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Foreword

The Racesafe Training Manual was produced by: Mick Eagle

training@racesafe.org

With assistance from: Dr. Heike Romer Stephen Moore Stephen J Taylor

Photographs courtesy of Bonnie Lane – CanBe Images Wishing safe and enjoyable racing to everybody associated and connected with Racesafe


1

Contents

Foreword. ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2 1

Contents ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

2

Introduction to Marshalling................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11

How To Use This Manual ........................................................................................................................................ 5 Your Responsibilities as a Racesafe Marshal .......................................................................................................... 5 Availability ................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Information on Upcoming Meetings ......................................................................................................................... 6 Arrival and Sign-On at Circuits................................................................................................................................. 7 Camping Arrangements. .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Your Responsibilities on Post. ................................................................................................................................. 8 Personal Equipment. ............................................................................................................................................... 8 Marshalling Duties ................................................................................................................................................... 9 Personal Injury Cover .............................................................................................................................................. 9 Racesafe Marshal Accreditation ............................................................................................................................ 10

3

Personal Safety .................................................................................................................................................... 11

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Safety - The Fundamentals ................................................................................................................................... 11 Actions that Increase Risk Unnecessarily .............................................................................................................. 11 It’s Worth the Extra few Seconds to Assess the Risk ............................................................................................ 11 Do’s And Don’ts Of Marshalling ............................................................................................................................. 12

4

Flags ..................................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Flagging at BSB Meetings ..................................................................................................................................... 14 The Importance of Flagging ................................................................................................................................... 14 Setting Up a Flag Position ..................................................................................................................................... 14 The Basics of Flagging .......................................................................................................................................... 15 The Essentials of Flagging .................................................................................................................................... 16 Radio Communications .......................................................................................................................................... 16 Standard Flags and their Meaning ......................................................................................................................... 17 Rain Flags and their Meaning ................................................................................................................................ 18 Flags Displayed by all Flag Posts on Instructions of the I/O or Race Control. ...................................................... 19

5

Incident Handling................................................................................................................................................. 22

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13

Be Prepared........................................................................................................................................................... 22 Reporting For Duty and Setting Up ........................................................................................................................ 22 Incident Handling ................................................................................................................................................... 23 When a Session is About to Start .......................................................................................................................... 23 While Sessions are in Progress ............................................................................................................................. 23 Dealing with an Incident ......................................................................................................................................... 24 Hand Signals and Warnings during Incident Handling ........................................................................................... 24 Clearing Debris - Live Track .................................................................................................................................. 27 Oil on the Track ..................................................................................................................................................... 27 Blow Ups/Oil Slicks ................................................................................................................................................ 27 Bike Pick-Up Techniques ....................................................................................................................................... 28 No Restart after a Crash ........................................................................................................................................ 29 Manual Handling .................................................................................................................................................... 30


6

Fire Fighting ......................................................................................................................................................... 32

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

Equipment Checks. ................................................................................................................................................ 32 Deploy Equipment On Site..................................................................................................................................... 32 Fighting Fires. ........................................................................................................................................................ 32 Sidecar Fires.......................................................................................................................................................... 33 Do’s and Don’ts of Fire Fighting............................................................................................................................. 33

7

Medical.................................................................................................................................................................. 34

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

Injuries ................................................................................................................................................................... 34 First Aid.................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Minor Injuries dealt with by Ground Post Medic ..................................................................................................... 34 Major Injuries ......................................................................................................................................................... 35 Helmet Removal .................................................................................................................................................... 35 Log Roll.................................................................................................................................................................. 36 Scoop Stretcher ..................................................................................................................................................... 38

8

Marshalling with Racesafe .................................................................................................................................. 41

8.1 8.2

Circuit Locations and Post Codes .......................................................................................................................... 41 A Final Word .......................................................................................................................................................... 42


Introduction

2 Introduction to Marshalling 2.1 How To Use This Manual

2.2 Your Responsibilities as a Racesafe Marshal

Your introduction to Racesafe begins with an official Training Day where you will receive presentations and will participate in practical exercises to prepare you for basic marshalling duties. The subjects of the training day will include: Personal Safety, Flags, Incident Handling, Fire Fighting, Medical and other information that will be useful to you as a new marshal. At the conclusion of training you will receive a certificate. Newcomers to marshalling, or experienced club marshals new to Racesafe, will be classified as ‘Trainee’ until they have satisfactorily completed 12 days of supervised marshalling. Therefore, you should present your Training Certificate for I/O signature (on the reverse side) for each day that you have successfully completed basic marshalling duties at a Racesafe (or ACU affiliated Club) event. Note that a minimum of 6 of these days MUST be at MSVR organised events. Each signature should confirm success at either Incident Handling or Flag marshalling (or both as applicable). 2.3 Availability

Having successfully completed your training day, you will be granted access to the ‘Availability’ section on the Racesafe web site at www.racesafe.org. However, before you can open this section, you will be required to complete

Introduction

This training manual is designed for use as an easy reference and aidememoire to the information you will receive during your Racesafe training day. The manual also provides all the necessary information for you to complete the on-line questionnaire that Racesafe marshals are required to complete every 3 years in order to maintain their accreditation. You are reminded that this manual is intended for BSB events and although most of the information can apply equally to other events, ranging from club to World Superbikes and Moto GP, there are major differences especially with regards to the flags and their use at these other events. For MSVR run events that are non BSB, such as World Superbikes and Moto GP etc, you will be informed of the alternative requirements at the morning Incident Officers (I/O) briefing. If you have any questions regarding your training or the contents of this manual you can e-mail training@racesafe.org


Introduction

an on-line questionnaire to answer 15 multiple choice questions (selecting the correct answer from a list of 3) in order to demonstrate that you have successfully assimilated your training. If you get any questions wrong you will be asked to refer to this manual and then re-submit your answers. You are allowed unlimited attempts until you answer all 15 questions correctly. Having successfully opened this section you will find a list of the events for the current year where you can indicate the events you are able to support. This is done by ticking the appropriate box (you can select multiple boxes at one time) and selecting your accommodation choice (e.g. camping, caravan etc). The status is then changed by clicking the button for “Update My Availability”. The status should then change to reflect your selections. If you need to make further changes, simply tick (or un-tick) the boxes you wish to change and press update again. An example of the table is shown below. Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Accommodation

Not Attending

Not Attending

Not Attending

11 Silverstone (BSB) 28th Sep - 30th Sep 3 day(s)

Attending

Attending

Attending

12 Brands Hatch GP (BSB) 12th Oct - 14th Oct 3 day(s)

Attending

Attending

Attending

10 TT Circuit Assen (BSB) 21st Sep - 23rd Sep 3 day(s)

50 Please confirm or complete your required clothing sizes:

Overalls:

Not C a mping

Not Camping

Camping

XL Coat:

Update My Availability

To assist our Racesafe Staff to prepare for events, please indicate your availability as far in advance as you can. You can change your selections up to one week before any event, after which time the event will be locked against further changes. If however you find your situation has changed, you can still contact the Racesafe Staff directly by phone in order to make changes during the final week. Please try to use the ‘Availability’ table sensibly and only indicate those events where you are sure you can attend. If you have indicated availability and the event has been locked, you will be expected to participate unless you have told the staff that you cannot attend. 2.4 Information on Upcoming Meetings

Information regarding the track layout, accommodation arrangements and the location of the Sign-On Office for each event will be published in “News

Introduction

Event


Introduction

Bulletins” and in “Marshals’ Docs”, so check the Racesafe web site regularly for updates. Changes are also notified via “Facebook” and “Twitter”. You are responsible for getting yourself to and from the Circuit together with whatever accommodation you intend to use. At the Sign-On office you will be required to sign-on for duty at a corner/section for the days you will be attending. You will normally be able to choose which duty post you wish to serve on but we cannot guarantee you will always get your first choice. At times, posts may need to be assigned to meet operational constraints. Note: You only need to attend sign-on once for each meeting. If you are new to the circuit or unsure of where best to go, just ask the sign-on staff who can advise you of a suitable post. Once you have signed-on you will be expected to attend your post for each of the days you have signed. Please ensure that you know which post you are on and, if necessary, check with the staff to find out how you are to get there each day (arrangements will vary between venues). Finally, ensure you know what time you must be on post and how long it will take to get there so that you can set off in good time. If you intend to travel to the venue each day, ensure that you arrive in good time to get to your post remembering that security guards will inevitably slow up access to the site. 2.6 Camping Arrangements.

Camping arrangements will be notified to marshals before each event together with directions on how to approach the site. The sites will usually include water, toilet and shower facilities and chemical waste disposal together with a mains electricity supply. If you wish to use the electricity supply, you will need to provide your own electrical cable using a Commando connector and be prepared for some runs of up to 50metres to the connection box. You must not arrive on site before the specified opening time. Once on site you will be directed where to set up and you should endeavour to pitch you tent/caravan and park your vehicle so as to minimise interference with others using the site. There is normally an 11.00pm noise curfew. Note that on sites where space may be at a premium, restrictions may apply on car parking and the use of awnings. Please ensure that you keep your camping footprint as compact as possible to allow others to use the site.

Introduction

2.5 Arrival and Sign-On at Circuits.


Introduction

2.7 Your Responsibilities on Post.

 As a trainee, you may make mistakes so don’t be disheartened if during an incident someone shouts at you to bring your attention to a problem. This would be done primarily to ensure your safety, the safety of your team mates or the casualty being handled. Try not to argue, but respond positively to the directions given and learn from the incident for future reference. Also be aware that on a quiet day it is too easy to stand and chat with other team members, but this must not happen when bikes are on the track. Your full attention is required on the race and on your assigned duties to ensure that everyone’s safety is maintained. At the conclusion of your time on post, ensure that you receive a debrief on your performance and a signature from your I/O on your Training Certificate. Once you have collected 12 signatures on the card, you should hand in the card at Sign-on or you can post the card to Racesafe using the official address shown on the website. Having satisfactorily completed 12 days of supervised marshalling, you will be recognised as an accredited Racesafe marshal. 2.8 Personal Equipment.

You will be issued with one pair of orange overalls bearing the Racesafe sponsor’s logo at the first meeting you attend after completing your training. Note that your overall and jacket sizes should be kept updated in the ‘Availability Table’ on the Racesafe website. These overalls must be worn

Introduction

On arrival at your designated post, you should assist the other marshals in setting up (e.g. checking and deploying fire extinguishers, flags, scoops, brushes etc). The I/O will normally arrive last having first attended a morning briefing and received radios for your post. Trainee marshals should identify themselves to the I/O and indicate how many days experience you have gained. Your duties will be as a part of a team, where you will be expected to use the knowledge and skills you have gained in training. It is normal for teams to rotate around different positions at each post; your I/O will determine the frequency of change so that you will always get the opportunity to experience different aspects of each post. As a trainee, it is your responsibility to gain as much experience as possible so be prepared to try each of the tasks and don’t be afraid to ask questions and get involved in setting up, exercises, incidents, flagging and clearing up at the end of the day.


Introduction

2.9 Marshalling Duties

The initial Racesafe training involved basic marshalling duties such as pickup and flag marshalling. However, once you have gained accreditation as a marshal, you may wish to be involved in Pit Lane marshalling, recoveries (picking up bikes and returning them to the pit lane), taxi bike duties and other essential tasks that make the day run effectively. You can speak with the Chief Marshal or a member of the Racesafe Staff at sign-on if you are interested in any of these other duties. 2.10 Personal Injury Cover

Marshalling is a voluntary undertaking for which we cannot expect remuneration. However all Racesafe marshals, who have booked their attendance for an MSVR organised meeting, will be covered for personal injury. Details can be found in the MCRCB Yearbook published on the MSVR web site. The Chief Marshal or a member of the Racesafe Staff can also be contacted if you require further information.

Introduction

at all times when on the track and you must follow the directions for cleaning very carefully in order to maintain the flame retardant qualities of the material. When stocks are available, you will also be issued with a waterproof fluorescent Orange jacket. However, you will need to purchase your own set of waterproof trousers and if jackets are unavailable for issue, you should consider buying one for yourself as protection against the elements. Note that red or yellow clothing must not be worn as this can clash with the flags and may cause confusion. You will need a pair of sturdy waterproof boots, preferably safety boots with steel toecaps that should be comfortable to wear (Note that ‘trainers or sports shoes’ do not provide sufficient protection and should not be worn on the track). Finally, you will need a pair of sturdy heat proof gloves (Welder’s gloves or mittens are usually best) as crashed bikes often have many extremely hot parts that can cause severe burns if touched or handled during recoveries. Other equipment you may need will include a hat, belt, a lifting strap (used to lift a bike by its front or rear wheel if the wheel will not turn) and a sturdy back-pack or box to keep your kit (and food) dry during the day. You should note that there is rarely any protection from the elements on post so be prepared for the worst.


Introduction

2.11 Racesafe Marshal Accreditation

Introduction

Racesafe Marshals gain accreditation after completion of a Racesafe Training Day, successful completion of the on-line questionnaire, for access to the Availability Section of the Racesafe Website, and receipt of 12 signatures on their Racesafe Training Certificate. Thereafter, accredited marshals will be required to complete a re- accreditation check every 3 years in order to re-open the Availability Section of the Racesafe Website. Reaccreditation will be applied automatically by the Racesafe Website and every 3rd season marshals will be unable to register availability until they successfully complete the on-line questionnaire comprising a series of questions for which the correct answer must be selected from a list. If any questions are answered incorrectly, reference should be made to this manual before re-taking the failed questions. You will be allowed unlimited attempts until all questions are answered correctly.


Personal Safety

3

Personal Safety

3.1 Safety - The Fundamentals

 Your number one priority is always your own safety  Followed by the safety of the rest of your team, the public and the competitors  Things that go wrong are not usually complicated. Marshals forget or ignore the simple rules.  Risks can never be eliminated but safety can be improved by effective training, careful planning and good management.

 Too many people at an incident For example it usually only takes two people to move a 125, even in a gravel trap, so don’t rush out unless needed.  Turning your back on an incident rather than moving towards it.  Forgetting to watch the traffic when dealing with an incident.  Remember TARGET FIXATION! You often get a second faller who is distracted by the action.  Not returning behind barriers quickly enough. Preferably don’t go out in the first place but if you must, return as quickly as possible to a position of safety. Remember to stay behind the protection at all other times. 3.3 It’s Worth the Extra few Seconds to Assess the Risk

You can be well trained, experienced, know the circuit, know the section, and be with a good team, but something can still happen that can have serious consequences. Most Emergency Services use a system of “Dynamic Risk Assessment”.

Personal Safety

3.2 Actions that Increase Risk Unnecessarily


Personal Safety

Before taking action, ask yourself:  What are the risks?  What has to be done?  Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Then plan your response accordingly. 3.4 Do’s And Don’ts Of Marshalling

 Don’t Use Portable TVs, I-Phones, Computers. In this modern age, it is possible to watch the televised race on a hand held device whilst standing on post. However, this is a bad practice because it focuses attention on things other than your duties. Stay alert and wait until you get home to watch the race on you recorder.  Fitness. There are sometimes cases where marshals who cannot pick up bikes are working in pick-up teams inappropriately. This puts people at risk, especially the other marshals with them. If in any doubt, highlight your capabilities or disabilities to the Chief Marshal, a member of the Racesafe Staff or your I/O.  Problems. Do try to anticipate problems and look for solutions. Don’t be afraid to discuss these issues with your I/O or any of the Racesafe Training Team.  Communication. Do work as part of team. Ask questions, state concerns. It may be that you are the first or only one who has spotted something so don’t be afraid to speak up.

Personal Safety

 Don’t Use Cameras. Besides looking totally unprofessional, it is impossible to maintain your personal safety while looking through a small camera aperture. You are not only endangering yourself but also your colleagues who may be depending on you to warn them of danger.


Personal Safety

REMEMBER: YOU CANNOT ELIMINATE RISK, YOU CAN ONLY REDUCE IT. TAKE TIME TO ASSESS THE RISKS BEFORE TAKING ACTION YOUR PERSONAL SAFETY IS MOST IMPORTANT, FOLLOWED BY THE SAFETY OF YOUR TEAM, RIDERS AND SPECTATORS.

Personal Safety

IT MAY BE THAT YOU ARE THE FIRST OR ONLY ONE WHO HAS SPOTTED SOMETHING SO DON’T BE AFRAID TO SPEAK UP.


Flags

4

Flags

4.1 Flagging at BSB Meetings

 Flag signals used by Racesafe are defined in the MCRCB Yearbook, published on the MSVR web site.  Note there are some differences between flag signals at Club, National, International and World Championship events to those used at BSB events.

Flagging done in a clear and timely manner keeps riders properly informed of conditions and obstacles they may encounter around the track. It is also used to instruct riders e.g. to stop racing, return to the pits to resolve a problem, give way to faster riders etc. When flagging is done well, it improves safety, creates a more competitive environment and ensures better entertainment for all. However, poor or incorrect flagging will cause confusion, increase risks, create an environment of distrust (i.e. riders will ignore flags) and could adversely affect the outcome of a championship. FLAGGING IS NOT OPTIONAL - IT IS ESSENTIAL! IT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT JOB MARSHALS DO ON THE RACE CIRCUIT Flag marshals are often the only protection the pick-up team has while they are trackside dealing with an incident:  To provide warnings of danger to riders,  To protect marshals working trackside,  To provide information and instructions to the riders. 4.3 Setting Up a Flag Position

 Check all your equipment;  Check all 11 Flags are present and serviceable.  Laid out within easy reach,

Flags

4.2 The Importance of Flagging


Flags

 If you have a radio make sure you know how it works (See the Communications Section below),  A flag marshal must not move the flag point,  Ensure that you can see the adjacent flag points.  Stand in the correct position on post so you can be seen from the track,  2 marshals: stand face to face – use all flags,  Look out for each other  1 marshal: yellow/oil – stand face-on for safety.  The flag point must be manned whenever bikes are on circuit.  Always plan and remember your escape route. 4.4 The Basics of Flagging

 Held and presented to the riders,  Not fluttering in the wind.  Use a “figure of eight” pattern to wave flags,  Try to avoid waving a coloured stick.  Flags must be displayed so that they can be seen and reacted to in good time. Late flagging is bad flagging.  If a flag needs to be waved, it must be done all the time, not just when bikes are coming.  Flag posts before and after your position will respond to your flags so flags need to be maintained until no longer required.  How you wave the flag affects its interpretation i.e. More Vigorous = More Serious.

Flags

 Stationary flags must be displayed so they can be seen from the racing line,


Flags

4.5 The Essentials of Flagging

 For an incident in your sector, put out a yellow flag.  If rider, bike or marshals are in imminent danger – wave the yellow flag.  If rider, bike or marshals are not in immediate danger – a stationary yellow is sufficient.  If there is debris or oil on the track – show the Oil Flag.  If the next sector down the track waves a yellow flag,  Show a stationary yellow.  If the previous sector up the track shows a yellow flag,  Show a waved green if your sector is clear.  Are you a “repeater” post,  Make sure you are repeating!

 Watch your I/O for hand signals directing you to display specific flags (Oil, Red and Safety Car). These signals are described in the Section on Incident Handling. 4.6 Radio Communications

Flag marshals are normally issued with a radio in order to monitor events happening around the track. The radio is therefore an important source of information telling you if there are incidents before or after your sector, advising if a particular bike has problems and needs to be recalled and most importantly if a race stop, safety car or emergency vehicle is to be used. If you have a radio:  Listen to it! Communications may sometimes be poor or confusing so ensure you can hear it properly even against the background noise of passing bikes.  Make sure you know your post’s call sign and those either side of your post. Some flag posts also have a number which Race Control may use (e.g. “Post 23 display oil flag”).  Prepare the number board and Black & Orange flag if a defect is being reported (e.g. smoking bike etc).

Flags

 If you are next to a medical car, be prepared to display a white flag if the medical car is scrambled.


Flags

 Be prepared to respond quickly to commands from Race Control (e.g. “All posts Display Red Flag” etc). 4.7 Standard Flags and their Meaning

Yellow (Waved): Danger, incident in this sector. Yellow (Static): Caution incident ahead. Double Yellow (Waved): Danger, there is a hazard wholly or partially blocking the track or other high risk situation. (Hazard will be between the track perimeter white lines)

(Display in the 2 sectors preceding the vehicle) (Add waved Yellow Flag where the vehicle stops) Blue (Waved): Allow lapping rider to overtake. This flag indicates to a rider they are about to be overtaken.  During practice sessions, the blue flag should only be shown to those riders who are touring and well off the pace. The rider concerned must keep his line and slow down gradually to allow the faster rider to pass him. Do not show to riders unless you can give them a few seconds warning.  During a race, the rider concerned is about to be lapped. The rider must allow the leader(s) to pass him at the earliest opportunity. Do not show to riders unless you can give them a few seconds warning. You may get advance warning if the previous flag post is waving a blue flag.

Flags

White (Waved): There is a slow moving car, ambulance or similar vehicle on the track. This flag indicates that the rider will encounter the vehicle in the current (or next) section of the track.


Flags

Green (Waved): All clear after incident. Also shown at all flag posts on first lap of every practice and qualifying session and the sighting and warm up laps of races. NOTE: The GREEN Flag must not be shown with any other flag. Yellow with Red Stripes (Static): Oil /Debris on track. Lack of Adhesion Flag, commonly referred to as the ‘Oil Flag’. Used to warn riders that they are approaching a section where adhesion has been reduced due to rain, oil, fuel etc or if there is some obstruction on the track (this could include rider, bike, debris and wreckage, gravel, dead animals etc).

 Also see the paragraph on the use of Rain Flags. 4.8 Rain Flags and their Meaning

White with Red Cross (Static): Spots of Rain Flag. Used to warn riders that there are spots of rain in this sector of track.

White with Red Cross (Static) together with Yellow with Red Stripes (Static) Rain Flag and the Lack of Adhesion Flag Track Surface Now wet. When both the Rain Flag and the Lack of Adhesion Flag are displayed together this is used to warn the riders that the rain has now made the track surface wet in this sector of track.

Flags

 The I/O hand signal instruction to display Oil Flag is shown in the Incident Handling Section.


Flags

4.9 Flags Displayed by all Flag Posts on Instructions of the

I/O or Race Control. Red (Waved): Stop Racing. USE OF ALL OTHER FLAGS REMAINS VALID EXCEPT GREEN AND BLUE. For example if your section is already displaying a waved yellow and stationary oil flag, then these flags must continue to be displayed until the incident is cleared. The red flag should also be shown, but may be given the lowest priority at the actual incident site, since it will already have been displayed by all other posts.

Red with White Cross (Static) (with zero number): Commonly referred to as the Safety Car Flag, meaning that the Safety Car is on the track. Display number ‘0’ only during last lap of Safety car. USE OF ALL OTHER FLAGS REMAINS VALID EXCEPT GREEN AND BLUE. (For example if your section is already displaying a waved yellow and stationary oil flag, then these flags must continue to be displayed along with the safety car flag until no longer required.)  The I/O hand signal to display the Safety Car Flag is shown in Incident Handling.

Flags

 The I/O hand signal instruction to display a Red Flag is shown in Incident Handling.


Flags

Black with Orange Spot (Static) with rider number: Rider Caution (to leave track immediately).

Black (Static) with rider number:

Flags

Rider recall (return to pit lane at end of current lap).


Flags

FLAGGING REMINDERS WHEN FLAGS NEED TO BE DISPLAYED, EITHER STATIC OR WAVED, IT MUST BE DONE ALL THE TIME AND NOT JUST WHEN BIKES ARE COMING. THIS CAN ALSO SERVE TO WARN THE SAFETY CAR DRIVER THAT THERE MIGHT BE MARSHALS, RIDERS OR MEDICS ON TRACK ALONG WITH OIL OR DEBRIS. FLAGGING IS THE MOST IMPORTANT JOB MARSHALS DO ON THE RACE CIRCUIT IT IS NOT OPTIONAL - IT IS ESSENTIAL!

THE FLAG POST MUST NEVER BE ABANDONED WHENEVER BIKES ARE ON THE CIRCUIT MAINTAIN A REGULAR CHECK ON YOUR I/O FOR SIGNALS DIRECTING THE DISPLAY OF THE RED, OIL OR SAFETY CAR FLAGS WHEN THERE IS AN INCIDENT IN YOUR SECTOR AND A RED FLAG IS ORDERED, YOU MUST CONTINUE TO DISPLAY THE INCIDENT FLAGS (YELLOW / OIL) UNTIL THE INCIDENT IS CLEARED. THE RED FLAG SHOULD BE SHOWN WHENEVER POSSIBLE BUT HAS THE LOWEST PRIORITY AT THE ACTUAL SITE OF AN INCIDENT

Flags

FLAG MARSHALS ARE OFTEN THE ONLY PROTECTION THE PICK-UP TEAM HAS WHILE THEY ARE TRACKSIDE DEALING WITH AN INCIDENT


Incident Handling

5 Incident Handling 5.1 Be Prepared

If you report to your post and then find you are ill equipped to deal with incidents or the environment in which you must work, you will be ineffective and may become a burden to others. Before you report for duty, ensure that you have:  Sturdy footwear. (Trainers or sports shoes provide NO protection!)  Leather/Heat Resistant Gloves.  Lifting strap (optional).  Overalls – with sleeves down and fastened up at all times.  Adequate protection against the prevailing weather conditions (e.g. rain, cold, sun, wind etc).

5.2 Reporting For Duty and Setting Up

At sign-on you will have been allocated your post, so make sure you arrive at the correct section (where needed, the Recovery Van will provide transport at set times). Since I/Os attend a morning briefing and collect radios, you will probably arrive before them. Don’t wait for them to arrive, start checking and setting up the section.  Check everything and put things out in their correct position!  Fire extinguishers, full and correct pressure.  All flags present (eleven).  All numbers with number board.  Scoop stretcher is OK.  Brushes, rakes, shovels etc are serviceable.  There is enough dust and it isn’t solid.  Ensure that any barriers or gates that need to be available are unlocked and not obstructed.

Incident Handling

 Food and drink to cover the period you will be on post.


Incident Handling

 Become familiar with your section paying careful attention to access points, problem areas and safety hazards (e.g. high barriers, pot holes and uneven ground, obstructions etc).

Good Incident Handling is the ability to deal competently and quickly with a range of different scenarios and problems so that racing is unaffected. Although incidents tend to be of a similar kind, you never know what might be coming next. Therefore the best way to deal with this unknown environment is to be prepared, well equipped, well trained and well briefed. Equipment preparation was dealt with earlier and Training was provided at your introduction to marshalling. However, on-site it is important to review routes of entry and escape, areas where marshals can wait safely during racing, and find the best positions for sighting emergency equipment. Finally, the I/O will brief the team on your roles and how, in general, recoveries etc are to be dealt with. During actual incidents, the I/O will stand back to allow the team to do its job unless additional direction is needed. For a serious or complex incident, the I/O may request a safety car intervention or race stop to preserve personnel safety. 5.4 When a Session is About to Start

 Put out cigarettes,  Put your gloves on before bikes go on circuit and keep them on!  Keep overalls fastened up and sleeves down.  Take up your assigned position behind the protection. 5.5 While Sessions are in Progress

 Stay behind the protection at all times while bikes are on the circuit unless dealing with an incident – including warm up/slow down laps.  Keep your attention focussed on your duties – don’t become distracted.  Look out for and report immediately to your I/O:  Loose fairings or other bike defects that are visible (e.g. bike emitting smoke or losing fluid etc),

Incident Handling

5.3 Incident Handling


Incident Handling

 Debris or fluid on track,  Dodgy tactics, Flag infringements etc. 5.6 Dealing with an Incident

 Assess the risk for a second before you jump out.  No matter how dramatic an incident appears to be it is worth just holding back for a few seconds to see how things develop before intervening. The first faller may be followed by several more (e.g. oil on the track or other riders become distracted by the incident).  Check that Flags are being displayed for your safety.  Minimum number of people in the danger zone.  Look to your I/O for guidance if you are not sure.  Make sure someone is spotting for further dangers.  Be prepared to drop and run. 5.7 Hand Signals and Warnings during Incident Handling

During the process of incident handling, your I/O will normally stand back and not get personally involved. This allows the I/O to keep a view of the overall situation and to provide reports to Race Control on progress and/or difficulties. Therefore, both flag marshals and pick-up teams need to look and listen to the I/O on a regular basis in case additional instructions are being given. These instructions will be in the form of hand or audible signals as described below:

Incident Handling

 Take an extinguisher to every incident,


Incident Handling

 Flagging Instructions: o

Display the Red Flag The I/O will be in radio communication with Race Control and if a ‘Red Flag’ is ordered, the I/O can indicate this to the Flag Marshal(s) using the hand signal shown here. Forearms crossed above the head with hands clenched into fists. This may also be re-enforced with a whistle blast if needed.

Display Safety Car Flag

The I/O will be in radio communication with Race Control and if a ‘Safety Car’ is being deployed, the I/O can indicate this to the Flag Marshal(s) using the hand signal shown here. Hands extended out to the sides at shoulder level.

o

Display Oil Flag If the track has become wet or has been contaminated with oil or debris from an incident any marshal can call for the ‘Oil Flag’ to be displayed using the hand signal shown here. Right hand waved over the ground (palm down) at knee level.

Incident Handling

o


Incident Handling

 Medical Signals: o

Medical assistance required. The hand signal to call for medical assistance (shown here) is given by raising a straight arm with clenched fist above the head. The signal should be used by any marshal if they are attending a rider who is unconscious, incapacitated or in need of medical assistance. Details on providing medical assistance are given in the Medical Section. Scoop Stretcher required.

If a rider is incapacitated, the I/O or medic on the scene may call for marshals to bring in a scoop stretcher and assist in a casualty recovery. The signal (as shown here) is given by extending both hands at hip level with palms facing up, sweeping the arms outwards to the sides and inwards to indicate a scooping action. Details for marshals assisting in a scoop stretcher recovery are given in the Medical Section.  Whistle Signal. The I/O may often use a whistle when giving the hand signal to display the Red Flag. However it must not be automatically assumed that a whistle is only used for a red flag. Remember, that many marshals also carry whistles and they are used primarily to convey an urgent warning of imminent danger or to attract attention. On hearing a whistle, check your surroundings and, whatever you are doing, you should always be prepared to ‘drop it and run’ for your own safety.

Incident Handling

o


Incident Handling

5.8 Clearing Debris - Live Track

At times debris may need to be cleared from the track while bikes are still on the circuit. This can be done either under safety car conditions or during a live practice or racing. In order to assure marshals safety on a live circuit, the I/O will check (usually by radio) for gaps in the traffic and then ‘wave you on’ and ‘whistle you off’. If debris removal is likely to require multiple attempts (e.g. sweeping mud etc), you will be instructed where to stand after the whistle has sounded whilst vehicles pass (normally to the inside of a corner). No other marshals are to use whistles during this procedure. Remember the I/O will be in radio contact with Race Control and previous posts to identify gaps and they will be informing the I/O in good time of approaching vehicles. Therefore, you must always look to the I/O during this operation in order to act on the signals being given.

Oil or other fluids can sometimes be deposited on the track from bikes or as a result of a fall. It is therefore essential that all marshals keep a close check of passing bikes and the state of the track in order to identify if contamination has occurred. Any indication of oil on the track must be reported immediately to the I/O so that it can be assessed quickly and to minimise the risk of bikes losing grip and crashing.  Small spills and drops of fluid on the track can normally be treated directly with dust (to absorb the fluid) and then brushing (to reduce the dust).  Check that it is oil! It could be:  Fuel, Brake fluid or Coolant (normally water but, if anti-freeze is present, notify the I/O asap),  Smaller spills might be marked during the session under radio control. 5.10 Blow Ups/Oil Slicks

Bikes can sometimes develop mechanical problems which result in large amounts of oil being spilled on the track. Such an event must be reported immediately to the I/O and will almost certainly lead to a red flag. The extent of the spill will then need to be assessed and the I/O, in contact with Race control, will formulate a plan to deal with the problem. This may include any of the following:

Incident Handling

5.9 Oil on the Track


Incident Handling

 Marshals may be used to indicate the position and extent of the slick for Safety Car assessment and to guide the road sweeper/cleaner (when available).  Bigger spills might require washing with water.  Blowers may need to be used. 5.11 Bike Pick-Up Techniques

 Bikes will be in gear after a crash, so one marshal should ‘hold in’ the clutch lever (left hand side) to allow the rear wheel to turn during recovery. Do not waste time trying to put the bike into neutral. (The recovery vehicle crew will normally prefer the bike to be left in gear to prevent the bike from shifting during transit).  Always pre-plan where bikes are to be recovered to so as to avoid confusion and reduce the time you will be exposed to danger.  Where a bike has come off the track, check for debris and spilled fluids that may present a danger to riders. Inform the I/O of your findings so that action can be taken as necessary.

Incident Handling

The majority of incidents will involve the pick-up and recovery of a crashed bike. Techniques for pick-up will vary according to the type of bike involved. Furthermore, the state of the bike will determine if it can be recovered by simply pushing it to safety or if it requires lifting. When lifting a bike back onto its wheels, always position yourself so you are lifting the bike up and not trying to pull the bike towards yourself.


Incident Handling

 Once a bike is recovered, check it regularly for possible fires (either from leaking fuel or from hot parts touching combustible materials). Ensure the electrics are turned off by switching off the ignition and/or by using the ‘Kill Switch’.

 A sled (shown opposite) may be used to slide a heavy bike out of a gravel trap. Note how the straps are crossed through the wheel so that the pulling action is applied directly to the bike and not to the sled. Take care to avoid contact with hot brake discs and callipers. An additional marshal (or marshals) must steady and guide the bike during the recovery.  In a gravel trap, lift and pull at the same time to avoid the lead wheel from digging into the gravel. It is often easier to pull bikes out backwards from gravel.  Bikes offer very little steering movement or steering may be compromised due to damage. Therefore when steering bikes during recovery it may be necessary to lift the bike around (front or rear) to face the desired direction.  For smaller, lighter bikes 2 marshals can grasp the handles and foot-pegs on either side and physically carry the bike to safety if it can’t be wheeled. 5.12 No Restart after a Crash

Riders who fall from their machine at BSB events (this includes all support and guest classes unless informed otherwise) are not permitted to continue

Incident Handling

 If a front or rear wheel will not turn, or steering has been compromised, a lifting strap may be used to lift the wheel whilst the bike is being pushed or pulled. In the photo opposite, 2 marshals use a strap to lift and pull. However, the bike can still tip over whilst it is being lifted so an additional marshal (or marshals) will need to steady and guide the bike during the recovery.


Incident Handling

in a practice session or race until they are passed fit by a Medical Officer (Ground Post or Medical Centre) and the machine has been re-inspected and cleared by Technical Control. Any infringement of this rule will result in the rider being disqualified from the remainder of the practice session or race and may result in further penalties. If a rider argues or insists on re-joining, don’t stand in danger arguing, let them go and inform your I/O of the details so that Race Control can take appropriate action. Note that different rules may apply at non-BSB meetings and you will be informed by your I/O at the morning briefing when this is so.

The use of Team Lifting Techniques is essential when moving bikes to reduce the risks associated with Manual Handling. However, the lower back and the spine are often the first areas to suffer as the result of improper manual handling and the effects can be cumulative. The small disc (seen here) can wear away and also be dislodged if incorrect lifting techniques are used. Always position yourself so that you can lift using your leg muscles and NOT your back.

Incident Handling

5.13 Manual Handling


Incident Handling

INCIDENT HANDLING REMINDERS:  ALWAYS PAY ATTENTION TO TRACK ACTIVITY DURING A RECOVERY AND BE PREPARED TO DROP AND RUN IF NEEDED.  IF AN ENGINE IS RUNNING, USE THE ‘KILL SWITCH’ TO STOP IT.  BE AWARE OF SPILLED FUEL, LEAKING OIL AND COOLANTS.  PARTS OF THE BIKE WILL BE VERY HOT SO PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO POSITIONING AND HANDHOLDS.  BIKES CAN BE HEAVY AND DIFFICULT TO MANOEUVRE (ESPECIALLY IN GRAVEL TRAPS) SO ENSURE THAT THERE ARE ENOUGH PEOPLE TO HANDLE EACH SITUATION.

 ON HEARING A WHISTLE, CHECK YOUR SURROUNDINGS AND, WHATEVER YOU ARE DOING, YOU SHOULD ALWAYS BE PREPARED TO ‘DROP AND RUN’ FOR YOUR OWN SAFETY  PRIORITISE INCIDENT HANDLING TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF:  THE RIDER(S),  THE BIKE(S),  THE TRACK.

Incident Handling

 LOOK TO YOUR I/O REGULARLY FOR HAND SIGNALS AND WARNINGS


Fire

6

Fire Fighting

You should have received fire training and used a fire extinguisher on your training day. However, if you have never used an extinguisher let the Racesafe Staff know and arrangements will be made. The fire extinguishers in use on most circuits are 9 kg Dry Powder and 9 litre Foam extinguishers. 6.1 Equipment Checks.

If powder extinguishers have been stored for any length of time, invert and shake the cylinder to loosen the powder. 6.2 Deploy Equipment On Site.

Extinguishers should be placed strategically around the corner/section in pairs, one of each type and where they are clearly visible to other marshals. Normally best placed near the entrance/exit gaps in tyre walls and barriers but avoid blocking these entrance/exit gaps or causing a trip hazard. Ensure that they are placed behind protection so they will remain accessible if a bike should crash in their vicinity. 6.3 Fighting Fires.

Most fires can be dealt with by a short 3 to 5 second burst of a dry powder extinguisher. Approach the fire from up-wind (i.e. the wind should be at your back) and apply the extinguisher to the base of the fire. If you see somebody having difficulty extinguishing a fire, go to their aid with a backup extinguisher. Try to take an extinguisher to every incident.

Fire

Extinguishers should be checked each morning to ensure the pressure gauge needle is in the green zone and that the extinguisher is still full (feel its weight). Also check that the safety pins and tags are all present and functioning.


Fire

6.4 Sidecar Fires.

If an overturned sidecar is involved you should take both types of extinguisher, a dry powder to knock down the initial fire and then a foam extinguisher as back-up as fires in a sidecar outfit can be difficult to reach with dry powder and foam normally proves more effective. 6.5 Do’s and Don’ts of Fire Fighting.

 Do remain close by with an extinguisher in case of re-ignition, once a fire has been extinguished.

 Do always check wind direction so that you use a fire extinguisher with the wind at your back. This will avoid powder or foam being blown back at you and will increase the efficiency of the extinguisher to fight the fire.  Do check all extinguishers on a daily basis and report any that are unserviceable to your I/O so that they can be corrected. REMEMBER: DON’T PUT YOURSELF OR OTHERS IN DANGER JUST TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE.

Fire

 Don’t discharge a dry powder extinguisher (if you can avoid it) when you are in close proximity to a casualty. A foam extinguisher would be more appropriate in this case, as the powder could cause breathing problems and hinder visibility for both the marshals and medics attending the casualty.


Medical

7

Medical

7.1 Injuries

What Injuries will you see?  None (rider gets up unaided)  Minor (rider requires some help)  Major (spine or head injury suspected or multiple injuries) 7.2 First Aid

Although some corners will have a medic on post, marshals are often the first person on the scene of an incident. You are not expected to give medical treatment, only first aid. If the rider is not getting up:

 Hold the head still  Open the visor  Talk to the rider – LOUDLY (Note Riders wear earplugs) 7.3 Minor Injuries dealt with by Ground Post Medic

Ground post medics stabilise minor injuries before sending the rider to the Medical Centre by ambulance or taxi bike. They may assess riders who appear to have no injury but if there is any doubt, a rider should also go to the Medical Centre to be assessed fully. The types of injury that may be assessed before transportation might include:  Limb, collar bone and rib fractures  Sprains  Undetermined but rider is limping or holding an arm.

Medical

 Call for medical help. (See Hand signals in the Incident handling Section)


Medical

7.4 Major Injuries

These include any incident that may have caused head or spine injury, unconscious riders or those with multiple injuries. There will normally be a session/race stop. You may be asked, at least in the early stages, to assist the medics in holding equipment, helmet removal, log rolling or possibly supporting the rider. If you do not feel able to assist, please say so at an early stage as the last thing the medics will need is another casualty In major incidents support vehicles will attend including:  Medical Car(s)  Ambulance(s)  Fast Intervention 4WD (for rapid extraction under safety car control - listen to vehicle staff for loading instructions)

7.5 Helmet Removal

Helmet removal is only to be carried out by marshals who have been trained in this procedure. This procedure requires two marshals: designated Marshal 1 and Marshal 2:  Marshal 1 positions themselves behind the rider’s head so that they can grasp the crash helmet on each side to immobilise the helmet and head. Marshal 2, positioned at the rider’s side, should then open the visor and remove any spectacles and any other obstruction to the airway e.g. gravel.  Marshal 2 should then undo the helmet strap. Having done this Marshal 2 should immobilise the rider’s head and neck by placing one hand at the back of the head and the other hand on the front of the face on the cheekbones. The aim is to safely support the skull front and back. Once Marshal 2 has established a firm hold they tell Marshal 1 that the head is held securely. (If it is not possible to reach the cheekbones at first, helmet removal is paused by both marshals in order that the front hand can be repositioned)

Medical

 A helicopter is available at some circuits. On very rare occasions this may land on the track.


Medical

 Marshal 1 should then grasp the two helmet straps and, pulling outwards to flatten the padding; gently and slowly remove the helmet. Tilting the helmet backwards helps to clear the casualty’s nose but care must be taken not to move the head. Throughout this procedure Marshal 2 must maintain a firm hold to prevent any head movement without restricting the rider’s airway and must communicate if there is any movement or if they need to reposition their hands.  Once the helmet is removed the head must still be supported by Marshal 2 until control is passed securely to another marshal or medic. To support the head, it is normally best to kneel behind the head so that the weight of the head rests on your knees with your hands either side of the head to prevent sideways movement. If the rider is conscious, try to avoid covering the ears. Whoever is holding the head and preventing neck movement must continue to do so until the neck is stabilised with cervical collar and side blocks and the head and body are secured on a board or scoop. Sometimes a medic will decide to hold the head rather than securing to board or scoop. This is called manual in-line stabilisation. If a spinal injury is suspected you may be asked to assist in log-rolling the rider onto a board or trackside scoop. The “3 hands under, 3 hands over” arrangement is used. Three marshals position themselves alongside the patient. The marshal at the head end places one hand over the rider onto the opposite shoulder and the other hand near the hip. The middle marshal places one hand over the hip and the other hand under the knee. The marshal at the foot end puts one hand under the thigh and the other hand under the lower leg/ankle. If you cross your hand over the hand of the marshal next to you, it is easier to move together, but this is not mandatory. The middle and foot-end marshals in the picture below show hands being crossed.

Medical

7.6 Log Roll


Medical

The person (normally the medic) holding the rider’s head will issue the words of command. This, the ‘head person’, is in charge and is the only person who should be talking. They will make sure that everyone is ready and tell the team what command words will be used to move, usually: 

“ Ready”,

“Brace”,

“Roll”, ”Up”, “Down” depending on move

Different medics may use different commands and the important thing is to listen closely to the instructions. Other commonly used commands are “Ready, Steady, Roll” and “1”,“2”,“3”,“Roll” or just “1”,”2”,”3”. On the instructed command, the team work together to roll the rider onto their side keeping the spine straight and not twisted. When the rider is on their side the scoop stretcher is positioned in as close as possible, touching the rider’s back.

Medical

Another marshal will position the scoop stretcher on the other side of the rider, ready to put in place once the rider is rolled.


The ‘head person’ will then make sure everyone is ready again before issuing the commands to roll the rider back onto their back on the scoop. If the rider is not central on the scoop, their position may need to be adjusted. This is usually done by sliding them diagonally up and down the scoop under direct instruction of the ‘head person’. Pulling or pushing the rider sideways is likely to bend or twist the spine. Once the rider is secure on the scoop, it can be lifted and the rider taken to the ambulance or Fast Intervention Vehicle. The importance of using the log roll is to enable the casualty to be placed on a scoop stretcher whilst minimising any movement of the spine and neck, thereby avoiding further damage to the casualty. It is essential that the team work together at each stage and respond only to the words of command. NOTE: The medic might change any of the above procedures depending on the casualties injuries so be prepared to follow any new directions as required 7.7 Scoop Stretcher

The scoop stretcher with casualty will always be moved feet first, so that the person holding the head is moving forwards and can maintain control of the team with less danger of them tripping over.

Medical

Medical


Medical

Medical

With a normal 4 person lift, the correct lifting handles only should be used as shown in the picture below. If a fifth person is available they can help by taking the scoop frame round the feet. Try where possible, to match the height of the marshals so that you do not get two taller people on the same side or at opposite corners. See below, two taller people at the feet end.

Before use, the scoop should be extended to match the height of the casualty. It is normal to keep the scoop extended so that the narrower (foot) section has 2 holes visible on each side and the section must be locked into position using the locking catches. If the casualty is longer than the scoop, addition extension can be made by adjusting the foot section further out. The casualty is moved forward under the direction of the person holding the head. The lift team should try to maintain a steady pace and avoid jarring the casualty on the scoop whilst moving forward. Note that movement through gravel can be very tiring so for long distance moves, be prepared to changeover the lift team rather than risk dropping the casualty.


The lifting team must work together by watching each other and trying to make all movements as smooth as possible especially when dealing with a suspected spinal injury. Be aware of manual lifting injuries and take care to position yourself to lift properly using legs and not backs. Note: You may see scoops taken from ambulances being ‘split’ and riders put on them without the need to log roll. This is only done with ambulance scoops for particular reasons. Trackside (Racesafe) scoops must not be split.

Medical

Medical


Marshalling with Racsafe

8

Marshalling with Racesafe

8.1 Circuit Locations and Post Codes

Find below the address, post code and telephone contact details for each of the race circuits used throughout the year. Further details of each location including camping, sign-on and on-post times will be published in the Racesafe Newsletter ahead of each event, so check the www.Racesafe.org website regularly for details. BRANDS HATCH CIRCUIT Fawkham, Longfield Kent DA3 8NG Tel:01474 872331 Fax: 01474 874766

DONINGTON PARK Castle Donington, Derby DE74 2RP Tel: 01332 810048 KNOCKHILL RACING CIRCUIT By Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland KY12 9TF Tel: 01383 723337 Fax: 01383 620167 OULTON PARK Little Budworth, Tarporley, Cheshire, CW6 9BW Tel: 01829 760301 Fax: 01829 760378 SILVERSTONE CIRCUIT Silverstone, Towcester, Northants, NN12 8TN Tel: 08704 588200 Fax: 08704 588250 SNETTERTON CIRCUIT Snetterton, Norwich, Norfolk, NR16 2JU Tel: 01953 887303 Fax: 01953 888220 THRUXTON CIRCUIT Andover, Hants SP11 8PN Tel: 01264 882200 Fax: 01264 882233 TT CIRCUIT ASSEN De Haar, 9405 TE Assen, Netherlands Tel:0031 9003882488 Fax:0031 592356911

Marshalling with Racesafe

CADWELL PARK Louth, Lincs, LN11 9SE Tel: 01507 343248 Fax: 01507 343519


Marshalling with Racsafe

8.2 A Final Word

By learning and following the basic techniques and instructions contained in this manual, you should find that being a Racesafe Marshal is one of the most rewarding roles you can experience. Make sure that you are fit and prepared to do the job and never be afraid to ask questions and to offer your suggestions if you feel that things can be improved.

REMEMBER YOUR SAFETY AND TRAINING, LISTEN TO ALL INSTRUCTIONS TRACKSIDE, AND NEVER BE AFRAID TO ASK QUESTIONS OR MAKE SUGGESTIONS.

Marshalling with Racesafe

If you should find any errors within this document or find that its contents conflict with working practices, please speak to the Chief Marshal or one of the Racesafe Staff or email training@racesafe.org so that the issue can be resolved.


Racesafe Training Manual 2015