Paradise Pomegranate: Walls, Wells & Selling

Page 1

[PARA-SITUATION]:

AHMEDABAD

[ PA R A D I S E ]

Po meg ra na te

WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

RACHEL DUNNE

DESIGN REPORT E S A L A | M ( A rc h ) | 2019 - 2021


“/ My empire has grown too far toward the

outside. It is time," the Khan thought, “for it

to grow within itself,” and he dreamed of

pomegranate groves,

the fruit so ripe it burst its skin…

Invisible Cities, Italo Calvino [73]

transposition: pomegranate






[ PA R A D I S E ]

Pom eg ra na te

[THESIS]

ABSTRACT R A C H E L D U N N E , L I LY G O N G L A G , D E R U I L E E

Ahmedabad’s Old City is a ruptured pomegranate.

continual wetness. The intensity of this liminal condition

The thickness of the old city walls has been peeled back; its

vast openness offers potential for further cultivation.

seeds have spilled to the periphery. Simultaneously fruit production is facing challenges due to inefficient postharvest systems, poor irrigation and decentralisation. Large transport distances result in high wastage and reduced fruit quality, diminishing farmers’ profits. Paradise Pomegranate tests the potential of Ahmedabad’s old city walls as an instigator for reconfiguring Ahmedabad’s fruitscape, and its consequential role within

is transposed to the Sabarmati Riverfront Project, where As the agencies emerge, so does the etymological link between Culture and Cultivate: tilling the land, and the acquisition of skills. Paradise Pomegranate does not aspire to utopian ideals, but gestures instead towards evocations of lushness and delight, rooted in the modest origins of the word paradise in Old Iranian as a ‘walled enclosure’. In Invisible Cities, Calvino writes: “‘My Empire has grown

the larger metropolitan network.

too far towards the outside. It is time’, the Khan thought, ‘for

Visualising the [in-between] zone of the Old City Walls as

groves, the fruit so ripe it burst its skin…”. (73).

it to grow within itself,’ and he dreamed of pomegranate

both an inside and outside, three architectural agencies of Selling, Growing and Dwelling become the apparatus for forging fruitful interventions and creating conditions of

We l c o m e t o P a r a d i s e Po m e g r a n a t e . ‘Fresh & Sweet’: Pomegranates catch the light at Naroda Fruit Market January 2020, Ahmedabad.


PRE LU D E

ECOLOGIES OF SPILLAGE NO.1 [Model: Drawing 1]

TRANSPOSITION


Three Abstractions of a Pomegranate Graphite on Paper


An Auction House for Selling Pomegranates Building Scale




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A New Visualisation for the Riverfront SET Scale

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The Auction House Bridge Body Scale

The Auction House Gate Body Scale


THE INNER CITY AND THE RIVER CITY ECOLOGIES OF TRANSPOSITION Originally drawn at 1:10,000

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Pomegranate Agencies & an emerging Fruitscape The Loving Metropolitan Landscape

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Abstract PRELUDE

ECOLOGIES OF TRANSPOSITION S PI LL A G E N O . 1 [ Model : Dra wing

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PARA-Sitations

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Glossary of Terms

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AGENCY

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The Farmers’ Strike

1

AN AUCTION HOUSE [ F O R S E L L I N G P O M E G R A N AT E S ] INTERLUDE

S PI LL A G E NO .1 [M odel : Dra wing 2]

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THE FRUIT TRADE IN AHMEDABAD

S PI LL A G E N O . 1 [ Model : Dra wing

1]

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PEELING AND [UN]PEELING

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A N E W V I S UA L I SAT I O N F O R T H E R I V E R F R O N T

[AGENCY]

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PARTS PACKAGE

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PA R A D I S E P O M E G R A NAT E THE POSSIBLE

150 MY WALLS

AN ‘EXHIBITION’

165 A P P E N D I X : T E C H N I C A L S P E C I F I C AT I O N S

172 Bibliography & Acknowledgements S PI LL A G E N O . 1 [ Model : Dra wi n g 4 ]

Figures

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THE 4 SCALES

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T H E LOV I N G M E T R O P O L I TA N L A N DS AC P E Gujarat State; The City of Ahmedabad; The Old Walled City

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K A L U P U R TO PA N C H K U VA

SYST E M O F E N Z Y M AT I C T E R R I TO R I E S

The Old City Walls & Gates

The Sabramti Riverfront Project; Kalupur Gate to Panchkuva Gate

BLG BUILDING SCALE An Auction House for Selling Pomegranates; Packing and Processing Houses

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BODY SCALE

RIVERFRONT PROJECT

Gates; Gutters; Shutters; Handrails; Canopies; Seeds .

New Walls & Dammed Rivers

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21 PARA-Situation “Past, Present

[Ahmedabad]: and Possible”

West Wall October 2016, Robert Stephens. from the ‘Walls of Ahmedabad’ exhibition [PARA-Situation

II]

[PARA-situation

I]

T H E S A B A R M AT I R I V E R F R O N T P R O J E C T

THE INNER CIT Y WALL

The Sabarmati Riverfront Project is a

sterility to the centre of the city, devoid

In almost direct juxtaposition to the lifeless where there is no longer any remaining

government-led

which

of activity, personality and purpose.

experience of the riverfront, the atmosphere portion of the Old City Walls, but has

has repurposed over 200 hectares along

The project also involved damming the

of inner city wall is in constant flux – instead been replaced with shop fronts

the 11km stretch of river that cuts

river, the disruption of which to the

bustling, colourful, lively, vibrant, noisy. and dwellings. This liminal condition is

through Ahmedabad. Described as an

natural water cycle has caused flooding

The spaces are spatially sophisticated and also fascinating as it embodies a clear in-

“environmental

social

elsewhere in the region. The stagnant

layered as a result of years of additions and between zone where the density of the

uplift and urban rejuvenation” project, it

body of water is one of the most polluted

appropriations. The specific area of interest Old City meets the its peripheral spill.

has instead inserted a sea of concrete and

in the country.

is between Kalupur and Panchkuva Gates

development

improvement,

Panchkuva Gate May 2015, Robert Stephens. from the ‘Walls of Ahmedabad’ exhibition


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Paradise Pomegranate: Collage Visualisation


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Pomegranates at Naroda Market Photograph: De Rui Lee. Jan ‘20.


Anindito Mukgerjee, December 18, 2020. “Farmers shout as they block a highway during a protest at the Singhu border near New Delhi.” Foreign Policy.


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THE FARMERS STRIKE: AN OVERVIEW THE GREEN REVOLUTION In the 1960s India had gained independence but was struggling to produce enough food for its citizens, made worse by a series of droughts causing famine. In an attempt to modernise farming and increase food supply, the Government intervened – known

countryside, and between local markets for commodities and larger, national and global circuits of capital and commerce.” 1 Available estimates suggest there are over 7500 regulated agricultural markets in India (2014) – all under different state level acts which create links between rural and urban

as the Green Revolution. They brought in

India.

US advisers to help increase yield, but the

THE FARMERS STRIKE

over-use of pesticides, fertilisers and poorly managed irrigation caused the infertility of large areas of land. Many crops suffered - some nearly disappearing -

but rice

and wheat yield soared. India went from struggling to have enough food crisis to having an excess. Under the same context, India designed a nationwide food marketing system to guarantee fair prices. The system is complex and changes by state, but essentially constitutes of farmers bringing crops to Mandis and trading under open auction with transparent prices – some of which are set by government benchmark minimum prices. Mandis are “dense sites of economic, social and political activity, connecting and shaping the relations between town and

Since the Green Revolution, agriculture in India has been declining: what previously

15km of streets surrounding Delhi and

trade unregulated. Farmers will lose out.

nationwide, 250 million workers were on

Second Act: creates framework for contract

strike – one of the largest protests in history. The farmers said they would not leave until the laws have been repealed, many saying that they have come equipped with 4 months worth of rations. On Tuesday 12th January, India’s Supreme Court suspended the new controversial acts to hold talks between the goverment and farmers, but still no solution has been reached.

now only 15%. (More than half of India’s farming households (52%) are in debt, farmer suicide rates are soaring and farmers have been continually asking for reform for decades.

3

In September, the Prime Minister, Modi, passed laws that were said to “reform archaic and outdated system and give farmers more control over their crop prices.”4 Since then, farmers have travelled to Delhi in protest over the threat to their livelihoods the new acts will have. As of 7th January 2021, over half a million protestors were occupying

be confined to being between farmers and traders, with no oversight, and leaving little option for challenging unfair deals. Could fragment market further, leaving small farmers to comply to the terms of large

2. World bank 2019 from Vox. “India’s Huge Farmers Protests.” Youtube, December 30, 2020. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=iHpZV7ro7lU 3. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India from Vox. “India’s Huge Farmers Protests.” Youtube, December 30, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHpZV7ro7lU 4. Hannah Ellis-Petersen, “Nationwide farmers’ strike shuts down large parts of India”, Guardian, December 8, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/ world/2020/dec/08/nationwide-farmers-strike-shutsdown-large-parts-of-india

corporations, or be cut out completely. Third Act: Eliminates

accounted for nearly 50% of the economy is 2

farming deals. Business agreements would

1. Krishunamurthy and Witsoe, Understanding Mandis: Marking Towns and the Dyanmics of India’s Urban and Rural Transofrmations. (London: IGC, 2012).

storage

limits

previously set by government to control 3 CONTROVERSIAL ACTS 3 Acts have sparked controversy, each of which would deregulate different part of the system.

people can stock up, and without oversight, can also start to enforce/influence prices. All three acts combined invite big players

First Act: creates free, unregulated trade spaces outside the markets, overriding wholesale

prices. Unlimited storage = any wealthy

market

rules

(removing

benchmark for prices). This will result in two very different simultaneous market industries – one with oversight; one which allows corporate companies to come in and

into a fragmented and deregulated market, leaving farmers vulnerable to volatile prices

As of April 2021, 4 months in, the

protests are still on-going with no solution in sight.

Money Sharma, December 2020. “Farmers take part in a demonstration at the Delhi-Haryana state border at Singhu.” The Guardian


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FRUIT NE T WORKS AND L AND U SE ACRO S S GUJAR AT ECOLOGIES OF TRANSPOSITION Originally drawn at 1:1,000,000

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RIVERFRONT GROWING

WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTION

OLD WALL COMMUNITIES

A S S O C I AT E D I N ST I T U T I O N S

COMBINED NETWORK

The large amounts of vacant unappropriated

Large scale distribution centres for fruit

The focus of the new network exists in the

The network would be assisted by larger

As a result of the individual parts suggested

land either side of the Sabarmati as a result of

would still be imagined to exist further out

proposals for growing communities to be

institutions also situated further out from

here, a larger network can be imagined which

the riverfront development project can be seen

from the centre of the old city. These would

developed along the path of the old city walls.

the old city. These would include a Guild

works and thrives off many small connections.

as an opportunity for larger scale production

act as connections between the city and the

These are areas which would contain living,

which represents the fruit growers and an

Each fragment is seen to be both independent

of fruit. There could be opportunities for

wider metropolitan scale, in both importing

growing, research and selling on a smaller,

educational facility for teaching agriculture

but still intrinsically connected within the

filtering and using water collected in the

and exporting fruits.

socially-centred scale.

and management.

larger network.

dammed Sabarmati.


Selling Pomegranates at Naroda Photograph: De Rui Lee, Jan ‘20.


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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Addition & Subtraction

Agency*

AMPC

The presence of absence and an absence of presence: excavation and erection; digging down and building up. [see poche & mosaic] An Enzymatic Territory or any part of it. An Enzymatic Territory is the fluctuating fecund ground on which folk, ground, sky, buildings and Ganga’s descent continuously work in parasitically productive relations.* Agricultural Produce Market Committee. A board established by the government to attempt to protect farmers from exploitation by large retailers and maintain fair and even prices. The majority of wholesale markets across India are managed and overseen by the AMPC.

[in-between]

Measured Intensities

Analytical and measured drawings of places that are a result of visiting, documenting and understanding that place, then a process of post-production and representation in order to learn from the specific scenario.

New Visualisation*

A visualisation newly conceptualised and visualised in representation techniques appropriate to its conceptual status as it breaches into reality and vice-vera.*

Oceans of Wetness*

A new visualisation of the ground from the priority of wetness rather than dryness.* An imagination of a place that reaches a full crescendo of idyll and delight; the promised land. From Old Iranian meaning “walled (enclosure)” from pairi- ‘around’ and -diz “to make, form (a wall), build”.

Biopolis*

A city that operates as a biological organism, i.e. where buildings, folk and environment co-operate in symbiotic parasitic relations.

Cultivating [culture and cultivation]

Culture and cultivation, share the same etymological roots from ‘cult’: to grow. Cultivate: ‘the act of tilling of land, act of preparing the land for crops’ and culture: ‘to acquire or develop a quality or skill’.

Paradise

phenomenological projections of our own preconceptions into the researched sites, creating a place that is neither fully factual nor imaginary, but somewhere in between - with both increased objectivity in our speculations, yet not fully representing the atmosphere of the city.

Parasituation*

Imagined Intensities

The thickness of the old city walls - the skin - has been peeled back at many points, causing the contents of the old city to ‘spill’ outwards and an ‘in-between’ zone to emerge. The [in-between]is both and outside of the inside and the inside of the outside: an entity in its own, but dependent on the entities either side to produce its state of being [in-between].

* Termninology & definition extracted from the PARA-situation [Ahmedbad]: “Past, Present & Possible”Project Brief 1

An unfamiliar coiexistent “other” situation that necessitates a different appreciation of a host situation.*

Stepwells

TTML* The Loving Metropolitan Landscape Urban Oasis:

A subterranean edifice and water source, where water is reached to by a descension deep into the ground via an often highly craved and decorated stair structure. They are both utilitarian and highly symbolic and chartable interventions within the city. The Loving Metropolitan Landscape is a non -risk averse speculative impulse that situated enzymatic territories as networks across the Metropolitan scale.* Moments of calm and lushness within the chaotic density of the urban environmental atmosphere of Ahmedabad’s Old City, where nature takes the prominent position. Inspired by the qualities found at the Amritvarshini Stepwell by Panchkuva Gate.


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AHMEDABAD

January 2020

MARCHMONT ROAD January 2021


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G LOS S A RY O F T E R M S

THE METHODOLOGIES OF PARADISE P OME GRANTE

Peeling & un[peeling] Etymologically interchangeable. By [un]-peeling, we are simultaneously peeling, and by peeling we [un]peel.

Poche & Mosaic

Transpose

A method for thinking about the

from Trans- (to place) and Poser

separation of wall and void, ground

(across). to cause two or more

and sky, carved spaces and carving

things to exchange places; transfer

spaces.

or transport to a different place or context

Transposition the act or process of changing or reversing the relative position, order or sequence of 2 things.


AGENCY

AN AUCTION HOUSE SPILLAGE NO.1 [Model: Drawing 2]

FOR SELLING POMEGRANATES

1


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MENDING OLD WALL S : K ALUPUR G ATE ECOLOGIES OF TRANSPOSITION Originally drawn at 1:500

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4 Pomegranate Segments Photograph: De Rui Lee


Splling Pomegranates down the Old City Walls 4 stages of drawing and modelling


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[PARA-SITUATION]

THE WALLED CIT Y AHMEDABAD The city of Ahmedabad was founded by

ROBERT STEPHENS

the images were curated alongside excerpts

Ahmed Shah in 1411 on the banks of the

Following on from Geddes, Robert Stephens

from Geddes’ Note on Ahmedabad from

Sabarmati River and fortified soon after by

conducted

a 10km wall, with 12 gates and 189 bastions.

of Ahmedabad a century later order

These City Walls are the liminal boundaries

to re-document the city walls in their

which separates the ‘old city’ from it’s

current state. His Walls of Ahmedabad

contemporary peripheral spread. The city has

exhibition was transported to The Matthew

a current estimated population of 7.8 million

Architecture Gallery (Chambers Street,

people.

Edinburgh) between 3 – 25 October 2019.

PAT R I C K G E D D E S

In this exhibition, the perimeter of the room

In April 1915, Patrick Gedddes undertook

walls of Ahmedabad, where large images

a

three

day

circumambulation

of

Ahmedabad’s Old City Walls and published a town planning report titled “Note on Ahmedabad by Professor Patrick Geddes” – commissioned by the Bombay Government in order to determine whether to demolish or retain them.

I

his

own

circumambulation

became a projected representation of the city show momentary glimpses of how the fabric of the walls exist within the every-day of the city. Alongside these images were a second series of aerial views of Ahmedabad, which allude to the contrasting densities inbetween the old city and the periphery. II All

See photo opposite

dwgmodels.com

GSX750 F SACS

SUZU

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MEASURED INTENSITY KALUPUR ROAD

I. Patrick Geddes, Notes on Ahmedabad, 1915. Environmental Design Journal of the Islamic Environmental Research Centre. (Rome, Liberia Herder, 1984)

1918. Walls of Ahmedabad became our first ‘visit’ to this complex, layered, animated city.

II. Dorian Wizniewski, Walls and Gates: Parasituation [Ahmedabad] 2020.(Edinburgh, Wedge Publications)

S U R V E Y, T H E N S P E C U L A T E

Similarly, when the 40 students of the studio visited the city in January 2020 we carried out our own architectural survey of the whole perimeter of the city walls, documenting its current state of both presence and absence. The drawings can be found in the Walls and Gates: Para-Situation [Ahmedabad] book. Ahmadabad and it’s Environs 1980, Unknown. Published by Archaeological Survey of India. Depicts the City Walls and labels as ‘restored’ despite their dilapidated and unprotected condition.


The Old City: A Ruptured Pomegranate (right): Rubbing to reveal the Grain of the old city and its periphery. (below): Gaps and Deterioration of the Old City Wall, Kalupur Road.

dwgmodels.com


METHODOLOGY PEELING AND [UN]PEELING We began by peeling and [un]peeling, as two etymologically interchangeable terms, the layers of the fruit. It was about turning the outsides inwards to reveal insides and the insides of insides. This then began to evolve into a metaphor for the old city wall, which has been peeled back, turned inwards, and spilled outwards. Drawings of the pomegranate were laid onto fragments of the city in order to integrate spaces of possible appropriation further. They were a useful apparatus for agitating preconceived interpretations of the city, particularly in reimagining the city plan not drawn from the prescribed diagrammatic view of the city planner who outlines blocks and streets, but in a new light which could be more fluid and fruitful.

PROCESS SERIES L AYING [ UNPEELING] POMEGRNATES ALONG THE OLD CITY WALLS

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Cutting, Peeling, Spilling. Methodological Explorations of the Pomegranate


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RACHEL DUNNE

L I LY G O N L A G

DE RUI LEE

WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

WALLS, GARDENS & DWELLING*

WALLS, GARDENS & GROWING*

* See corresponding Design Reports for more information of these agencies

THE 3 AGENCIES OF PAR ADISE P OMEGR ANATE PAR A -SITUATION I : K ALUPUR TO PANCHKUVA ROAD

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RACHEL DUNNE

L I LY G O N L A G

DE RUI LEE

WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

WALLS, GARDENS & DWELLING*

WALLS, GARDENS & GROWING*

THE 3 AGENCIES OF PAR ADISE P OMEGR ANATE PAR A -SITUATION I : K ALUPUR TO PANCHKUVA ROAD

* See corresponding Design Reports for more information of these agencies


Roadside fruit and vegetable market on the path of the Old Wall. Jan’ 20.


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[AGENCY]

AN AUCTION HOUSE F O R S E L L I N G P O M E G R A N AT E S

Based

on

an

architectural

language

were once considered amongst the greatest

derived from the pomegranate - of Skins,

charitable gifts that the wealthy residents

Membranes, Mesocarps & Seeds - the

could give to the city. By creating a presence

Auction House mediates the worlds of

of absence in the form of the stepwell,

old and new Ahmedabad. Simultaneously

the excavated clay earth – the absence of

fulfilling a civic duty to mend the city

presence – is reused to create rammed earth

walls and re-establish the functionality and

grounds and walls across the rest of the site.

sociality of the stepwells; whilst introducing the infrastructure for economic potential of

Whilst

attempting

to

provide

the

a centralised fruit-network. This building is

infrastructure for the Market and Auction

the first in a series that will emerge over a

House to function, an awareness of the

period of many years, as the pomegranate

idea of ‘slack space’ has always been present

trees come to bear fruit, and the potential

– creating spaces with enough ambiguity

yield increases.

and flexibility which allows them to be appropriated by the users. Like the

An open stepwell intersects the Auction

propagation of a seed, the Auction House

House in half, creating a separation of

roots itself in the ground, develops its own

producer and consumer, that is crossed by a

network of water transport and storage,

bridge. Stepwells are not only a method of

provides shade from its canopy, and grows

water collection, but also are a space of refuge

outward over time.

from the heat and noise of the city and

The Auction House emerging through the Monsoon 2 months of intense wetness where Ahmedabad experiences all the rainfall for the entire year.


THE AUCTION HOUSE WORMS EYE VIEW FROM THE STEPWELL 0

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THE AUCTION HOUSE SECTION THROUGH STEPWELL, AUCTION HOUSE & PACKING HOUSE Originally drawn at 1:50

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Under the Auction House roofs Collage Visualisation


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A NEW STEPWELL A primary move of the Auction

“/

The diminishing light descending the stairs conveys a sense of passage deep into the earth, moving further into darkness. Excavation is balanced with

to

re-establish

the

functionality and sociality of the Stepwells, many of which are now unused or have deteriorated. Stepwells are subterranean water sources, where water is reached to by a descension deep into the ground via an often highly craved and decorated stair structure. They are not only a method

opposites in a series that includes

of water collection, but also are a space

solid and liquid, empty and full. Morna Livingstone,

Steps to Water: The Ancient

Stepwells of India, (New York: Princeton Architectural

Press, 2002), 1

SHADOW STUDY

is

construction – one pair of sky and water,

DESCENDING THE STEPWELL

House

of refuge from the heat and noise of the city. Many stepwells were built as donations by the wealthy to the city – the gift of water being one of the most precious possible and considered amongst the greatest charitable gifts.


VIDEO: pocheandmosaic.mp4


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[ PAR ADISE] POMEGR ANATES : WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

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FOLIO 3 [Agency] An Auction House


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[ PAR ADISE] POMEGR ANATES : WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

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FOLIO 3 [Agency] An Auction House

FOLIO 3 [Agency] An Auction House


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[ PAR ADISE] POMEGR ANATES : WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

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FOLIO 3 [Agency] An Auction House


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A 25 YEAR DRAWING MENDING THE OLD WALL WITH AGENCIES FOR SELLING FRUIT


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Kalupur Gate (top) outside the Old City Wall, looking in. (bottom) inside the Old City Wall, looking out.


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OUTSIDE THE OLD WALL, LOOKING IN SECTION THROUGH THE AUCTION HOUSE Originally drawn at 1:100


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INSIDE THE OLD WALL, LOOKING OUT THE AUCTION HOUSE, ELE VATION DOWN K ALUPUR ROAD Originally drawn at 1:100


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WAT E R C O L L E CT I O N Agriculture is the dominant consumer of water globally. Horticulture in Ahmedabad relies on and – and consequently suffers from – unpredictable rain patterns, ranging from heavy monsoon rainfall to drought conditions. Despite high levels of rainfall during the monsoon season, there is no effective means to capture and store this water and soil quality suffers as a result. Irrigation struggles have caused the area of fruit cultivation within Ahmedabad to decrease by 55% between 2003 and 2013,

Kaushik, Himanshu. “Fruit cultivation area halves in Ahmedabad.” Times of India. Last modified March 11, 2013. https:// timesofindia. indiatimes. com/city/ ahmedabad/Fruitcultivationarea-halvesin-Ahmedabad/

causing productivity to fall by 66%. The building acts as a water collection device during the monsoon season, and channels water from the roofs in a series of gutters and water baths to be stored, treated and used. The collection of water is also a natural cooling device. See Appendix (p.155) for technical details of water collection.

THE AUCTION HOU SE AS A WATER BASIN ISOMETRIC SECTION Originally drawn at 1:100


Sangath, B.V. Doshi: water in the step-pools January ‘20.


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WITHIN THE OLD WALL, RECONSTRUCTED DE TAIL PERSPECTIVAL SECTION Originally drawn at 1:20

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Excavation & Erection | Poche & Mosaic (left): Well-Wall Connection of the New Stepwell & New City Wall, 1:50 (middle): Paper Model of the Auction House & Stepwell, 1:100 (right): Cast Model of Amritvarshini Vav Stepwell, 1:100


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Originally drawn at 1:100/1:20

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INTERLUDE

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THE FRUIT TRADE IN AHMEDABAD NARODA FRUIT MARKET

In Ahmedabad, production has faced

causes difficulties for growing fruit

challenges in recent years due to

which requires year-round irrigation.

inefficient irrigation and poor links

Due to the distance of the farms from

between growers and sellers, resulting in

the urban centres of the region, farmers

minimal profits for farmers.

have to pay large percentages to a

Agriculture has a huge presence within

sellers, resulting in very minimal profits

India, as the primary source of livelihood for 58% of the population; and in terms of fruit-growing, India is the third largest producer in the world, with Gujarat being its third highest producing state. In Gujarat, 176.2 hectares of land goes to fruit farming, producing 2,376 tons each year and the region’s specialities include

for the farmers. In addition, the long transport distances often result in many fruits being ruined, a particular problem in delicate fruits like the guava.2 Ahmedabad is served by one dedicated wholesale fruit market called Naroda, situated about 5km North-East from

mango, guava and pomegranate.1

the centre. Here around 250 fruit

The climate in Ahmedabad means that

morning to early afternoon, with an

rainfall for the whole year only occurs in the 2-3 months of monsoon season, and the rest of the year remains dry, which Fruit Seller on G.P.O Relief Road. Old City, January ‘20.

transport service in order to reach the

vendors trade everyday from early auction from 9-12, with fruit coming both from Gujarat and from across the whole country. The market is

1. Vasant P. Gandhi, N. V. Namboodiri, Marketing of Fruits and Vegetables in India: A Study Covering the Ahmedabad, Chennai and Kolkata Markets, (Indian Institute of Management: Ahmedabad, 2004), 6. 2. Netherlands Enterprise Agency, Horticulture Sector in Gujarat State, (NBSO Ahmedabad: Netherlands, 2015), 4.


68

bustling, energetic, colourful and in constant movement. We spoke to a fruit vendor there called Manoj Manoj, who owns H.C. Fruits, who explained how the market functions. Governed by the APMC (Agriculture Product Market Committee), it is actually a private market, leant out on a 99 year lease. They charge between 0.5%-1% fee and in return provide security and regulation for the fruit sellers. He noted problems with the [transposition]:

current trade to be also linked to inadequate teaching, especially for small scale growers, which affects the quality of the produce. He also mentioned the poor infrastructure and road links to the small villages where most of

fruit

the fruit is grown could be improved.

sellers

On our visit we examined how fruit was being sold and bought across the city, mostly focused on the old town and the wall zone. On the streets, fruit is sold from individual

fruit being sold and bought across the city

vendors and almost appeared to be from the same wooden wheeled ‘fruit-carts’ ‘fruit-carts’ which have their own presence in the city. In most cases, a vendor sells only one or two varieties of fruit and within the old city, you might find a vendor selling fruit on every street and most have their own spot where they return everyday. All of the people and objects found within the sections of the thesis are drawn

[MEASURED INTENSITIES]

from photos of fruit sellers in Ahmedabad.


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Naroda Market Facade Montage

MANOJ, H.C. FRUITS INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT

Manoj: They are unloading in the morning themselves. We are doing auction over here from 9 to 12. And ending the market is all empty. Fruits they are coming and keeping them in the cold store, we have a small cold store, you have seen? They are all different. In one store we can keep kiwi, in another store apples. We cannot keep kiwi and apple in one store. Because some problem is there. Apples are getting ripened early if we keep the kiwis and apples in one store. De Rui: So does every store have their own cold storage? No. Total, 8-10 members will have cold storage… 8-10 members. Why do some not have it? Because they are not needed. business over here.

We are a big

So how many businesses are in this fruit market? Total, we have an association over here, we have 135 members. They all are dealing in, now you see, I do not deal in pineapple. We do not deal in papaya. We do not deal in grapes. We mainly deal in apples, kinnows [mandarins], mangoes. We mainly deal in them. Mangoes? Yeh. The mango season is in March. After that only. We deal in foreign fruits. We deal in pomegranates. And what about the, have you heard of the APMC? What does that do? It’s agriculture product market committee. What is that actually we are a private market over here. But generally, they have APMC markets. They give them shops on lease ?? You can see that Jabalbar Market, it is a vegetable market and Wasta Market they all are APMC markets. They give to us on a 99 year lease. For this whole area? But this is our private market, this is all private market. So, the market goes everyday? And you collect fresh fruits everyday Yeh. Apples from Kashmir. They are all different, mangoes coming from Marastra, Saod, everywhere they are coming from. So this is… What about if you have complaints about the market?

Manoj, Naroda Fruit Market Photograph: De Rui Lee

No, no, no. There’s no complaint to APMC. Companies of.. customers have a quality problem.

That’s all. Based on what you know, what does the APMC do? APMC do what is that… the security is them. The cleaning is purposes of APMC. Any other purpose, some customer is running away with our money, we can complain to APMC. Then somebody will be there. That nobody will deal with him. If we do have a complaint of any customer no other agent can deal with him.

improve? better?

Are there any things that can get

Things can be better by infrastructure of India. For that is poor and growers are very uneducated here. Growers are very illiterate here. Growers don’t have a proper way of thinking. What do you educated’?

mean

by

‘the

growers

are

not

There’s some rules and regulations over there. APMC is charging something about 0.5 – 1% charge.

Growers been small, growers are not educated in what they want to do, actually, it’s very much wrong that a quality problem is there. They don’t know proper time of harvesting. They are not educated at all.

And what is the money used for?

Infrastructure?

It is for maintenance of this market, security for market. Everything for market stuff.

Infrastructure means that the roads are not better, means that the villages where the farms are there… The internal roads are not better.

So they protect you?

So, they give you a 99 year lease and then, how do you, you bid for the space? Actually, they do auction over here. You auction for the shop?

So, what about in the market, what about the facilities here? Facilities here are ok. Nothing wrong.

Everything is good.

Yeh. We went to the markets where the shops are very cheap. But this is our totally private market. There is no APMC over here.

Ok, no problem.

So, there’s about 100 stalls here.

We are going back end of this week. We have been here for two weeks. How long have you been here?

Shops. Around about, including small and big, round about 250 shops.Big shop is there, small shop is there. Very small shop we have also. What are the main areas here? shops, small shops…

There’s the big

This is the main area here. Auction is going on here, rest of the programmes are over there. And offices of the small keepers. Offices for? Our wholesale, retail and customers. And so, you have packaging, you have storage? No. We have storage, we don’t pack here. The farmers pack and send here in different packing. Some crates are there, some packets are there, some boxes are there. All the red boxes are there. They come in crates also. They come in wooden boxes also. The farmers directly do that. We don’t do the packing; the farmers send us the packing. It’s a very different business, very different. Because mainly the special items you want to clear it. Is there any way you would like to see it

That’s good.

So, when are you going back to Scotland?

I am coming from basically 25 years. Is it a family business? Family business. This ‘H.C.’ is my grandfather’s name. Hundraj Chhangomal. So, you are this one store? Yeh. We all are one. We have a business from 1952 year. My grandparents were there, my father was working there, my father is now almost retired, he is coming into his office and we are handling this. And then anyone will take this after you? We have our sons.

He is going to come.

Ok, thank you very much. What’s your name? De Rui. I’m Manoj.


70

A fruit seller in Paradise Pomegranate Collage Visualistion


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Ahmedabad’s Fruit Trade Photographic Archive A book created after visiting

Ahmedabad as a collection of photographs which recorded how fruit was bought and sold across the city, particually at Naroda Market.


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VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

BEFORE AUCTION AT THE AUCTION HOUSE GATE Originally drawn at 1:20

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VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

DURING AUCTION AT THE AUCTION HOUSE GATE Originally drawn at 1:20

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VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

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Auction aftermath at Naroda Photograph: De Rui Lee, January ‘20.


SPILLAGE NO.1 [Model: Drawing 2]

A

NEW

VISUALISATION

THE SABARMATI RIVERFRONT PROJECT

2


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MENDING NEW WALLS: THE RIVERFRONT ECOLOGIES OF TRANSPOSITION Originally drawn at 1:500

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A quiet Sabarmati in the early evening. Jan ‘20.


Constructing Old & New Walls on my Wall. shots from the film, showing the process of constructing the wall tiles and transposing tiles aross the city.

TRANPOSING THE OLD CITY WALLS DRAWING OF A PAPER WALL MODEL

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RE-VISUALISING THE RIVERFRONT TRANSPOSITIONS FROM THE INNNER CITY UNPEEL ALONG THE RIVERFRONT Originally drawn at 1:1000

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VA ST O P E N N E S S C U LT I VAT I N G T H E R I V E R S I D E Compared to the density and limited open space within the old city and its wall zone, the riverfront project is defined by vast areas of unappropriated land. The unusual scenario of having so much unbuilt ground in the centre of a metropolis presents an opportunity for cultivating large areas of orchards for growing fruit. A large percentage of the yield of fruit for the city will come from the open space around the riverfront, and hence also aspires to improve the quality of the currently sterile riverfront.


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Cultivating the [in-between]: Fruit Orchards along the Riverfront Collage Visualisation


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CULTIVATING THE RIVERFRONT TRANSPOSING A LANGUAGE OF ARCHITECTURE

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UNFOLDING P OMEGR ANATES & C ONSTRUCTING THE RIVER WALL ECOLOGIES OF TRANSPOSITION Above: graphite drawing, orginally 30cm x 120cm. Below: stills from the film

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SC HEMATIC PL AN OF RIVERFRONT AGENCIES MENDING NEW WALLS

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POCHE & MOSAIC PLANS BDY BLG SET Group Work; Drawings combined & edited by De Rui Lee & Lily Gonlag


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[ PAR ADISE] POMEGR ANATES : WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

THE THICKNESS OF THE NEW RIVER WALL FROM THE SABR AMATI TO THE OLD CIT Y


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[ PAR ADISE] POMEGR ANATES : WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

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A New Riverfront Collage Visualisation

West Wall October 2016, Robert Stephens. from the ‘Walls of Ahmedabad’ exhibition


Sunset towards the new Riverfront from the Sabramati Collage Visualisation

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AGENCY

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Pomegranate Dissection The first of many - February 2020


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SPILLAGE NO.I originally drawn 5:1

T H E P O M E G R A N AT E AS AN ARCHITECTURAL TECHTONIC In Ahmedabad in January, the selling of pomegranates was in abundance and fruit vendors would have them spil l ing open at the front of their stalls as a display of their ripeness and quality. India is the largest producer of pomegranates in the world. On our return to the studio, it became a primary focus of our explorations.

SPILLAGE NO.II originally drawn 5:1

The structure of the pomegranate is composed of many layers, each of which encloses and protects something further into the fruit. Even the seed seed itself is protected by a fluid casing named the aril. The skin encloses the membrane, membrane which holds the seeds in clusters of flesh. flesh Unlike many fruits, the skin and membranes are inedible, and it is the seeds and arils that are desired.

SPILLAGE NO.III

originally drawn 5:1


(noun)

To Hold; To Contain; To Enclose.

A covering which protects the interior.

(verb)

SKIN

To peel and [un]-peel to reveal the richness inside.

(verb)

To cause something to begin to grow and develop.

(noun)

SEEDS

Precious, protected, vibrant and enclosed. An indication of growth: to sow the land with seeds. SPILLAGE NO.III

To hold components together in a pliable manner. Acts as a connecting link and means for exchange.

(verb)

A boundary; a lining; a partition.

(noun)

MEMBRANE

FLESH

add more details to something which only exists in outline form

(verb)

the pulp of the fruit, found between the skin and the bones creates substance: holds other in their situation

(noun)

originally drawn 5:1

WALLS & WELLS


h ed

ct u r e s te d

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Connection D

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Facade Skins Exploded , 1:20

CONNECTION C

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D o u b l e Oa k C o l u m n , j o i s t e d rass Connection 7 Cast B6 R e d P a i n t e d St e e l b o l t k Column, joisted 9 8 Do u b l e7 Oa Cast Brass Connection Foundation Block 9 C o n c r e8t e D o u b l e Oa k C o l u m n , j o i s t e d

Facade Skins, 1:20

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9 Concrete Foundation Block

Connection D

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Connection C

CONNECTION D

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4 Red Painted Steel Structure 5 Double OakColumn, joisted Connection A

6 Red Painted Steel bolt 7 Cast Brass Connection

Connection A

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8 Double Oak Column, joisted Facade Skins, 1:20

Facade 9 Concrete Foundation Block

Facade Skins, 1:20

Skins Exploded , 1:20 Facade Skins Exploded , 1:20

CONNECTION A Connection A, 1:5

CONNECTION B Connection B, 1:5

Connection A, 1:5

Connection

Connection B, 1:5

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Finding shade within an Urban Oasis. Collage Visualisation


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HANDLES, HANDRAILS & HINGES THREE STAGES OF OPENING THE GATE Left: 1:20 model of Pivoting Gate, Card & Plaster

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P I VOT I N G G AT E S Stories from Amritvarshini Stepwell tell of how it is locked up the majority of the time and that one must seek out the priest in one of the nearby buildings to acquire the key that opens the Gate. It is one of the reasons that people believe the stepwell is still in relatively good condition. Continuing the theatrical and laborious nature of gaining access to the stepwell, the gate is a large 3x3m pivoting wall. As result, it becomes very obvious in the surrounding area when the gate has been turned open to let people in - or is closing off access. Within the gate, there is a smaller, body-scale entrance into the oasis: an intimate (left): Sabarmati Ashram, Charles Correa (right): CEPT University, B.V. Doshi

Model of the Pivoting Gate at Stepwell, 1:20 Cast & Card

entry, allowing selected people to still gain access even when the larger gate is closed.

The Gate Keepers Fruit Farm Semester One Concept Sketch


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BEFORE, DURING & AFTER AUCTION AT THE AUCTION HOUSE GATE Originally drawn at 1:20


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Ground ‘Membranes’: defining new street edges Collage Visualisation

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THE AUCTION HOUSE BRIDGE The open stepwell intersects the Auction House in half, creating a separation of producer and consumer, that is crossed by a bridge. Details were inspired by Carla Scarpa’s work, in particular Fondazione Querini Stampalia: how his material palette sits sympathetically, but still contrastingly, against existing architectural layers and also the playful relationship between architecture and water that he often mediates. In his book Strange Details, Michael Caldwell describes Scarpa’s sensibility as ‘aquatic’: he had an ability to create ‘liquefied materials’ and that people that visit his buildings are invited to ‘swim in a liquid

Michael Caldwell, Strange Details, (London: MIT PRESS, 2007), 5

ambience’.

CROSSING THE AUCTION HOUSE TRANSPOSITIONS: BODY SCALE


Connection B, 2:1

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Connection A, 2:1 1 C ar v ed T eak C ap 2 So l i d B r as s T o p B ar 3 Red P ai n t ed St eel B r aci n g B ar 4 T eak P an el , 4 0 x 8 0 cm 5 Red P ai n t ed St eel C o n n ect i o n s 6 So l i d B r as s Ho r i zo n t al B ar , 8 0 cm h ei g h t 7 So l i d B r as s B o t t o m B ar

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Connection B, 2:1

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Connection A, 2:1

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Red P ai n t ed S t eel W al l F i xi n g

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Connection A

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F i l l et ed T eak W o o d en H an d r ai l

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Auction House Bridge Exploded, 1:10 R ed Pai n ted Steel Gu tter

1 Ca rv e d T e a k Ca p Auction House Bridge Exploded, 1:10

1 Carved Teak Cap 2 S o l i d B r a s s We l de d B a r s 3 T e a k B o a r ds 4 R e d P a i nte d S te e l S tr uc tur e

Auction House Bridge Exploded, 1:10 5 R e d P a i nte d S te e l B r a c i ng 6 B r a s s C o nne c ti o n Teak Cap 1 C a r v7 ed T e a k B o a r ds

2 S o l i d B r a s s W el d e d B a r s

2 S o l i d B ra ss W e l d e d B a rs R ed Pai n ted Steel W al l Fi xi n g

3 T e a k B o a rd s 4 R e d Pa i n t e d S t e e l S t ru c t u re 5 R e d Pa i n t e d S t e e l B ra c i n g 6 B ra ss Co n n e c t i o n

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7 T e a k B o a rd s

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3 R e d P a i n t e d S t e e l Br a c i n g Ba r

3 Teak Boards 4 R e d P a i n t e d S t eel S t r u c t u r e

4 Teak Panel, 40 x 80cm

5 R e d P a i n t e d S t eel B r a ci n g

5 Red Painted Steel Connections

6 B r a s s C o n n ect i o n

6 S o l i d Br a s s H o r i z o n t a l Ba r , 8 0 c m h e i g h t

7 T ea k B o a r d s

7 S o l i d Br a s s Bo t t o m Ba r

BRIDGE

RAILING

Originally Drawn at 1:10

Originally Drawn at 1:5

Auction House Bridge, 1:10

B r as s W al l Fi xi n g

B r as s W al l Fi xi n g [ i n s er ts i n to b r i ck wal l ]

B r as s H or i zon tal Su p p or t R ai l

HANDRAIL & GUTTER

Fi l l eted Teak W ood en H an d r ai l

Originally Drawn at 1:5

Auction House Bridge, 1:10

Connection B, 2:1

DELIGHT IN THE SMALL MEMBRANE PIECES ACROSS THE AUCTION HOUSE

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TWO SCALES: TWO AUCTION HOUSES ECOLOGIES OF TRANSPOSITION Originally drawn at 1:50 & 1:100

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G lazing in Tim ber B at o n F ra me Internal Teak Panelling

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5

o l i d T e a k F i t t e d D e s k , B r a s s F ix in g s 9 GSlazing

10

[palm wo o d ]

R e d L a q u e r e d W o o d e n F i t t e d Sh elv es

ber S t ud Fram e, Panelled 61 1 Tim Terracota Parquet Floor

Assembled Seed [Office], 1:20

F lernal o o r S t r uTeak c t u r e , TPanelling imber Baton 71 2 Int

[inserted into brick wall pockets]

8

E xt ernal Teak Panelling

S o lid A sTeak s e mFit b lteedd Desk, S e e dB ra E xssp Fl oixdinegds [Office], 1:20 Red Laquered den F it t ed Sh elv es 1 0 SET BLG Wo oBDY R e d M e m b r a n e R ocmo f Co v er ing 1 t a Parquet Flo Terraco or

9

ASSEMBLED SEED

TTML

Assembled Seed

[ O F F I[ COEf f] i c e ] , 1 : 2 0

0

50

1 11 0 0 12

200

SP IL LA GE N

2 T i mb e r C r o s s B e a m SEEDS Flo o r S t ruct ure, Tim ber B a t o n Gl a z i n g i n T i mb e r Bat o n Fr ame [insert ed int o brick wal l p o ck et s] 3

O. II [

10 :1 ]


THE ‘SEEDS’ [OFFICES] On the second floor, the building’s ‘seeds’ – the offices – are lightweight insertions into the brick. As the only fully enclosed space in the building, the dryness of the seeds sit in juxtaposition to the bottom of the stepwell. They take on a rich and textured material quality by layers of teak panelling, terracotta flooring and brick walls. An Office room at the Auction House - the thickness of the Old City Walls


122

[measured & imagined] intensities Material Collage of the inside of the Auction House, showing seeds in the brick wall


123

[PARA-SITUATION

II]

Imagined Intensity: Ellis Bridge cuts Manek Burj A2, Graphite on Paper

[PARA-SITUATION

I]

Imagined Intensity: Amritvarshini Vav Stepwell A2, Graphite on Paper


WALL - WELL CONNECTION 1:50 Part Model White Card, Cast Plaster

shadow [transposistions] shots from the film, showing the shadows of the ghost wall dancing through the day.

BDY SP IL LA GE N

FLESH

O. II [

10 :1 ]


125

[ PAR ADISE] POMEGR ANATES : WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

[un]peeled parts: Old City and Riverfront

Paper Model: Pomegranate Segment

Shadow Study, Worms Eye Isometric

Shadow Photograph


126

ROOFTOP

The Kite Festival in the Old City Photograph: Jack Parmar, January 2020


127

The Kite Festival in the Old City Photograph: Jack Parmar, January 2020


[ PAR ADISE] POMEGR ANATES : WALLS, WELLS & SELLING

128


129

shadow [transposistions] The wall-well shadows begin to merge with footage recorded on Ahmedabad’s Pols rooftops of the shadows of people flying kites

Flying kites on the rooftop of a Pol: with Rajesh and Umesh Shah, January 2020


130

Flying kites on the rooftops: TTML

SET

BLG

View from the roof of the Auction House, BDY showing the layering of ‘membrane’ pieces


Boxes of Pomegranates at Naroda Market Photograph: De Rui Lee, Jan ‘20.


UN[CONCLUDED] SPILLAGE NO.1 [Model: Drawing 4]

PARADISE POMEGRANATE: THE POSSIBLE

4


“/

“Their parents probably worked in the textile mills. Ahmedabad is a city that is constantly making and remaking itself.”

Overlay of Trace Drawings, Semester One Dec ‘19.

Amrita Shah. Ahmedabad: A city in the World, 153


134

THREE AGENCIES PA R A D I S E P O M E G R A N AT E : THE POSSIBLE Paradise Pomegranate: The Possible is a series of speculative transpositions which test the potentiality of the combination of the three agencies, particularly at the open land produced as an consequence of the Sabarmati Riverfront Project. It also wonders – and wanders - the culmination of the three projects as a new visualisation for the Loving Metropolitan Landscape. It sees the thesis not as a conclusive and unequivocal proposition, but as a set of ecosopohic agencies that weaves and grows over time. In this sense, Paradise Pomegranate is only one set of explorations into the cultivation of endless ‘possibles’.

A NEW WALL AGENCY FARMERS’ GUILD; REST HOUSE; WASH & PROCESSING HOUSE

0 2

BLG

SET

TTML 10

20

BDY metres


135

DWELLING RESEARCH SELLING A N E W V I S U A L I S AT I O N

DWELLING DWELLING

RESEARCH

RESEARCH SELLING A N E W V I S U A L I S AT I O N

SELLING A NE W VISUALISATION

FARMERS’ MEETING HALL & FARMERS’ REST HOUSE SPECUL ATIVE ISOME TRIC

TTML

SET

BLG

BDY


136

800000 m2

470000 m2

750000 m2 4000000 m2

40000 m2

620000 m2

280000 m2

340000 m2

25000 m2

490000 m2

42000 m2

70000 m2

42000 m2 140000 m2

QUANTIFYING PRODUCTION

25000 m2

330000 m2

100000 m2

1900000 m2

260000 m2

In order to realistically gauge the feasibility

2200000 m2 98000 m2

49000 m2

of growing a significant percentage of

850000 m2

130000 m2

37000 m

9000 m2

15000 m2 6000 m2

480000 m2

25000 m2

2

280000 m2

fruit within the dense urban environment,

100000 m2 200000 m2

calculation studies were carried out which calculate the space required compared to

14000 m2 14000 m2 43000 m2

yield. The fruit requirements for the city

98000 m2

19000 m2 100000 m2

19000 m2 1400000 m2

were taken from figures given by a report on

2700000 m2 160000 m2

15000 m2

Naroda Wholesale Fruit Market, alongside research into the planting spacing and yield of different fruits. More technical information on this can be found in the Appendix.

2000000 m2

9000 m2

970000 m2

Gandhi, Vasant P., and Namboodiri, N. V. Fruit and Vegetable Marketing and its Efficiency in India: A Study of Wholesale Markets in the Ahmedabad Area. Indian Institute of Management: Ahmedabad, 2002.

360000 m2 68000 m2

57000 m2

960000 m2 1400000 m2 460000 m2

1400000 m2

440000 m

2

planting area requirement for Naroda Wholesale Fruit Market (all fruits) 35000 m2

Planting Area required for Naroda Supply (all fruits):

2 45000 m2 170000 m

3300 m2

35000 m2

4000 m2 35000 m2

Planting Area required for Naroda Supply (pomegranate):

450000 m2

82000 m2

~11,616 acres ~1,896 acres

300000 m2

16000 m2

1000000 m2 10000 m2

4000 m2

10000 m2 9600 m2 170000 m2

580000 m2

400000 m2 36000 m2

580000 m2

planting area requirement for Naroda Wholesale Fruit Market (pomegranates)

300000 m2

140000 m2

250000 m2 430000 m2

CITY WIDE GROWING

470000 m2

390000 m2

16000 m2

Total Planting Area:

14000 m2

100000 m2 140000 m2 35000 m2 35000 m2

60000 m2

28000 m2 35000 m2

2500000 m2

1800000 m2

~42,000, 000 m2 [~10.400 acres]

12000 m2

14000 m2 37000 m2

TOTAL PLANTING AREA: ~15,600 m2

TOTAL PLANTING AREA: ~3.85 acres

730000 m2 140000 m2

330000 m2

1400000 m2 700000 m2

PLANTING AREA REQUIRED FOR NARODA SUPPLY (ALL FRUITS): ~11,616 acres PLANTING AREA REQUIRED FOR NARODA SUPPLY (POMEGRANATES): ~1,896 acres

Percentage of Naroda Supply (all fruits):

7800 m2

100000 m2

160000 m2

% OF TOTAL SUPPLY TO NARODA (ALL FRUITS): 89%

89%

% OF TOTAL SUPPLY TO NARODA (POMEGRANATES): 550%

Percentage of Naroda Supply (pomegranate): 550%

THREE AGENCIES AT THE ME TROP OLITON SCALE 1. GROWING 2. AGENCIES & GROWING 3. CARPETING THE CITY (OVERLEAF) Group Work; Drawings combined & edited by De Rui Lee


137


3 C A N O P Y VA R I AT I O N S

P O M E G R A N AT E

Controlling Sunlight

SHUTTERS The pomegranate canopies are a proposal for an exploration of how the urban environment could be seen as a benefit instead of a negative for the growing of fruit. Relying on surrounding buildings for some of their structural support, they appropriate tight spaces within the city and attempt to cultivate them as productive growing environments. Inspired from the unpeeling skins of pomegranates, they are an adjustable system that allows the farmers to create optimum environmental conditions by controlling sunlight, wind and rainfall. They aspire to be a beneficial visual addition to the streetscape, instead of purely infrastructural.

Collecting Rainwater

Wind Protection Pomegranate Shutters in the Old City Visualisation


139

section 2

P OMEGR ANATE SHUT TERS ON THE OLD WALL PATH : K ALUPUR ROAD Originally drawn at 1:50

0

BLG

SET

TTML 2

4

6

BDY metres


140

ELE VATION SHOWING PANC HKU VA G ATE & THE OLD WALL THE GATE-KEEPER’S FRUIT FARM - ELE VATION Originally drawn at 1:100


141

AN INTERSECTION OF 3 ARCHITECTURAL AGENCIES

The original proposal for the Gate-Keeper’s Fruit Farm was revisited with the knowledge and technical development brought from the 3 agencies of Selling, Dwelling & Growing, each of which share a common language of seeds, membranes & skin. This manifested into similarities in architectural elements such as canopies, louvres and brick cavity walls.

SET

TTML 0

1

2

3

BLG

BDY metres


142

The

Gate-Keeper’s

fruit

farm

appropriates space either side of the city wall by a combination of dwellings, steppools and screens - in a sense, walling the old wall - to create microclimates tailored for productivity. The screens, architecturally formed from motifs ‘drawn’ out from both sites, create physical, but not visual boundaries and still allow the free movement of air. As seen in the old city wall, the construction of a wall is synonymous with the insertion of gates. Our gates, as thresholds, have acquired a depth capable of becoming the farmer’s home – whom now is also a [gate-keeper], and in charge of opening and closing the stepwell: an oasis to the city. The theatrical nature of opening/closing is conveyed through the pivoting movement of the gate, and the body-scaled door within the gate creates an opening within an opening – or conversely, a closing within a closing. Motifs & Screens

Model of pivoting gate & motif screen, 1:20, transposed next to the stepwell, 1:100

white card, plaster, wooden base


143

L AYERS OF TE X TURE & ARCHITECTURE THE GATE-KEEPER’S FRUIT FARM - ELE VATION Originally drawn at 1:50

SET

TTML 0

50

100

BLG 200

BDY cm


144

HOUSE, STEPWELL, GARDENS & GROWING THE GATE-KEEPER’S FRUIT FARM - SECTION Originally drawn at 1:100


FIRST FLOOR PLAN 0

BLG

SET

TTML 1

2

4

BDY 6

metres

THE GATE-KEEPER’S FRUIT FARM Originally drawn at 1:100


146

H O W D O E S PA R A D I S E P O M E G R A N AT E RESPOND TO THE FARMERS’ STRIKE?

The farmers’ protest against the proposition

farmers’ profits further. Our thesis speculates

of large corporations having control of the

a reconfiguration of Ahmedabad’s fruitscape;

agricultural markets and being able to inflate

to test the potential of Ahmedabad’s old city

prices, which would hugely disadvantage the

walls as an instigator for a fruit-growing

farmers’ livelihood. However, the current

network capable of supplementing the

system is also faulted.

The over-use of

city’s fruit requirements. Cultivating the

‘middle men’ who trade between farmers

[in-between] retains the powers and profits

and buyers and charge large commission also

of selling the fruit in the same community

cuts farmers’ profits. Additionally, Mandis -

as the farmers who grow the fruit. A

which according to APMC should be free of

community driven network which promotes

any commission charge for selling – charge

the integration of propagation, growing,

an average fee of 2% of each sale from the

harvesting, packaging, storing and selling, in

farmer for the commission agents.

the hope to give fair prices and better quality produce.

Over years, expensive land prices and overcrowding in and around the cities have

In doing so, the mandi (market) becomes

caused farming to become decentralised;

re-invented. It retains its pertinent role as

this results in a weakening of links between

fluid site of economic, political and social

farmers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers.

activity, which is responsible for connections

Current systems for transporting fruits across

between rural and urban, local and national.

these large distances result in high wastage and loss of quality in fruits, decreasing Rajat Gupta, December 2020. “Farmers rest inside their truck during the protest at Singhu.” The Guardian


147

TTML

Xinhua/Rex, December 2020.

BDY SET “A farmerBLG protests on the blocked highway at the Delhi-Uttar”

Pradesh border.The Guardian


148

TTML

SET

BLG

BDY

Exhibition, Semester One Photograph: De Rui Lee. Dec ‘19.


Ahmedabad as a Pomegranate The Emergence of a fruitscape.


150

OLD

WALLS

|

NEW

WALLS

MY WALLS AN ‘EXHIBITION’ TTML

SET

BLG

BDY

5


151

Drawings Table 1500 x 700 x 700 mm

Set Scale Model with Transposed Pieces, 1:500 700m height, oak with pomegranate red base

AN ‘EXHIBITION’ OF SORTS MARCHMONT ROAD The absence of a physical degree show also felt like an absence in trying to find an

Wall-Well Connection, 1:50, cast plaster and card, 1000m plinth height

appropriate ending to this 2 year project.

Stepwell & Gate Model, 1:20/1:100 cast plaster and card, 1000m plinth height

The following pages act as place holders in my imagination which have allowed me to explore how I might have started to display my work and the work of the thesis. In doing so, it has also helped me consider what the important drawings of the thesis are, and how to best show them physically – and to scale – after over 12 months of working almost exclusively digitally and on a screen which abolishes any concept of fixed ‘scale’. This location of the degree show is in a west facing room of my Flat, a lovely period featured Georgian tenement on Marchmont Road, Edinburgh.

Ahmedabad City Walls & Sabarmati, 1:2000, Vinyl Cut-Out on floor

EXHIBITION SPACE, AXONOMETRIC PLACEMENT OF MODELS & DRAWINGS IN THE SPACE Originally drawn at 1:50


152

TTML

SET

BLG

Entering Paradise Pomegranate exhibition BDY ‘Imagined Intensity’


153

A PLAN FOR AN EXHIBITION PL ANS & ELE VATIONS


154

N O RT H WA L L E L E VAT I O N

[A]

Drawings Table 1500 x 700 x 700 mm

Mending Old Walls, Exploded Isometric 1:50 [B]

Mending New Walls, Exploded Isometric 1:500

[G]

Set Scale Model with Transposed Pieces, 1:500 700m height, oak with pomegranate red base

[C-F]

4 Transpositions 1:20, 1:50, 1:100

Stepwell & Gate Model, 1:20/1:100 cast plaster and card, 1000m plinth height


155


156


157 E A ST WA L L E L E VAT I O N

[see folio II]

Stepwell & Gate Model, 1:20/1:100 cast plaster and card, 1000m plinth height

Pomegranate Photo Wall, framed Photographs from Ahmedabad, Pomegranate drawings Pencil drawings

Ahmedabad’s Fruit Trade, A Photographic Archive of Buying & Selling fruit in Ahmedabad, A5 Book


158

Drawing Old Walls & New Walls on My Wall ‘Imagined Intensity’


159 S O U T H WA L L E L E VAT I O N

[C-F] [A]

City Scale: Details of Transposition 1:5000

[B]

Riverfront [SET] Transposition 1:500

[G]

Well - Wall Connection Series of Sections & Elevations cast plaster and card Auction House Stepwell Section, 1:50 Thick Walls at the Riverfront, 1:100 Internal Section at Auction House showing Old Wall, 1:100 River Elevation, 1:100

[H-I]

Atmospheric Visualisations Auction House & River Elevation


160

The Drawings Table, looking over Marchmont Road ‘Imagined Intensity’


161

Design Report 400mm x 235mm

Thesis Film 5:51 mins

Table Top, mdf painted gun-metal grey 1500 x 730 mm Table Inserts, pomegranate red 30mm depth, 10mm lip

Drawing Hangers , pomegranate red wood 30 x 10 x 600 mm

DR AWINGS TABLE ISOMETRIC, WITH DRAWINGS EXPLODED Originally drawn at 1:20


162

Sunset over the Sabarmati Riverfront Project Jan ‘20.


163

Flying Kites on the Pol Rooftops at Sunset Photograph:Jack Parmar. Jan ‘20.


164

TTML

SET

BLG

Pomegranates against sunset in the Old City BDY Photograph: De Rui Lee. Jan ‘20.


CONDITIONS & FEASIBILITY OF FRUIT GROWING Information on quantification for yield demand and possibility is taken from documentation which records the amount of fruit processed at Naroda

FEASIBILITY OF GROWING FRUIT

T E C H N I CA L S P E C I F I CAT I O N S

AP PEND IX

Wholesale Fruit Market annually.

Gandhi, Vasant P., and Namboodiri, N. V. Fruit and Vegetable Marketing and its Efficiency in India: A Study of Wholesale Markets in the Ahmedabad Area. Indian Institute of Management: Ahmedabad, 2002.

MANGO

P O M E G R A N AT E

CLIMATE

CLIMATE

MANDARIN

PA PAYA

CLIMATE

CLIMATE

CLIMATE Temperature_ tropical pH_ n/a Soil Type_ Deep/sandy loam, well drained/.

G UAVA

Temperature_ tropical to sub-tropical pH_ 5.5 - 7.5 Soil Type_ Loamy, alluvial, well drained, aerated.

Temperature_ semi arid pH_ 5.5 - 7.5 Soil Type_ Loamy, sandy loam, well drained.

Temperature_ tropical to sub-tropical pH_ 4.5-8.2 Soil Type_ Heavy clay to light sandy

Temperature_ tropical (frost free) pH_ 6.0 - 8.0 Soil Type_ Medium/light loamy, well drained.

PLANTING

PLANTING

PLANTING

PLANTING

PLANTING

Spacing_ 8m x 8m

Spacing_ 2.5m x 4.5m

Spacing_ 6m x 6m

Spacing_ 6m x 6m

Spacing_ 1.2m x 1.2m

Plants per acre_ 63

Plants per acre_

Plants per acre_ 112

Plants per acre_ 120

Plants per acre_

IRRIGATION

IRRIGATION

IRRIGATION

IRRIGATION

IRRIGATION

Annual Rainfall Requirements 650-750mm Winter frequency_ 10 -15 days in year 5 + Summer frequency_ not needed during monsoon

Annual Rainfall Requirements Winter frequency_ 14 days

Annual Rainfall Requirements 1000 - 1200 mm Winter frequency_ 20 -25 days

Summer frequency_ 7 days

Summer frequency_ 10 - 15 days

Annual Rainfall Requirements 900-1100mm Winter frequency_ 10 -15 days Summer frequency_ 5-7 days

Annual Rainfall Requirements 650-750mm Winter frequency_ every 10 days Summer frequency_ every 14 days

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

Age of Fruit Bearing_ 6 years

Age of Fruit Bearing_ 4-5 years

Age of Fruit Bearing_ begins at year 2, full after 8 Lifespan of tree_ 15 years

Age of Fruit Bearing_ from year 4, full after year 10 Lifespan of tree_ 20 yeras

Harvesting_ June-July Intercropping_ Legumes, vegetable

Harvesting_ July-August Intercropping_ n/a

Age of Fruit Bearing_ year 1 Lifespan of tree_ 3-4 years Harvesting_ possible all year

Storage Longevity_ 20 days in cold stroage

Storage Longevity_ 3 weeks in cold storage

Lifespan of tree_ 35+ years Harvesting_ July-August Intercropping_ Legumes, cereals, veg, spices, Storage Longevity_ 4-10 days at room temperature

DEMAND AND YIELD

Lifespan of tree_ 15 years Harvesting_ can be all year Intercropping_ Pulses, low growing veg. Storage Longevity_ 8-10 weeks in cold stoage

DEMAND AND YIELD

DEMAND AND YIELD

DEMAND AND YIELD

Intercropping_ Legumes, shallow rooted Storage Longevity_ 1-3 weeks in cold storage

DEMAND AND YIELD

Processed at Naroda annually_ 55,500 tonnes Acres required to provide this_ 9250

Processed at Naroda annually_ 13,274 tonnes Acres required to provide this_ 1896

Processed at Naroda annually_ 161 tonnes Acres required to provide this_ 16.1

Processed at Naroda annually_ 1,768 tonnes Acres required to provide this_ 368.3

Processed at Naroda annually_ 55,500 tonnes Acres required to provide this_ 9250

Yield per acre_ 6 tonnes Value per tonne (rs)_ 10000

Yield per acre_ 7 tonnes Value per tonne (rs)_ n/a

Yield per acre_ 10 tonnes Value per tonne (rs)_ n/a

Yield per acre_ 4.8 tonnes Value per tonne (rs)_ 10000

Yield per acre_ 85 tonnes Value per tonne (rs)_ n/a


GROWING & HARVESTING

KEY INFRASTRUCTURE

GROWING ZONES

Stalls Water Supply Auction House Cold Storage (Go-downs) Sorting & Grading

Irrigation Network Cultivated Land / Soil Enviromentally Conditioned Spaces Farmers rest houses

*

Pump House Bathrooms/Sanitary

Weighing Area Market Offices (currently in GP & PW House) Bathrooms/Sanitary A D D I T I O N A L FAC I L I T I E S

Watch man / Clock Tower Guest House

+

Conference Hall Canteen Rest House for Workers

+ OVERLAP

*

WITH COMMUNIT Y AND DWELLING T YPOLOGIES

Cold Storage Sorting Area Grading Area Packing Area Labelling Area Administration Offices Loading and Unloading Zones Workers Rest Rooms Bathrooms/Sanitary Canteen

* OVERLAP

WITH GROWING AND RESEARCH T YPOLOGIES

PROCE S SING AND WASH HOUSE

Packing & Labelling GR ADING AND PACKING HOU SE

MARKET HALL AND AUCTION HOUSE

P R O G R A M M I N G D O C U M E N T: P R O C E S S I N G & S E L L I N G

T E C H N I CA L S P E C I F I CAT I O N S

AP PEND IX

Loading and Unloading Zones

( P O M E G R A N AT E S H U T T E R S )

PROCESSING AND SELLING

Water Supply Fruit Washing Factory Line Workers Rest Rooms Temporary Storage Loading and Unloading Zones Bathroom/Sanitary Administration Offices Fruit Washing Factory Line Pump House Canteen

MOVEMENT OF FRUIT


main tank

er is filtered rs of sa n d to ge p a r ti cles.

A n ae r ob ic t r e atm e n t of th e wate r r e m ove s h ar m fu l p ollu t an t s b y or gan ic m ic r o- or gan is m s .

storage tank Wat er i s hel d here unt i l needed t o be pumped t o t he t aps f o r w as hi ng f rui t

pump Mechanical or electrical options for pumping the water through the pipes and back to the taps

STAG E O N E S M A L L- S C A L E R A I N WAT E R T R E AT M E N T

ment

cti on o f th e p r oj e c t beg ins o n the Auction House, a small-scale n water is u ti l i s e d . At this stag e the water requirements of the it ed to w a s h i n g of t he fruit (no n industrial) and for the sinks. T he sy stem is low-energy and low cost.

point

filter

Ensures no soil or large particles are left in the water before it is stored.

2

rain water treatment

water lantation ater yield – no t s ui ta ble for high water r equirments. N ot suitable pfor oilet s – this i s sti l l c o nn ec ted to the c ity s ewage grid. N ot suitable for reeds, O ² drinking water. preferabl y phragmi tes O

1

stepwell

3

²

Auction House, Ground Floor

As the first construction of the project begins on the Auction House, a small-scale treatment system for rain water is utilised. At this stage the water requirements of the building are fairly limited to washing of the fruit (non industrial) and for the sinks. The sys-

influent W at e r Ba t h s , s l o p i n g r o o f s , w i d e s p r e a d g u t t e r c ha n n e l s a n d t h e s t e p w e l l a l l o w max i mu m s u r f a c e a r e a f o r c a t c h i n g r a i n wat e r d u r i n g m o n s o o n s e a s o n . T h e s t e p we l l i s t h e n u s e d t o s t o r e t h e w a t e r as i t i s g r a d u a l l y f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h a n d u s e d i n t he b u i l d i n g s

effulent Tr e a t e d w a t e r can be used for w ashing t h e f r u i t , h a n d-w ashing and for sm all s c a l e i r r i g a t i o n of the plants. T he w a t e r c a n t h e n be circled back into the s y s t e m a n d r e - treated.

tem is low-energy and low cost.

1%

sand

ent

T E C H N I CA L S P E C I F I CAT I O N S

vel

Limitations: effulent Low water yield – not suitable for high water requirements . b o t t o m Not s l o psuitable e for treating water from toilets – this is still conT r ea ted suitable w a ter ca n for be us ed fo r the water. nected to the city sewage grid. Not drinking

Sand Filter The water is filtered through layers of sand to remove large particles.

pr o ces s i ng l i ne fo r w a s hi ng po m eg r a na tes , fo r ha nd w a s hi ng , a nd fo r i r r i g a ti o n o f the o r cha r ds .

collection chamber

STAG E T WO R O OT-ZO N E WA ST E WAT E R T R E AT M E N T

STAGE ONE: Small-Scale Rain Water Treatment

W AT E R T R E AT M E N T S Y S T E M S

AP PEND IX

storage tank Water is held here until needed to be pumped to the taps for washing fruit

plantation re e ds,

ldings exp a n d , a l a rg er interv entio n fo r water treatment can be R o o tzon e te c h n ol ogy is an effectiv e and natural option that uses p urify rai n w a te r . T hey require a co nsiderable amount of space nd 2 m dep th ) , s o a r e no t suitable fo r smaller buildings but work series of th e s e w e tlands wo uld be situated across the buildings

ta b l e for tre a ti ng w a ter fr om toilets – this is still connected to the city s ewage gr id. Not suitable for drinking water.

main tank An a e r o b i c t r e a t m e n t o f the water removes harmful pollutants by o r g a n i c m i c r o -o r g a n i s m s .

A s t h e f i r s t co n s t r u ct i o n o f t h eOp r o j ect b eg i n s o nO t h e A u ct i o n HoOu ²s e, a s m al l - s cal e f e rabl y phrag mi t e ss t e p w e l l pre ² t r eat m en t s y s t em f o r r ai n w at er i s u t²i l i s ed . A t t h i s s t ag e t h e w at er r eq u i r em en t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g ar e f ai r l y l i m i t ed t o w as h i n g o f t h e f r u i t ( n o n i n d u s t r i al ) an d f o r t h e s i n k s . rain water treatment Th e s y s t em i s l o w - en er g y an d l o w co s t . L im it a t ion s : L o w w ate r yi e l d – n o t s u i tab l e fo r hi g h w ate r r e q u i r m e n ts . N o t s u i tab l e fo r tr e ati n g w ate r fr o m to i l e ts – thi s i s s ti l l c o n n e c te d to the c i ty s e w ag e g r i d . N o t s u i tab l e fo r d r i n k i n g w ate r .

placement of rootzone treatment SET SCALE

As the series of buildings expand, a larger intervention for water

1 2 3

water point

Auction House, Ground Floor

influent

treatment can be implemented. Rootzone technology is an effective and natural option that uses constructed wetlands to purify rainwater. They require a considerable amount of space (around 13m x 8m, and 2m depth), so are not suitable for smaller buildings but work on a larger scale. A series of these wetlands would be situated across the buildings

R o o f s , g u t te r s , w a t e r b a t h s a n d s t e p we l l s ac r o s s t h e s e r i e s o f b u i l d i n g s c o l l e c t max i m u m r a i n f a l l d u r i n g t h e mo n s o o n and s t o r e i t i n w e l l s a n d t a n k s . Gr ad u al l y t h e w a t e r i s d i r e c t e d t o a n d filtered through reed beds (rootzone t r e at me n t ) t o p u r i f y i t f o r u s e .

effulent 1% bottom slope

gravel

Limitations: Not suitable for treating water from toilets – this is still connected to the city sewage grid. Not suitable for drinking water.

STAGE TWO: Root-Zone Waste Water Treatment

sand

collection chamber

T r e a t e d w a ter can be used for the p r o c e s s i n g line for w ashing p o m e g r a n a tes, for hand w ashing, and f o r i r r i g a t i on of the orchards.


PACKAGE Brick Wall (Ghost Wall)

Foundations Rammed Earth

PART

MATERIAL

Bricks, 190 x 90 x 90 mm

Clay, f ired, recycled

Mortar

Lime & Sand

Brick Ties

Steel

Shelf and seat Insertions

Teak

Strip Foundation

Stabilised with 5% concrete

Poured Rammed Earth

Stabilised with 5% concrete

Reinforcement rods

Steel

PACKAGE Auction House Seating

Auction House Bridge

Timber Panel Formwork

P A R T S P A C K A G E : M AT E R I A L S P E C I F I C AT I O N

T E C H N I CA L S P E C I F I CAT I O N S

AP PEND IX

Offices

Floor Surfaces

Water Baths

Louvres

Timber Baton Structure

Mango

External Panelling

Teak

Internal Panelling

Teak

Glazing

single glazing

Louvres

see louvres

Flooring

Terracotta Parquet Floor

Fitted Desk

Teak

Flashing

Steel, red oxide coating

Bookshelves

Roofs (skins)

PART Seats

Red Lacquered Wood

Foot rests/ walkways

Palm Wood

Structure

Red Steel

Steps

Palm Wood

Structure

Red Steel

Wooden Steps/Boards

Palm Wood

Handrail Cap

Teak

Handrail Support

Brass

Step interface

Brass

Skins

Fabric, stretched between poles

Skins Connections

Brass Pole & Hooks

Sloping Roofs

Terracotta Tiles

Roof Structure

Timber Joists, Mango Wood

Flat roofs Columns/Beams (Mesocarp)

MATERIAL

Decking with Reflective Coating

Primary Columns

Oak

Connections

Brass, cast mould

Red Lacquered Wood

Connection Pins

Red Steel

Secondary Beams

Mango Wood

Auction House

Sandstone Paving

Primary Beams

Oak

Market Hall

Polished Rammed Earth

Second Floor Communal

Terracotta Tiles

Handrail Cap

Teak

Toilets

Polished Rammed Earth

Panels

Palm Wood

Storage Rooms

Polished Rammed Earth

Horizontal and Vertical Supports

Red Steel

Meeting Rooms

Terracotta Tiles

Connections

Brass

Raised Floors (above Water Baths)

Mango Wood Planks

External Paving

Limestone Tiles

Flashings

Steel, red oxide coating

Gutters

Steel, red oxide when exposed

Structure

Rammed Earth, waterproof coating

Staircase, Structure

Steel Structure

Tiles

recycled porcelain tiles, mosaic

Staircase, Tread

Palm Wood

Staircase, Handrails

see handrails

Wooden Louvres

Palm Wood

Frame

Red Steel

Railings/Handrails

Others


Daily Operation

The Market Hall will operate from 5am to 6pm Monday – Saturday.

Renewable Energy & Sustainability

The Auction House will be open from 6am to 12pm Monday – Saturday for Auctions.

A sustainable focus has been made for environmental conditions which the building interacts mostly – water use and waste disposal.

The Stepwell will be open to the public at all times.

Lighting & Electricity

Auction House The least amount of daylight is from November to February, where there is still an average of 10.5 hours. (Sunrise: 7:20; sunset: 17:50)Therefore, minimal artificial lighting is required for the Auction House, apart from 2 hours either side of sunrise and sunset in the winter months. Electricity points are not required.

Stepwell May require night illumination for safety if it is to be open to the public at all times.

Water

Emergency Exits The emergency exits will be illuminated and emergency exit routes will be well-lit at all times. The building is designed to make use of natural ventilation through a series of layered facades, permeable surfaces and taking into account air and wind flow. No artificial ventilation should be needed for the Auction House.

Ventilation & Heating

Some additional ventilation may be required for the offices and meeting rooms, particularly in the warmest months of the year. It is suggested that this could be provided mechanically – e.g mechanical fans. Heating should not be required due to the moderate temperature year round.

The building has a very specialised and specific relationship with water collection, storage and use. Specific details for this can be seen on pages 38, 39 and 41, but also are detailed through most drawings. The main principles are to be circular, natural and ultimately, self-sustainable. The main water points are: the Auction House Water Point and the bathroom sinks. (see plans on page 33)

Ventilation & Heating

Waste disposal areas will be distributed across the site. The current market is known for being messy/unhygienic. Recycling points are an important addition due to the large quanities of cardboard and wooden boxes for the fruit. Ultimately, the fruit networks aim to be fully equipped with re-useable crates and packaging to reduce waste.

Offices/Meeting Rooms These spaces, alongside the communal hall upstairs and the circulation towers, will have fixed permanent lighting and electricity points for computers/screens etc. The lift in the northern circulation tower will need to be electrically powered.

MAINTENANCE MANUAL

T E C H N I CA L S P E C I F I CAT I O N S

AP PEND IX

Market Hall May require some artificial lighting through the day, especially on darker days. Electricity points should not be required but can be if necessary

Due to the low energy requirements, heating and ventilation of the building, renewable energy sources have not been implemented.

On-Site composting will be implemented where any waste/rotten fruit can be disposed. The compost produced will be used on the pomegranate orchards. Waste

Gutters: there is a large amount of gutters and water channels across the site. These should be cleaned and kept clear of leaves/waste build up. Particular and regular cleaning should take place before the monsoon season to allow for proper water collection and distribution. Gutters should always be ensured to be separated from the surface street level water to prevent additional pollution. Fabric Skins: The fabric skins on the front façade are removable and designed in smaller areas so they can be easily replaced if needed. Stepwell Maintenance and Water Baths: Stagnant dispersed water should be prevented in order to ensure no spreading of water borne diseases. Regular testing of the building water supply should be carried out to check for disease and pollution. The stepwell and water baths should be drained and cleaned annually – recommended before the monsoon season. NOTE: The water is NOT drinking water, but can be used for washing fruit & hands.


170

Pomegranate Explorations: a successive series Summer 2020


17 1


172

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cadwell, Mike. Strange Details. Writing Architecture. Cambridge,

Manage Extreme Weather Vulnerability and Climatic Risks in Crop

Schultz, Anne-Catrin., and Carlo Scarpa. Carlo Scarpa : Layers.

TUTORS

Mass.: MIT Press, 2007.

Production.” Journal of Agricultural Physics 17, no. 1 (2017): 1-15.

Stuttgart ; London: Axel Menges, 2007.

Dorian Wiszniewski Kevin Adams

Calvino, Italo. Six memos for the next millennium. Cambridge, Mass.:

Krishunamurthy and Witsoe, Understanding Mandis: Marking Towns

Sharan, Girija and Madhavan, T. “An Operational Study of CJ Patel

Harvard University Press, 1985.

and the Dyanmics of India’s Urban and Rural Transofrmations. London:

Vegetable and Fruit Market of Ahmedabad.” Operational Research

IGC, 2012.

Society of India 36, no. 2 (1999): 151-164.

Coccia, Emanuele. The Life of Plants. Newark: Polity Press, 2018. Ellis-Petersen, Hannah .“Nationwide farmers’ strike shuts down large parts of India”, Guardian, December 8, 2020, https://www. theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/08/nationwide-farmers-strikeshuts-down-large-parts-of-india Gandhi, Vasant P., and Namboodiri, N. V. Fruit and Vegetable Marketing and its Efficiency in India: A Study of Wholesale Markets in the Ahmedabad Area. Indian Institute of Management: Ahmedabad, 2002. Gandhi, Vasant P., and Namboodiri, N. V. Marketing of Fruits and Vegetables in India: A Study Covering the Ahmedabad, Chennai and Kolkata Markets. Indian Institute of Management: Ahmedabad, 2004. Kaushik, Himanshu. “Fruit cultivation area halves in Ahmedabad.” Times of India. Last modified March 11, 2013. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/Fruit-cultivation-area-halves-in-Ahmedabad/articleshow/18908599.cms Kingra, P. K. and Kaur, Harleen. “Microclimate Modifications to

Lefebvre, Henri. Rhythmanalysis : Space, Time, and Everyday Life. Bloomsbury Revelations. New York: Bloomsbury, 2013. Livingston, Morna, and Milo Cleveland Beach. Steps to Water : The Ancient Stepwells of India. First ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002. Michell, George, Snehal Shah, John Burton-Page, and Dinesh Mehta. Ahmadabad. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1988. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India from Vox. “India’s Huge Farmers Protests.” Youtube, December 30, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHpZV7ro7lU Murphy, Richard, Carlo Scarpa, and Margherita Bolla. Carlo Scarpa and Castelvecchio Revisited. Edinburgh: Breakfast Mission Publishing, 2017. Netherlands Enterprise Agency. Horticulture Sector in Gujarat State. NBSO Ahmedabad: Netherlands, 2015.

Shah, Amrita. Ahmedabad: A City in the World, New Dehli: Bloomsberg, 2015. Till, Jeremy. Architecture Depends. Cambridge, Mass. ; London: MIT Press, 2009. The Guardian, Indian farmer’s protests - in pictures, December 16, 2020.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2020/dec/16/

indian-farmers-protests-in-pictures World bank 2019 from Vox. “India’s Huge Farmers Protests.” Youtube, December 30, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHpZV7ro7lU Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Third, Expanded ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2010.

Neil Cunning Paul Pattinson Leo Xian GUEST CRITICS

Findlay McFarlane Sam Barclay Robert Stephens C O N S U LTA N T S

Andrew Leiper Jonathan Narro Thank you to my thesis/ pomegranate partners Lily Gonlag and De Rui Lee for navigating together through the rollercoaster of the past 2 years, and for never wanting to cut, eat or see a pomegranate for a long while. Also to Jack & Kevin for their help & contribution in both photographs & films, and many a lockdown walk. Thank you also to my Mum for proofreading these long documents for the past 6 years.


173

FIGURES A L L WO R K , U N L E S S OT H E R W I S E STAT E D, IS THE AUTHORS OWN

Page 21 (repeated page 102):

Page 126:

Robert Stephens. ‘West Wall’ October 2016.

Jack Parmar, ‘The Kite Festival in the Old City’, January 2020.

from the ‘Walls of Ahmedabad’ exhibition. (https://issuu.com/apurva-ashar/docs/ ahmedabad_walls_complete) [Last Accessed: 27 April, 2021]

Page 127: Jack Parmar, ‘The Kite Festival in the Old City’, January 2020.

Robert Stephens. ‘Panchkuva Gate’ May 2015. from the ‘Walls of Ahmedabad’ exhibition (https://issuu.com/apurva-ashar/docs/

Page 146:

ahmedabad_walls_complete) [Last Accessed: 27 April, 2021]

Rajat Gupta, December 2020. “Farmers rest inside their truck during the protest at Singhu.”

Page 23:

The Guardian (https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2020/dec/16/indi-

De Rui Lee, ‘Pomegranates at Naroda Market’, January 2020.

an-farmers-protests-in-pictures) [Last Accessed: 27 April, 2021]

Page 24: Anindito Mukgerjee, “Farmers shout as they block a highway during a protest

Page 147:

at the Singhu border near New Delhi.” Foreign Policy. December 18, 2020.

Xinhua/Rex, December 2020.

(https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/12/18/india-farmers-wont-stop-protesting/)

“A farmer protests on the blocked highway at the Delhi-Uttar” Pradesh border.

[Last Accessed: 27 April, 2021]

The Guardian. (https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2020/dec/16/indian-farmers-protests-in-pictures) [Last Accessed: 27 April, 2021]

Page 25: Money Sharma, December 2020. “Farmers take part in a demonstration at the

Page 163:

Delhi-Haryana state border at Singhu.”

Jack Parmar, ‘Flying Kites on the Pol Rooftops at Sunset’, January 2020.

The Guardian (https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2020/dec/16/indian-farmers-protests-in-pictures) [Last Accessed: 27 April, 2021]

Page 164: De Rui Lee, ‘Pomegranates against sunset in the Old City, January 2020.

Page 90: Overlay with Robert Stephens, ‘Kanjah Triangle’. July 2016. from the ‘Walls of Ahmedabad’ exhibition. (https://issuu.com/apurva-ashar/docs/ahmedabad_ walls_complete) [Last Accessed: 27 April, 2021]


A final thank you is to the people in Ahmedabad who welcomed us so warmly to their city, and who you could tell are proud to show off the place that it is. I think I could speak for the whole studio by saying that the impression you have left on us has influenced and inspired us throughout this programme, and will continue to do so long after. A particular mention is these children who came up to us by Manek Burj, and prove that any situation can become a playground, and has been my most powerful lasting image of the trip.


“/

f,” and he dreamed of

pomegranate groves,

the fruit so ripe it burst its skin…

Invisible Cities,

Italo Calvino [73]



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