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depreciated structures ofDETROIT

COLLABORATIVE ADAPTIVE-REUSE INVESTIGATION

depreciated structures ofO A X A C A

COLLABORATIVE.ADAPTIVEREUSE.INVESTIGATION COLLABORATIVE.ADAPTIVEREUSE.INVESTIGATION

COLLABORATIVE ADAPTIVE-REUSE INVESTIGATION


We encourage you through our books as that is how project was born

to flip together this - as a

coproduction

2 students, of 2 cities, for 1 focus:

between

adaptive-reuse.

2+2=1 We encourage you through our books as that is how project was born

to flip together this - as a

coproduction

2 students, of 2 cities, for 1 focus:

between

adaptive-reuse.

RACHEL.PETERSON.&.SAM.SUDY.RACHEL.PETERSON.&.SAM.SUDY

2+2=1


SETTING

MEANS

Location

Program

Selected Produce

Demographics

Produce Identity

CONCENTRATION

Health Benefits

Dietary Concerns

Crop Schedule

Mission Statement

Possible Dishes

Design Intent

APPLICATION

City Data

CONTEXT

Consumption

Precedents

Space Requirement

Space Allocation

Site Map

Property

CONCLUSION

Site Pictures

Concluding Thoughts

PAGE GUIDE SETTING

MEANS

Location

Program

Selected Produce

Demographics

Produce Identity

CONCENTRATION

Health Benefits

Dietary Concerns

Crop Schedule

Mission Statement

Possible Dishes

Design Intent

APPLICATION

City Data

CONTEXT

Consumption

Precedents

Space Requirement

Space Allocation

Site Map

Property

CONCLUSION

Site Pictures

Concluding Thoughts

GE-GUIDE.PAGE-GUIDE.PAGE-GUIDE.PAGE-GUIDE.PAGE-GUIDE.PAG

PAGE GUIDE


michigan d e t r o i t c o r k t o w n 2256 wabash street 1 km

MX

oaxaca o a x a c a c i t y c e n t e r 313 cinco de mayo 1 km 17째2'30" 1 : 31 534

ATION.LOCATION.LOCATION.LOCATION.LOCATION.LOCATION.LOCAT

US


1701

N R H P

142 sq mi

d i s t r i c t

+ colonial revival + late victorian + federal d e t r o i t

est.

1532

UNESCO

33 sq mi

worldheritage

+ spanish colonial + ancient zapotec + baroque o a x a c a

DATA.CITY-DATA.CITY-DATA.CITY-DATA.CITY-DATA.CITY-DATA.

est.


p e o p l e

1/3

38% obesity

living.in p o v e r t y

77% nutritional deficiency

d e t r o i t

260,000 p e o p l e

2/3

living.in p o v e r t y

38% obesity

77% nutritional deficiency

o a x a c a

APHICS.DEMOGRAPHICS.DEMOGRAPHICS.DEMOGRAPHICS.DEMOGRAPH

700,000


700,000 p e o p l e

1/2

living.in food.deserts lack.of.variety

C O R N SURPLUS 260,000 p e o p l e

2/3

corn-based d i e t lack.of.variety

RY-CONCERNS.DIETARY-CONCERNS.DIETARY-CONCERNS.DIETARY-CO

F O O D DESERT


The intention of this study is to set up a framework for an experiential urban garden as an adaptive reuse intervention for abandoned buildings. The cities of

Oaxaca

and

Detroit

were used as contrasting typologies because of the food availability issues they both share.

MISSION The intention of this study is to set up a framework for an experiential urban garden as an adaptive reuse intervention for abandoned buildings. The cities of

Oaxaca

and

Detroit

were used as contrasting typologies because of the food availability issues they both share.

STATEMENT. MISSION-STATEMENT. MISSION-STATEMENT. MISSIO

MISSION


vessels

Once

for

housing people, the chosen buildings will now serve as

incubators

for

healthy living, through the focus of growing independent, fresh produce. With the purpose of serving its community through education, the buildings act as

prototypes

for

residents to learn about growing and preparing their own healthy, local food.

INTENT vessels

Once

for

housing people, the chosen buildings will now serve as

incubators

for

healthy living, through the focus of growing independent, fresh produce. With the purpose of serving its community through education, the buildings act as

prototypes

for

residents to learn about growing and preparing their own healthy, local food.

INTENT. DESIGN-INTENT. DESIGN-INTENT. DESIGN-INTENT. DES

INTENT


Location: Queens, New York Project Designer: Work AC (Installed 2008) PRECEDENT: PF1 (Public Farm One) is an urban farm concept built with inexpensive and sustainable materials recyclable after its use at P.S.1., such as cardboard tubes that form a continuous surface. These tubes create multiple zones of activity within the main purpose of food growing: including swings, fans, sound effects area, innovative seating areas, and a refreshing pool at its center.

Combines programs with education

Matria: JardĂ­n ArterapĂŠutico Location: Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico Project Initiator: Mauricio Cervantes (Launched: August 2011) PRECEDENT: Multidisciplinary adaptive reuse project in a previously abandoned courtyard house located at 103 Murguia Street, in the Historic Center of Oaxaca City. The main court enables the growth of an urban garden which in turn is also home to artistic expressions of the community.

Providing a location for interactive learning experiences for the community Reuse of a depreciated structure for learning, growing, sharing, expressing

DENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECED

Public Farm 1 (Installation)


Location: Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico Project Designers: Chris Precht (of penda) and Alex Daxböck (for 2015 Milan Expo) PRECEDENT: Visitors are the true designers of the pavilion as they plant seeds of fruits, vegetables, or herbs in the gaps of its timber exterior during the summer months of the Expo. Once the crops are fully grown, they’ll be harvested and cooked into traditional Austrian dishes in the pavilion’s restaurant. In essence, visitors get to eat their design.

Visitors learn how food is seeded and treated while it grows, how it gets picked and harvested and how the ingredients get combined for traditional food.

DESIGNERS SET UP A STRUCTURE TO BE FILLED BY FOOD PLANTED BY VISITORS TO THE EXPO

Artist’s Colony Market Architect: Atelier Architects Competition: 2010 PRECEDENT: A market designed as a bazaar, an “urban artists’ colony”. The place is meant to act as an event for rehabilitation, vitality, and growth. It annexes empty building areas, rust zones, squares in existing urban structure and expands to parking areas, empty streets, etc.

Both arbitrary and logical structural growth like that of a city or community

Acts as a community: colony of will, change, art + inspiration (infill project within existing fabric)

Base of modular system: set up a structure for users, but also empower them to create their own spaces

DENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECEDENTS.PRECED

Edible Austrian Pavilion


ONIA

MACED

ALCAL

A

LE ZEL

MARIA

MURGU

IA ST

DA

NA AB ASO

LO

E-MAP.SITE-MAP.SITE-MAP.SITE-MAP.SITE-MAP.SITE-MAP.SITE-

5 DE MAYO

CALLE

NORTH

ST

100ft T T S MON VER

ASH

WAB

100ft

NORTH

MICHIGAN AVE


25ft

DUBLEX

SERVICE COURTYARD

MAIN COURTYARD

PERTY.PROPERTY.PROPERTY.PROPERTY.PROPERTY.PROPERTY.PROPE

NORTH

25ft

NORTH

EMPTY LOT


SITE-PICTURES.SITE-PICTURES.SITE-PICTURES.SITE-PICTURES.


+ garden main incubator (greenhouse/planting)

INSIDE + kitchen cooking area composting area + classrooms + flex space/exhibition + cellar (drying, storage) + live-in apartment + service spaces (restrooms, storage)

OUTSIDE + garden main incubator (greenhouse/planting)

INSIDE + kitchen cooking area composting area + classrooms + flex space/exhibition + cellar (drying, storage) + live-in apartment + service spaces (restrooms, storage)

OGRAMMING.PROGRAMMING.PROGRAMMING.PROGRAMMING.PROGRAMMI

OUTSIDE


As a means of exploring the possibility for an average Detroit family to

grow

their

healthy

own

food,

7 typical garden plants were selected. All are packed with nutrients, but vary in the types of benefits they provide. An additional

locally-grown produce item is also included to demonstrate each climate’s food-growing strengths.

VARIED SELECTION As a means of exploring the possibility for an average Oaxaca family to

grow

their

healthy

own

food,

7 typical garden plants were selected. All are packed with nutrients, but vary in the types of benefits they provide. An additional

locally-grown produce item is also included to demonstrate each climate’s food-growing strengths.

ED-PRODUCE.SELECTED-PRODUCE.SELECTED-PRODUCE.SELECTED-P

VARIED SELECTION


GARBANZO BEANS

BLACK-EYED PEAS

CARROTS

ONION

TOMATOES

POTATOES

KALE* *chosen w/ regards to local climate

BELL PEPPER

GARBANZO BEANS

BLACK-EYED PEAS

CARROTS

ONION

TOMATOES

POTATOES

AVOCADOES* *chosen w/ regards to local climate

E-IDENTITY.PRODUCE-IDENTITY.PRODUCE-IDENTITY.PRODUCE-ID

BELL PEPPER


POTATO

KALE

ON IO N

A

VITAMIN C

VITA MI NK

IU M

MANG AN ES E

F RO P

ID ON AC IR OLICTEIN

TOMATO

FIB ER

VITAMIN A

B VITAMINS

POTASSIUM

FIBER

VITAMIN K

MANGANESE

IRON

FOLIC ACID

1. Good vision 2. Healthy immune system 3. Cell growth

1. Helps maintain digestive health 1. Maintain healthy brain function 2. Regulates blood pressure +sugar 2. Protect heart health 3. Helps lower cholesterol 3. Heart + kidney health

1. Ease stress + anxiety 2. Aid memory 3. Reduce heart-disease risk

1. Strong bone builder 2. Maintains healthy blood clotting 3. Protects your heart

PEAS EYED CKBLA

VIT AM POTA SS

B VITA MIN S

S AN BE

IN

ZO AN RB GA

CA RR OT

LL BE

ER PP E P

1. Fetal development 2. Production of red blood cells 3. Thwarting heart disease

1. Hemoglobin formation 2. Oxygen carrier 3. Aids in muscle function

1. Healthy bones 2. Regulation of metabolism 3. Anti-inflammatory qualities

VITAMIN C

1. Protect immune system 2. Fights infection 3. Antioxidant (protects organs + skin)

PROTEIN

1. Maintaining healthy muscles 2. Aids in tissue repair 3. Provides energy

“HEALTHY LIVING BEGINS WITH HEALTHY EATING” POTATO

ADO AVOC

N IRO

VITA MI NK

VIT AM IN

MANG AN ES E

VITAMIN A

B VITAMINS

POTASSIUM

FIBER

VITAMIN K

MANGANESE

IRON

FOLIC ACID

1. Good vision 2. Healthy immune system 3. Cell growth

1. Strong bone builder 2. Maintains healthy blood clotting 3. Protects your heart

1. Ease stress + anxiety 2. Aid memory 3. Reduce heart-disease risk

1. Healthy bones 2. Regulation of metabolism 3. Anti-inflammatory qualities

PEAS EYED CKBLA

CID IC A L FO

S AN BE

INS M A POTASSIUM T I A BV VITAMIN C FIBE R

IN OTE PR

TOMATO

ON IO N

ZO AN RB GA

CA RR OT

LL BE

R PE P PE

1. Helps maintain digestive health 1. Maintain healthy brain function 2. Regulates blood pressure +sugar 2. Protect heart health 3. Helps lower cholesterol 3. Heart + kidney health

1. Hemoglobin formation 2. Oxygen carrier 3. Aids in muscle function

1. Fetal development 2. Production of red blood cells 3. Thwarting heart disease

VITAMIN C

1. Protect immune system 2. Fights infection 3. Antioxidant (protects organs + skin)

PROTEIN

1. Maintaining healthy muscles 2. Aids in tissue repair 3. Provides energy

TH-BENEFITS.HEALTH-BENEFITS.HEALTH-BENEFITS.HEALTH-BENE

“HEALTHY LIVING BEGINS WITH HEALTHY EATING”


MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUG.

SEPT.

OCT.

NOV.

DEC.

JAN.

FEB.

TARGET MONTHS* OVEN DRY

75

*a 6-month period in which a family of 4 can

“REAP WHAT THEY SOW”

CANNED/ DRIED

100

and replace one of their lunches everyday with a healthier, plant-based meal option.

CANNED/ DRIED

90

PLANT INSIDE

90

[TRANS]PLANT OUTSIDE

CANNED

HARVESTING/STORAGE

90

END HARVEST PERIOD

CELLAR

FROST LINE

60

CANNED

90

CELLAR

DAYS READY-TO-PICK

EAT FRESH

90

SPRING SUMMER AUTUMN WINTER MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUG.

SEPT.

OCT.

NOV.

DEC.

JAN.

TARGET MONTHS* 75

OVEN DRY

*a 6-month period in which a family of 4 can

“REAP WHAT THEY SOW”

CANNED/ DRIED

100

and replace one of their lunches everyday with a healthier, plant-based meal option.

CANNED/ DRIED

90

PLANT INSIDE

90

[TRANS]PLANT OUTSIDE

CANNED

HARVESTING/STORAGE

90

END HARVEST PERIOD

CELLAR

RAINY SEASON

6 MONTHS

60

CANNED

90

CELLAR

DAYS READY-TO-PICK

EAT FRESH

FEB.

HEDULE.CROP-SCHEDULE.CROP-SCHEDULE.CROP-SCHEDULE.CROP-S

SPRING SUMMER AUTUMN WINTER


l u n c h . e x a m p l e s

IBLE-DISHES.POSSIBLE-DISHES.POSSIBLE-DISHES.POSSIBLE-DI

l u n c h . e x a m p l e s


#/serving

BELL PEPPER GARBANZO BLACK‐EYED CARROTS ONIONS TOMATOES POTATO KALE

serving/week

household size

#/week

week/6mo

#/6mo

1

×

3

×

4 people

=

12

×

24

=

288

1/2lb

×

3

×

4 people

=

6lbs

×

24

= 144lb

1/2lb

×

3

×

4 people

=

6lbs

×

24

= 144lb

1

×

3

×

4 people

=

12

×

24

=

288

1

×

3

×

4 people

=

12

×

24

=

288

2

×

3

×

4 people

=

24

×

24

=

576

1.5

×

3

×

4 people

=

18

×

24

=

432

1/3

×

3

×

4 people

=

4

×

24

=

96

FAMILYof4 1LUNCH/DAY 6 M O N T H S #/serving

BELL PEPPER GARBANZO BLACK‐EYED CARROTS ONIONS TOMATOES POTATO AVOCADO

serving/week

household size

#/week

week/6mo

#/6mo

1

×

3

×

4 people

=

12

×

24

=

288

1/2lb

×

3

×

4 people

=

6lbs

×

24

= 144lb

1/2lb

×

3

×

4 people

=

6lbs

×

24

= 144lb

1

×

3

×

4 people

=

12

×

24

=

288

1

×

3

×

4 people

=

12

×

24

=

288

2

×

3

×

4 people

=

24

×

24

=

576

1.5

×

3

×

4 people

=

18

×

24

=

432

0.75

×

3

×

4 people

=

9

×

24

=

216

NSUMPTION.CONSUMPTION.CONSUMPTION.CONSUMPTION.CONSUMPTI

FAMILYof4 1LUNCH/DAY 6 M O N T H S


BELL PEPPER GARBANZO BLACK‐EYED CARROTS ONIONS TOMATOES POTATO KALE

plant‐plant 22"

=

616

÷

144

=

4.3

12"

×

6"

=

72

÷

144

=

0.5

12"

×

6"

=

72

÷

144

=

0.5

18"

×

3"

=

54

÷

144

=

0.375

16"

×

2"

=

32

÷

144

=

0.222

36"

×

24"

=

864

÷

144

=

6

28"

×

15"

=

420

÷

144

=

2.92

20"

×

10"

=

200

÷

144

=

1.4

#/plant

#plants

area/plant

sqft needed

288

÷

15

=

19

×

4.3

=

81.7

144lb

÷

1.5llb

=

80

×

0.5

=

40

144lb

÷

1.5lb

=

80

×

0.5

=

40

288

÷

1

=

288

×

0.375

=

108

288

÷

1

=

288

×

0.222

=

63.936

576

÷

80

=

7

×

6

=

42

432

÷

4

=

108

×

2.92

=

315.36

96

÷

1

=

96

×

1.4

=

134.4

plant‐plant

INCUBATOR

TOTAL

=

162

OUDOOR

TOTAL

=

825

area sqin/plant

in/ft

area sqft/plant

28"

×

22"

=

616

÷

144

=

4.3

12"

×

6"

=

72

÷

144

=

0.5

12"

×

6"

=

72

÷

144

=

0.5

18"

×

3"

=

54

÷

144

=

0.375

16"

×

2"

=

32

÷

144

=

0.222

36"

×

24"

=

864

÷

144

=

6

28"

×

15"

=

420

÷

144

=

2.92

60"

×

60"

=

3600

÷

144

=

25

#/6mo

BELL PEPPER GARBANZO BLACK‐EYED CARROTS ONIONS TOMATOES POTATO AVOCADO

area sqft/plant

×

row‐row

BELL PEPPER GARBANZO BLACK‐EYED CARROTS ONIONS TOMATOES POTATO AVOCADO

in/ft

28"

#/6mo

BELL PEPPER GARBANZO BLACK‐EYED CARROTS ONIONS TOMATOES POTATO KALE

area sqin/plant

#/plant

#plants

area/plant

sqft needed

288

÷

15

=

19

×

4.3

=

81.7

144lb

÷

1.5llb

=

80

×

0.5

=

40

144lb

÷

1.5lb

=

80

×

0.5

=

40

288

÷

1

=

288

×

0.375

=

108

288

÷

1

=

288

×

0.222

=

63.936

576

÷

80

=

7

×

6

=

42

432

÷

4

=

108

×

2.92

=

315.36

216

÷

50

=

4

×

25

=

100

INCUBATOR

TOTAL

=

162

OUDOOR

TOTAL

=

791

E-REQUIREMENT.SPACE-REQUIREMENT.SPACE-REQUIREMENT.SPACE

row‐row


25ft NOR

25ft

NORTH

ALLOCATION.SPACE-ALLOCATION.SPACE-ALLOCATION.SPACE-ALLO

TH


ISSUE: DEPRECIATED BUILDINGS ISSUE: NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES INTERVENTION: SMALL-SCALE URBAN FARMING Urban agriculture is often difficult because of space limitations, but that has not stopped people from raising animals, growing fruits and vegetables, and even beekeeping in cities. Currently, the focus of urban farming is about the large-scale production of food, but there is also the opportunity to teach people these same methods at a smaller size: for a city family to provide healthy meals for themselves. The adaptive reuse of a currently unused, dilapidated property in Detroit could serve as a catalyst for more urban farming interventions in the city. The building’s new purpose would be to serve the community as a healthy food learning and exhibition center: people could visit to learn about how to grow and cook their own food at home. Workshops about planting, composting, canning, drying, etc. would be part of the program to connect families within the community to each other and resources for healthy living.

2 ISSUES: 1 INTERVENTION ISSUE: DEPRECIATED BUILDINGS ISSUE: NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES INTERVENTION: SMALL-SCALE URBAN FARMING Urban agriculture is often difficult because of space limitations, but that has not stopped people from raising animals, growing fruits and vegetables, and even beekeeping in cities. Currently, the focus of urban farming is about the large-scale production of food, but there is also the opportunity to teach people these same methods at a smaller size: for a city family to provide healthy meals for themselves. The adaptive reuse of a currently unused, dilapidated property in Oaxaca could serve as a catalyst for more urban farming interventions in the city. The building’s new purpose would be to serve the community as a healthy food learning and exhibition center: people could visit to learn about how to grow and cook their own food at home. Workshops about planting, composting, canning, drying, etc. would be part of the program to connect families within the community to each other and resources for healthy living.

DING-THOUGHTS.CONCLUDING-THOUGHTS.CONCLUDING-THOUGHTS.CO

2 ISSUES: 1 INTERVENTION


SETTING

CONTEXT

Precedents

City Data "Frontiers to Factories: Detroiters at Work, 1701-1901." Detroit Historical Society. <http://detroithistorical.org/detroit-historical-museum/exhibitions/signatureexhibitions/frontiers-factories-detroiters-work-1701>

Saieh, Nico. "PS1 Young Architects Program 2008 / Work Architecture Company" 13 May 2008. ArchDaily. Accessed 14 Nov 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=708> "Edible Austrian Pavilion for 2015 Milan Expo by Penda & Alex Daxböck." Bustler. N.p., 29 Oct. 2013. <http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/edible_austrian_pavilion_ for_2015_milan_expo_by_penda_alex_daxboeck/>

“Corktown Historic District.” National Park Service. <http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/ detroit/d19.htm> "Where We Work." LISC Detroit. <http://www.lisc.org/detroit/where_we_work/ strategic_investment_areas_%28sias%29.php>

"2256 Wabash St, Detroit, MI 48216." Zillow. <http://www.zillow.com/ homedetails/2256-Wabash-St-Detroit-MI-48216/88765803_zpid/>

Bauman, Kevin. "100 Abandoned Houses." 100 Abandoned Houses. <http:/ www.100abandonedhouses.com/>

<https://maps.google.com/>

Demographics "Detroit (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau." Detroit (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. <http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/26/2622000.html> "World Socialist Web Site." One-third of Detroit's Population Lives below Poverty Line. <http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2005/09/detr-s02.html>

Site Pictures

MEANS

Health Benefits

"Obesity Rates for States, Metro Areas." Obesity Rates for States, Metro Areas. <http:// www.governing.com/gov-data/obesity-rates-by-state-metro-area-data.html>

“Minerals.” Organic Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2013. <http://www.organicfacts.net/ health-benefits/minerals>.

Grossinger, Robert S. Examining the Impact of Food Deserts on Public Health in Detroit. Chicago: Mari Gallagher Research & Consulting Group, 2007. Stephens, Noah. "The People Of Detroit." The People Of Detroit. <http://www. thepeopleofdetroit.com/>

Nutrition Facts, Calories in Food, Labels, Nutritional Information and Analysis – NutritionData.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2013. <http://nutritiondata.self.com/>. “Vitamins and Supplements.” WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. <http://www. webmd.com/>.

APPLICATION

Space Requirement “Vegetable Spacing Guide.” How Stuff Works. <http://home.howstuffworks.com/ vegetable-spacing-guide.htm>.

SOURCES BY PAGE SETTING

CONTEXT

Precedents

City Data “Oaxaca: A Land of Beauty and Poverty.” Statesman Journal. <http://www. statesmanjournal.com/article/20051112/NEWS/511120301/A-land-beauty-poverty>

”Matria — Jardi­n Arterapautico.” Matria. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http:// matriajardin.org/>.

“Número De Habitantes. Oaxaca.” Número De Habitantes. Oaxaca. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. <http://cuentame.inegi.org.mx/monografias/informacion/oax/poblacion/ default.aspx?tema=me>.

Jarz, Hank. “Artist’s Colony Market / Atelier Architects” 18 Dec 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed 14 Nov 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=97149>

“About Oaxaca.” The Oaxaca Fund Initiative. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. <http://oaxaca. icf-xchange.org/aboutoaxaca>.

Site Pictures <https://maps.google.com/>

Clarke, Colin. Class, Ethnicity, and Community in Southern Mexico: Oaxaca’s Peasantries. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2000.

Demographics Berumen Barbosa, Miguel E. “GEOGRAFÍA ECONÓMICA DE OAXACA.” Marginación Y Pobreza. <http://www.eumed.net/cursecon/libreria/mebb/marginacion_pobreza. html>. <http://www.noticiasnet.mx/portal/principal/68292-oaxaca-77-hambre>

MEANS

Health Benefits

“CIEDD | Detectando Dispositivo.” CIEDD | Detectando Dispositivo. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. <http://www.ciedd.oaxaca.gob.mx/>.

“Minerals.” Organic Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2013. <http://www.organicfacts.net/ health-benefits/minerals>.

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APPLICATION

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