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AUTISM EDUCATIONAL CENTER

autism speaks. it’s time to listen.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: 1-10 CHAPTER 2 HISTORIOGRAPHY: 11-18 CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDIES: 19-38 *PART 1 1: 21-24 *PART 2 2: 25-28 *PART 3 3: 29-32 *PART 4 4: 33-36 CHAPTER 4 DESIGN GUIDELINES: 39 -48 CHAPTER 5 TOPICAL RESEARCH:49-60 CHAPTER 6 EXISITING CONDITIONS: 61-68 CHAPTER 7 PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT: 69-76 CHAPTER 8 BUILDING ANALYSIS: 78-86 CHAPTER 9 PROJECT RESEARCH: 87-92 CHAPTER 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY & APPENDIX: 93-100


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PROJECT INTRODUCTION & DESIGN

CHAPTER ONE:


“Most of the time I don’t find Autism to be the struggle, I find other people’s understanding of Autism to be the struggle.” -Unknown 3


ASD, otherwise known as Autistic Spectrum Disorder, is defined as, “a developmental disability characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication by restricted or repetetive patterns of thought and behavior.”1 No two cases are alike, which is something that most people do not know. The Autism spectrum is a wide spectrum that can vary from high functioning individuals, to very low functioning individuals. Classroom learning as well as therapy are two important aspects of the developmental stage for children to have ASD, that is why designing a center for children with ASD is important. Today, Autism centers are funded by the government, therefore it is easy to overlook architectre on such a tight budget. However, the more research and information that is being discovered shows how the world of architecture and design are finally starting to catch up to years of research indicating how important quality design is for Autism. “Architecture for Autism could be a breakthrough for children with ASD.”2 There are many examples today of different centers that are poorly designed, and the effect they have on the children who spend their days in those rooms. When it comes to design choices such as lighting, the children can become very sensory irriated by the buzzing of lights that individuals without ASD do not notice. The brightniess iteself of the lighting, or the colors and patterns of the finishes can affect individuals with ASD in a negative way

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MODERN ADVANCES Sean Alquist, an architect from Michigan, is designing therapeutic structures for children with ASD. He is helping these individuals with their sense of touch, and how much for to apply to an object by creating tensile fabric that tests motor, auditory, and visual feedback. Magda Mostafa, and is currently designing centers all over the world for individuals with ASD. She created the ASPECTSS Design Index to help guide design decisions as well as “to score the autism appropriateness of a built environment post occupancy.4� In other words, Mostafa is doing research on how to design for individuals with ASD, and giving buildings a score out of 10 that identifies how well the building was designed around the needs of individuals with Autism.

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“The picture below is the advance school for developing skills of special needs children which is the first building worldwide to be designed using the sensory design theory aspectss design index.� 5 This was designed by magda mostafa. As you can see, there are many amazing advances in the world of architecture for individuals with ASD. however, there are still a lot of changes that need to be made.

The objective was todesign with a purpose, to bring awareness to the autistic community and how important it is to increase the government funded budget of these incredible buildings. it is important to show how thoughtfully designed an autism center for elementary school children can really be, and how it can have a postive psychological impact on the children when within these spaces.

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THE DESIGNER’S ROLE

The role of an Interior Designer is extremely important when it comes to projects such as an Autism Center. There are many different design choices that need to be made, and made with a purpose. Such as, you cannot design an Autism Center that has long corridors because the chance of a student running down the hall, or getting anxious when in a long stretch of space is a very common occurring problem these facilities have. It is also up to the Interior Designer to pick specific furniture and finishes that will not overwhelm their client, but instead work with the teachers and therapists to get their job of calming a student down, or not making them overly anxious and over stimulated.

SUSTAINABILITY

Today, designers are trying to use finishes and design choices that help the environment, not hinder it. Therefore, sustainability will be a factor that is brought into this project. However, it could be believed that this idea of sustainability will in the end help the users of this facility because it will feel like a cleaner, healthier, more breathable environment. Individuals with ASD are more aware, and more in touch with the environment around them, and by bringing in materials that are sustainable to the environment, the users will have a sense of a healthy environment which will have a calming effect.

CLIENT & USERS

The client of this building will be the Autism center itself. Their mission is to deliever an environment to their students that make them feel comfortable, secure, and safe. Their overall goals will influence the designers in their choice of design decicions. The users of this building will be elementary school children, ages 5-11. Their needs will help guide the design of this project because they can be put at risk in a poorly designed facility.

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Demographics

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Socio Economic status as well as demographics will not play a role in this center, strictly for the fact that Autism does not discriminate against race, gender, or class.


ENDNOTES

1.Zach “Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Dictionary.com. Accessed September 02, 2017. http://www.dictionary. com/browse/autism-specturm-disorder?s=t. 2.Mortice, Zach. “Architecture for Autism Could Be a Breakthough for Autisistic Kids.” Redshift. December 09,2016. Accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/architecture-for-autism/. 3. Mortice, Zach. “Architecture for Autism Could Be a Breakthough for Autisistic Kids.” Redshift. December 09,2016. Accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/architecture-for-autism/. 4. An Interview with Magda Mostafa: Pioneer in Autism Design.” ArchDaily. October 08,2013. Accessed August 27,2017. http://www.archdaily.com/435982/aninterview-with-magda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autismdesign. 5.“ An Interview with Magda Mostafa: Pioneer in Autism Design.” ArchDaily. October 08,2013. Accessed August 27,2017. http://www.archdaily.com/435982/aninterview-with-magda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autismdesign. 6.“An Interview with Magda Mostafa: Pioneer in Autism Design.” ArchDaily. October 08,2013. Accessed August 27,2017. http://www.archdaily.com/435982/aninterview-with-magda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autismdesign. 7.“Financial Assistance.” Autism Speaks. July 24, 2012. Accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.autismspeaks. org/family-services/community-connections/financialassistance

IMAGES

1.http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/525/ dissociative-identity-disorder-overview-and-currentresearch 2.https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stockphoto-confused-clever-brain-image8081405 3.http://wangy-wagnols-transcript.blogspot. com/2016/03/anonymous-opfakeanons-crucial-update. html 4.https://www.pinterest.com/jana840406/frei-otto/ 5.http://www.archdaily.com/801690/these-architectural-playscapes-are-designed-to-provide-therapyfor-children-with-autism/58552b56e58ece1f9600018bthese-architectural-playscapes-are-designed-to-provide-therapy-for-children-with-autism-photo 6.http://www.archdaily.com/435982/an-interview-withmagda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autism-design 7.http://www.progressiveae.com/interiors-for-memory-care/ 8.http://clipgoo.com/ja/220152105/to/220152/ 9.https://www.123rf.com/photo_31708226_stock-photo. html

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HISTORIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER TWO:


EARLY DESIGN CHOICES 13

When it comes to architectural history of Autism centers, Autism centers are mainly designed like medical facilities, therefore we can use the history of medical facilities to compare to modern Autism centers. In medical centers, the usage of materials, lighting, and finishes did not play a large role in the design because they did not know it would affect the individuals psychologically as much as they

truly do. Medical centers have been around for hundreds of years, and date back as early as the 6th century . It is surprising to read information regarding these medical facilities, because much of the design they had back then, they still use a more modern version of those designs now. Take for example the rooms themselves, some of the earliest medical facilities had rooms that were about 13’x13’ in dimension.


with views of courtyards while the rich had more opportunity to have private rooms, or even house calls.1 Since medical facilities were first designed in a religious time, many of the floor plans included a cross-like figure that were often times attached onto churches or cathedrals. Some hospitals or medical centers that did not have as much funding oftentimes were large open areas with hundreds

of large open areas with hundreds of terrible ventilation, and dirty conditions. It is evident that there were many different types of medical centers, which we still see today.2 However, something that remains true today, the use of connection to outdoor space positively effects patients. Views of outdoor space positively effect the demeanor of individuals with ASD. Psychology, outdoor space makes individuals feel a sense of comfort and relaxation.

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early autism education 15

Individuals with Autism were not allowed to receive public school education until the late 1960s. Before this time, individuals with ASD were neglected and often made fun of, creating environments that were not suitable for them in the education system. They were believed to bethe odd ones out, not normal, and incapable of learning, therefore the schools were

not required to have education set up in place for individuals with ASD. “John F. Kennedy passed a law that made it possible for the state to be aided by the government to provide education for disabled children.”3 This is the time when individuals were viewed as more than having a disability. This is the time when education centers made the move to incorporate design that aided to individual’s with ASD needs.


site conditions

When it comes to site conditions, Autism centers are generally located in more suburban settings. This is because of the individual’s hypersensitivity to their surroundings. When put in settings with loud cars rushing by, sounds of horns, and thousands of people walking, this suddenly becomes very overwhelming for individuals with ASD. The idea of crossing busy streets, or getting lost in a city is enough to make individuals have a meltdown Therefore, most Autism Centers are in areas that are away from busy streets and located in the suburbs, away from city life. The surrounding area of quiet and nature helps the students calm down. Giving them sufficient outdoor space where they can have their therapy sessions, or outside class time puts them in a calmer state of mind.

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PRECEDENT 17

Netley Primary School Autistic Unit in London was built to be a “turn of the century Autism Center, designed for the students to help therapy and teaching that occurs in the building.”4 However, when Arch Daily wrote an article about their experiences visiting this building, it was not a positive response The floor to ceiling windows that were designed became way too distracting for the students, therefore the employees used paper to cover up the windows.5 “The lesson for future projects seemed obvious; limit views and adjust the lighting accordingly.” 6


ENDNOTES

1. “The History of Hospitals and Wards.” HCD Magazine. March 10,2010. Accessed August 31, 2017. http:// www.healthcaredesignmagzine.com/architecture/history-hospitals-and-wards/. 2. “The History of Hospitals and Wards.” HCD Magazine. March 10,2010. Accessed August 31, 2017. http:// www.healthcaredesignmagzine.com/architecture/history-hospitals-and-wards/. 3. Raiti, Author Christina. “Evolution of Autism in Public Schooling.” Educ 300 Education Reform Past and Present. Accessed August 31, 2017. http://commons. trincoll.edu/edreform/2014/04/evolution-of-autism-inpublic-schooling/. 4. “Architecture for Autism: Exterior Views.” ArchDaily. April 04, 2012. Accessed September 01, 2017. http://www. archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autism-exteriorviews. 5. Architecture for Autism: Exterior Views.” ArchDaily. April 04, 2012. Accessed September 01, 2017. http://www. archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autism-exteriorviews. 6. 6. “Architecture for Autism: Exterior Views.” ArchDaily. April 04, 2012. Accessed September 01, 2017. http://www. archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autism-exteriorviews.

IMAGES

1. http://www.blog-lavoroesalute.org/2015/12/ 2.https://www.baypines.va.gov/BAYPINES/about/history/history4.asp 3. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/65231894580501860/ 4. https://postgrado.ufv.es/tag/abogacia-2/ 5.http://www.tomkimbersmith.com/kimber-smithmakes-strong-return-to-gt-racing-aboard-factoryginetta-gt3/ 6.http://www.greatbusinessdebate.co.uk/news_item/ whs-the-great-business-debate-diversity-and-inclusion-spotlight-about/ 7.http://www.archdaily.com/223076/architecture-forautim-exterior-views 8.http://www.archdaily.com/223076/architecture-forautsm-exterior-views

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CASE STUDIES

CHAPTER THREE: 20


3.1 the center for autism

overview

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When walking into The Center for Autism, it was evident that this project was a mid to low construction budget. Many of the exisiting conditions from the previous medical center were kept, making the design choices of this Autism Center unjustified since it was geared more towards a hospital setting. There are three floors that make up this autism center. The basement level being more of a meeting area for employees, the ground floor more of evaluation rooms and therapy rooms, and then the top floor with more classroom space. This center is located in Philadelphia, in a very urban setting located near City Line Avenue. This center was placed in a residential neighborhood, making it look slightly out of place. The socio-economic conditions are mostly middle to low class.


The design concept was to keep as much of the exisiting medical facility as possible. When looking at this building from the outside, as well as the inside, it feels as if you’re stepping into a medical facility. This is because the previous building was a hospital, therefore the designers and architects kept a lot of those preexisting conditions. The shape of the floor plan, as well as the finishes that were chosen are along the lines of a hospital design concept. Since the center is quickly running out of space for students, the organization of the floorplan lacks. There was no thought of expansion, therefore the center is forced to take away adjacencies of the floor plan so they can convert them into more evaluation rooms or therapy rooms. Since the adjacencies were being taken away, it was hard to navigate through the floor plan and understand what the floor was specifically used for. The wayfinding is also part of the design that lacks. It was very easy to get lost in this building because the rooms were not labed. There were not signs around the halls helping you navigate through the building. When it came to materials and finishes these decisions were better though out for the most part. When the walls did have color, they were very muted shades of blue or green in order to calm the students. The upholstery and carpet had minimal patterns on it which is helpful to prevent overstimulation. However, the hallways lacked contrast by using white laminate flooring with white walls. The overhead lighting was extremely bright, and in some rooms the use of floor lamps had to be used in order to be able to shut off the bright lights. The light choices also gave off a buzzing sound which irritates the students.

Design Concept

Interior Design

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post occupancy

The post occupancy survey was helpful within this facility to understand how the users feel throughout the day. Most of the feedback that I had gotten was centered around small design choices that made a big impact. Most of the users said they wished they had control over the air temperature. They said that having a severely cold or hot room irritates their students and causes meltdowns occasionally. Therefore, having individual thermostats in each room would be helpful. Others in the building brought up great

points about door handles and door swings. They recommended having barn style doors in order to have a closed door but still access to view what is happening in that room. Also, offices downstairs had no access to outside views, which the employees said they did not like. They wish they had offices on higher floors with windows. Finally, the most important topic that was brought up was the usage of lighting. The employees of the building said they wish they had lighting that could be changed with a dial in order to accomodate the different sensitivites.

Diagrams and floor plan images

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with ASD feel walking around this building since they are more susceptible to confusion and frustration. Many employees mentioned the usage of lights, and how they wished there were different rooms that accommodated different levels of lights. They also wish they had control over air. Employees brought up a point about how having an overly cold or hot room can aggravate the students with ASD that are using these rooms. Therefore, having individual thermostats in each room would be helpful.

evaluation

I felt as if the layout as well as some of the finishes were an after thought since they do not work with the users of the building. A lot of the walls were white with white flooring, which psychologically drives individuals with ASD to become irritated because of the lack of contrast. The contrast between the rooms were poor, as well as the wayfinding. If I was put in that building to find my way around by myself, I would never be able to figure it out. Therefore, I can only imagine how it must make the students

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3.2 the kinney center

overview

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The Kinney Center had recently been renovated in 2009 by a company called Flatiron Building Company. This highlevel construction budget was paid for by fundraisers and donations that the college held. This project is located on a college campus, however used for young children. Overall, this project was designed for young children, incorporating heavily contrasted colors and the use of patterns that would resognate well with children. This center is located in Philadelphia, placed in a quiet space on Saint Joseph University’s campus. This center is protected by a long road that has a security gate in order to get into the parking lot of this center. The center is located around Drexel Hill, which serves as a very high class setting. Therefore, the high budget was used to help the center blend in with the wealthier surrounding areas.


Overall, the concept was to design a more modern, hypersensitive aware design for young children with Autism. Many of the design choices were made to accomodate children with Autism, and each of the decisions were appropriate. The concept was to keep more of the private office spaces in the back of the house, while the public Something that was surprising throughout this building is the use of heavy contrasted colors. There are many research articles talking about how heavily contrasted colors can irritate invididuals wtih ASD, however Danielle, the woman who provided the tour, said she does not typically notice that the deep reds, blues, and yellows effect the students, however she can see how they could with other students.. When in the office areas and circulation paths, more neutral colors were used with highly contrasting carpeting that distinctly showed the difference between the wall and the flooring. Most of the upholstery in the waiting and reception area had busy patterns on it, however the patterns were used in neutral and toned down colors. Lighting throughout this center was very well thought out, the architects chose a type of overhead light that could be dimmed, as well as a light that did not give off that small buzzing sound that individuals with ASD are hyperaware of. The floor plan of this building was well thought out, making it easy to find your way throughout the building. Appropriate adjacencies were placed near each other, which made navigating throughout the space not stressful since there was a sense of the area that you were walking through. Since this building is extremely small, there were no wayfinding signs.

Design Concept

Interior Design

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post occupancy 27

The post occupancy was slightly helpful with this buiding. It was only slightly helpful because most of the employees felt the same way I did about the building. It was a very well thought out, beautifully designed space. However, one aspect that the employees did not like was the use of glass throughout the building. The employees said that when students can see them through glass in a different room, the students become noticiably upset because they do not understand why their teachers are not in the same room as them. An aspect of the design that the employees appreciated was the different light types that were placed throughout the space. The employees said it is extremely helpful that they are able to control the level of brightness the rooms have, and they said this was helpful because all of their students have different sensitivity levels when it comes to lighting. Employees were also excited about hte security room that was placed in this facility because it gives them a chance to look over the children, but also allow the parents to come in and see the work that the teachers are accomplishing with their children.


evaluation

Overall, I think the design of this center was very appropriate and helped define the work that occurs in this center. The floorplan was laid out appropriately, and most of the finishes were also appropriate. However, the only thing that I would think of changing in this building would be the wayfinding. There was no wayfinding throughout this building, so for an outsider to come in I would have gotten lost if I was not following around an employee the entire time. Another thing that I would change would be the sensory room. This sensory room served as a meltdown space as well as a sensory room, which are two opposite types of rooms that should be separate. It was evident that they should be separate, because Danielle was explaining to me that during a meltdown, a student ripped down projectors that are used for sensory activities. If the two rooms were not added together, the meltdown room would have strictly soft surfaces and not expensive technology placed throughout like a sensory room has.

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3.3 The Center for autism and Developmental Disorders

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It has been mentioned before that putting an autism center in the suburbs is more of an appropriate move because of the sensory issues individuals with ASD can experience in an urban setting. This autism center is located in the suburbs of Maine, surrounded by trees, grass, and very limited buildings. It is tucked away off of a main street, allowing for easy access into the building, but still tucked away enough that the students will not be distracted by the sound of cars rushing by.

Setting

Although the architect does not talk much about the style of this project, it is mentioned how this facility was designed to look like a medical facility. “This outpatient clinic brings together all of the providers that a child might need in a medical home/team-based environment.�2 Looking through the images that the architecture firm provided, it is apparent that they wanted this to look like a medical facility. There was no carpeting that was used throughout this whole entire building, only white laminate floors were provided in every room. There was also small contrast between the white floors and the beige colored walls, making the space look extremely sterile and slightly depressing. The ceilings were typical 2x2 acoustical tiles with overhead lighting that emulated the type of lighting you would see in a medical facility. The classrooms have small amounts of furniture in them, making them look like they cannot hold many students in one room. Most of the classrooms only held a few desks with computers and a bookshelf placed in the room. There was absolutely no color added to the wall. Even the private office areas are poorly designed, practically only placing a table with a few chairs around a TV screen.

Interior Design

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evaluation

Overall, I am very impressed by the layout of this building. Each room clearly had a function and stuck to that function unlike some of the other case studies that were looked at. The rooms were laid out in a way that was easy to maneuver for an outsider. There were no long corridors, which would help the individuals with ASD because they commonly feel overwhelmed in long hallways. Adjacencies also helped the design of the building, placing rooms that needed to be close together within the same hallway. Although I liked the floor plan of this building, I did not like the finish choices that they chose. Within this building, I felt like I was in a hospital. This is a common issue with Interior Design when it comes to Autism, and I do not think that this is necessary. I felt like the students were there to get treatment, not to get education and therapy sessions. Therefore, I would have added more color and material choices that contrasted the different rooms. I would not add in so much laminate floors everywhere, and possibly add in carpet or a soft toned wood. Overall, it looks like more work went into the floor plan than the design, so I would hope that if this architecture firm took another shot at this project they would try to focus more on the interior design aspect.

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3.4 The Center for autism and Developing brain

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overview

The Center for Autism and Developing Brain located at 21 Bloomingdale Road, White Plains, NY 10605. Overall, this building is designed to work with individuals with Autism and other developmental disorders.1 This project was 19,500 sf in total and designed by DaSilva Architects. This project was a $3.2 million dollar budget project that was completed in 2013. 2 Overall, this project was completed in a way that worked with the services that this company has to offer. The overall floorplan is extremely symmetrical, supporting the facts about individuals with ASD who get lost and confused within floorplans that are symmetrical and linear. The design of this building did not try to compete with the services, instead it was harmonious with the services and design.


The setting for this type of work is one of the most important aspects of an Autism center. It is important to locate the center away from any busy roads, particularly roads within the city. is The Center for Autism and Developing Brain has a wonderful located in a secluded part of the suburbs. This building is located off of a residential road, surrounded by many trees and acres of land. This building is tucked away from any major roads that are within this area, therefore creating a serene and peaceful setting for the individuals with ASD.

Setting

“Although DaSilva never design for autistic children, principle Jacques Black tells me they worked to convert a ramshackle gymnasium into a comfortable environment for autistic kids by paying close attention to texture, acoustics, and lighting conditions.3” The design concept of this project was not only to create a comfortable space, but make the children feel as if they are in a story. This entire building is designed to have animated-like features, such as artificial ceiling tiles in the shape of clouds and skies, as well as creating little “huts and houses” within the building. There are some spaces throughout this building that also connect you to the outdoors, putting in benching throughout the building as well as gardens and green spaces to mimic the concept of a park.

Interior Design

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lighting

Finishes & color

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The use of lighting in the project quickly became an important aspect of the design. This became an important aspect of the design due to the individual’s hypersensitivity to light. The architecture firm focused on using as much of the existing building as possible, which included large gymnasium windows that they could use to their natural light advantage. They were able to use the windows to their advantage instead of distraction points because they were “six feet off the ground, therefore gave the children a gentle feeling of the outdoors without actually exposing them to what’s happening outside.”4 The usage of lights that were dimmable were also an important aspect to the lighting design because it gave the employees an opportunity to adjust the lighting depending on the students they are working with at the time. This center used a majority of different colors, however the usage of the colors they chose were muted down tones. For example, many of the walls were painted blue and green, however instead of using bright, vibrant choices of the blues and greens, they chosen a duller tone instead of a brighter one. The usage of light toned woods also came into the design choices, creating a lighter atmosphere for the individuals with ASD. There was a lot of usage with natural materials such as wood, cork, rubber, and porcelain. “This gave a happy medium to the two extreme ends of ASD.”5 The usage of carpet instead of linoleum also looks to be a design choice that the designers decided to use.


evaluation Overall, I was extremely impressed with the design of this building. I felt as if all of the design choices were very well thought out and were determined to fit the needs of the users of the buildings, and not determined to fit an aestetically pleasing guideline. The finishes and furniture that were chosen also fit the overall design of the building and did not feel out of place. I thought that the floor plan was laid out in a way that would be easy to navigate when walking throughout the building. As someone who has never stepped foot inside this building, I now want to go visit this site. The adjacencies, as you can see in the colored floor plan, made the area cohesive and easy to walk through, having rooms that needed to be close to each other within the same overall area.

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ENDNOTES

1.“The Center for Autism and Developmental Disorders.” E4H Architecture is a healthcare architecture firm. Accessed September 21, 2017. http:www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/67The_Center_for_Autism_and_Developmental_Disorders 2.“The Center for Autism and Developmental Disorders.” E4H Architecture is a healthcare architecture firm. Accessed September 21, 2017. http:www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/67The_Center_for_Autism_and_Developmental_Disorders 3.”Center for Autism and the Developing Brain.” Megan Meyers, AIA. Accessed September 29, 2017. http://meyersarch.com/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain/. 4 .Brownlee, John. “How To Design For Autism.” Co.Design. May 02, 2017. Accessed September 29, 2017. https://www. fastcodesign.com/3054103/how-to-design-for-autism. 5.Brownlee, John. “How To Design For Autism.” Co.Design. May 02, 2017. Accessed September 29, 2017. https://www. fastcodesign.com/3054103/how-to-design-for-autism.

IMAGES

1. http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-thedeveloping-brain 2. Google Maps 3.Original Image 4.Original Image 5.Original Image 6.Google Maps 7.Original Image 8.Original Image 9. http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166-Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain 10.Google Maps 11. http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain 12. http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain 13. http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain 14.Google Maps 15. http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain 16. http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain 17. http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-andthe-developing-brain 18. http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-andthe-developing-brain 19. http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-andthe-developing-brain 20. http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-andthe-developing-brain 21. http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-andthe-developing-brain 22. http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-andthe-developing-brain

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DESIGN GUIDELINES

CHAPTER FOUR:


When it comes to Interior Design, it is important to understand the type of building you are designing and what type of individuals will be entering the space. Designing a space that fits the needs of your users will increase comfortability as well as positive visual feedback. However, it is even more important to design appropriately for the needs of the individuals with ASD sice they are more in tune with their environment compared to individuals without ASD. Nowadays, we tend to overlook design for Autism because we do not understand the types of environments that are appropriate for them. “Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder are part of a growing population that is usually ignored in design. The needs of those with ASD are excluded entirely from all building codes and design guidelines.”1 Individuals with ASD crave an environment that is easily adaptable. “Individuals with ASD tend to over overwhelmed in spaces they cannot adapt to, causing negative behavior.”2 Our knowledge of design for Autism begins with the basics: qualitative and technical research.

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distracted by the outside environment. When it comes to artificial light, lighting that does not give off a flicker or buzzing sound is a necessity for these areas. “High frequency flourescent ballasts that do not flicker or buzz should be used in classrooms.”5 Just like the importance of light control with natural light, it is equally important with artificial light as well. Having the ability to dim lights or brighten them can help adjust to the different spectrum disorders. A student who has incredibly high sensitivity to light

lighting

Individuals on the spectrum either have an issue of distraction when it comes to visual sensitivity and focusing highly on visual detail, or they can have an intolerance to focusing on movement.3 Therefore, lighting is a very important aspect to focus on when it comes to how an individual will perceive a space. “Environments that only have artificial illumination and lack natural light increase stress and discomfort.”4 Therefore, by incorporating a mixture of artifical and natural light within the space, it will decrease meltdown that individuals with ASD may experience. It is important to incorporate the usage of windows, however providing shading control over the windows is important so the students to not get

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Acoustic Control 43

“Auditory sensitivity is experienced by a high percentage of children with ASD.”6 Since many children with ASD experience sensitivity to sound, it is an important aspect that interior designers need to consider when designing these spaces. A great way to prevent sensory overload when it comes to noise is to design sensory integration spaces. These rooms are spaces that help teach the children to gain a tolerance towards the nosie that can be painful to them. These rooms provide headphones for students to listen

to digitally modified frequencies.7 Other different design choices can be found in materials and finishes. Avoiding hard materials on surfaces and choosing to use sound-absorbing panels and tiles instead. Using carpet as well as wood products can also have sound absorption tendencies that will help the individuals with ASD have a better sense of noise control Architecturally wise, there are other design choices that you can make such as ceiling height. “Ceiling heights from nine feet to tweleve feet tend to create the most ideal acoustic conditions.”8


columns and views in a way to spark memory in an individual will help them remember their way throughout the building. Using architecture as a form of wayfinding can also be helpful, installing a beautiful form can spark their sense of memory. However, the easiest way to figure out wayfinding for individuals with ASD is changing floor pattern between spaces in a way that is not too distracting. “Ceiling heights, wall colors and textures, and variation in light also help this group determine changes in spatial levels from public to private.”10

wayfinding

Designing wayfinding and signage for individuals with ASD is extremely different than desinging for individuals without this disability. “People on the spectrum rely on the sense of touch to make their way through spaces.”9 Therefore, using typical signage and wayfinding will not work in Autism Centers. Instead, consider using patterns, textures, and settings to help guide an individual throughout a space. Even using patterns, textures, and settings in repeating various spaces will help guide individuals throughout the spaces. Making predictability and permanance a top priority is important, therefore carefully laying out

44


ergonomics

Ergonomics is an important aspect to design when trying to make the users comfortable in your space. “Investing in ergonomics can help to increase the health and wellbeing of personnel.� 11 When it comes to ergonomics, it is not about how your user will adapt to your environment, but how the environment can adapt to the users to suit them. To obtain this goal, User Centered Design (USD) is the design process that look at to determine a

45

range of design methods.Some of the most important ergonomic aspects to consider are reach as well as posture. It is important to incorporate comfortable seating that will influence good posture for the students as well as staff within these buildings. They will be using seating during therapy and classroom time, so potentially spending a lot of time sitting down. Specifying seating that can shape to the user of the chair will effect ergonomics in a positive way.


ADA, or Americans with Disabilities Act, is the most important aspect of design that needs to be considered every time. Especially when it comes to Autism, ADA design is especially important for these individuals. Students with Autism can have a wide range of disabilities, they would be fully capable of walking, in wheelchairs, or even have canes. Individuals also have a hard time determining spaces around them, and their own spatial area, therefore taking into dimensions of walkways and circulation spaces is important. When it comes to vertical clearances, all clearances should be at least 80 inches minimum. This will prevent individuals from walking into stairs or other vertical features. Guardrails and

barriersshould be implemented anywhere that this clerances is not met. When it comes to individuals in wheelchairs, forward reach can only be 48 inches maximum with a minimum space of 15 inches off the floor. Another important aspect is level change. Any change of level between 1/4inch and ½ inch high needs to be leveled with a slope no steeper than 1:2. Also, handrails must be added on ramp runs as well on stairways. They need to be provided on both sides of the stair/ramp. “A maximum height of 28 inches measured to the top of the gripping surface from the ram surface or stair nosing is recommended.â€?12 Turning space needs to be no smaller than 60 inches for wheelchairs to make the full spin. When it comes to hallways, corridors should be no smaller than 5 feet in width.

universal d e s i g n 46


47


ENDNOTES

1. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 2. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 3. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 4. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 5. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 6. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 7. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 8. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 9. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 10. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 11. Guidelines for design and construction of health care facilities. Chicago, IL: ASHE (American Society for Healthcare Engineering of the American Hospital Association), 2010. 12. Guidelines for design and construction of health care facilities. Chicago, IL: ASHE (American Society for Healthcare Engineering of the American Hospital Association), 2010.

IMAGES

1. https://onqinsider.hilton.com/Insider/OnQLogin/Login. aspx?APPURL=%2finsider%2flinks%2fPingSSO.aspx%3fre sume%3d%252fidp%252fbaWGn%252fresume%252fidp%2 52fprp.ping%26spentity%3durn%253asharepoint%253alob by.hilton.com 2.https://pixabay.com/en/users/Bess-Hamiti-909086/3. 4.https://www.armstrongceilings.com/commercial/en-us/ commercial-ceilings-walls/wood-ceilings.html 5.https://www.officespacesoftware.com/blog/5-ways-officedesign-and-wayfinding-impact-productivity 6. http://thebackstore.com/shop-by-product/recliners.html 7. http://accessadvocates.com/2010-ada-standards-for-accessible-design-atms/ 8. http://accessadvocates.com/2010-ada-standards-for-accessible-design-atms/ 9. http://accessadvocates.com/2010-ada-standards-for-accessible-design-atms/ 10.https://www.amazon.com/VZNeanc-Bluetooth-Headphones-Cancelling-Computer/dp/B074QNDH7P

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49


50

topical explorations

CHAPTER FIVE:


When it comes to Interior Design, individuals do not realize the effect a design of a space can have on them mentally and physically. Most people think that designers will pick design features that look nice, completely disregarding intesive research that the designer did to come to their final design conclusions about how their design will make people react. There is a reason why designers design the way that they do, and it is to instill positive feelings in the users that will make an impression. They want individuals to feel a certain way within their space, and that is why researching human centered design, light and color, and connection to outdoor space is important.


human centered design

Human centered design is described amazingly by the published book, “Designing for Autism Spectrum Disorders.� This book contains real life case studies that work well with Autism design, and why the users of the building feel comfortable and at ease in those spaces. When it comes to psychology, Interior Design is a creative way of design that can positively affect someone’s thoughts and emotions. However, this is even more true when it comes to individuals with ASD since they are more in tune with their emotions and environment. In order to design for someone psychologically, you need to understand them and their needs. It is important to understand that with individuals with ASD, they are more prone to negative emotions and over stimulation. Therefore, being careful with design choices is important so they do not get frustrated in the spaces they are in, ending in negative emotions. something to take into consideration, most individuals have a hard time when it comes to social interaction. They get overly anxious and very uncomfortable when put in situations with many people surrounding them, or just one individual they may not know. Therefore, it is important to design break out spaces where the individuals with ASD can go to be alone, and have quiet time to themselves. Most designers design for human interaction, but because of the stress it can cause for individuals on the spectrum, designers need to limit the use of interaction within their design.

52


human centered design 53

Possibly creating small nooks throughout the space would be a good idea to give the individuals with ASD spaces they can easily access when starting to get socially over stiumlated or too stressed. “Consider designing a room students can claim as their own, it gives them a sense of authority and significance in a space.”1 Human behavior is something that should be taken into consideration for all interior design projects. However, it is even more crucial for individuals with ASD because their sensitivity or lack thereof. Therefore, taking into consideration specific design choices for acoustical, autditorial, and visual privacy spaces will have “the biggest impact on individuals with ASD.”2 Another aspect that could be important when it comes to human behavior is designing a sensory overload room that the individuals with ASD could retreat to when they are overstimulated, but also give teachers an opportunity to keep an eye on them. These rooms could be filled with calming effects such as soft music, soft lighting, and comfort pillows. Also, incorporating sensory objects to enhance stimulation for those who are under stiumulated would be helpful in order to make those individuals feel more comoftable within a space. These examples of different design choices are ones that designers would typically not make in a space that is not designed for Autism, therefore it is imperative to implement these ideas correctly within a space to help individuals with ASD feel safe and calm.


lighting

As touched on earlier in this book, many individuals with ASD experience either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to light. Some individuals wtih avoid light all together because it is too painful, while others are unable to see the presense of sunlight. Since the individuals can have a hard time experience light due to pain or lack of sight, it is important to design a space that can change to fit the needs of these different sensitivities. “Lighting is one of the most important components of design and one of the factors that most greatly influences how a space will be perceived.�3 In this Autism center, it is going to be extremely important to have a mixture of artificial and natural light and to consider control when implementing these ideas. Natural light is going to be important in this desiign because the repetitive use of artifical light could increase stress and discomfort, and also effect the performance of the students within the space. However, the use of too many windows could also be a distraction for the students. Therefore, being careful with the use of natural light will be essential. Either placing windows high enough that students cannot see out them, or having window treatments that can block the view outside, but still be transparent enough to let in light. Artifical light is also important to incorporate within a space, but using flourescent lighting can cause flicker with the light and poor behaviors within the students. This flicker can cause many physicological issues such as headaches and eye strain.4 However, there are different light types that you can choose to not see this flickering or hear the buzzing sounds given off by the fixtures. Choosing LED sources instead of flourescent fixtures can help productivity and concentration. However, choosing the right light bulb is not where the control should stop. It is important to include light dimmers wtihin the space to adapt to certain individuals that are perceiving the space.

54


color 55

Individuals experience emotional and psychological responses to color, therefore choosing the right colors within a space will give you the ability to influence individuals and how they feel within those spaces. It is important to understand color and and how it can make individuals react to spaces when used. Warm colors on the color wheel advance in space and make the room appear larger, while coolor colors will start to recede in space 5. Connecting color back to lighting becomes imperative because the type of lighting used in a space can and will change colors that are chosen. Different lighting can wash out your colors, or make them appear more vibrant, therefore understanding how the color reacts with the lighting you are using is something that should be considered. When it comes to individuals with Autism, it is important to use color in a cautious way. Sensitivity that individuals with Autism experience can heighten their emotions, and make them feel overwhelmed in spaces. Therefore, moving away


color

from large amounts of color and moving towards using it in subtle, accent pieces will have a positive psychological impact on individuals with ASD. When color is passed throughout our eyes, our brain releases hormones that effect our mood, mental clarity, and energy levels 6. Therefore, when individuals are more sensitive than others these physiological reactions will become heightened. “Children on the lower functioning end of the spectrum prefer red colors, round shapes, and sound/ light equipment while the higher functioning end prefers blue and circular shapes�7. Therefore, subdued color schemes will have a positive effect on individuals with ASD. Introducing certain colors is going to be imperative in the design process. Green colors will invoke a sense of tranquility because it typically makes people feel connected to nature. Blue will make individuals feel calm and serence, while orange invokes feelings of excitement and warmth. There are also colors to avoid, such as yellow because it can create feelings of frustration while red causes agression.8

56


57

By creating an outdoor garden for individuals with ASD to use, it can positively influence their mood because they can then start to tend for the garden and start to use their hands. By exercising hand muscles, individuals with ASD will feel productive and like their time is being put to productive, good use. Having more hands-on work for the students will provide them with tactile support that can help the students feel as if they have a better understanding of the environment around them and what it takes to keep it alive. However, it is going to be imperative that just like the interior spaces, the garden also gets a lot of thought when it comes to different plans that will be used. The individuals with ASD will still have the same sensitivity to the texture of plans the way that they do to textures within the building. If not thought out properly, this will cause many breakdowns and stress that will start to upset the individual as well as individuals around the upset student. Wayfinding should also be taken into consideration. Showing the student where different plants are within the garden will help them become familiar with their surroundings, making them feel comfortable within this garden.


Having views to the environment from the indoors, or putting outdoor environments inside will be imperative to create a tranquil demeanor within the students in the building. “As few as three to five minutes of exposure to nature can provide individuals with positive physiological effects of nature.”8Creating these moments of exposure to nature can help individuals feel connected with the outside world, even if they are relating to it through the indoors. It becomes imperative to incorporate the environment indoors as well as outdoors because just like stated before, the Autism spectrum is so wide that you may not know which your student would prefer. Some individuals may become stressed when put in situations with bright lighting and unfamiliar noises. Cognitive Biophilia is going to be another aspect that gets brought into design when the outside environment is used. The natural world aids in the development of children and their ability to cognitively process information. This is described in Blooms’ theory as, “The natural world greatly aids emerging capabilities because it affords numerous opportunities for stimulation and engagement for ordering basic information and ideas.” 9

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59


ENDNOTES

1. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 2. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 3. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 4. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 5. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 6. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. 7. Color Psychology: How Colors Impact Moods, Feelings and Behaviors. “How Does Orange Make You Feel?” Verywell. Accessed October 21, 2017. https://www.verywell.com/ the-color-psychology-of-orange-2795818. 8. Color Psychology: How Colors Impact Moods, Feelings and Behaviors. “How Does Orange Make You Feel?” Verywell. Accessed October 21, 2017. https://www.verywell.com/ the-color-psychology-of-orange-2795818.

IMAGES

1. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-andspices/health-benefits-of-dandelion.html 2. https://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankingsarticles/university-subject-rankings/top-universities-psychology-2017 3. https://www.creativekidslearningcenter.com 4. https://officesnapshots.com/2015/02/10/macys-com-sanfrancisco-offices/ 5. https://clearsightmusic.com 6. https://www.123rf.com/photo_27634763_colorful-ink-inwater-abstract.html 7.https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g150812-d8388974-Reviews-Mia_Spa-Playa_del_Carmen_Yucatan_Peninsula.html 8. https://www.houzz.com/photos/modern/patio

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61


62

SITE, CONTEXT, CIMATE, ZONING

CHAPTER SIX:


After researching psychology within Autism design, it became apparent that the site that is chosen for this project also needs to make the users feel safe and secure the way the design does. Therefore, the site that is chosen in this project is 6 Herndon Avenue, located in Annapolis Maryland. The reasoning behind why this building was chosen was because of the site, location, as well as the building shape. 6 Herndon Avenue is located in a residential area within Annapolis, sitting on the coast of the Chesapeake Bay. It is a quiet, secluded location which will give the individuals within this space an oasis to retreat to in order to feel safe and calm.

63


This town that is adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay is a quaint, small town that embodies many of the characteristics of a smaller township. The architecture around the Chesapeake Bay resembles old, colonial type architecture to enhance the concept of a small-town ambiance. The site of this building is in a secluded area, away from the business that a town can bring. It is pulled away from any roads so the sounds of cars and horns will not affect the children within the facility. The sophistication of this town will influence the center to have the same type of sophisticated design, as well as incorporating natural materials and colors that beach towns and colonial architecture usually embody.

city & town

Located near the Chesapeake Bay, the town of Annapolis, Maryland is heavily focused around using the water for trade and industries. This is very much so a town that relies heavily on the resources of the bay in order to bring in profit as well as tourism. It is a fairly small town, making up about 39,000 people out of almost 6 million people that live in the state of Maryland.1 The median age within this area is about 39, therefore this area is prone to a lot of families with younger children. Since the demographics will mostly bring in small children within the community, this area will benefit from having an Autism center that caters to younger children since about one in sixty eight children are diagnosed with Autism.

64


street 65

This building is located right off of Herndon Drive, further down a private road that leads to the entrance of this facility. The surrounding area of this site holds many residential neighborhoods, and only one other commercial building, which is a pool shop, within a few miles of this site. Most of the houses that are in this surrounding area are two level, family homes. The most outstanding feature of this site is going to be the views to the Chesapeake Bay. The site lands right on the coast, therefore having accesses to the beach in the back of the building. There are no obstructed views of this bay, creating beautiful scenery and secureness around the building. Since this building is surrounded by many residential homes, it would make sense for this building to emulate much of the residential feel. Although this site was an old factory, the interior of this building should take into consideration the colors that are found around this area as well as incorporating similar materials that are used on the surrounding homes.


climate analysis

Because the Chesapeake Bay is located right next to this site, this area is going to be experiencing a humid subtropical climate. Therefore, this climate is very moderate, but will experience hot summers as well as cold, snowy winters. Precipitation is fairly normal, giving the bay and rivers the chance to fill up and supply the state with continuous trade. This town also embodies a beach-town

street analysis

The neighborhood that this site falls into is an extremely wealthy and safe neighborhood. Most of the wealth that gets brought into this area is due to the high levels of trade the Chesapeake Bay brings into this area. This site is also located within a wealthy, upper middle class residential neighborhood. The number of individuals that fall under the poverty line in this area is about 5%.2 This neighborhood is predominately white, as well as a high population of Hispanic and Asian families in this given area. 3

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67


ENDNOTES

1. Demographics | Annapolis, MD. Accessed November 03, 2017. https://www.annapolis.gov/875/Demographics. 2. “Annapolis, Maryland (MD) Poverty Rate DataInformation about poor and low income residents.” Annapolis, Maryland (MD) poverty rate data - information about poor and low income residents living in this city. Accessed November 03, 2017. http://www.city-data.com/poverty/povertyAnnapolis-Maryland.html. 3. “Annapolis, Maryland (MD) Poverty Rate DataInformation about poor and low income residents.” Annapolis, Maryland (MD) poverty rate data - information about poor and low income residents living in this city. Accessed November 03, 2017. http://www.city-data.com/poverty/povertyAnnapolis-Maryland.html.

IMAGES

1.https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/452822937511330956/?lp=true 2. GOOGLE MAPS 3. http://www.betsydunigan.com 4. http://plus.usgbc.org/in-the-leed/ 5. GOOGLE MAPS EDITED BY ME 6. GOOGLE MAPS EDITED BY ME 7. https://www.cnbc.com/2015/06/30/maryland-has-openedfor-business.html

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69


program development and documentation

CHAPTER SEVEN:


VESTIBULE SECURITY WAITING

RECEPTION

ANCILLARY

CONFERENCE NOOK

MEETING PRIVATE OFFICE BREAK ROOM

MUSIC

NOOK NOOK GARDEN CAFETERIA

NOOK

PT & OT

PT & OT NOOK

71


adjacency matrix 72


quantitative data

Room Name

73

Qty

S.F Each

Total S.F.

VESTIBULE

1

100

100

RECEPTION

1

1200

1200

WAITING AREA

1

400

400

SECURITY

1

200

200

PRIVATE OFFICE

3

1650

4950

PRIVATE BATHROOM

1

700

700

BREAKROOM

1

325

325

MAIL AND FILE

2

325

650

MEETING ROOM

2

350

650

MULTIPURPOSE JANITOR STORAGE MECHANICAL

1 3 6 2

600 50 300 80

600 150 1800 160

CLASSROOM

8

1500

12000

PT

2

1000

2000

OT

2

1000

2000

SENSORY

1

100

100

GARDEN SPACE NOOK

1 12

10000 180

10000 2160

MUSIC THERAPY

1

1000

750

COMPUTER

1

750

750

Adjacencies

Privacy (visual or acoustic)

RECEPTION, WAITING, VISUAL SECURITY VESTIBULE, WAITING, VISUAL SECURITY RECEPTION, VESTIBULE, VISUAL SECURITY VESTIBULE, RECEPTION, VISUAL WAITING AREA BATHROOM, MAIL FILE, VISUAL BREAKROOM PRIVATE OFFICE, MAIL FILE, VISUAL BREAK MAIL FILE, BATHROOM, VISUAL PRIVATE OFFICE PRIVATE OFFICE, VISUAL BATHROOM, BREAK MULTIPURPOSE, JANITOR, VISUAL STORAGE, MECHANICAL MEETING, JANITOR, VISUAL STORAGE, MECHANICAL MECHANICAL, STORAGE VISUAL JANITOR, MECHANICAL VISUAL STORAGE, JANITOR VISUAL PT, OT, SENSORY, GARDEN, MUSIC THERAPY, COMPUTER VISUAL LAB OT, CLASSROOM, SENSORY, GARDEN, MUSIC, COMPUTER VISUAL PT, SENSORY, GARDEN, VISUAL MUSIC, COMPUTER LAB PT, OT, SENSORY, GARDEN, MUSIC THERAPY, COMPUTER VISUAL LAB PT, OT, SENSORY, MUSIC, VISUAL COMPUTER CLASSROOM, CIRCULATION VISUAL PT, OT, SENSORY, VISUAL COMPUTER, GARDEN PT, OT, SENSORY, MUSIC, VISUAL NOOK

Acoustic Criteria (A,B,C)

Lighting

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

B

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

C

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

C A A A

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

C

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

B

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

B

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

C

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

B C

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

C

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

B

Perception

R


Room Name

Proxemics (1,

Color

2, 3, or 4)

Indoor Air Quality

4 None

Plants

RECEPTION

4 Neutral

Plants

WAITING AREA

4 Neutral

Plants

SECURITY

3 Neutral

Plants

PRIVATE OFFICE PRIVATE BATHROOM

2 Neutral Color 1 Neutral

Plants

BREAKROOM MAIL AND FILE

3 Neutral Color 3 Neutral

Plants Non VOC paint

MEETING ROOM

2 Neutral

Plants

MULTIPURPOSE JANITOR

3 3 3 3 2

Air Circulation Non VOC paint Non VOC paint Non VOC paint Non VOC paint

STORAGE MECHANICAL CLASSROOM

PT

OT

Neutral Color Neutral Neutral Neutral Neutral Color

2 Neutral Color

2 Neutral Color

Non VOC paint

Non VOC paint

SENSORY

1 Neutral Color

Non VOC paint

GARDEN SPACE

3 Neutral Color

NOOK

1 Neutral Color

Plants Plants, non voc paint

MUSIC THERAPY

3 Neutral Color

Plants, non voc paint

COMPUTER

3 Neutral Color

Plants, non voc paint

Thermal Comfort

Environmental Qualities

None Shading devices, temperature Data/voice, telecomm adjustment Sustainable Material Shading devices, temperature Data/voice, telecomm adjustment Sustainable Material Temperature data/voice, telecomm adjustment Sustainable Material shading devices, temperature adjustment, data/voice, telecomm operable windows Sustainable Material Plumbing, power shading devices Sustainable Material shading devices, temperature adjustment, data/voice, telecomm operable windows Sustainable Material data/voice, telecomm None Sustainable Material Temperature Adjustment, data/voice, telecomm operable windows Sustainable Material shading devices, temperature data/voice, telecomm, adjustment, plumbing operable windows Sustainable Material plumbing None Sustainable Material plumbing None Sustainable Material mechanical None Sustainable Material Data/voice, telecomm shading devices, Sustainable Material shading devices, temperature adjustment, Data/voice, telecomm operable windows Sustainable Material shading devices, temperature adjustment, Data/voice, telecomm operable windows Sustainable Material shading devices, temperature adjustment, Data/voice, telecomm operable windows Sustainable Material Temperature None Sustainable Material adjustment Temperature Power Sustainable Material adjustment shading devices, temperature adjustment, Data/voice, telecomm operable windows Sustainable Material temperature adjustment, shading Data/voice, telecomm devices Sustainable Material

Ergonomics

Wayfinding

Future Trends, Permanence, &/or Growth

Remarks

Signage

Seating

Signage Signage

Seating

Signage Signage

Seating

Signage Signage

Seating

Signage

Seating

Signage

Possible worker growth

Possible worker growth

Signage

Growth of kids

Seating, work materials

Signage

Growth of kids

Seating, work materials

Signage

Growth of kids

Seating, work materials

Signage

Growth of kids

qualitative data

VESTIBULE

Power, mech, HVAC, data/voice, telecomm &/or plumb'g needs

Signage Seating

Signage

growth of kids

Seating

Signage

growth of kids

Seating

Signage

growth of kids

74


75


ENDNOTES

IMAGES

1. http://bagsjar.com/interior-designer/interior-designer-interior-design-for-home-remodeling-classy-simple-and-interiordesigner-home-improvement/ 2. https://www.vmdo.com/img/projects/additional-images/discovery-elementary/K12_APS%20Discoverynew_1_A_updated. jpg

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78

BULDING ANALYSIS, CODE, REGULATIONS & STANDARDS

CHAPTER EIGHT:


BUILDING ANALYSIS

The Chesapeake Bay Foundation Philip Merrill Environmental Center 32,000 sq ft / 16,000 sq ft per floor Architect: Smith Group JJR Annapolis, Maryland Floor to Ceiling Heights: 10’-0”

79


Since this building is LEED certified, the concept of this building was to stick with natural materiality throughout the building, and apply it in a modern but nature-like way. The overall concept of the exterior of this building was to use the natural wood, but mix it together with a more industrial type of architecture by also using steel. This type of architecture was carefully chosen to relate to different buildings found around Annapolis and the industrial type buildings that you would find next to trade and fishing towns.

Architecture & Interior Style

The structural systems used within this building are columns, as well as truss and beams running throughout the second floor. Long span trusses were used in the areas where columns were not implemented. This building was finished with glazing on the exterior, with the natural wood being incorporated as framework for the glass.

structural systems

This environmental building was the first building in the world to be LEED Platinum Certified. Since this is a LEED certified building, many reused finishes were used throughout. Natural wood as well as reused concrete flooring was used throughout the interior, as well as the wood on the exterior. On the interior cork, bamboo, and linoleum were also recycled products that were used. Other recycled materials on the exterior is the steel on the siding of the building, as well as the roofing. This building also offers opportunites when it comes to catching rainwater with the three rainwater catchment systems that are incorporated and the compositing toilet systems. Solar panels and a ground source heat pump system are other sustainable features of this building.

sustainability & materials

80


visual building analysis

2nd floor

1st floor


wind analysis

sunlight analysis

solid vs void analysis

82


code regulations and standards

Building Code Information:

83

Zoning Ord: C2 (Conservational commercial building) Fire Code: International Fire Code 2012 Building Code and Date: International Building Code 2012

Zoning Code Requirements:

Land Use Zoning: Institutional Max. Allowable Height: Two stories Existing Parking: Yes

Use Group Classification: Business Group B

Business Office:

Total Gross SF: 90 +/SF Per Occupant: 150 Number of Occupants: 1 Min. corridor Width: 36”

Multipurpose Room:

Total Gross SF: 400 SF Per Occupant: 15 net Number of Occupants: 23 Minimum Corridor Width: 72”

Means of Egress:

Sprinklered Dead End Limit: 50’-0”

Classroom Area:

Total Gross SF: 4,000 SF Per Occupant: 20 Number of Occupants: 150

ADA Regulations:

Turning radius of 5’-0” Reaching distance no more than 17” Minimym knee clearance of 8” Hand rails reach past stairs 12” min


Kitchen:

Sanitation:

Male/Female % Split: 50/50 WC Male: 5 WC Female: 15 Urinals Male: 4 Lavatories Male: 4 Lavatories Female: 4 Drinking Fountains: 4

Conference Room:

Total Gross SF: 250 +/SF Per Occupant: 15 Number of Occupants: 14 Min Corridor Width: 36” Exit Access Travel Distance: 250 +/-

Fire Exit Enclosures: 2 Hours Shafts and Elevator Hoistways: 2 Hours Tenant Space Seperations: 2 Hours Smoke Barriers: 30 Minutes Corridor Fire-Resistance Rating: 1 Hour

Library:

Total Gross SF: 1,400 +/SF Per Occupant: 50 Number of Occupants: 28 Minimum Corridor Width: 72” Exit Access Travel Distance: 250’-0”

Fire Class:

Fire Class: A Ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth, trash, and plastics

code regulations and standards

Total Gross SF: 200 SF Per Occupant: 200 Number of Occupants: 1 Min. corridor Width: 36”

Fire Protection Requirements:

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ENDNOTES

1. “1.3 Codes and Standards.� Home. August 13, 2017. Accessed November 17, 2017. https://www.gsa.gov/node/81625.

IMAGES

1. http://www.architectureweek.com/2008/0312/news_1-2. html 2.http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/10/23_ livableawards.shtml 3. https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design 4. https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design 5. https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design 6. https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design 7. https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design 8. https://cccooperagency.wordpress.com/page/15/ 9. https://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/mixedmode/images/chesapeake/interior1.html

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PROJECT RESEARCH SUMMARY

CHAPTER NINE:


Over the course of this book, a great deal of information has been introduced and discussed after researching Autism design. Overall, when it comes to Interior Design it is important to understand the users of the building, and how the design can make those users feel comfortable within a space. Therefore, when it comes to designing for Autism, many psychological aspects needs to be taken into account when it comes to the design process. Some may be things that are typical in interior design, but others may be design implementations that are not usually taken into account. Some things such as sensory rooms, long corridors, and color psychology are going to be three important parts of the design process in order to design for the users. In the end, after all the research that has been conducted, I feel as if I understand what needs to be implemented for children with Autism to feel comfortable within their space. In relation to this I think that all of the design decisions will need to be carefully chosen and well thought out. When it comes to designing for Autism, many design decisions that usually would not need great attention will now be imperative to concentrate on. In result of choosing decisions carefully, the individuals with ASD will feel more secure and safe.


Interior Design for Autism is an aspect of design that is not very well researched mostly because of the little amount of awareness that is brought to Autism. However, the research that I did find that regarded Autism and design was extraordinarily helpful as well as insightful. Researching through different books and no just internet sources was a main reason as to why the research on this topic was successful. I think that after the amount of worthy research that was done on this topic, I will be able to fill in gaps that I may not have thought about without the research. Without this research, I would not have been able to understand different design choices such as acoustical, visual, and auditory design choices for individuals wtih ASD. These aspects are always heavily focused on, but little things such as ceiling heights, corridor depths, and colors are not heavily touched on, especailly when Autism is taken into account. Conceptually wise, I think that this project needs to take on the role of transforming a children’s center into osmething that it has never been before. I want to make this project exciting and insightful for what could be, therefore I do not want to design an Autism center that loos like a typical medical institute or school. I want it to be a space that makes the children feel good., not like an outsider.


Individuals with Autism are such a special part of our society, however in the world we live in today they are constantly seen as the odd ones out because they are not seen as “normal� to many. However, individuals who see Autism like that are wrong. It is time to start bringing awareness to Autism and understanding that ASD does not make someone any lesser of a person than others. I wanted my final capstone project to mean something to me. I wanted my capstone project to make a difference in someone’s life, and I think that by giving an Autism center a beautifully, well-thought out design then we could stop making the children feel alienated from society. We could make them feel more confident in their skin by giving them the design resources they most likely do not have available to them now.

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ENDNOTES

IMAGES

1.https://www.aliexpress.com/cheap/cheap-kids-acrylicpainting/2.html 2.https://spectrumnews.com/opinon/viewpoint/modelautism-programs-rare-public-schools/ 3.https://cdni.medicalnewstoday.com/content/images/ articles/317/317754/the-word-autism-written-in-chalk-on-aboard.jpg

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BIBLIOGRAPHY & APPENDIX

CHAPTER TEN:


WEBSITE SOURCES 95

Zach “Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Dictionary.com. Accessed September 02, 2017. http://www.dictionary. com/browse/autism-specturm-disorder?s=t. Mortice, Zach. “Architecture for Autism Could Be a Breakthough for Autisistic Kids.” Redshift. December 09,2016. Accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/architecture-for-autism/. Mortice, Zach. “Architecture for Autism Could Be a Breakthough for Autisistic Kids.” Redshift. December 09,2016. Accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/architecture-for-autism/. An Interview with Magda Mostafa: Pioneer in Autism Design.” ArchDaily. October 08,2013. Accessed August 27,2017. http://www.archdaily.com/435982/an-interview-with-magda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autism-design. “ An Interview with Magda Mostafa: Pioneer in Autism Design.” ArchDaily. October 08,2013. Accessed August 27,2017. http://www.archdaily.com/435982/an-interview-with-magda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autism-design. “An Interview with Magda Mostafa: Pioneer in Autism Design.” ArchDaily. October 08,2013. Accessed August 27,2017. http://www.archdaily.com/435982/an-interview-with-magda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autism-design. “Financial Assistance.” Autism Speaks. July 24, 2012. Accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.autismspeaks. org/family-services/community-connections/financial-assistance “The History of Hospitals and Wards.” HCD Magazine. March 10,2010. Accessed August 31, 2017. http://www. healthcaredesignmagzine.com/architecture/history-hospitals-and-wards/. “The History of Hospitals and Wards.” HCD Magazine. March 10,2010. Accessed August 31, 2017. http://www. healthcaredesignmagzine.com/architecture/history-hospitals-and-wards/. Raiti, Author Christina. “Evolution of Autism in Public Schooling.” Educ 300 Education Reform Past and Present. Accessed August 31, 2017. http://commons.trincoll.edu/edreform/2014/04/evolution-of-autism-inpublic-schooling/. “Architecture for Autism: Exterior Views.” ArchDaily. April 04, 2012. Accessed September 01, 2017. http:// www.archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autism-exterior-views.


Architecture for Autism: Exterior Views.” ArchDaily. April 04, 2012. Accessed September 01, 2017. http:// www.archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autism-exterior-views. 6. “Architecture for Autism: Exterior Views.” ArchDaily. April 04, 2012. Accessed September 01, 2017. http:// www.archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autism-exterior-views.

WEBSITE SOURCES

“The Center for Autism and Developmental Disorders.” E4H Architecture is a healthcare architecture firm. Ac Brownlee, John. “How To Design For Autism.” Co.Design. May 02, 2017. Accessed September 29, 2017. https://www. fastcodesign.com/3054103/how-to-design-for-autism. Brownlee, John. “How To Design For Autism.” Co.Design. May 02, 2017. Accessed September 29, 2017. https://www. fastcodesign.com/3054103/how-to-design-for-autism. Gaines, Kristi. Designing for autism spectrum disorders. Andover: Routledge Ltd., 2016. Guidelines for design and construction of health care facilities. Chicago, IL: ASHE (American Society for Healthcare Engineering of the American Hospital Association), 2010. Guidelines for design and construction of health care facilities. Chicago, IL: ASHE (American Society for Healthcare Engineering of the American Hospital Association), 2010. Color Psychology: How Colors Impact Moods, Feelings and Behaviors. “How Does Orange Make You Feel?” Verywell. Accessed October 21, 2017. https://www.verywell.com/the-color-psychology-of-orange-2795818. Demographics | Annapolis, MD. Accessed November 03, 2017. https://www.annapolis.gov/875/Demographics. “Annapolis, Maryland (MD) Poverty Rate DataInformation about poor and low income residents.” Annapolis, Maryland (MD) poverty rate data - information about poor and low income residents living in this city. Accessed November 03, 2017. http://www.city-data.com/poverty/poverty-Annapolis-Maryland.html. “Annapolis, Maryland (MD) Poverty Rate DataInformation about poor and low income residents.” Annapolis, Maryland (MD) poverty rate data - information about poor and low income residents living in this city. Accessed November 03, 2017. http://www.city-data.com/poverty/poverty-Annapolis-Maryland.html. “1.3 Codes and Standards.” Home. August 13, 2017. Accessed November 17, 2017. https://www.gsa.gov/node/81625.

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IMAGE SOURCES 97

http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/525/dissociative-identity-disorder-overview-and-current-research .https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-confused-clever-brain-image8081405 http://wangy-wagnols-transcript.blogspot.com/2016/03/anonymous-opfakeanons-crucial-update.html https://www.pinterest.com/jana840406/frei-otto/ http://www.archdaily.com/801690/these-architectural-playscapes-are-designed-to-provide-therapy-for-children-withautism/58552b56e58ece1f9600018b-these-architectural-playscapes-are-designed-to-provide-therapy-for-children-with-autismphoto http://www.archdaily.com/435982/an-interview-with-magda-mostafa-pioneer-in-autism-design http://www.progressiveae.com/interiors-for-memory-care/ http://clipgoo.com/ja/220152105/to/220152/ https://www.123rf.com/photo_31708226_stock-photo.html http://www.blog-lavoroesalute.org/2015/12/ https://www.baypines.va.gov/BAYPINES/about/history/history4.asp https://www.pinterest.com/pin/65231894580501860/ https://postgrado.ufv.es/tag/abogacia-2/ http://www.tomkimbersmith.com/kimber-smith-makes-strong-return-to-gt-racing-aboard-factory-ginetta-gt3/ http://www.greatbusinessdebate.co.uk/news_item/whs-the-great-business-debate-diversity-and-inclusion-spotlight-about/ http://www.archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autim-exterior-views http://www.archdaily.com/223076/architecture-for-autsm-exterior-views http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain Google Maps Original Image http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166-Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain Google Maps http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166-Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166-Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166-Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain Google Maps http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166-Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain http://www.e4harchitecture.com/portfolio/mental_health/166-Center_for_Autism_and_the_Developing_Brain http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain http://www.nyp.org/psychiatry/services/center-for-autism-and-the-developing-brain


IMAGE SOURCES

https://onqinsider.hilton.com/Insider/OnQLogin/Login.aspx?APPURL=%2finsider%2flinks%2fPingSSO.aspx%3fresume%3d%25 fidp%252fbaWGn%252fresume%252fidp%252fprp.ping%26spentity%3durn%253asharepoint%253alobby.hilton.com https://pixabay.com/en/users/Bess-Hamiti-909086/3. https://www.armstrongceilings.com/commercial/en-us/commercial-ceilings-walls/wood-ceilings.html https://www.officespacesoftware.com/blog/5-ways-office-design-and-wayfinding-impact-productivity http://thebackstore.com/shop-by-product/recliners.html http://accessadvocates.com/2010-ada-standards-for-accessible-design-atms/ http://accessadvocates.com/2010-ada-standards-for-accessible-design-atms/ http://accessadvocates.com/2010-ada-standards-for-accessible-design-atms/ https://www.amazon.com/VZNeanc-Bluetooth-Headphones-Cancelling-Computer/dp/B074QNDH7P https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-and-spices/health-benefits-of-dandelion.html https://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings-articles/university-subject-rankings/top-universities-psychology-2017 https://www.creativekidslearningcenter.com https://officesnapshots.com/2015/02/10/macys-com-san-francisco-offices/ https://clearsightmusic.com https://www.123rf.com/photo_27634763_colorful-ink-in-water-abstract.html https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g150812-d8388974-Reviews-Mia_Spa-Playa_del_Carmen_Yucatan_Peninsula. html https://www.houzz.com/photos/modern/patio https://www.pinterest.com/pin/452822937511330956/?lp=true. GOOGLE MAPS http://www.betsydunigan.com http://plus.usgbc.org/in-the-leed/ GOOGLE MAPS EDITED BY ME GOOGLE MAPS EDITED BY ME https://www.cnbc.com/2015/06/30/maryland-has-opened-for-business.html http://bagsjar.com/interior-designer/interior-designer-interior-design-for-home-remodeling-classy-simple-and-interior-designerhome-improvement/ https://www.vmdo.com/img/projects/additional-images/discovery-elementary/K12_APS%20Discoverynew_1_A_updated.jpg http://www.architectureweek.com/2008/0312/news_1-2.html http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/10/23_livableawards.shtml https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design https://www.architecturaldigest.com/architecture-design

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This book is dedicated to the Autism community. You all make a bigger impact in able to make in yours. You inspire me on a daily basis to be more empathetic who are different from me. I have nothing but love for each and every one of you, but the best interior designer for all your spaces. You all are amazing. You all are

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my life than I will ever be and understanding of those and you all deserve nothing strong. You all are the best.


Mom. Thank you for introducing me to this wonderful community and all it has to offer. The work you do for a living goes unnoticed to some, but to many you are their hero. You are my hero. You are your student’s hero. You change lives, and are the definition of superwoman. You continue to make people’s lives easier without expecting anything in return, and because of that I will always look up to you. Your student and I love you up to heaven and back.

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Profile for Rachel Walchonski

Autism Education Center  

Completed in the fall 2017 semester, this book was published for Capstone Research & Programming. This is the research aspect which will the...

Autism Education Center  

Completed in the fall 2017 semester, this book was published for Capstone Research & Programming. This is the research aspect which will the...

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