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MODULE 3: Fabrication Virtual Environments Semester 2/ 2013 The University of Melbourne


M3 Fabrication

The idea of personal space being an implied bounday is explored through the use of neagtive spaces in the pannel.


M3 Fabrication

This design uses a pin joint and reedititive panneling to create a volume that resembles a shell.

These designs use hinged panneling and paper to create a structure that is able to open and close depending on the individual interacting with it and thier environment. A volume is created through the designs form and the opening and closing action.


M3 Fabrication

When arced with a pin joint, ectangular pannels varying in size achieved the desired results.


M3 Fabrication

Inimate space <0.45m Personal space 0.45m Social space 1.2m Public space 3.6 - 7.6m

We appropriated the design to fit with our mapping of personal space and its application to the human form.

Inimate space 10-20cm Personal space 20-40cm


M3 Fabrication

We did measured drawings to explore the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ingredientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and components of our design, making a connection between M3 and M1. This gave us a better understanding of the connections between the different stages of the design process. We also used a figure to explore the relation between personal space and our design.


M3 Fabrication

Our testing and prototypes showed that in order to hold the arc shape the panels will have to be made out of a ridged material such as a plastic or Perspex. Locating materials that behaved in this manner was extremely difficult. The plastics were too flimsy and the woods were not within our budget. This lead to a neseceary review of our existing design.


M3 Fabrication

IThe length of the pictured prototype [left] is 20cm from end to end. In order to make the design ficntion at a larger scale, a “backbone” or supporting rod would have to be implemented. The choice of clear plastc was made to reinforce our group’s notion that personal space is only an illusion.


M3 Fabrication Positive: transparent plastic reinforced our groups notion that personal space is only an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s construct- just an illusion. Negative: It became apparent that the design would need to be made out of a rigid material to hold it form at a larger scale. After extensive materials research we realised that there was no such material avaliable for us within our budget and there were no transparent materials that were ridgid enough.


M3 Fabrication

NEW DESIGN DIRECTION It became apparent that our design would need to be adapted to be: - -

Self supporting; both through the use of different , more ridgid materials and a change in the design to maintain its rotating function. Not need to be bent laterally in line with the curve of the design as there we no materials avaliable to us that could achieve this.


M3 Fabrication Prototype # 1 We first began to investigate our options for manufacturing a design that can still open and close in order to resemble our interpretation of personal space A tongue in groove joint connects the arcs to the smaller pivoting panels at the top and the bottom of the design. Tongue in groove joins area lso used to connect the ribs/slats to the arcs.


M3 Fabrication

Prototype # 2 The ridgid material used for the ribs/ slats has been replaced with folding paper. They now glueed ot the inside of the arcs.


M3 Fabrication


M3 Fabrication

We explored our final design through making sections of it. This was to ensure that the materials all functioned as intended.


M3 Fabrication

As a last minute decision we decided not to include these sections as they were hand cut and made our design look messy. The card cutter didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t process these in time so we had to manually measure out and cut them by hand. Ideally, we would have these sections sent to the card cutter and include them in the design. However, with the conditions and time limitations, we thought it would be best to exclude them for now. These parts were initially used to explore the different scales of personal space through the movement they created within the larger scaled movements of the design. We also liked showcasing and exploring the movement and rotation created by the pin joint within the panelling and folding.


M3 Fabrication Through our investigations, we realised that the best way to attach the design to the earer is on the head. We used a diamond core bit to drill through a bowl, soon to become the basis of a head support.


Final Design


Reading Response Week 6 Architecture in the Digital Age - Design and Manufacturing/Branko Kolarevic Q. Briefly outline the various digital fabrication processes. Explain how you use digital fabrication in your dsign. Digital technology is not used as a medium of conception, but rather as a medium of translation in a process that takes as its input the geometry of the physical model and produces as its output the digitally-encoded control information which is used to drive various fabrication machines. Three dimensional scanning: A common method that involves the use of a digitising probe to trace surface features of the physical model. The process of translation from the physical to the digital realm is the inverse of computer-aided manufacturing. From a physical model a digital representation of its geometry can be created using various three dimensional scanning techniques in a process referred to as “reverse engineering”. Three dimensional scanning techniques can be used to digitally capture not only the physical models, but also existing or as built conditions, or even entire landscapes. Digital fabrication: Architects create information that is translated by fabricators directly into the control data that drives the digital fabrication equipment. “Architects drew what they could build, and built what they could draw.” Real life final products are cut or made using digitally-driven cutting machines from the geometric information extracted directly from the digital model. New digitally enabled processes of production imply that the constructability in building design becomes a direct function of computability. Two-dimensional fabrication: Most commonly used fabrication technique. Various cutting technologies, such as plasma-arc, laser-beam and water-jet, involve two-axis motion of the sheet material relative to the cutting head, and are implemented as a moving cutting head, a moving bed or a combination of the two. Subtractive fabrication: Involves the removal of a spcified volume of material from solids using electro-chemically or mechanically-reductive (multi-axis milling) processes. Additive fabrication: Involes incrememntal forming by adding material in a layer-by-layer fashion, in a process which is the converse of milling. All additive fabrication technologies share some principle in that the digital (solid) model is sliced into two-dimensional layers. The information of each layer is then transferred to the processing head of the manufacturing machine and the physical product is generated incrementally in a layer-by-layer fashion. Formative fabrication: Mechanical forces, restricting forms, heat or steam are applied to a material so as to form it into the desired shape through reshaping or deformation, which can be axially or surface constrained.


Reading Response Week 6 Assembly: After components are digitally fabricated, their assembly on site can be augmented with digital technology. DIgital three-dimensional models can be used to precisely determine the location of each component in its proper place. Surface strategy: Architects today digitally create and manipulate NURBS surfaces, producing building skins that result not only in new expressive and aesthetic qualities, but also in new tectonic and geometric complexities. Production strategies: Often incllude contouring, triangulation (or polygonal tesselation), use of ruled, developable surfaces, and unfolding. They all involve the extraction of two-dimensional, planar components from geometrically complex surfaces or solids comprising the buildings form. New materiality: Due to advances in material science and new forms of architectural expression - there has been a renewed interest among architects in materials, their properties and their capacity to produce desired and aesthetic spatial effects. Mass-customisation: Rigidity of production which can be seen in twentieth century modernism is no longer necessary as digitally-controlled machinery can fabricate unique, complexly-shaped components at a cost that is no longer prohibitively expensive. In other words, the efficiency and economy of production is no longer compromised by variety. How is digital fabrication used in our design: Many parts of the process of our design were driven by digital fabrication. For instance, after sketching up the initial design ideas, they were then translated into Rhino. From there, using a 123D model, we could look at the proportions of our design in relation to the person who will ultimately wear the final model. The 123D model used photographs of a person to translate into a computational model. This can be seen as a branch of, or variation of, three dimensional scanning. When constructing our prototype and final model we have used the fab lab to laser cut Rhino drawings that were drawn to scale. Three dimensional scanning: A common method that involves the use of a digitising probe to trace surface features of the physical model. The process of translation from the physical to the digital realm is the inverse of computer-aided manufacturing. From a physical model a digital representation of its geometry can be created using various three dimensional scanning techniques in a process referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x153;reverse engineeringâ&#x20AC;?. Three dimensional scanning techniques can be used to digitally capture not only the physical models, but also existing or as built conditions, or even entire landscapes.


Reading Response Week 7 Digital Fabrications: architectural and material techniques/Lisa Iwamoto

Q. Describe one aspect of the recent shift in the use of digital technology from design to fabrication? How does the fabrication process effects your second skin project?

Based on the recent shift in the use of digital technology from design to fabrication, to move from design to constructions, it is necessary to translate graphical data from two-dimensional drawings and three-dimensional models into digital data that a computer-numeric-controlled (CNC) machine can understand. This demands that architects essentially learn a new language. Decisions as to which machine and method to use must marry design intent with machine capability.

This fabrication process has been a driving force in our second skin project as we have learnt to use many different programs in such a short period of time (Rhino, InDesign, 123D catch). While all these programs are quite straightforward and basic, by being taught them at such a fast pace (and having 3 other units with an equal workload demand) you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really get the time to explore, master, and feel comfortable using the programs to the level demanded and desired by yourself. Additionally some group members may be at different levels to others (based on skill or the level of time commitment they have put into learning and using the program) so some of the models that come out may be varied in technical success. When using these programs, if we have technical limitations we may have to alter our designs and our models from what they have been designed as or look like in real life.


Rhino Progression


Rhino Progression These are Rhino drawings of the main structure of our final design. We included the most important components that were critical to function. Additionally these were the components that had to be sent to the fablab to be processed in order for us to fabricate our final model.


Assembly Drawing The smaller panel system mimics the larger scaled system within it..

The larger panels connect perpendicularly to flat panels which rotate around a pin joint


M3 Virtual Environments