril (Lavignecelebrity) tas titignan ko yung mga photos niya. Ayun ganun lang... D5: Ako halos lahat ng blogger bessies (best friends) Si Krizz Uy, si Laureen, si Camille, si Nicole, si Lisa at si Patricia. Well si Kim Jones minsan tinitignan ko. 3. What content/information do you look forward reading/seeing? D1: Sense of fashion number one kaya nga fashion blogs yung pinuntahan namin eh. So number two, usually nilalagay naman nila doon kung saan nila kinukuha (yung mga damit and composition ng OOTD nila) so ako usually tinitignan ko yung brand na affordable para sa students tapos kung feeling ko type ko and kaya kong dalhin, yun ang tinitignan ko. D2: Ako ang hinahanap ko sa fashion blogs yung sense of fashion nila.. kung pano nila dalhin.. kung pano nila ma-iinspire yung tao na suotin to. Kasi parang iba iba yan eh kumabaga dun ako kumuha ng few moments ko. Kung sa tingin mo naman bagay sayo, why not. Tapos yun nga kung san nila nabili (clothes), hahanap ka ng alternative. Minsan nakakahanap ka sakanila (bloggers) ng alternatives na mas mura. Tas ayun. D3: Doon ako naghahanap minsan ng... yung para matuto kang manamit kaya nagbloblog kami. D4: Pag nag viview ako ng blog.. ang nasa ano ko talaga is yung sense of fashion nila. Pangalawa syempre fashion inspiration din. D5: Ako number one syempre yung sense of fashion. Pangalawa umaasa rin ako sa blog give aways. Then ung mga featured brands at mga lugar na pinupuntahan nila. D1: Ah oo meron ngang give away si Laureen Uy ngayon na bag na parang heart shape. Kasi matrabaho yung pagsali eh. General fashion trends/products  Do you anticipate for the analysis of current fashion trends? o Are you aware of any fashion trends? o Do you follow a certain fashion expert or guru? Everyone: Liz Uy D5: Yung bloggers minsan nag sstyle din sila eh. Nakikipag collaborate sila sa iba pang stylist or models. D1: Aj Alberto pala. Stylist ni Toni Gonzaga. Bet ko yung kay Angel (Locsin) eh... ang style niya kasi mga classy, girly masyado na pang sexy kaya nga di ko bagay eh.  Do you eye websites which features where to purchase the clothing products in the fashion blog? o Do you personally have notable shops or places where you purchase your clothes? D1: Ahh actually yung Primadonna nagustuhan ko yan dahil kay Anne eh Layout/pictures (i.e. blog design, photographs and videos)  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with well-organized pages and texts that are easy to read? D1 & D 3: Oo naman, nakakadagdag yun eh. Dagdag points yun eh o Can you name a blog that you think possesses a well-organized layout? D5: Yung kay Camille Co.. D1: Oo ang simple, ang elegant tignan. D5: Yung kada isang post pipindutin mo lang makikita mo na agad. Di tulad kina Laureen Uy kay at Kriz na diretso. D2: Hangga’t maari nga sana simple lang para di masakit sa mata (ung layout) kasi ang pinopromote mo nga doon ay yung style D1: Oo di dapat masapawan ng background. So ang statement ng group, simpler yung layout, the better?


D2: Oo.. Minimalist Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with high-quality photographs and videos? D1: Dapat talaga maganda... D2: Oo para detalyado yung damit (composition) and added factor din na pag maganda ang photography, ibig sabihin effort. Try mo kung OOTD tapos selfie cam lang gamit mo? Parang di naman ata tama yun

Advertising (i.e. advertisements/promos)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which provides advertisements for apparel, cosmetics, and accessories? D4: As long as yung ads naman hindi distracting sa binabasa, okay lang.. Ano ang distracting para sa inyo? D4: Well yung iba kasi na ads parang pakalat kalat na parang nag popop... ayoko yun Pero kunyari nakalagay lang siya dito sa right, or sa side? D1: Okay lang How about yung blog posts na may ads in between? Stealth advertsing? D2: Well okay lang, kasi isa siya sa essence ng blogging eh yung fashion and beauty and may mga tao na naglolook forward sa ganoong mga gamit, at least na oopen yung mind ng readers sa mga brands na pwedeng gamitin na subok na ng bloggers D1: And most of all yung pagka stealth ng clothes, well tulong din yan eh kasi na iindividualize yung clothes. Tipong pag nakita mong ineendorse nila yung style na yun, malalaman mo na under that clothing brand, may ganoong style pala so yun na lang sasadyain mo kesa sa mall na iisa isahin mo pa lahat. Street style and travel photos.  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog features photographs of street style and urban wear? Everyone: Okay naman.  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that has travel photos? How do you feel about it? D1: Oo pero it is frustrating D4 and D5: Masakit nakakainggit D1: Frustrating kasi ako nagpapakahirap mag aral dito tapos sila ganun D3: Tapos yung mga gusto ko pang lugar yung mga pinupuntahan nila Fashion news/events  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that features fashion weeks, gatherings, and special events inside the fashion industry? D2: Well like yung Bloggers United kasi parang you get the chance to meet the bloggers and at the same time you can buy clothes from them na very cheap or affordable saka dun mo na makikita yung attitude nila up close, kung friendly ba sila and most of makakakilala ka ng friends or people wbo share the same interest such as fashion blogging Blogger’s personal life  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features a description of blogger’s feelings and thoughts? D1: Well ako ah pag tinitignan ko ang mga fashion bloggers, naiisip ko lang, sa sobrang extravagant ng buhay nila, may mga problema pa ba sila? Kasi every girl like us would trade anything just to be in their shoes in terms sa lavishness diba? Tapos sila mag eemote lang? Ano pa bang problema nila? Well kidding aside, a fashion blog is a separate entity from the other blogs so yung emotional aspect ng buhay nila? I don’t think it must be there. D2: Well ako yung tinitignan kong fashion blog, may mga emotional write ups siya dun. Kumbaga, kalakip na din ng pagdadamit nila kung ano yung nangyari sa kanila sa instance na yun like why did they dress up that way? Pwede nilang i-share bakit sila nalulungkot, and that might speak as to why they opted to dress that way saka parang iba parin kung may ‘puso’ yung fashion blog. And most of all, makakakuha ka din ng solusyon sa kung pano nila ihandle ang simple life problems. D3: Inevitable yun eh, pero just make sure na pag magpopost ng emotions, may sense at tipong connected sa fashion blog niya. Dapat may limit. Blogger’s hobbies/interests Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which tells about the blogger’s interest? D1: Anger and bitterness. Kami sobrang hirap sa thesis tapos sila paganun ganun lang? (Laughs) Kidding aside, more than anything inspiration siya eh... kasi kunyari nasa beach sila, makikita mo na pwede palang i-mix and match yung mga ganung pieces to make the swim wear better-looking.


Blogger’s daily outfits Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features posts of the blogger regarding what she wears for a day? Everyone: Yes D1: Ako oo na try ko na mang gaya D4: Oo ako din kasi kung yung post pwedeng pwede namang gayahin or madali lang siya then why not diba D1: And I guess dun pa lalo pumapasok yung function ng blog which is to inspire. Once they post, open for copying or imitation na kasi yung styles nila. Sila yung trend setters eh. Blogger’s comments/suggestions Do you look forward seeing fashion blogger’s posts comments and/or suggestions regarding certain clothes and fashion trends? How do you find yung blogger’s comments/suggestions (them commenting... ) D2: Okay siya.. like yung kay Camille Co? Kasi ang mga tanong sa kanya... example kung may specific event, ano yung magandang isuot and nag susuggest naman siya. Part 2. Motives for Reading Fashion Blogs 1. Why do you read fashion blogs? 1a. Aside from the content, what motivates you to continually read/visit fashion blogs? Expert Knowledge? D3: Well part of our reading yung repuatation at fame ng blogger kasi it goes to show na ah.. subok na siya.. na magaling siya. Pero minsan, yung iba kasing bloggers na we know, we personally bumped into them.. and narinig namin sa friends namin. D1: Expertise, knowledge and suggestion of bloggers. What they have to say... Important kasi yun.. like yung kay Camille Co, like what you guys said, may nagtatanong sa kanya diba? Hindi naman kasi lahat ng pinopostn g bloggers bagay saatin so we need yung opinion niya to know where we stand. Fashion and beauty product reviews/ Clothing product list and information? D2: Tinitignan mo din siya as an idea or kung san makakabili. Self-fulfilment? Enhancing one’s image and sense of style? D4: Ayun nga.. for inspiration. Kasi minsan, kahit fashionista ka, di naman laging may alam ka kaya nga kailangan mag rob ka ng ideas from others. D5: Inspiration and nakaka determine na sana maging ganun ka din, and sana makabili ka ng ganun ganyan. To enhance yung self image. D1: Kasi nga nakaka frustrate pumorma, kasi nakakatakot mag overdress. Pero minsan sinasabi nga nila mas okay na overdressed kesa underdressed. For Inspiration. D2: Mainly for inspiration and maging updated. Hindi naman porket di ka nakikisabay sa uso eh it makes you less of a person. I think reading fashion blogs is expressing human rights na manamit. Wala namang nagsabi na bawal sayo yan, di pwede sayo yan, as long as feel mo sa sarili mo na ako to eh. Bakit hindi? D3: Inspiration. Blog giveaways / promos? D1: Sometimes... minsan kasi nakakahiya. D3: Pero pag Iphone pak! Part 3. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. How would you describe the effect of reading fashion blogs on you? 1a. In terms of your personal style? Are there any changes in your personal style? D1: Malaki! Lalo nung highschool mukha akong nognog. D3: Oo! Kasi nung highschool jejemon days! Is this change becauseof the blogs? Everyone: Partly... D1: Laki ng tulong saakin... laki sobra. 1b. In terms of your preference in clothes? D1 and D3: mas daring and liberated ngayon... we learned to flaunt our assets eh. Clothing preference? D4: Dati dati kung ano lang.. ano lang mahila sa cabinet. D1: Oo naman pero binabagay ko sa okasyon at lugar. D2: Nakakadagdag kasi ng self-confidence, 1c. In terms of your knowledge in fashion? D3: Nag iimporve. Tipong I am getting there kasi di naman ako expert...


1d. In terms of your fashion consciousness? D3: Syempre naman kasi may mga boys (laughs) D1: Usually kasi ang boys na-iinlove sa mga girls na palaayos and usually dahil sa pagbabasa ng fashion blogs, na eenrich yung sense of fashion namin and little by little we try to apply it. D2: Nasa stage kasi tayo ng pag eexplore, we try and try so long as we know our limits, until s sa kung saan yung bagay saatin. D3: Ang laking bagay ng pananamit, yung gagaling ka... kasi di naman sa pag aano ha.. pero yung mga di kagandahan? Dun nila nababawi eh, pag magaling mag ayos. D1: Dahil sa pagbabasa ng blogs, papasok yung realization na shocks! Kailangan kong mag –ayos na naayon dito sa city, well Manila to eh, and if possible.. sana we must have that constant effort to fix ourselves through the clothes we wear. Enjoy your body sa fashion . D2: Di na rin nasusunod yung ako to ako to, you have to improve yourself. D1: may iba kasing blogs, nagsasabi na ibagay ang sarili.. kasi for example nag damit ka ng formal... sa isang sitwasyon na dapat casual, well ang labas niyan, para tuloy pumangit ka. 1e. Others? Probe. Will you still subscribe to Fashion Blogs for the next years? Everyone: Yes... 2. As a student from a school which requires uniform, do you feel outdated with the trending clothes of today? Everyone: Hindi naman... D1 and D2: More like excited. More like may niloolook forward ang tao diba? Mas naappreciate nila pag hindi naka uniform kasi bago sa mata. Na minsan masasabi nila sayo na ‘Wow.. ang ganda mo pala..’ Kasi nakakasawa yung araw araw naka casual. I mean, what else is new na pwede mo i-offer sa mga tao sa paligid mo? ------ END -------

FGD # 4 School: Miriam College Participants: D1. Genica, 18 D2. Advent, 18 D3. Isabela, 17 D4. Inna, 18 D5. Anna, 18 Venue: Tea Place Katipunan Introduction Getting to Know the Participants What is your sense of style? -Boho -Feminine -Chic -Couture -Elegant -Bold -Sporty -Glam -Sophisticated -School Girl (Prep Style) -Nautical

-Goth -Earthy -Polished -Urban -Classic -Statement -Festival -Vintage -Other (Please specify: ____________)

D1: Classic.. wala normal lang. Hindi yung sobrang maaccesories. D2: Ako siguro urban na lang, Polished when I need to be formal and classic D3: Classic lang din because I like to be comfortable D4: Most of the time classic ako but there are times na Boho ako Who is your fashion inspiration?


D1: Wala. Kung sino lang yung fina-follow ko sa Instagram like Kryz Uy, Laureen... D2: Ayun same lang din ng kay Nica... Instagram din and yung bloggers. Pag International siguro more like yung mga Hollywood celebrities. Demi, Lily, Chloe . . . . . . D3: Wala... D4: Kung ano yung trending or sinusuot... kung ano yung binibigay ng mga tita ko. Gusto ko yung mga radical, yung kakaiba talaga. Yung para sa iba pangit siya pero saakin maganda. Like Earth colored clothes. How important is being (i., ii.) for you? a. Fashionable b. Looking good D1: Good looking. Kasi, kahit ano pang isuot mo kung pangit ka naman... Pag maganda ka pero pangit ka manamit parang maiintindihan naman yun... pero kung pangit ka pero maganda manamit parang... uhhh alanganin? D2: Agree ako kay Nica, kasi meron yung mga girls na kahit white shirt lang and shorts, pero maganda yung skin tone and hair nila, dalang dala nila yung simple na damit nila. D1: In short nasa nagdadala lang yan D2: Yes I agree D3: Uhm.. Good-looking.. pangit kasi maging hipon (Laughs) D4: Good looking kasi kahit ano babagay sayo D5: Same.. kasi kahit ang ganda ganda ng damit mo kung pangit ka.. ugh... How much is your budget for clothes? How frequent do you buy clothes? D1: Ako depende lang.. most of the time kapag lumalabas... so if that is the case.. 2-3 times a month lang ako lumalabas. And yun nga, di rin ako masyado mahilig mamili kasi naka uniform kami every time. D2: Pareho din with Nica, well kahit blogger ako... di rin ako mahilig kasi feeling ko mahirap lang kami. (Laughs) Kasi minsan sariling pera ko lang din yung ginagamit ko sa clothes ko... hindi ako nanghihingi.. so onti lang din talaga. And yung binibili ko yung magagamit ko talaga.. hindi yung impulse buying lang na bibilhin ko siya dahil uso siya. D3: Depende sa kung kailangan so kung ganun man mga 20% lang... ng monthlty allowance kasi yung iba parents ko naman bumibili or galing lang sa states. D4: Ako sobrang bihira lang talaga kasi bumibili lang naman ako pag tipong may lakad ako tas wala ng masuot.. D5: Never akong bumili para sa sarili ko.. sobrang dependent ako sa parents ko. Tipong may nagustuhan ako, sasabihin ko lang.. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Ma, bumili ako ng ganito.. bayaran mo..â&#x20AC;? (Laughs) Where do you usually buy clothes? Everyone: Thrift shopping... Divisoria.. D1: Green Hills, People are People and F21... D2: Online lagi.. plus F21 din.. Thrift.. Landmark... Nag Ukay ukay din ako minsan D3: Bazaare... Pag sa mall.. F21, Uniqlo, Cotton On or Mango lang D4: Bazaare tapos yung mga binibigay saakin.. Zara.. kasi maarte si Mama sa brand ng damit kasi quality means a lot so kahit minsanan sya bumili.. one time big time naman. Investment kasi ang clothes eh. D5: F21, Promod... Online shopping.. well kasi yung validity lies doon sa dami ng followers and test of reputation din yun.. Well it works through you depositing the money and them delivering the product. Meet-ups happen pero super risky... FGD Proper Warm Up Question/s: What is your impression when you see a fashion blog? D1: Mayaman, yung mga famous na fashion bloggers na Pinay, may sponsors sila internationally. D2: Impressed in terms sa writing nila. Na eexpand nila yung pag describe nila sa outfit nila. D3: Matagal pumili ng damit. Pag nakikita ko pictures kung pano nila kinuha yung clothes D4: Madami silang damit, and beauty and brains sila so nakakainggit D5: Ang ganda kasi nila di bagay sakin yung mga damit nila... What do you think of the blogger upon seeing her all dolled up? D1: Amazed. Pag nakita mo di naman bagay sating ordinary pero pag sila wow.. D2: Kudos , kasi yung simple white tank top or blazer, nabibigyan ng twist dahil sa galing nila mag accesorize. D3: Amazed and impressed. Maarte. D4: When i see them, uniqueness yung hinahanap ko. Radical, it is your statement eh. Non-conformist. Who among you here have a fashion blog? For those who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have, do you plan to have one?


D2: Dati, Lookbook lang... then may na encounter akong girl from HongKong.. 16 lang siya.. so nainspire ako sa kanya.. sariling sikap ko yung mga html dun ako lahat yun. I blog once a month, at most two months. I put travel photos, video diary, may emotions din pero super separate. May photogrpaher ako but sarili ko lang make up and style. D3: Na-iinspire and naiinggit ako. But ayoko kasi di naman ako mahilig bumili ng damit. Have you tried posting your own (#OOTD)? How did you feel?  D1: Yes... it feels good. D2: Nope more like food photography ako. D4 and D5: It feels good pag naappreciate nila. Part I. Reading habits/Preferences 1. How often do you read fashion blog/s? 1a. How many times in a month/? 1b. How many hours in a week/ day? D1: Pag naghahanap ako ng damit, i look sa blogs nila for sponsors or shops na pwede ko mabilhan sa mall. D2: Everyday.. pero lalo na pag nakita ko sa Instagram or Tumblr or Twitter ko na may bago silang post.. that’s when I go sa website nila all the more kasi mas detailed dun sa web nila. D3: Ako madami din kasi madami akong fina follow na online shop 2. What fashion blog/s do you read? D1: Kryz Uy, Camille Co D2: Patricia Prieto, usual bloggers and some international D3: Laureen Uy... and Cami.. and from Butuan na feeling blogger. Stephanie Dy... marielle something.. D4: Yung mga sikat na iba.. well hanap ko kasi BOHO so sila tinitignan ko pero di sila sikat eh. D5: Laureen... Why Laureen? D2: Magaling siya mag style, break my style talaga.. lahat kasi ata bagay sa kanya. Well may mga pieces kasi na out of place like yung mga neon or super flowery.. like saan naman namin isusuot yun diba? It takes reputation. 3. What content/information do you look forward reading/seeing? D1: Pictures lang... di ko binabasa kasi iba impact ng visual appeal saakin eh. Kasi di ako interasedo sa kwento nila... more like kung saan nila binili. D3: Everything... I read everything... kwento and pictures and how did they come up with such style. D4: Sinusulat.. naghahanap ng grammatical error. D5: Pictures and brief look sa write up ng pag style nila.Mga brands na hinahanap. D2: Well doon mo din makikita who are they wearing, usually F21, Gap, mga clothes from the Online Shops they endorse, and yung stuff from their personal closets or mga binibigay sa kanila. General fashion trends/products  Do you anticipate for the analysis of current fashion trends? D1: Parang wala lang..  Do you look forward to the posts about designers and their latest clothing lines? o Do you have your personal favourite designer? o If yes, what made you so fond of him/her? D2: Sam Potenciano, Pam Quinones, David Gainza Layout/pictures  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with well-organized pages and texts that are easy to read? D1: Ako gusto ko minimalist, dapat di maraming frails D2: Cute patterns pero it won’t over power yung blog, high quality photos... yung picture dapat siya lang yung focus... maganda yung lighting at naka accentrate yung mga suot niya. D3: Gusto ko ng mga colorful na mga damit. D4: Picture and background must come hand in hand.. pag winter alam mong ibang bansa. Ayoko ng super plain, like may twist. D1: Ayoko kay Vern and Vernice... well kasi sikat na sila. Dapat maging mindful sila sa quality eh... ayoko yung yellowish yung quality ng pictures nila.. D3: I hate Dani Barreto.. yung pagdadamit like what are you thinking? And naachieve lang naman niya yung status niya as a blogger dahil lang sa Barreto siya.. pero guys try niyo basahin blog niya? Full of grammatical errors... mag eenjoy kayo (laughs)


D2: And yes we get ideas from them as well and we sort apply it sa personal styling namin. Minsan ginagaya ko din talaga. I draw inspiration sa mga tao sa paligid ko eh like for now everytime I walk sa footbridge or kahit dito lang sa Katip... Advertising (i.e. advertisements/promos)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which provides advertisements for apparel, cosmetics, and accessories? D1: nakakainis kasi ang hassle.. it tends to discourage readers. Pero I understand na soruce of income nila yun eh... so part na pero as much as possible I don’t like seeing such... D4: Ako naiingit and naamaze kasi they get paid for doing the thing they love.. D5: But you have to admit na nakakasira ng momentum ang ads or kahit stealth pa yun diba....  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog contests and giveaways? D1: Ako I join for as long as I like the product they give away and yes I look forward sa kung anong maaoofer nila saakin or saamin pero ang nakakatamad kasi ang tideous ng process. D2: lalo na pag gadgets or concert tickets. D3: Para kasing walang nananalo eh... Street style and travel photos  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog features photographs of street fashions and urban wear? D2: Yes it is okay... I look forward to it becasue it gives voices sa ordinary people na nag shishine through their style. It’ls like the bloggers become a pedestal... di lang laging sila.  Do you look forward seeing travel photos? D1: Nakakainggit. D2: I find Kryz uy’s travel photos great so I look forward to that. It inspires simple girls like us. Nagiging dream namin siya. Blogger’s personal life  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features a description of blogger’s feelings and thoughts? D1 and D2: Kapag boyfriend okay lang.. like Love is cute thing.. love and fashion together is even cuter. Pero yung dull or sad.. medyo ang bigat sa dibdib kasi blogs they put you sa ideal realm... and suddenly nabuburst yung bubble mo... eh yun na nga lang yung escape mo from the fact na life is harsh and brutal. It’s nirvana... so sana wag na nilang ipagkait saamin yun by putting sad things. Let fashion be fashion... D3: Wag lang too personal. D4: Ayoko.. D5: Gusto ko kasi fashion is a means of expression. Part II. Motives for Reading Fashion Blogs 1. Why do you read fashion blogs? 1a. Aside from the content, what motivates you to continually read/visit fashion blogs? D2: entertainment, inspiration, knowledge, actually lahat lahat.. kasi para ka nading nagbabasa ng open book ng someone D3: more like entertainment and malalaman yung trends D4: Ayun pag wala lang magawa. Part III. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. How would you describe the effect of reading fashion blogs on you? 1a. In terms of your personal style? 1b. In terms of your preference in clothes? V: Help of fashion blogs over fashion preference? D2: Sobrang laking tulong.. well it is nbot the main factor pero sobrang laking tulong niya.. it made my style, preference and knowledge enriched. D1: Oo kasi ngayon yung sense of exposure ko na enrich.. and yung pressure to fit in? Blog is a big factor to see how to get in.. kasi yun na ang basis... 1c. In terms of your knowledge in fashion? 1d. In terms of your fashion consciousness? D4: Yes it made me really conscious kasi as I get older, I get to see the look that suits me and the style that matters. Fashion blogs playes a vital role in this realization of mine. 2. As a student from a school which requires uniform, do you feel outdated with the trending clothes of today?


D1: Not at all kasi may chance naman kami dito sa Miriam mag casual.. yun nga lang naka pants unlike sa other schools na strict straight yung uniform. ------ END -------

FGD # 5 School: University of the Philippines Diliman Participants: D. Dani, 20 E. Elle, 20 L. Leanne, 20 Venue: Jollibee Philcoa Introduction Getting to Know the Participants What is your sense of style? -Boho -Goth -Feminine -Earthy -Chic -Polished -Couture -Urban -Elegant -Classic -Bold -Statement -Sporty -Festival -Glam -Vintage -Sophisticated -Other (Please specify: -School Girl (Prep Style) ____________) -Nautical E – Uh. Ang hirap. (Laugh around) D – Siguro casual, girly. Mahilig ako sa may color. Yun kaya mo siya suotin pag nagcocommute ka, di ka mababastos. Pero di ganun ka-conservative (laugh around). Parang ganun.. Girly na comfortable (laugh around) pero di kabastos-bastos.. Yung kaya mo lang magcommute ganun.. pero di sobrang lola. L – Gusto ko one of a kind. There’s something different sa suot. Kunyare it’s either a top or bottom.. or sandals. Basta may isang item na may focus sakin. Tapos for everyday, pretty but practical. Yung feeling ko maganda sa paningin ko.. pero di ibig sabihin hassle siyang dalhin. Like yun magandang dress pero pwede mo siyang dalhin kahit san. For other details, gusto ko ng classic color. Katulad ng black, neutral colors like white.. Mahilig ako sa classic. D – Add ko lang. I think yun style ko unique din siya. Yun clothes na pwede ko pa ring suotin yearly. Kunyare 2013.. pwede pa rin pag 2014. Parang yun sakin is timeless. Kunyare white na top.. mga ganun. E – Dapat nirereflect niya yun mood ko.. Either, nirereflect nya yun mood ko o yun gusto kong mood. Kunyare ayoko pumasok I would dress up kasi mas feel ko na pumasok pag ok yun itsura ko.. so ayun. Classic pieces din na very practical. Pag may class, mga walang kwentang damit para comfortable. L – Add ko rin sakin. Mahilig ako sa print or pattern. Kunyare Aztec ganyan.. Pretty and practical.. that’s me. How important is (i., ii.) for you? Can you rate, in a scale of 1-10, and further explain? i. Looking good ii. Fashionable E – 6. I do not think we’re expected to be as fashionable esp at this point of your life when you’re supposed to concentrate on other areas. But of course, it is important in special occasions to look good. But on certain days, you can dress any way you want. D – Depends. For me being fashionable not so important but looking good yes. Example you’re wearing fashionable clothes like skater skirts but you do not look good.. For me being fashionable is not that important pero looking good.. Looking good, decent, not looking bad.. is important cause it can help your self-esteem. If you feel good about yourself you’ll be more comfortable presenting.. If you’re


bothered with your looks, di ka masyado makakafocus with what you’re doing. For me, mas important yun looking good. To be fashionable – 5. To look good – 7. L – Pag sinabing fashionable, meron kang conscious effort na mag-experiment ng sarili mo and you look good.. Kasi may iba na nag-eexperiment pero di looking good di ba? For me dalawa siya ha.. nageexperiment ka tapos pangalawa, napapaganda mo yun sarili mo. Fashionable and look good – 9. What’s the one point? L – Ako kasi, sige aaminin ko na, ako kasi yun tipo ng taong di basta huhugot ng damit. Gabi pa lang inaayos ko na kundi malalate ako. Kasi importante sakin na feel ko yun damit ko e. Okay siya ganun. Kasi mahalaga sakin yun image and stuff. Yun less one point, kasi may mga araw na lazy days.. so wala kong conscious effort na mag-ayos ganyan.. wala kong pakialam if I look good.. How much is your budget for clothes? E – Ayoko ng magastos sa clothes. I think we’re transitioning sa working girl.. so ayoko munang mag-invest masyado. Pero pag may event na pupuntahan or something.. splurge naman ako. Are you the one buying your clothes? E – No. Parents. How often ka na may bagong damit? E – Once a month D – Ako may conscious effort na di lang sya gagamitin for a year. Lalo na pag corporate attire siya, medyo splurge ako dun.. Pero yun alam ko ngayong college ko kang sya gagamitin, kahit sa Greenhills lang ako bumili okay na. D - Siguro in a year, 4 items na pang long term. Pag yun college lang, since cheaper siya, at least every month or every time na may makita akong bagay sakin. Pero siguro mas madalas ako bumili pag summer, Christmas, and sem break.. or kung may sale. How frequent and where do you usually do you buy clothes? Do you make it a point na every month or walang schedule? D - I think walang schedule pag may kailangan o nagustuhan lang ako. Kunyare pag may nakita akong suot niya na gusto ko ay bibili din ako. L – Ako, I only buy clothes when I have extra money from my allowance. Second, I always make sure that it’s always worth the price.. so hangga’t maaari na may mahanap ako na ganung damit sa pinakamababang presyo.. maghahanap talaga ako. Parang ganun.. di ako nagshoshop ng branded clothes cause I know it’s not worth it. And I can see the exact style.. kaya nagshoshop ako ng damit sa tiangge, sa bazaar ganyan. Kasi same print, same size, at lowest price. Since limited lang yun resources ko so kailangan ko talagang masulit siya. Yun parang for the lowest price mas marami yun quantity na makuha ko.. parang ganun. Sa ngayon branded 100 percent quality, oo, pero mas importante sakin yun marami siya kesa isa lang siya. Mas importante sakin.. variety talaga.. and one of a kind. D – Ako din ayoko ng masyadong branded unless magagamit ko pa siya in the future. FGD Proper Part I. Reading habits/Preferences 1.How often do you read fashion blog/s? 1a.How many times in a month? 1b. How many hours in a week/ day? E: Everytime I have a break, probably twice a week. D: Ako not so often, once every two weeks. L: Well for me kasi, intensive.. mga once a week lang siguro.. pag may leisure time lang talaga.. 2. What fashion blog/s do you read? D: Kryz Uy E: Tricia Gosiengtian, Camille Co, Vern Vernice, Martin Bektas, well I don’t know if it’s considered a fashion blog.. 2a. From the blogs /bloggers you’ve mentioned, which of them do you often read or follow the most? D: Walang specific, parang wala naman.. kung ano lang yung makita ko or yung ma browse ko... ay yung PINTEREST.. not sure kung... parang di yun blog eh... uhm wala in specific pero yun random random lang. LookBook ba hindi (fashion blog)? L: Ms.Jones.com, BreakMyStyle ni Laureen Uy 3. What content/information do you look forward reading/seeing? General fashion trends/products D: mas nagloolook forward ako sa articles na d ilang pang fashion kundi related pa sya into something else..


Blogger’s personal life D: I don’t like looking at blogs na may selfies ng fashionistas kaya siguo wala akong finafollow na blogs kasi gusto kong basahin yung blogs as a whole na parang may articles about faahion hindi yung gaya nung kina Krizz Uy di ako gaanong nagtatagal kasi more often than not it is all about them... L: Well kasi una yung kay miss jones kasi travel and fashion and yung travel kasi may back story siya kaya mas naappreciate mo pag ganun yung content kesa yung plain OOTD lang kasi parang may meaning or story yung clothes nya as compared to Laureen Uy na plain OOTD lang... Blogger’s daily outfits D and E: well yung OOTD di siya ganun ka useful ... pero minsan nakaka distress syang tignan.. minsan naka inspire na din as a means of empowerment Part II. Motives for Reading 1.Why do you read fashion blogs? E: Uhm to be honest, To see yung pretty pictures of pretty people. D: past time, kapag ka walang magawa. I read such to past time and in a way I also look at blogs to know the culture of bloggers kasi sila yung people of the youth dahil sila usually yung nagbloblog and before pala triny ko mag fashion blog well although kasi ang peg ko dun is that I want to revolutionalize fashion blogs so that i’ll know what to not do. L- First, again, for inspiration. Inspiration since I love mixing and matching for inspiration like colors and patterns.. well di ko naman ginagaya exactly pero yun to get an idea. Para may idea ako kung ano na yung next na pwede kong suotin. Second, minsan bigla na lang nagaappear sa newsfeed ko. Sa Facebook, for example, kasi may direct link to ganitong website so automatic na sya sakin na tignan sya. Will it be your same answer if I ask you, what motivates you to continually read/visit fashion blogs? L - Yeah. Kasi the more you read mas lumalawak yun options mo na nakukuha mo. L – Never ending search for inspiration. IV. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. How would you describe the effect of reading fashion blogs on you? 1a. In terms of your personal style? 1b. In terms of your preference in clothes? 1c. In terms of your knowledge in fashion? Let’s say before you haven’t read fashion blogs compared now that you were exposed. E - Hmm mas careful na ko magdress. More inspired and put together when you go out. Parang mas okay yun style mo. E - I became aware of what to wear and what not to wear. Like trends. E – Kasi you were exposed to trends kahit di mo gusto. May rules kahit di mo gusto. L – Yun rules although not explicitly stated pero meron siya. For example you wear horizontal stripes to make you look fuller or bigger in size and vertical stripes to make you taller. Tapos normally di pwede nagmimix ng patterns. D – On the contrary, nakikita ko yun trends in real life like sa school ganyan. Sa tingin ko yun blogs di ko alam kung yun bay un source ng mga tao sa trends or it’s the other way around.. napapakita lang ng blogs yun trends ngayon. For me, di ko nakukuha yun trends sa blogs. Pero somehow nacacapture pa rin nila yun trend o mas malaki pa rin yun impact ng paligid? D – Oo parang it just a medium that presents what’s happening. Feeling ko di sya yun source ng trend. So parang regardless kung anong nakikita mo dun.. Tinitignan mo kung anong mag-aapply sayo. Finifilter mo.. Parang ganun ba? E – Di naman.. We know naman that trends come from other countries din.. Minsan nirereflect lang din ng bloggers yung ano.. So parang yun mga tao na ahead dyan.. Nakuha lang nila yun ideas from fashion blogs abroad.. kaya nauna na rin sila. At the same time yun bloggers and followers finofollow din nila so nakikita mo agad yung immediate environment. D – Although di lang ako convince na yun blog yung source. L – Ako tinitignan ko lang sya para makita yun trend. E – Baka narereinforce nya lang pero di sya yun source. 1d. In terms of your fashion consciousness?


Every now and then do you continuously check kung tama bay un suot mo. D – Ako, I can say yes, although di yun blogs yun may gawa nun. Siguro mas may effect pag yun nakikita mo sa public place lang. ------ END -------

FGD # 6 Schools: University of Sto. Tomas and Centro Escolar University Participants: D1. Ria, 18 D2. Eyteen, 19 Venue: Kihvan Cafe (Espana) Introduction Getting to Know the Participants: What is your sense of style? -Boho -Feminine -Chic -Couture -Elegant -Bold -Sporty -Glam -Sophisticated -School Girl (Prep Style) -Nautical

-Goth -Earthy -Polished -Urban -Classic -Statement -Festival -Vintage -Other (Please specify: ____________)

D1: Vintage, sophisticated, D2: I range from pin-up to boho... goth, funkish recently... How much is your budget for clothes? D1: If i have ipon, i spend 5,oo0-7,000 in a month D2: I am thrift shoper.. i buy in ukay so I don’t spend a lot. I spend sa shoes.. so 3k for a month is enough How frequent do you buy clothes? D1: Once or twice a month D2: When there is an event, like when I need to buy.. or if pag may sale.. then that is when I buy Where do you usually buy clothes? D1: The Ramp, F21, Online... D2: Divi, Makati, GH, every Sunday sa Collective, you can buy stuff per piece and sobrang gaganda. FGD Proper Warm Up Question/s: What is your impression when you see a fashion blog? D1: Wow... gusto ko damit niya kaya hinahanap ko saan nila binibili yung clothes niya.. Yung sister ko din kasai mahilig sa damit eh. D2: If it is a good blog, and I can see how every element is mixed so well.. i feel like,, shut up and take my tears. Usually when I see them, I feel bad about myself kasi she dress so nicely and why can’t I? But I feel like.. hey! One day? I will be as good as that. I get envious. What do you think of the blogger upon seeing her all dolled up? D1: Nakakainggit.. but at the same time nakaka inspire. Kasi you can get their style.. and plus points yun sa closet mo D2: So pretty... I begin to question mtyself if I can pull this off. Who among you here have a fashion blog? D1: Tumblr... but is not active.


Do you have plans of having one? D2: I have been meaning to but I dont have a good cam and it is pressuring me to buy a lot of clothes.. and most of all i can’t take people saying that I repeated that piece.. and I avoid spending a lot because I used to spend a lot before. D1: I will activate my blog in the future. I could post a lot of things naman ngayon pero ang trabaho kasi so I opt sa insta and facebook muna. After school, after pharma and the boards, I will activate it. Have you tried posting your own (#OOTD)? How did you feel?  D1: People like it and they admire the way I dress.. nakaka boost ng confidence. D2: It built my self-esteem because people admire what i am wearing and how I wear it Part I. READING HABITS 1. How often do you read fashion blog/s? 1a. How many times in a month/? 1b. How many hours in a week/ day? D1: In a week, 2-3x.. D2: Everytime I go online... I make time to read.. I check lookbook if I don’t remember the URLs 2. What fashion blog/s do you read? Ask for them the name of blogger/s and title of the blog/s. 2a. From the blogs /bloggers you’ve mentioned, which of them do you often read or follow the most? Ask them to name at least one and why? (If possible) D1: Kryz Uy,.. Camille Co, Laureen Uy, Arvin Arguel D2: The same as hers, the girl with ano... yah Prieto girl.. I check Ria’s blog but it’s not updated. Foreign? D1: Well Camille Co, her style is unique and she is very succesful.. and designer din siya sa Cebu.. D2: Laureen Uy tops my list because she styles so well and writes so well too. Aside from the pictures, i am interested with what she writes plus affordable ang clothes niya. D1: Yeah because yung kay Camille super mahal...shut up and take my tears! 3. What content/information do you look forward reading/seeing? General fashion trends/products  Do you anticipate analysis of current fashion trends?  Do you eye websites that feature where to purchase the clothing products in the fashion blog? D1: Photos and where they buy. But I don’t imitate.. I just admire.. But both of us ni Eyteen, when we see a trend sa blogs.. we don’t conform eh.. more like we think of a unique way to stand out.. it’s like she sporting a purple hair.. so we color ours blue. Sila (bloggers) yung nagsasabi na eto yung standard... eto yung in ngayon.. so kami.. oh okay.. let us not conform. D2: we care sa yung gusto namin. D1: It is okay it is trending but at the end of the day, we are to decide. So everyone is wearing Aztec? I will wear... stripes. In my opinion kasi if you conform, di ka papansinin kasi paulit ulit or gasgas na.. di ka mag tretrend.. so if I wear otherwise.. I will be the one to trend but because of my own style. But don’t ever copy or imitate  Do you look forward to the posts about designers and their latest clothing lines D2: what she’s wearing... Non-clothing information  Do you look forward seeing “how to” articles or advice on cosmetics, hairstyles, accessories, and apparel? D2: What she’s blogging about and the hair she is sporting  Do you look forward seeing information on health and exercise topics? D1: No.. because fashion blogs must consist of who you are wearing, what you wearing... and why are you wearing it.. D2: Ako I think health and wellness is okay in the fashion blog... i mean you need to be healthy in order to sport a good outfit... I mean as a reader I look forward sa mga regimens niya to maintain such Goddess form... I am not conding or condemning people na plus plus or under plus plus.. but as a blogger.. you should be fit.. kasi may katayuan na siyang kinakatayuan as a babae. Just because the society says na you should be extra skinny.. it is nice na fashion bloggers state na being sexy is different from being healthy... Layout/pictures  Do you look forward reading a fashion blog with well-organized pages and texts that are easy to read?


D1: Dapat ang blog maganda sa mata.. simpler the better.. easy to navigate. D2: ang pangit ng sobrang tacky na ang daing nangyayari na color loaded siya.. na you have to scroll scroll and do this or that to see a single fucking picture. I prefer to see a blog na it is all there.. simply there.. no complications but simply divine. Dapat hindi tiring. o Can you name a blog that you think possesses a well-organized layout? D1: I like that of laureen’s, Kryz, and camille.. Advertising (i.e. advertisements/promos)  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which provides advertisements for apparel, cosmetics, and accessories? D1: I understand na it should be there but I don’t personally like it.. as much possible.. less less less.. D2: Yeah I agree.. basta related sa fashion.. pero mga plugging wag sana. Ads are guides eh. What i am saying is that... it makes the shopping easier...  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog contests and giveaways? D1 and D2: Yeah, sometimes. Street style and travel photos  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog features photographs of street style and urban wear? D1: Okay lang din.. D2: How about the privacy diba? But it is a good styling way... that it ensures the readers na the street is a run way too.. it is captured.. it is close to real.  Do you look forward seeing seeing fashion blog that has travel photos? D1: I like it and I look forward to it because they bring us to the other part of the world in style... it is plus plus eh.. you see the place and you get an idea kung paano maging maganda sa lugar na yun.. D2: I like seeing bloggers in the plane na super haggard nila (laughs).. Stolen? Grammatical errors too.. nakaka taas ng esteem to see them have a mistake. But photos during travel. Nakakainggit kasi maganda sya, yung suot nya and yung place. Fashion news/events  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog that features fashion weeks, gatherings, and special events inside the fashion industry? D1: Yes I prefer that.. I’ve been sa Bench event.. i like it when they feature sa blog kasi it intensifies yung repuation nila as bloggers D2: yes it adds credibility... kasi updated siya with what is in and not... Blogger’s personal life  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features a description of blogger’s feelings and thoughts? D1: So so. I care about the style eh.. all the more.. D2: So so.. once I get attached parang ang hirap eh.. kasi you are one with them... it is like fashion and emotion must be a separate space diba.. but what can we do... we are mere readers... goes to show that at the end of the day,. after all the glamour.. life sucks too. D1: Yes, may separate avenue for emotions.. pwede yan sa twitter and insta pero yung sa fashion blog.. spare na lang sana.. D2: Fashion is political if you will come to think of it eh.. what if the blogger feels fashionably depress kaya she opted this shoes or clothes.. you know.. it is a bit tricky.. Blogger’s hobbies/interests  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which tells about the interest/s of the blogger? D1 and D2: why not, lalo na kung fashion related hobbies. Pero dapat in moderation... not naman every hour or every minute kasi posting something everytime lessens the anticipation. Or better ilagay na lang nila yung over all hobbies nila sa ‘about me’ ng blog.. Moreover, we aim about the clothes and style... okay lang pero not madalas. Kaya nga there is twitter and Insta. Blogger’s daily outfits  Do you look forward seeing fashion blog which features posts of the blogger regarding what she wears for the day? #OOTD D1 and D2: Yeah..


Blogger’s comments/suggestions  Do you look forward seeing fashion blogger’s comments and/or suggestions regarding certain clothes and fashion trends? D1 and D2: Fashion problems.. it is okay and it is good.. Part II. Motives for Reading Fashion Blogs 1. Why do you read fashion blogs? 1a. Aside from the content, what motivates you to continually read/visit fashion blogs o From the contents found of fashion blogs, which do you find most useful? D2: The style, the affordability of the clothes,. the mixing and matching.. D1: Photos.. tapos yung who is she wearing... what, why and wear.. yun lang.. Ws na yun ang vital. Part III. Fashion Clothing Involvement 1. How would you describe the effect of reading fashion blogs on you? 1a. In terms of your personal style? 1b. In terms of your preference in clothes? 1c. In terms of your knowledge in fashion? 1d. In terms of your fashion consciousness? 2. As a student from a school which requires uniform, do you feel outdated with the trending clothes of today? D1: Ako no kasi meron namang weekends... Yung skill naman of mixing and matching andun lang within us eh... not wearing doesn’t make us less fashionalble... in fact mas maganda pa nga yung effect if may level of anticipation. D2: I don’t feel outdated, kasi I don’t follow the trend. Mas updated kami kasi when we make porma.. It’s like.. sagarin mo na. If we dress up, we dress up.. 3. Does being enrolled in a school that requires a school uniform intensify your interest to look into fashion blogs or not? D2: I don’t think my uniformness has something to do with how I am interested with my reading fashion blogs. ------ END -------


"The beauty of a woman is not in the clothes she wears, the figure that she carries, or the way she combs her hair. The beauty of a woman is seen in her eyes, because that is the doorway to her heart, the place where love resides. True beauty in a woman is reflected in her soul. It’s the caring that she lovingly gives, the passion that she shows… the beauty of a woman only grows with passing years." — Audrey Hepburn

(Source: famousfashionquotes.tumblr.com)


Your Style Handbook