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The Transposable Potential of Quilt-Making into Spatial Design

Emily Ballance 11082970 P30032 30 April 2012


Front Cover Image Trapunto Quilting Technique; Experimentation.


Declaration of Authenticity Š Emily Ballance 2012 This Research-led Design Project is presented to the School of Architecture, Oxford Brookes University in part fulfilment of the regulations for the Master in Architectural Design Statement of Originality This Research-led Design Project is an original piece of work, which is made available for copying with permission of the Head of the School of Architecture. Signed ...................................


Acknowledgements The Transposable Potential of Quilt-Making into Spatial Design has taken time and energy to complete and I am indebted to a number of people for their guidance and inspiration. My biggest debt of gratitude is owed to my tutor Harriet Harriss, who has given me real encouragement and has taken the time to point me in the right direction on numerous occasions and for her invaluable knowledge and reference suggestions. I have also been fortunate enough to continue to benefit from the advice of Dr. Igea Troiani. The catalyst for this work has been the marriage of both my study of architecture and my hobby, quilt-making. I should also thank those people who run local quilt-making courses in Bristol, where I learnt this craft. My real thanks should go to the pioneers of the past: women who, through their own crafts, successfully shaped architecture of the future. Finally, I should thank my mother for her unstinting support throughout my architectural studies.


Contents

1-2 3-8

9 - 12

13 - 16

17 - 20

21 - 38

4: Ten Quilting Techniques as a Three-Dimensional Form

39 - 66

5: Constructive Experimentation with Ten Quilting Techniques as Structure

67 - 76

77 - 80

81 - 82

83 - 86 87 - 90

Preface: Constructive Patchwork Quilt Introduction:

1: The Women behind the Machine Textile Prototyping and Product Innovation

2: Feminine Applications of Textiles through to Architectural Design 3: Deconstruction of a Quilt

6: Victoria and Albert Museum Inspired Site for Prototyping Architectural Installations 7: Ten Architectural Installations to Enliven and Enrich Spatial Design Conclusion: Syntax of Quilt-Making into Spatial Design Bibliography Image Reference Appendix


A personal account of the process of quilt-making, from preparation to construction. An insightful acknowledgement of how the project focus emerged. Outline of the project focus, research question, rationale, and methodologies. An introduction into the rationale and notion behind the two project(s): A) The Written Component B) The Design Element - commentary on how A) and B) are intrinsically interwoven and should be read in conjunction with one another, ‘intellectual writing runs parallel to manual training’ (Gropius, 1934, p.26). Women unknowingly ‘pioneered’ textile constructive prototypes for mass production, which became Textile Industrialisation. Women pioneers applied constructive textile knowledge to interior design and building construction. A study of the structure of quilting techniques. An examination of how ten quilting techniques share spatial syntax with three-dimensional form. These ten key quilting techniques will be identified, analysed, and a hypothesis created of their potential to be transposed as building structure. Experimentation with quilting techniques as building structure, combined with comparative precedents of key representative architects who have applied the interrelationship between the two discourses. The foremost museum of Art and Design resonates as an ideal site to install ten quilting techniques as prototypes for mechanisation. Acknowledgement of how the ten quilting installations can act as a educative tool for the next generation, as well as its endearing qualities to change the face of architectural elements for the future. Quilt-making as a generative tool for the future of building structure and spatial design.


PREFACE: CONSTRUCTIVE PATCHWORK QUILT 1

Preface: Constructive Patchwork Quilt

This work seeks to convince the architect that the intricacies and details of a specific craft, namely quilt-making, can be modified, exploded, extruded and applied to the construction and spatial design of buildings. The aim is to show the reader that in my opinion the fundamental elements in architecture are reflected in quilt-making. Aspects such as order, direction, symmetry, three-dimensional form, proportion and scale all play their part in both disciplines. Structural factors in technical arts show themselves in architecture, and it would appear that a directional organisation is an overriding factor. ‘All functional material and structural factors that relate to the problem of style in architecture have been amply dealt with in the five preceding treatises on the technical arts, all of which work together in architecture for monumental purposes’ (Semper, 1989, p.179).


PREFACE: CONSTRUCTIVE PATCHOWRORK QUILT 2

Img.1 - Structured instruction process for a patchwork.


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Quilting production has a rich history dating from 1700 through to the current day. It is perceived as a female’s domain, making it a comfortable environment for a woman to explore, experiment and evolve quilting techniques (Prichard, 2011). My own interest in quilting, experimenting with colour, patterns, texture, design and construction techniques, has undoubtedly originated from my exposure to architecture. As a result, it has unearthed an exciting area of study between the discourses of architecture and quilting, which is virtually untouched in literature and design.

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Fig.1 - Constructed between 1690-1720. A geometric shaped design.

Fig.3 - Quilt construction. Fig.4 - Outdoor patio construction.

Img. 2 - Myself constructing a patchwork quilt.

Fig.2 - ‘Edges and aves’.

The following pieces of literature suggest vague acknowledgement that a direct relationship between quiltmaking and building construction exists. For example the literature titled Adapting Quilts for Architecture (Wagner, 1992) implies a direct connection between quilt-making and architecture. Wagner (1992, p.34) describes parts of a building which can be applied to quilt design, ‘the repeat patterns found along the edges of eaves, around entrances, or girdling exterior surfaces (...) can be quilted on either the border or setting strips of a quilt,’ however, the literature is a disappointment, as the connection that Wagner makes is somewhat literal. Wagner merely looks at surface design of transferring a building pattern from a hard material onto a soft material: a quilt (Fig.2). The following literature, too, reveals evidence of an interconnection between quilting and architecture, though it is important to be aware it is a post on a website and not from an academic source, which somewhat hinders its credibility. Day (2011) makes a direct comparison between constructive quilt-making and building construction, titling the literature Quilts Inspiring Architecture. Day (2011) was ‘reminded of a quilt’ which was ‘the perfect inspiration for [her] patio design’ and latterly remarks that she ‘wanted something a little different with this quilt (...) a pattern like bricks stacked together,’ which reveals that similarly both quilting (Fig.3) and building construction can inspire each other (Fig.4). Transposing quilting techniques into spatial design, in an imaginative yet constructive way has not been investigated before, therefore this study seeks to address this gap in knowledge.


Fig.5 - Otti Berger colour weave construction samples of prototypes for industry.

Fig.6 - Samples from ‘reg/wick’ studio of handweave production for industry.

INTRODUCTION

In parallel, the research-led design study will investigate quilt-making techniques and create a new approach to how building structures are assembled, by examining the material, structural and construction analogies, together with those within the manufacturing and creative processes. The investigation will explore the construction and structural ramifications of this activity, as well as develop a theoretical rationale for a new form of structural, three-dimensional fabrication of a building. The research question will firstly, examine how constructive quilt-making techniques at a ‘micro scale’ can be transposed into architectural processes at a ‘macro scale’. Secondly, it will analyse the new form-making architectural processes and evaluate whether they can enrich and enliven spatial components. Using a methodological framework of primary, secondary, historical, contextual analysis and comparative precedents, extensive knowledge and profound understanding will be gained in order to answer the research question. This study will consider historical connections between women and quilt/craft processes and prototyping for industrial manufacture. Evidence suggests that women critically constructed craft techniques at a ‘micro scale’ for ‘mass scale’ production (Daryl, 1995, xi). Women experimented through developing existing methods, reflecting, and producing new prototypes, which acted as a vehicle for Textile Industrialisation (Daryl, 1995, xi). Similarly, Bauhaus transposed structured craft at a ‘micro scale’ for ‘mass scale’ production (Anscombe, 1984 p.137). Gunta Stolzl (1925-1931) who became ‘junior master’ at Bauhaus, taught new students to work for actual production (Fig.5), and experiment with materials, ‘new fibres were tested to be transparent or light-reflective, to absorb sound, to be elastic, hard wearing or to disguise seams; every solution had then to be made economically viable for large scale production’ (Anscombe, 1984, p.139). These women physically participated in this ‘diagnostic’ process of experimentation and exploration, and as a result these methodologies provided an invaluable structure for textile production and pioneered Textile Mechanisation (Hafter, M, D., 1995, p.viii).

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INTRODUCTION

History subtly reveals how some women, such as Princess Louise (1849-1939) and Eileen Gray (1878-1976), applied constructive textile knowledge to inhabitable space and building construction. A woman’s involvement in the architectural profession did pass by unnoticed in the period between 1860-1960 (Sparke, 2003, ix). It is not known when the first female was admitted an architectural education, however evidence suggests that the Glasgow School of Art in 1905, and University of Manchester, in 1909, show first women intake (Walker, 2011). The Royal Institute of British Architects first admitted a female architect in 1898, she was called Ethel Charles and her membership was hotly debated with a 51 vote for and 16 against (Sinha, 2008). Since women were denied an architectural education until the end of the nineteenth century, female architects were self-taught and to some extent forced to develop alternative methods of spatial expression (Sparke, 2003, ix). Given that crafts such as quilt-making were considered acceptable pastimes for women, it became a medium through which spatial ideas could be explored and prototyped.

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Fig.7 - Photograph of Eileen Gray.

Women learnt architectural design through applying prior knowledge, and as craft was an acceptable area for a woman, they frequently appled their handicraft skills to critically construct a craft, thus teaching themselves architectural construction. For example Eileen Gray’s (1878-1976) learning approach towards architecture and constructing a building, Templa a Pailla House, was similar to how she had learnt lacquer work; by travelling and carefully studying other work, ‘reading technical as well as theoretical books, by re-working earlier examples, by acquiring first-hand experience’ (Walker, 2003, p.99). Eileen Gray (Fig.7) demonstrated that craft contributed to architecture and provided an alternative route for women to enter the profession. Other contributors to architecture from a craft background are recognised, such as Princess Louise (1849-1939), initially a sculptress and Kate Greenway (1846-1901), a dress and bonnet maker.


Fig. 8 - Experimentation with surface textures on wood and metal, at Bauhaus.

Fig.9 - Peter Voulkos process of making a vase.

Fig.10 - Bauhaus Weaving Workshop studio, weaving looms and tools.

A ‘differential diagnostic’ procedure can be defined as where all known data is collected first. In this case, all quilting techniques will be gathered and tried. Existing craft techniques will be physically made, to understand how they are formed, their behaviour and purpose. It is important to be aware that ‘previously held knowledge can be the greatest barrier to exploration’ (Mason, 2001, p.11), so imitating quilting techniques will merely act as a spring-board to launch the project focus and initiate the hands-on approach. Subsequently, these quilting techniques will be condensed into ten key driver techniques that spark interest and potential for spatial design. In accompaniment with a practical method of working, the study will adopt an experimental methodology, which teaches one to allow the unknown ‘forms to develop as you design, work with measures and parameters, start with principles and orders, work with materials and learn to twist their behaviour’ (Krause, 2003, p.1). Crucially, new concepts and original thought will be added into the experiments which will alter, stretch and move towards the main aim of answering the research question.

INTRODUCTION

The main body of this investigation will be viewed as a work in progress prototyping process, filled with engaging experiments (Fig.8). The study will develop a theoretical understanding by physically engaging in the process (Fig.9), through making, as Sennet (2008, p.i x) states ‘Making is thinking’ and Frampton (1989, p.307) comments ‘knowing and making are inextricably linked’. Working with the hands will act as the central process of thinking and making – and craft as exploration of ‘problem solving’ and ‘problem making.’ To achieve this hands-on approach, a sewing machine, hand stitching and physical models to construct the quilting techniques, each step, will be rigorously documented and critically reflected. Bauhaus states, ‘the hand masters matter through the crafts, and with the help of tools and machinery’ (Gropius,1938, p.22) (Fig.10). Anni Albers (1899-1981) who was the director of the weaving workshop at Bauhaus believed that designers should handle the material (...), in order to understand its three-dimensional nature as structure’ (Dormer, 1993, p.184).

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INTRODUCTION 7

Working model prototypes will be built, developed, and reworked, which is a ‘way to implement’ experiments and ‘theories for testing’ (Sheil, 2005. p.1). A prototype can be defined as ‘a sample product manufactured on an experimental basis to see if the engineering and design ideas work in practice’ (Edelso, 2002, p.7). Spyropoulos (2011) believes in prototyping, to ’build and make experiments’, which will help realise the potential that quilt-making techniques can be transposed into architectural elements for spatial design. The investigation will include comparable architectural precedents, such as the Grompies Project, which was part of the architectural association laboratory; Montaje Neto Faena Arts Centre in Buenos Aires Argentina; Moorfields Eye Hospital, City Road, London designed by Penoyre and Pasrad Architects; Timber Wave installation at the main entrance of the Victoria and Albert Museum designed by Amanda Levete Architects; as well as Carmody Groake works, specifically Brioni 12,000 Stitches for Wallpaper, situated in Milan, and Regent’s Place Pavilion, based in London. All of these direct examples use different structural and construction methods to produce a quilt-like structure. Critical analysis will be undertaken and evaluations and conclusions drawn based on ‘refining, adding and discarding’ (Edelson, 2002, p.3) the experiments. Assumptions and approximations based on reflection of experiments, from one stage to another, will impact on the conclusions drawn. I will adopt a constructivist approach, whereby I will discover how each realistic ‘new architectural style and its elements’, and fundamentals become real architecture (Wake, 2008). The framework of the work in progress investigation, ‘should feel more like a grand scheme beginning to emerge from many, previously disparate pieces’, (Confrey and Lachane, 2000) and ‘gradually [knit] together a coherent theory that reflects (...) understanding of the design experience’ (Edelson, 2002, p.3). The final architectural processes at a 1:10 scale will validate the structural integrity of the transposable elements for the evolution of a new architectural form and the emergence of a new philosophical concept to be achieved.


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INTRODUCTION


1: THE WOMEN BEHIND THE MACHINE TEXTILE PROTOTYPING AND PRODUCT INNOVATION

1: The Women behind the Machine Textile Prototyping and Product Innovation

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Fig.11 - Elias Howe Jr lock stitch sewing machine invention.

Fig.13 - Isaac Singer practical sewing machine invention.

Fig.12 - Walter Hunt with his sewing machine invention.

‘One of the subjects of international debate on proto-industrialisation has been the question of how preindustrial development contributes to the industrialisation of an area’ (Hafter, 1995, p.28). Possibly, it was a female’s manual skills which were watched and re-interpreted by inventors to produce machinery for mass production, ‘the inferiority complex of the Victorians is reflected in the expensive products of their machinery, which showed no regard for purpose or the capacity of the machine, but imitated the elaborate designs produced by hand at various periods of the past’ (Holme, 1934, p.3). Elias Howe Jr (1819-1867) designed the first lock stitch sewing machine in 1846 (Fig.12). His approach to achieve the mechanical invention was ‘to devise a machine which should do what she was doing’ , and so watched ‘his wife as she sewed, the sight of his wife toiling at her stitches’ and ‘watching his wife for hours at a time, he tried to duplicate the motion of her arm’ (Holmes, 2010). Perhaps some of the credit for the first sewing machine should go to Elias Howe’s wife, Elizabeth Ames Howe. Hundreds of women have claimed thousands of sewing machine patents in the past hundred and fifty years (Holmes, 2010). Helen Augusta Blanchard (1840-1922) of Maine patented 22 sewing machines; she invented the zigzag sewing machine (Holmes, 2010). Both inventors of sewing machinery include Thomas Saint, who patented the first sewing machine in 1790; Barthelemy Thimonnier (1793-1857) who invented the chain stitch for sewing machine, watched weavers weave a fabric on a loom’ (Holmes, 2010) and Walter Hunt (1796-1860) (Fig.13) invented hand stitch for a sewing machine based on imitating ‘the human hand and fingers’ (Holmes, 2010). Both inventors may owe credit to women for prototyping their inventions. Dissimilarly, Isaac Merritt Singer (1811-1875) invented the first practical sewing machine (Fig.14) and owes his fame and fortune to his brother’s machine shop (Holmes, 2010). Historically, the textile industry was often a welcoming environment for a woman; women could practice textiles-based construction skills and techniques. Subsequently, many women reflected and developed existing craft techniques and produced new methods,


Fig.14 - Photograph of Weimar Weaving Workshop.

Fig.15 - Photograph of Gropius, architect founder of the Bauhaus.

Fig.16 - Constructive net composition, attention drawn to principle weight, which instructs the fabric form.

Fig.17 - Guntha Sharon-Stolzl handwoven pattern transformed for industrial production. Fig.19 - Otti Berger invention of washable upholstery material.

Fig.18 - Otti Berger wall covering invention. Fig.20 - Material invention for uphostery or curtains.

The Bauhaus philosophy and practice embraced the craft-based fabrication methods to stimulate economically viable prototypes for industrial production (Weltge, 1993, p.187) (see Fig.18, 19, 20 and 21). Bauhaus was formed in 1919, by the architect Walter Gropius (Fig.16). Gropius named Bauhaus after ‘bauen’ (to construct), which became the fundamental philosophical approach of the Dessau Weaving Workshop (Weltge, 1993, p.101) (see Fig.15). Thus, thinking in terms of structure’ (Weltge, 1993, p.101) was exactly the Bauhaus weavers’ way of working. Bauhaus recognised similarities between architecture and structured craft as it ‘added its department of architecture in 1927, the weavers were called upon to make their contribution to the modern environment as equal partners’ (Weltge, 1993, p.105). In addition, Annie Albers ‘saw affinities between the construction and structure of textiles and the erection of buildings’ (Weltge, 1993, p.168). Albers advocated ‘pliable plane preced[ing] the solid walls of buildings’, and that ‘instead of decorative additaments [sic]’ she believed textiles to be ‘a counterpart to solid walls’ (Albers,1961, p.23). Albers believed in an interrelationship between craft and architecture, and of ‘historical connections - the tents of nomads or medieval tapestries as moveable walls’ (Weltge, 1993, p.169). Albers did gain world wide publicity for her rich belief that architecture and textiles are ‘historically linked’ (Weltge, 1993, p.168). Whilst producing realistic architectural processes for a building structure, and retaining its imaginative flair to enrich and enliven inhabitable space, it is essential to maintain ‘a plan that can be repeated or altered’ (Weltge, 1993, p.97) in order to mechanise the prototypes.

1 : THE WOMEN BEHIND THE MACHINE TEXTILE PROTOTYPING AND PRODUCT INNOVATION

which fed back into the existing techniques and improved and pioneered manual production (Hafter, 1995, ix). However for many women it was a tortured environment where they were forced to work in terrible conditions for low pay and risk of injury and death.

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1: THE WOMEN BEHIND THE MACHINE TEXTILE PROTOTYPING AND PRODUCT INNOVATION

Fig.21 - Margaret Leischner designed reversable fabric.

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Fig.22 - Bauhaus course of instruction, the spectrum states a direct connection between architecture and structured textiles.

Bauhaus’s credo was: ‘The Bauhaus strives to coordinate all creative effort, to achieve, in a new architecture, the unification of all training in art and design. The ultimate, if distant, goal of the Bauhaus is the collective work of art-the Building-in which no barriers exist between the structural and the decorative arts’ (Gropius, 1938, pp.22-23). Bauhaus believed practising structure led to the ability to achieve promising architecture (Fig.23), rather than aesthetic and decorative form, which was superficial and unattainable. It is in the interest of this investigation to adopt this mentality and approach to transform the craft techniques into architectural elements.


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1 : THE WOMEN BEHIND THE MACHINE TEXTILE PROTOTYPING AND PRODUCT INNOVATION


2 : FEMININE APPLICATIONS OF TEXTILES THROUGH TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

2: Feminine Applications of Textiles through to Architectural Design

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Evidence suggests that despite being faced with constant challenges and oppression, women have fought hard and succeeded to make a significant contribution to the architectural profession (Walker, 2003, p.89). A woman’s involvement in the architectural profession was deliberately curtailed through a denial of access until 1898. Thereafter, women’s contribution to architecture was ‘hidden from history’ and their work misattributed to men (Martin and Sparke, 2003, x). Some couples formed husband-wife teams, which gave women access to the architectural profession. Marion Mahony Griffin greatly contributed to Frank Lloyd Wright’s outstanding architectural achievements ‘architectural solutions which expressed a balance between the society and the environment’ (Powerhouse, foreword, 1998). She also heavily influenced her husband’s architectural works ‘the Griffins designs for furniture and lighting’ (Powerhouse, foreword, 1998). Yet her contribution has been shadowed from her associates and overlooked. Before the women’s movement of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, women were excluded from most fields of discourse; it was the creative arts which were an accepted role for women. The Arts and Crafts Movement provided a framework for women to apply themselves to architecture. Women had a different way of working to a man; they ‘tended to be involved in the arts that concentrate on the process of the experience, whereas men have created artistic products’ (Vale, 1996). It is possible to argue that historical evidence suggests that feminine crafts, such as dress and bonnet making, share common threads with building construction and architecture. Kate Greenway (1846-1901) (Fig.24) and Princess Louise (1849-1939) provide enlightening examples of this. Princess Louise applied her sculpture skills which introduced a new approach to architecture as a product of craft skills. Greenway was a well rounded, active craftswoman; her ‘evenings were spent letter-writing, making costumes for her sitters and in working on page layouts’ (Campbell, 2003, p.13).

Fig.23 - Kate Greenway in her workshop.


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Fig.25- Eileen Gray’s rug designs

Fig.24 - Eileen Gray black lacquer - ‘brick’ screen.

Fig.26 - Balcony at Templa a Pailla house.

Fig.27 - Charlotte Perriand chair design for Le Corbusier.

Lilly Reich (1885-1947), was an interior architect, she applied her embroidery skills to interior design, such as store windows and exhibition displays. Previously, she had been a dress designer. Charlotte Perriand (1903-1999) studied furniture design and became an architect; she employed handcraft techniques to furniture design (Fig.28). She was clearly a successful craftsman and designer, as Le Corbusier requested Perriand to design three chairs; a chair for conversation: the B301 Sling Back Chair, another for relaxation: the LC2 Grand Comfort Chair, and the last for sleeping: the B306 Chaise Lounge (Fig.28).

2: FEMININE APPLICATIONS OF TEXTILES THROUGH TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Greenway’s house was designed by Norman Shaw, although it is clear that she cultivated her work and living space as she had firm views of ‘what she liked and required, with which Shaw complied’ (Campbell, 2003, p.15). Eileen Gray was a self-taught architect, she taught herself from what she knew already, she designed and built Templa a Pailla house for herself at Castellar, near Menton (1932-4). Her attitude towards materials for the house is embedded with her passion for ‘craft’ (Fig.25). Gray lived on the site and acted as builder and designer of all aspects of architecture, including furnishing and fittings (Fig.26). Gray’s transition from painting to craft and craft to architecture reveals how the two discourses are intrinsically linked. Only Eileen Gray murals for Templa a Pailla house are published in the architectural press. In fact, Eileen Gray is responsible for the majority of the design and build of the house. Le Corbusier described his intervention provocatively in L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui, May 1948: ‘The walls chosen to receive nine large paintings were the most colourless and insignificant walls’ (Walker, 2003, p.102). Contradictorily, he later comments that the ‘house (...) was pretty, and it could well have existed without my talents’ (Walker, 2003, p.102). Eileen Gray influenced and contributed to the modern movement, and her work was ignored up to the 1960’s and early 1970’s. This is a sadness in architectural history as her work may have inspired and proved to other women the potential of employing their craft skills to architecture.

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2 : FEMININE APPLICATIONS OF TEXTILES THROUGH TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Fig.28 - Ray Eames and Charles Eames designing their architecture together. Fig.29 - Orange chairs design for Herman Miller.

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Fig.30 - Ray Eames furniture design sketches.

These furniture pieces are world renowned designs of the Modernist Movement. Ray Eames (19121988) was an American artist, designer, filmmaker and architect. Eames founded the American Abstract Artists group in 1936, produced pioneering Modernist furniture for Herman Miller (Fig. 32, 33 and 34) who produced films as an outlet for experimentation and world renowned Modernist architecture, for example Eames House, in 1949. In 1919 – 1920, Ethel Mairet, a Bauhaus weaver, applied her craft knowledge to designing her house and workshop in Ditchling (Walker, 2011). The first female registered architect was Canadian Esther Marjorie Hill, who became a member of the Alberta Association of Architects in 1925. She was previously a glove-maker, greeting-card designer and weaver during the Depression and war period (Adams & Tancred, 2000, p.16). Jessica Albery designed and constructed the chalk pisé houses, which was a settlement previously constructed by male labourers that failed. However hers were a success. Perhaps this was due to her understanding of each stage of the construction process ‘houses were built to a new successful technique with rough blocks of chalk and straw and water put into a pan-mixer. Chalk is formed into rough blocks, and the wall built as though these blocks were bricks and are bedded in chalk and sand (walls outside 18”; inside only 4”)’ (Walker, 2011). Bauhaus believed ‘academic training, however brought about the development of a great art-proletariat destined to social misery (...) [students were] being prepared for the ‘profession’ of architecture (...) without being given the equipment of a real education-which alone could have assured it of economic and aesthetic independence’ (Gropius, 1938, p.21). This quote exemplifies the significance that, paradoxically, a female architect not academically trained for the profession had qualities equally worthy as those of men that were derived from the practical process of craft, which was a real educative tool for architecture.


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2: FEMININE APPLICATIONS OF TEXTILES THROUGH TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN


3: Deconstruction of a Quilt 3 : DECONSTRUCTION OF A QUILT

The strategy that underpins new architectural elements and the emergence of a new philosophical form is quilt-making. Deconstruction of a quilt will pursue similar intentions to Bauhaus, in that it explains quilt ‘constructions in such a way that they become totally clear and could be taken into other directions’, (Weltge, 1993, p.172). Quilt-making has been condensed into quilting techniques. At this early stage of the process it is necessary to experience firsthand‘a quick grasp and understanding’ (Weltge, 1993, p.49), and ‘to learn the craft not as an end in itself but as a prerequisite for developing prototypes’ (Weltge, 1993, p.187). Quilting techniques and comprehension of their first principles understood. I do not intend to become a master of quilting techniques; instead, I will apply my taught architectural education to quilting, to elevate the quilting techniques into architectural structural elements.

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Fig.31 - Gunta Stolzl structured curtain fabric design.

Fig.32 - A photograph of Gunta Stolzl.

Gunta Stolzl (1897-1983) states that Gropius similarly believed in this strategy to produce new-cutting edge techniques. Gropius ‘appointed painters and not craftsmen to head the workshops, [which] has been endlessly debated and either hailed as a stroke of genius or decried out of touch with reality. It was a dichotomy akin to his initial aspiration to elevate crafts to the level of art’ (Weltge,1993 p.47). In 1926, Gunta Stolzl wrote that ‘today the mechanical weaving process is not yet far enough developed to provide the possibilities existing in handweaving, (...) for only the work on the hand loom provides enough latitude to develop an idea from one experiment to another...’ (Weltge, 1926, p.97). Thus, I intend to physically participate and engage with quilt-making, to potentially unlock the secrets attached to architecture and optimise the possibility of finding ground-breaking information to prove that quilting techniques can be transposed into architectural processes for building structure.


These quilting techniques all have differing functions and attributes dependent on a particular stage of the quilt construction process. Once I had learnt from constructing quilting techniques, I crossed paths with architecture and discovered similarities between the two discourses. Emilie Richards, a storyteller, writes about the parallels between quilt construction, compared to, house construction – Jamie comments to Grace, ‘‘you have to have a plan. That’s a pattern-or the blueprint, in the case of a house. Then you have to have a foundation, choose your materials carefully, measure very, very accurately (...) you have to put your best workmanship into it, or the end result is something nobody will want to live with or in’’ (Richards, 2008, p.20). Jamie takes an architectural perspective and it can be seen that the dialogue between the two discourses between the two characters ironically reveals a direct comparison between the two discourses. Jamie further comments ‘‘Spoken like an architect’’ and ‘Building a quilt is a lot like building a house,’’ (Richards, 2008, p.20).

Quilting Techniques have been categorised into four groups: construction techniques; embellishment; binding; and finishing. Each group is revealed according to the sequence of the quilt-making process. I have added written analysis for some techniques, which share syntax with building structure.

3 : DECONSTRUCTION OF A QUILT

Hafter (1995, p.44) further comments on this theme that at a period set of pre-industrialisation, ‘guilds clung to the idea that craftwork involved ‘secrets’ that could be learned only from guildmasters.’ This furthermore exemplifies that, threads of genius lie within the craft itself, which can only be unlocked from physically engaging with the process. Therefore, it would be wrong to leap ahead, without starting here, as often ‘in the design process, the end product dictates the starting point’ (Weltge, 1993, p.97).

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3 : DECONSTRUCTION OF A QUILT

Construction Techniques: Mitred Corners Finishing crossing borders with corners at an angle.

Img.2 - Construction of mitred corners and outer edge border.

Sashing These are strips that separate the blocks from one another, framing them, as well as providing block definition. Bargello A style of piecing in which strips of fabric are first sewn in horizontal sets, then cut and arranged in vertical steps to produce interesting geometric designs, which often have an undulating look to them.

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Binding Techniques: * Basting Img.3 - Experimentation with folding and cutting quilt.

Img.4 - Construction process of borders and mitred corners.

* Binding


Cross-Hatching A filling pattern/on top of appliqué created with two sets of parallel diagonal lines crossing one another, to form either a grid of squares or diamonds. Echo Quilting 0.5cm stitched spaces repeated around appliqué or pieced work..

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Img.5 -Learning construction process of edge points.

Stippling Continuous meandering machine-stitched line motion in rows used around edge of appliqué or pieced work, in order to raise the surface. Stippling will stitch-bond the two dimensional textiles together in an irregular manner. This technique would cover the whole area of the structure and therefore increase its rigidity and stiffness.

Fig.33 - Matsys inflated wall construction.

3 : DECONSTRUCTION OF A QUILT

Embellishment Techniques:


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE DIMENSIONAL FORM

4: Ten Quilting Techniques as a Three-Dimensional Form

Fig.34 - A photograph portraying the potential use of the components and elements of a handicraft to create three-dimensional form.

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Fig.35 - Joseph Alber’s foundation course at the Bauhaus, experimenting with folding paper. Fig.36 - Experimentation with paper at Black Mountain College, in 1946.

I intend to revolutionise the paradigm of quilting, often associated only as a process used to create a lavish throw on a bed for security and comfort, I intend to revolutionise the paradigm of quilting and re-apply its underlying structural values to potentially create new futuristic architectural processes. I have identified ten quilting techniques that involve combination, and consequently resonate as a three-dimensional form – most are finishing techniques. The two-dimensional materials contributing to it’s form have been exploded, projected as an axonometric and suspended in space, which has purposely emphasised its specific structural joint quality (Fig.38). To further emphasise the structural joints, these have been highlighted in red thread, stressing their structural behaviour. The red thread commands attention, and the person participating and viewing is instantly reminded of the research focus. Lenore Tawney (1907-2007) studied weaving at the Chicago Institute of Design, in her work she ‘used natural linen to emphasize the structure and outline of her creations, free-form shapes suspended in space’ (Weltge,1993, p.183). I have mellowed the material colour to a plain white, and kept the material thickness and dimensions constant from one axonometric quilting technique to another. The reason for this is to deflect attention away from the materials, as I am not conducting a material experiment. Similarly, during paper experiments at Bauhaus focusing primarily on structure (Fig.39), students were instructed to‘construct structures with a single material’ and ‘explore the properties of paper, only allowed to cut or fold it so as to create form that highlighted the material’s structural possibilities’ (Saletnik, 2009, p.92). Transforming textile art from two-dimensional materials into a three-dimensional form has been touched on previously in history. For example, Kay Sekimachi pioneered the study of three-dimensional space. She used multilayered materials such as warp and weft to construct three-dimensional ‘tubular weave forms’ (Weltge, 1993, p.136) (Fig.41).


Fig.37 - Kay Sekimachi tubular wall hangings using two-dimensional handwoven thread.

Fig.38 - Tawney’s ‘Woven forms’.

I have showcased the quilting techniques within a three dimensional frame, which isolates them as key structural moments. The frame’s purpose is to provide an anchor, to tie and knot two-dimensional flat materials in space. Gunta Stolzl constructed a masterpiece named 5 Chore, which resembled a framed three-dimensional form that ‘floats like a separate, superimposed hanging, held in place by four black bars’ (Weltge, 1993, p.105). It is only when the structured thread is applied and joins the combination of materials together, that in that key moment, it becomes a three-dimensional form. Likewise, Anni Albers describes flat materials and three-dimensions floating in space in her own work, Open Letter of 1958 and Intersecting of 1962, ‘parts of the surface appear to be floating, conveying both flatness and dimensionality’ (Weltge, 1993, p.170) (Fig.43).

Fig.39 - Annie Albers wall hanging floating.

4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE DIMENSIONAL FORM

Lenore Tawney pioneered Woven Forms which were three-dimensional forms remarkably created from a two-dimensional flat format on a loom, her works include Inside the Earth, A Mountain, The King and The Queen (Fig.42). Her discovery ‘changed the face of textile art; they have no precursors’ (Weltge, 1993, p.183). Sekimachi and Tawney recognised weaving multilayered materials with contrasting properties can generate a three-dimensional form. In addition, both Sekimachi and Tawney no longer adhered to the usual properties of weaving and pioneered a new function. Neither contributor applied structural elements separate to the material itself to construct a three-dimensional form, as the materials in weaving are the structural elements. In overview, structural joints hidden in quilting techniques has never been explored as a generator for three-dimensional form before and additionally applied to architecture as an architectural process.

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4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

I have isolated and extruded the quilting techniques into individual structural details, all of which can be transposed separately as potential architectural processes for spatial design and structure (Fig.44). Perhaps subconsciously, I have embraced a female’s design attributes – detail. Nonné–Schmidt published an article on the Weaving Workshop at Bauhaus and she believed men and women have different ways of working ‘the way the woman sees is, (...) she sees the details’ and ‘a woman’s love for detail is complemented by her feeling’ men however, see ‘the overall picture’ (Weltge, 1993, p.100).

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Fig.40 - Extruded three-dimensional embroidery. Fig.41 - Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, designed by Penoyre and Pasrad Architects. The facade appears to be floating.

Each technique will become an insertion of a small structural detail. Semper states ‘that the joint (verbindung) was the crucial detail in architecture’ (Adamson, 2007, p.97). Frampton further argues joinery devises a system; it deals with pressures and tensions crucial for understanding a structure. (Adamson, 2007,p.97). Frampton agreeably quotes Tadao Ando, a leading modern exemplar, in this theory: ‘detail exists as the most important element in expressing identity... Thus to me the detail is an element which achieves the physical composition of architecture, but at the same time, it is a generator of the image of architecture’ (Adamson, 2007, p.97). I have named ten quilting techniques, produced images of their making, original scale, a sense of architecture scale on application and materiality. In the attempt to identify quilting techniques as structural details, intuitive perceptions have been discovered.


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4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

1. Foundation Paper Piecing

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Img.6 - Construction process of foundation paper piecing.

2. Strip Piecing

A block is assembled, from individual shaped pieces. The fabric is cut into individual shaped pieces from a two-dimensional pattern template, adding 0.5cm seam allowance using the stitch in the ditch technique, on the side which is stitched to the following piece in the numeric sequence. The shaped pieces are machine stitched together in order, according to the numeric sequence on the template. A building structure could be prepared, constructed and stitchbonded together from this format. The two-dimensional paper pieces are cut out and placed individually onto the part textile/ non-textile façade, adding a 0.5cm seam allowance (to scale) on the stitch-bonded side. Once the paper template has been drawn around, a cutting machine can cut out the part textile/non-textile facade. Repeat this sequential process for each piece. Finally, follow the order of the paper template to stitch-bond the pieces together into a single form. This single form can be fixed to a frame, with each piece individually tied at different lengths and angles to the frame, which produces a three-dimensional structure. This twodimensional construction method provides a pre-determined pattern framework as a support for the finishing techniques identified as structural elements. Strip piecing is an efficient and productive construction method which saves time. Firstly, the pieces are cut out into strips according to a pattern template. Next the strips are stitch-bonded together as large pieces, then cut out and re-stitched as separate pieces. Perhaps a building facade pattern can be stitch-bonded as strips, cut out and re-stitched as separate pieces. This technique can ‘add value’ to the construction industry, as it can deliver a time effective construction method of producing a facade of many separate pieces in a shorter timeframe. However, this technique has limited value to this study as it is a two-dimensional construction and does not offer a new structural technique for constructing a three-dimensional form. Similar to foundation paper piecing, this construction technique can be used in conjunction with a finishing technique as the preparation tool providing a framework for quilt-making process application.


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM 26 Scale 1:1 (8x8cm) Img.7 - Foundation Paper Piecing template, construction process with stitch in the ditch border and detail formula to apply to constructive Foundation Paper Piecing experimentation.

However, it is a restricted and regimented framework, which restrains its potential to produce stimulating architecture for the future to enrich and enliven spatial design. Therefore, it is unlikely that strip piecing will be mechanised as an architectural process for the future. Nevertheless, it can support the finishing techniques as a backdrop to solely focus on prototyping the new techniques for three-dimensional structure.

Scale 1:1 (8x8cm) Img.8 - Strip Piecing pattern template, construction process with stitch in the ditch border, finished two-dimensional form and detail formula for application to constructive Strip Piecing experimentation.


3. Basting 4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

The basting technique is defined as quilting long stitches used to hold textile layers temporarily together, which are usually removed after final stitch-bonding. This basting technique adopts an irregular stitch-bond process to interlock the textiles together as a three-dimensional form. The fibres are randomly directed and orientated, which results in unequal distances between each vertical fibre. Basting can be applied to building construction as a temporary impermanent structural support to erect the building fabric in position, which can be removed at a later stage of construction once the building structure has been finished by friction, cohesion or adhesion.

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Img.9 - Concept photograph of Basting technique, with attention to its irregular structural formation.

4. Binding

Binding is a finishing technique which holds the quilt sandwich together. Both the top layer and backing layer are folded into each other, so technically the outer layers protect the middle layer. Stitch-bonding is applied around the entire inner edge of the form. The vertical fibres are stitched at exact regular intervals. Therefore this creates a stiff, regimented platform and the load is distributed evenly, which results in ‘equal stress-strain distribution under tensile load’ (Braddock and O’Mahony, 2007, p.54).

Img.11 - Photograph of Binding construction process.

Img.12 - Concept photograph of Binding technique, attention to its tight rigid structure.


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

If this technique was to be applied for heavy weight materials for building construction on a large scale, perhaps a figure-of-eight knot would be applied to tie the ends of the thread fibre, as it has desirable qualities, such as being a tight knot under a load and prevent the rope from running between the layer with high stress.

28 Scale 1:1 Img.10 - Basting three-dimensional irregular construction and detail formula for application to constructive Basting experimentation.

Scale 1:1

Img.13 - Binding three-dimensional regimented construction and detail formula for application to constructive Binding experimentation.


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

5. Machine-Quilting Stitch

The top layer is tucked around the stuffing and folded in front of the backing layer and the backing layer is folded behind the top layer fold. Next, the layers are pinned and hand stitched. This creates a smooth edge, rather than rough edge which can provide a protective waterproof and windproof structural technique for the middle insulation layer. Firstly, the three two-dimensional layers are tied and knotted to the frame support. Subsequently, the machine-quilting stitch bonds the layers together to generate a three-dimensional form.

Img.14 - Concept photograph of Machine-quilting stitch technique.

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6. Quilting

Img.16 - Concept photograph of quilting technique, attention to its strong formation as the structural joints cover a wide surface area.

Quilting is a solid, rigid structure. Its degree of rigidity depends on the amount of stitch-bond quilting that is applied to a given area. For example, if more quilting is applied in a specific area it will be stronger. Furthermore, the tightness and closeness of the stitch-bond will influence its strength. Also, the rigidness of the framework which directs the stitch-bond application influences the three-dimensional surface strength. Equally, a flexible material can be strengthened with a rigid framework of stitch-bonding and the quilting tightness and looseness. Therefore the strength of the three-dimensional surface can be controlled from the factors stated above. The designer’s hand in control depends on the purpose of the application in context and the purpose for users.


Img.15 - Machine-quilting Stitch three-dimensional construction and detail formula for application to constructive Machine-quilting Stitch experimentation.

4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

Scale 1:1

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Scale 1:20 Img.17 - Concept application of ‘small scale’ Quilting technique for ‘large scale’ building construction.

Scale 1:1 Img.18 - Quilting three-dimensional construction and detail formula for application to constructive Quilting experimentation.


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

7. Quilt Sandwich

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A quilt sandwich consists of three layers: backing, stuffing and a top layer. The stuffing can be described as ‘sandwich filling’, known as the insulation layer. This technique is a loosely tying technique with a single fibre stitched through each layer, which generates a highly flexible and lightweight three-dimensional form. The sandwich quilt is tied on the inner side of the two outside layers as a single fibre. Although this technique might seem weak as the finishing technique is a single filler thread, it in reality is a strong force for structural strength as the filler thread is pulled by friction in opposite direction. Semper agreeably backs this argument and states, ‘the system that best promotes friction by lateral pressure when the two cords are pulled in opposite directions along their length is the strongest’ (Semper, 1989, p.217).

The free edge of the composite gives it a floating appearance, as if it is floating in space, without structural support.

8. Tied Quilt A tied quilt is a ‘tying technique’, which is a series of ties that are knotted to the three layers, in order to provide structural support to the layers as a three-dimensional form. This technique can hold a vast array of dense textile/nontextile thicknesses, providing the rope is of a thickness and resistance which complements the materials chosen. It is important that the tied filler thread avoids too much stress as the textile material will pucker. In this case the tied quilt shares direct structural properties with Semper’s example, ‘the resultant of the tension is best considered as moving in the longitudinal direction of the chords’ (Semper, 1989, p.217). The filler thread is cut to the desired length and vertically stitch-bonded down through the layers and repeatedly stitch-bonded back up to the starting point, which is the top layer. This results in two ends of the single rope fibre on the top layer and a tying knot is applied to hold the rope together incorporating the three layers. Semper describes this notion, ‘the knot serves (...) as a means of tying together two ends of cord, and its strength is chiefly based on the resistance of friction’ (Semper, 1989, p.217).


Img.19 - Photograph of simple Quilt Sandwich construction process. Img.20 - Concept photograph of Quilt Sandwich technique, attention to its simple and lightweight structural joints.

4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

Fig.42 - Do Ho Suh staircase III floating in space. Fig.43 - Faith Wilding, Womb Room, crochet installation.

Do Ho Suh similarly creates spaces floating in space, such as his installation Staircase III (Fig.45). He comments, ‘The space I’m interested in is not only a physical one, but an intangible, metaphorical and physical one,’ (Suh, 2003). The fabric used is ‘flexible, transparent, porous and permeable – blurs the boundaries and conventions definitions of the object’. Likewise, a quilt sandwich technique has comparable material and structural properties, and is the most closely linked to Do Ho Suh spatial installations.

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Scale 1:1 Img.21 - Quilt Sandwich three-dimensional construction and detail formula for application to constructive Quilt Sandwich experimentation.

Scale 1:1 Img.22 - Tied Quilt three-dimensional construction and detail formula for application to constructive Tied Quilt experimentation.

Img.23 - Concept application of ‘small scale’ tied quilt technique for ‘large scale’ building construction.

Img.24 - (opposite page) Photograph of vertical parallel tied quilt construction with strong reef knots.

The knot type is a ‘reef knot’ formed by tying a left-handed overhand knot and then a right-handed overhand knot, which creates a tight knot. It is an alternative method of stitch-bonding to the other quilting techniques stated above. The ‘wall tie’ material chosen must be suitable for the structural application. The type of wall tie may differ depending on when it’s context, whether it is in a contained area or open to the external environment. Also its purpose to users, such as an interactive habitable or inhabitable space, is important factors to consider when deciding the structural tying rope and material. Perhaps anti-buckling and rigid properties are required, if it is to become a walkable space for users, perhaps similar to Ernesto Neto’s work as an‘active participant, climbingwith their hands and crawling on their knees, to fully experience the work’ (Notorientyinc, 2012).


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

9. Trapunto Img.25 - Photograph of stitch-bond fixing of trapunto insulation.

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Img.27 - Concept photograph of stitch-bond fixing of trapunto insulation and view of raised surface. Img.28 - Photograph of experiment one - frame construction and attachment of textile filler.

10. Woven Structure

Trapunto is a ‘stuffing technique’ which provides thermal insulation and adds texture and three-dimension. The appliqued surface pin points the location of where to manipulate the surface and sculpt it into a three-dimensional form. It has a raised three-dimensional surface, which is constructed by putting additional stuffing under a highlighted surface on the top layer. This ‘stuffing technique’ shares syntax with a wall construction sandwiching an insulation layer between the external brickwork and internal finish. The insulation layer chosen should ultimately be lightweight and durable in nature. It is the reduction of heat transfer between objects. Thermal insulation provides a means to maintain a gradient of temperature, by providing a region of insulation in which heat flow is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed. Therefore heat transfer will be reduced between the internal and outside layer. The ‘stuffing technique’ could provide material attributes, such as to reduce noise and vibration, thus providing a comfortable environment. It must securely hold the insulation in position; therefore the stitch-bond process applied is important to get right. The insulation layer should be resistant to moisture and fire.

This technique is derived from my own interpretation, derived from composite and sandwich structures, which shows powerful potential into spatial design as a structural form-making process. For experiment 1 the plinth was cut into four equal lengths and formed into a four-sided frame. This process of constructing frames, whilst altering the dimensions each time, was repeated thirteen times. The frames were fixed to each other at random angles, which produced a random composition. The textiles were fixed to the frame with tying threads, sequentially from one direction. Subsequently, the threading was constructed sequentially, from the same direction. The frame controlled the angle of the textile material, which was positioned floating in space. Each frame contained a single fabric plane. The angle of thread filling differed from one fabric plane to another. I learnt that imaginative and stimulating spaces can be created through changing the angle of each individual plane.


Scale 1:1

Img.26 - Trapunto three-dimensional construction and detail formula for application to constructive trapunto experimentation.

4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

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Scale 1:1

Img.29 - Woven structure three-dimensional construction and detail formula for application to constructive woven structure experimentation.


4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

* 10. Woven Structure... continued

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Similar to the previous experiment, the frame, inner doweling, timber posts and textile dimensions remain constant, as well as the thickness of the thread. Likewise, all horizontal doweling and textile fabric has equal dimensions. One main concept is established: that doweling is liberated to explore and takes overall responsibility of the composition. The composition of structure and materials constitutes a hierarchy of three parts; the doweling at the top of the chain dictates the angle of two-dimensional fabric, and the fabric dictates length of the thread filling. The doweling chooses its angle from within the main frame. The distance from one textile to another, derives length and angle of the thread filling. The doweling chooses its angle from within the main frame. The distance from one textile to another, derives length and angle of the thread filling. The doweling and main frame is completed before the insertion of fabric.

Img.30 - Photograph of second experiment - frame construction and attachment of textile filler. Img.31 - Photograph of third experiment - without a frame, the textile holds itself in position.

Experiment 3 ignores principles of the frame to construct a three-dimensional composite floating in space combining flowing multiple fabrics and filler threads. Each fabric was machine sewn with a seam allowance to thread a wire through. Subsequentially, each textile was cut and machine stitch-bonded to each other. Once positioned spatially each textile was hand-stitch bonded to the other. The wire as well as the fabric controls its position spatially, which became a highly flexible prototype. The fabrics had variable thicknesses, which impacted on its strength and influenced the looseness or tightness of thread intersection between the fabrics.


Ernesto Neto’s work shares common threads with experiment four , namely his work ‘Crazy Hyperculture in the Vertigo of the World’ which ‘is a suspended mass of woven labyrinth nets and balls of aromatic spices that engage a viewer’s physical interaction through touch and smell.’Neto’s work is solely crocheted ropes, which fill the entire Cathedral Room of Buenos Aires’ new art space. It is a habitable living organism, which demonstrates stimulating qualities to enliven and enrich spatial design for users in the future.

4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

The movement of the fabric within the frame is dependent on how loosely or stiffly the fabric was tied to the frame and its degree of tension. The fabric mobility within the frame impacts on the tightness/looseness of the thread filling. The thread was laid in a vertical plane, which derived the thread filling to be stitched in horizontal axis. In conclusion, for this experiment I have learnt two main principles; firstly structure can control the material, its positioning and degree of movement. Secondly, the behaviour of one element directly impacts on the behaviour of another. Through managing and participating in this experiment, I was able to conduct detailed analysis and draw conclusions, which would otherwise not be apparent. The physical object also allows one to feel its friction, tension and contact with materials and structure. Once the information had been collected from making and no more new information was gained, I decided to deconstruct the model to observe the formation of textiles within the structure and the shapes formed.

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1.

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4 : TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM

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Img.32 - Ten quilt design tool techniques for architectural application.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

5: Constructive Experimentation with Ten Quilting Techniques as Structure

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Fig.44 - Verasol invention metallic print embossed on alumuminized polyester.

Fig.45 - Textile ‘I’ bean constructed from glass and polyester hybrid.

This section will reframe the identified quilting techniques as an application for architectural processes, to inform new form-making structural elements for the future. Godffreid Semper states, ‘the beginning of building coincides with the beginning of textiles’ (Semper, 1989, p.254). The ten new structural elements will be showcased as individual installations around the surrounding landscape and within the interior of the Victoria and Albert Museum. The structural elements will pioneer ‘inhabitable space’ structures for the future. Inhabitable space structures will have specific characteristics such as flexibility, together with ‘strength and functionality with lightness in weight’ (Clarke and O’Mahony, 2007, p.52). Such characteristics can be achieved with the cohesion of ‘part textile (flexible), part non-textile (glass, carbon, metal and ceramic hybrids’ (Clarke and O’Mahony, 2007, p.58) (Fig.47). These textiles will offer cutting-edge, high performance qualities needed to become architectural elements. Similarly, in 1948 Annie Albers writes to designers in the Art and Architecture magazine ‘that textiles (...) can be regarded as architectural elements’ (Albers, 1948, unpaginated). This is precisely the aim of the investigation, to persuasively demonstrate how quilt-making processes can be used as an application for architectural elements. In comparison, the Department of Textile Technology in the Institut für Textiltechnik in Aachen (ITA) has invented ‘I’ beam fabric (Fig.48), which is a textile ‘stiffening beam(s) to be used in light construction’ (Braddock and O’Mahony, 2005, p.68). The textile ‘I’ beam was ‘first woven as a flat fabric, before being cut open at both sides to produce an ‘I’ beam profile fabric’ (Braddock and O’Mahony, 2005, p.68). This is a close example of employing textiles as a structural element to produce a lightweight structure. However it is a single element and is not a form-making process. I aim to e mploy constructive and finishing quilting techniques as a formula to generate a new architectural process.


Below is a list of the characteristics, qualities, pros and cons of each fibre type: Structural Joining Rope Types: Fibre Glass Fibre Rope – High degree of chemical stability, and is corrosion resistant. Its static electricity is very low, free of toxic components and its fibres consist of natural minerals, which are environmentally friendly.

5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

Each structural element will encompass bespoke qualities and characteristics, and as a result, provide the formula for the material type and the three-dimensional form. Therefore firstly, the structural element will be chosen and secondly the material type applied which determines its form. The structural elements and materials chosen for the installation will determine the load it can hold. Therefore the amount of people allowed to access the installation at a given time will differ from one to the other. Some installations will be anchored firmly to the ground and employ harder, more rigid materials and therefore access to these installations will be unlimited to the public. Other installations will be highly flexible and lightweight, which will limit the load and the number of people participating at a given time. Within the installations activities such as ‘touch and feel’ interaction, as well as ‘making’ and ‘thinking’ will be undertaken. The structural elements will use a rope fibre to tie the two-dimensional part-textile, part non-textile together. The rope will be stitch-bonded to the textile, tied and bonded by friction. This interlocking ‘creates a flexible but stiff platform which can distribute load evenly’ (Clarke and O’Mahony, 2005, p.55). The rope fibre will either be made out of fibre glass, stainless-steel fibre, carbon fibre or ceramic fibre, as all these types of fibre can be used for industrial application.

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5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE 41

Metal Fibre Rope – Thin metal fibre (Nickel, Titanium, Aluminium and Copper) – Flexible and strong. Manufactured from yarn spinning. Can be knitted, woven or braided. Needle-punched into metal or a blend of metal and man-made natural fibres. It has a long life-time and very low resistance. It is also heat resistant and has thermal conductivity. It is an anti-static textile.

Fig.46 - Montaje Neto Faena Arts Centre, interior view of knitted structure. Fig.47 - Montaje Neto Faena Arts Centre view from outside of structure.

Fig.48 - Folded glass facade. Fig.49 - Detail of folded glass facade.

Carbon Fibre Rope – Lighter and stronger than metal fibre. Made out of blend of polyester and cotton. Strength, lightweight, odour absorption, fatigue resistance, vibration absorption and electrical conductivity, resistant to high temperatures. Withstand repeated washing. Moisture-wicking properties. Soft and comfortable. Danger of static discharge which could ignite flammable atmospheres such as aviation fuel vapours. Can use anti-static chemicals however to be effective it requires low humidity. To overcome problem can use – carbon-loaded core. Can be highly rigid and permeable. Material Types: Glass - Used where strength must be at a premium. Corrosion resistant. Carbon Fabric – Lightweight. Made of a blend of polyester and cotton. Anti-static. Ceramic-Based Fabric – ‘Kurroy Co. Ltd have introduced Esmo, a stable fibre where powdered ceramics are mixed with the polyester fibre’ (Clarke and O’Mahony, 2007, p.64) Metal Fabric – Lightweight, easy to install. Smooth uniform finish. Retains dimensional stability. Resistance to corrosion and tearing. Knitted fibre fabrics either incorporating copper, silver copper and copper alloys.

Fig.50 - Sophie Roet, metallized fabric. Fig.51 - Three-dimensional warp-knit. Fig.52 - Stainless steel wire installation. Fig.53 - Knitted metal coated fabric. Fig.54 - Crochet structure. Fig.55 - Carbon fibre fabric.

Fig.56 - Stainless steel fibres.

Three-dimensional Knit – Seamless form. Provide cushioning and support. ‘Can be open, like a mesh or net, or appear as a close knit on the front and back’ (Clarke and O’Mahony, 2007, p.70) ‘Fabric is springy under pressure, given under pressure then regaining its form once pressure is released’ (ibid, p.70). Resins and coatings can be added to provide additional performance factors such as rigidity.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

Structured experiments were conducted to explore the ten quilting techniques on a larger scale, which aim to assist the proposition of mechanising the techniques as architectural processes for large-scale production. The experiments act as the prototypes and drivers to pioneer its mechanisation as an application for constructing structures. Constructive experimentation has led to a greater understanding of the behaviour of these quilting techniques as structural processes. I have kept the materials constant and used the ten quilting techniques as a tool to manipulate its ‘flexible, rigid, free or controlled (…) formed and moulded’ (Braddock and O’Mahony, 1998 p.158) state.

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1. Foundation Paper Piecing

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A two-dimensional cutting pattern template was constructed. Following this, contrasting four-sided shapes were drawn out at random different angles onto the template. As the primary construction material was not transparent, a tracing template of the shapes was drawn and cut out, and placed onto the non-transparent material as a trace. A ‘stitch in the ditch’ 2cm seam allowance was drawn out for each side that was to be stitch-bonded to its adjacent piece. A 2cm mark at constant 2cm intervals was placed onto the ‘stitch in the ditch’ line. The material chosen was an aluminium foil insulation layer, with an R-value 0.78 m2 K/W. The foil layer was faced outside, however, perhaps if it is to be used as the final installation layer it should face inside, because the foil layer allows heat to be reflected back into the internal space. The foil layer is water resistant and acts as a vapour barrier. Further experimentation took place with the structural stitch-bond joints between the pieces. I decided to use a thin natural fibre rope which could be hand stitched and threaded through with a needle, used as the tool to assemble the four-sided pieces together. I applied a figure-of-eight strong knot at the end of the natural fibre rope and began the stitch-bond task in piece sequential order. Each piece was stitched to its parallel adjacent piece. Pieces 1 and 2 contained a 5cm thread gap between each other, which went up in 5cm intervals for each piece. Therefore pieces 2 and 3 contained a 10cm interval and 3 and 4 contained a 15cm interval, and so forth. In order to achieve the correct distance of natural fibre rope between each piece a knot was tied against each piece, as an anchor to prevent the rope from moving between the pierced apertures and altering the measured distance. The purpose of increasing the stitch-bond rope allowance for each piece was that once it had been suspended in tension on its frame, experimentation with its malleability could be carried out. The rigidity/flexibility of the pieces resulted in different three-dimensional angles and distances from the frame, which created stimulating spatial design and enriched and enlivened the spaces within the form.

Img.33 - Foundation paper piecing constructive experimentation process.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

Fig.57 - Matsys two-

dimensional pattern template.

Fig.58 - Matsys transformation from two-dimensional flat materials into a three-dimensional form. 1500

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1500 1500

Scale 1.20 Img.34 - Foundation paper piecing two-dimensional pattern template, two-dimensional construction including ‘stitch in the ditch’ seam allowance and as a three-dimensional form.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

2. Strip Piecing

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Img.35 - Photographs of strip piecing constructive experimentation process.

Strip piecing is a method of quick preparation and construction, which can reduce the time of constructing building fabric with a continuous pattern of pieces with the same measurements. I used the two-dimensional template as a guide to cut out three 500mm x 1500mm strips with a 4cm seam allowance on the stitch-bonded side. I stitch-bonded the strips at an equal 2 cm distance to one another, with a knot at each end to exposethe structural stitch-bondin process. This resulted in a regimented flat two-dimensional form. Once the four corners were suspended on the frame the two-dimensional form did become a three-dimensional envelope. However, as the fabric had limited sides and angles its ability and potential for stimulating spatial design was restricted. Strip piecing is an example of an alternative construction process not an individual technique to hold layers together. Therefore its credibility to support the aim of the study is lacking and I will not take this technique forward for mechanisation.


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5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE 47

3. Basting

Img.36 - Photographs of Basting constructive experimentation process. Use of plastic-coated metal wire and fixing of structure with adhesive.

The basting technique was stitch-bonded at irregular intervals around the outer edge of the three layers. The aim of this experiment was to explore the use of plastic-coated copper wire. The plastic-coated finish resulted in a slippery structural surface which caused sliding of the layers; this also occurred due to the removal of knots between the layers. To prevent movement between the layers, I applied an adhesive against the rope and the layer. This added application of an adhesive did overcome this problem. A rope was applied to the outer layers, to help suspend the three-dimensional form, across the structural frame. It was attached by all four corners on the outer layers, which allowed a fixed extrusion of the air cavity distance within the three-dimensional form. This basting technique has limited benefits to take forward into mechanisation as architectural elements. The plastic-coated finish did provide a waterproof solution, however the complication of adding an adhesive is an unnecessary extra element which can be avoided with the correct usage of rope. In conclusion, the basting technique is temporary measure, perhaps used as a supporting structure to be used in conjunction with a fixed structural technique.


2D Fabrication Layout

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Scale 1.20 Img.37 - Basting two-dimensional pattern template as a framework for stitch-bond irregular basting application. Basting as a three-dimensional installation.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE 49

4. Binding

Img.38 - Photograph of curved rope fibre and binding around outer edge of textile surface.

Img.39 - Sketchup 3D visualisation.

The binding technique was constructed with the plastic coated rope with a curvature of approximately 6cm. It is an evenly distributed stitch-bonded technique around the inner edge of the three layers to bind them together as a three-dimensional form. A figure-of-eight knot is tied at the beginning and end of the process to hold the structural element together in place by friction. The layer were folded and temporarily pinned, which provides a smooth edge finish rather than a rough edge and protects the middle layer. Different lessons have been learnt with the binding technique compared to the quilting technique. If the layers used are flexible textiles then the middle of the structure will result in sagging which can provide a problem, for example the middle area could collect water and cause damage.


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Scale 1.20 Img.40 - Two-dimensional pattern template as a framework to stitch-bond structured binding technique construction. Binding of a three-dimensional form.


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5. Machine-quilting Stitch

Img.41 - Photographs of Machine-quilting Stitch technique.

The machine-quilting stitch folds the top layer around the middle layer and in front of the outer layer. This technique shares strong connections with the binding technique using the same method of attaching the rope to layers to create the three-dimensional form. Its strength and rigidity is the same as the binding technique, although the folding around the insulation layer provides stronger protection from weather conditions.


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Scale 1.20 Img.42 - Two-dimensional framework to stitch-bond structured Machine-quilting Stitch technique. Machine-quilting technique as a three-dimensional form.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE 53

6. Quilting

Img.43 - Photographs of initial two-dimensional pattern template frame and quilting technique application.

Fig.59 - Detail of Grompies project quilted stitch line construction. Fig.60 - Grompies project fabric construction derived from hand sewn stitches and sewing machine.

Fig.61 - Adjustable rig system with tensile elements which creates a changeable fabric.

The top layer material chosen was a geo-textile, with high strength, which prevents tearing and is hard wearing. Normally, this fabric is used for heavy traffic situations beneath domestic roads and pavements. This material is water permeable and acts as filtration. Therefore, it is an unsuitable material to use for an outside installation, as it not water resistant to weather. The two-dimensional foundation paper template geotextile layer provided a framework to stitch-bond the quilting technique through the three layers. A plastic coated rope was used which may slide through the layers without properties of friction; however the resistance in this case lay in its curved shape, which provided rigidity and strength and prevented it from slipping. The kinks in the plastic rope meant that it stayed in place without needing to be knotted. This proved to be a valuable discovery. The rope needed to be passed through the material and a useful method was devised threading it through the holes already in position from the foundation paper template stitching. The distance of the extrusion of the three-dimensional form was experimented with. It was noted that the more quilting applied to the given area, increased its strength and rigidness. A shorter distance of rope between the layers also increased its distance. The application of the quilting technique on parallel sides increased its stability.


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Img.44 - Quilting 3D visualisation.

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Scale 1.20 Img.45 - Elevation drawing of the Quilting technique Installation.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

7. Quilt Sandwich

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Img.46 - Photographs of Quilt Sandwich construction process.

For the quilt sandwich, the three layers were cut out individually from the foundation paper template. The transparent geotextile provided a trace for the soft insulation and hard foil insulation layer. All three pieces were drawn around, cut out, and importantly numbered. A 4cm allowance from the outer side was marked on each four-sided piece. The pieces were assembled together using a thin rope fibre. The rope fibre was measured and a knot tied at the end of the rope. The rope was knotted against each layer as an anchor to prevent the layers sliding out of place and provide a fixed measurement between the layers. Two knots were tied on top of each other to provide an anchor strong enough to withstand the possibility of the layers sliding through the knots. To prevent bending from the weight of the materials each corner was stitch-bonded. There were 14 template pieces in total and 42 layers in total and the measurements of each piece increased by 5cm each time. The belief was in order to create stimulating spatial design, there needed to be maximum exposure of the structural tying technique and knots. Therefore the backing layer facing the interior space was a transparent polythene sheet. This sheet provided important properties for the prototype such as strength to prevent tearing of knots through sheeting. Low density gave the impression of the sandwich quilt being a lightweight structure.


Img.48 - (Below). Concept diagram of Quilt Sandwich as a threedimensional form with application of Quilt Sandwich detail formula previously formulated. Img.49 - (Below left). Detail of Tied Quilt, with attention to its structural elements to determine its three-dimensional form.

5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

Img.47 - (Left). Photograph of Quilt Sandwich Installation.

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8. Tied Quilt

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Img.50 - Photographs of Tied Quilt construction process. Img.51 - (Opposite page) Montage of Tied Quilt, highlighting the structural application tool and stimulating space divider.

Preparation for the tied quilt used the same construction framework as the sandwich quilt. However, for this process, the heavier materials were used for its construction. Therefore qualities of the tying technique such as the reef knot for heavy duty materials and a double parallel stitch-bond on each of the four corners provided strength and stability to hold the layers. Sisal rope with a thickness of 6mm was used. Each piece was marked with at 4cm inwards from the outer side and the second marker was 2cm from the first marker. The sisal rope was measured and cut at 40cm and a constant 20cm distance was applied between each layer. The knots against each layer provided the fixed dimensions and ensured the two vertical fibre ropes were balanced. On occasions, I mistakenly did not knot between the layers, which proved to be detrimental to the balance of the two parallel vertical ropes. The sisal rope was of a natural fibre, which provided natural resistance and roughness to prevent sliding of the layers. if the sisal rope is to be used for external use it is important to be cautious as when wet, the shrinkage could cause sliding of the layers. The sisal rope fibre may shrink up to 12.5% when wet, could cause sliding of the layers. It is environmentally friendly as it is biodegradable. Whilst conducting this experiment I ran out of the 6mm thickness sisal rope and was forced to use 8mm diameter sisal rope. A lesson was learnt from switching to a thicker rope, in that the rope was too heavy in weight for the materials being used, which caused bending at each corner of the sides. The thicker rope was less malleable and a larger distance was needed to tie the completing reef knot. The 8mm thickness made it difficult to press down and fix the reef knot to firmly hold the three layers. The textile layers were not stiff enough therefore four ties were needed to hold the layer together as a flat three-dimensional form. A suspension rope was threaded through each reef knot on all four corners at 2cm in length to attach the nine tied quilts to the supporting frame. Nine tied quilts were constructed from the paper template with an overall distance of 1500 x 1500 mm. Each square layer was 500 x 500 mm.


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Scale 1.20 Img.52 - Drawing of two-dimensional fabrication layout, its markings for Tied Quilt application and elevation drawing of Tied Quilt Installation.


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Img.53 - Photomontage of Tied Quilt Installation.

5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

9. Trapunto

61 Img.54 - Photographs of Trapunto construction process, incorporation of insulation and rope knotting as structural elements to fix the textile in position.

The trapunto technique is a method of applying a second insulation layer, once again the foundation paper template was used as a framework to define the area to experiment with. The insulation was placed underneath the identified area and the rope was threaded through. The foundation paper piecing provided another element of valuable support. The stitching of the pieces beforehand, to construct the template, provided apertures at set proximities to thread through the rope. The insulation layer was pierced through with a standing knife. It was important to make sure the rope was thick enough and the knot was wide enough to withstand the hole created to thread the rope through and prevent the knot sliding. The rope used was a plastic coated rope, without a curvature, however the knotting ensured it kept its position at a set distance of 10cm. The gap between each vertical stitch-bond was 4cm wide. Once this had been completed the bold colour of the rope clearly highlighted where to cut the insulation layer. A rigid, balanced structure was created with high strength.


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Scale 1.20 Img.55 - Drawing of two-dimensional fabrication layout and markings for trapunto application. Elevation drawing of Trapunto Installation.


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5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE 64

Img.56 - Interior space of Trapunto Installation as a stimulating space for users.


5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

10. Woven Structure

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Img.57 - Photographs of Woven structure construction process,

This constructive woven sandwich structure has retained consistencies of the cube frame from ‘quilting techniques as a three-dimensional form’. The structure has been extended into a double height structure. The main new thought is to be structured and constructive, which is explored in the interrelationship of thread filling and net meshing. I substituted a soft plain fabric for a rigid netted mesh, which facilitated structured threading with an equal air cavity gap from one plane to another, in a straight direction, either vertically, horizontally or diagonally. The netted mesh was tied tightly to the frame. The model prototype contains rigid, structural parameters and controlled distance. This ultimately generated a highly structured, stable sandwich configuration, with high strength. The thread filling angles contrasted from one three dimensional composite to another. Some threading was overworked between planes, whilst other filler threads remained straightforward. Various thread filling between multiple planes which were vertically constructed subsequently changed its direction to horizontal. The threading and fabric planes are strongly connected due to the threading and air cavity gap is narrower in this experiment, which furthermore increases the strength of composite. Slight bending failure occurs on the surface of wire mesh, as it is weaker than thread filling.


Fig.62 - Carmody Groarke Brioni 12,000 stitches for wallpaper. Fig. 63 - Detail of 12, 000 stitches exhibition installation.

Conclusion The ten quilt-making processes offer new performance characteristics in constructing structures for the future. For example, the prototypes were produced with a low number of structural components and offer high strength, yet light weight and malleable properties, which are highly desirable. The application of the quilting techniques in context and user function depends on their structural technique, which is influenced from their degree of rigidity and flexibility. Furthermore, the material applied to the structural technique will affect its position in context. The robustness of the material is a key factor to consider. The context influences the non-textile/textile chosen whether it is ‘permanently pressed, stretchable, windproof, waterproof and breathable’ (Braddock and O’Mahony, 1998, p.72).

5 : CONSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTATION WITH TEN QUILTING TECHNIQUES AS STRUCTURE

Producing physical models has allowed for touch and feel of the structure, and the following assumptions have been made. Multiple plies and thread filling has achieved properties such as high strength and low in weight. I have discovered in order to achieve architectural prototypes from quilting techniques, it is essential to obtain structure and instruction, rather than the process be derived from sheer instinct. It is clear that Bauhaus came to these assumptions themselves to produce realistic prototypes for mechanisation and mass scale production increasingly gaining acceptance due to their attractive specific performances. ‘Biaxial, triaxial, and more sophisticated multiaxis 3D fabric structures are used as structural elements in medical, space and rocket propulsions’ (Beyer et al., 2006). Examples of these elements are ‘plate, stiffened panel and beams and spars, shell or skin structures’ (Yamamoto and Hirokawa, 1990).

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6 : VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM INSPIRED SITE FOR PROTOTYPING ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS 67

6: Victoria and Albert Museum Inspired Site for Prototyping Architectural Installations

Fig.64 - Otti Berger accoustic fabric from the wall and lit from behind to create a luminous surface.

I began my site analysis of the Victoria and Albert Museum from the South Kensington tube station. I followed the museum signs, down concrete steps, which led to a dark tunnel. It instantly became exciting, an adventure of the unknown, unaware where the tunnel was leading to. The Victoria and Albert Museum mechanised sign glimmered in the distance. Once I had reached this crossroad in the tunnel, I diverted up a gradual slope into the museum. I walked down the sculpture gallery, inhaling the grandiose atmosphere but controversially became distracted by the yelps and shrieks of enjoyment outside from the children in the John Madejski garden. I was overwhelmed by the volume of school groups and uniform with an array of colours representing their school. They were playing, laughing, jumping, dancing, hopping, hiding, playing tag; it was a spectrum of enjoyment. I quickly covered a large area of the Victoria and Albert museum to gain a real sense of its character and content, whilst at the visitor peak in the middle of the day, to experience where the school groups were mostly concentrated.

Fig.65 - Power of Making exhibition, digital three-dimensional fabric extrusion.

I have chosen the Victoria and Albert Museum as a location to showcase the ten installations, which represent quilting techniques as structural architectural processes. The Victoria and Albert museum was originally known as Museum of Manufactures. It was committed to creative arts and crafts as a catalyst for industrial manufacture (Charny, 2011, p.15). The plan was to provide a museum to educate the public that industrial arts can ‘push the boundaries of manufacture and (...) envisage new worlds that would continue to delight future decades’ (Charny, 2011, p.15). I wish to embrace this underlying paradigm, and reveal that quilting techniques can realistically offer a cutting-edge, alternative solution of structural joints and architectural details to the composition of structure for the future. This powerful message resurfaced at the ‘Power of Making’ exhibition in September 2011, held at the Victoria and Albert Museum.

I visited the Morris, Gamble and Poynter Rooms and walked straight up to third floor, entering Gold Silver and Mosaics techniques.


The installations will project an influential message to educate people that craft is interdisciplinary and shares syntax with architecture, as Semper justifies ‘the beginning of building coincides with the beginning of textiles’ (Semper, 1989, p.254). In order for the ten installations to reach the maximum number of people, they need to be positioned in the most highly concentrated areas of human activity. The belief is that the transposition of these architectural processes will educate children that the process of making a craft, more specifically quilting and its structural components share common threads of structural qualities with architecture. I followed a group into the Natural History Museum, and it became apparent that although they are opposite institutions, they link to each other, concerning the path and direction children take from one to the other. Therefore it is necessary to hold a midway installation, between the two installations, on the immediate outskirts of the natural history museum to instil in one’s mind as a precursor of subsequent main installations at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The main targets will be located at the beginning and end of the school group’s journey to remember and instil the focus. The end of the journey will be concentrated in the new architectural area, which will accompany the opening launch of the new space. It will be an interactive, touch and feel space, to grab a child’s attention and help them remember and easily understand the simple detail of the structural connections, which broadens to the bigger picture that, quilting techniques as a representative of craft can contribute and resonate as architecture.

6 : VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM INSPIRED SITE FOR PROTOTYPING ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS

The word techniques flicked on like a light bulb and I knew the paradigm of the museum was about the skills and methods applied to produce and mechanise a craft. I visited the Gift shop, Bookshop and indulged into thinking through making (Adamson, 2007), power of making (Charny, 2011) and the craft reader (Adamson, 2009), in the hope of discovering more fruitful knowledge. Afterwards, I returned outside to soak up the atmosphere, and the method of how to conduct the site analysis, its purpose and which age group to target began to emerge.

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6 : VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM INSPIRED SITE FOR PROTOTYPING ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS 69

Location of Ten Installations both within Victoria and Albert Museum

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6 : VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM INSPIRED SITE FOR PROTOTYPING ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS

and its Surrounding Context

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Materials and Techniques Techniques Workshop - Artist Residency (6th Floor)

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Britain 1500 - 1760 (2nd Floor: 55 Chair Assembly and Braid Techniques)

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Img.58 - Location of 10 quilting structural Installations exterior and interior of Victoria and Albert Museum.

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6 : VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM INSPIRED SITE FOR PROTOTYPING ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS 72

An Installation Location - The John Madejski Garden Img.59 - Photomontage of energetic children and their potential enthusiasm to embrace the Ten Quilting structural techniques for future building construction.


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Img.60- Basting Installation - West Elevation Date: 2012 Location: South Kensington Tube Entrance Size: 1.5m (w) x 1.5m (h)

Img.61 -

Strip Piecing Installation - West Elevation Date: 2012 Location: South Kensington Tube (South) Entrance ground level Size: 2.1m (w) x 1.5m (h)


6 : VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM INSPIRED SITE FOR PROTOTYPING ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS Img.62 -

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Trapunto Installation - North Elevation Date: 2012 Location: Architecture renovation area below ceramic glass area Size: 1.5m (w) x 1.5m (h)

Machine-Stitch Installation - North Elevation Date: 2012 Location: 2nd Floor: Chair Assembly and Braid Techniques Size: 1.5m (w) x 0.5m (h)

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Img.64 - Quilting Installation - North Elevation Date: 2012 Location: South Kensington tunnel entrance to museums Size: 1.5m (w) x 1.5m (h)

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Foundation Paper Piecing Installation- North Elevation Date: 2012 Location: South Kensington tunnel entrance to museums Size: 1.5m (w) x 1.5m (h)


6 : VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM INSPIRED SITE FOR PROTOTYPING ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS 76

Img.66 -

Machine-Quilting Stitch Installation - North Elevation Date: 2012 Location: South Kensington tunnel entrance to Victoria and Albert Museum Size: 1.5m (w) x 0.30m (h)


7 : TEN QUILTING PROTOTYPES AS ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS TO ENLIVEN AND ENRICH SPATIAL DESIGN 77

7: Ten Quilting Prototypes as Architectural Installations to Enliven and Enrich Spatial Design Img.67 -

Quilting Installation - North Elevation South Kensington tunnel entrance to museums

‘As visitors make their way through the sculptural installation they will find themselves an active participant, climbing with their hands and crawling on their knees, to fully experience the work’ (Notorientyinc, 2012).


7 : TEN QUILTING PROTOTYPES AS ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS TO ENLIVEN AND ENRICH SPATIAL DESIGN 78

Img.68 -

Machine-quilting Stitch Installation - North Elevation South Kensington Tunnel Entrance to Victoria and Albert Museum


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Img.69 Tied Quilt Installation - North Elevation Grand Entrance

7 : TEN QUILTING PROTOTYPES AS ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS TO ENLIVEN AND ENRICH SPATIAL DESIGN


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Img.70 Foundation Paper Piecing Installation - North Elevation The John Madejski Garden

7 : TEN QUILTING PROTOTYPES AS ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS TO ENLIVEN AND ENRICH SPATIAL DESIGN


CONCLUSION : SYNTAX OF QUILT-MAKING INTO SPATIAL DESIGN 81

Conclusion: Syntax of Quilt-Making into Spatial Design

The Victoria and Albert Museum claims to be ‘the world’s greatest museum of art and design’ and is currently the host to an exhibition on British Design 19482012. Zaha herself recognises ‘museums have changed a great deal,’ she says, ‘the connection between culture and public life is critical’ (Larocca, 2008). This museum allows the perfect location to showcase the prototypes, and aims to enthuse visitors especially children, about the future of architectural design, specifically the talents and qualities that female architects can use to enrich this profession. This is vital as the Royal Institute of Architects Future Trends survey published recordings of a ‘7 per cent drop in the number of women architects over the last two years’ – their analysis showed that in January 2009 28 per cent of architectural staff in practice surveyed were women, compared to just 21 per cent in December 2011 (Waite, 2012). These figures are alarming and whilst reasons such as recession, social factors and possible discrimination might be cited as possible causes, whatever the reasons, now perhaps more than ever before female talents, crafts and expertise must be given maximum exposure in the public arena as an interdisciplinary tool for architecture. On the surface, quilting seems to be an unrelated area for application to architecture; however this study has clearly identified and demonstrated the powerful potential of transposing quilting techniques into spatial design. This invesitgation has revealed an accessible, opportunistic area for female architects to incorporate into their designs and construction proposals for the future. Females have their own vision, creative talents and unique perception of building structure and design, and it is hoped that this new form-making process can provide a potential niche, together with new opportunities and architectural credibility for women in architecture.


It is hoped that by visiting the prototype installations and handling and touching the structural elements, it will offer awareness that, female architects can change the face of modern architecture for the future.

CONCLUSION : SYNTAX OF QUILT-MAKING INTO SPATIAL DESIGN

A creative style is required to achieve these architectural elements, and women naturally lend themselves to these unique techniques with their inherent feminine attributes. The showcase of ten installations at the Victoria and Albert Museum aims to show a spectacle of prototypes for mechanisation, to persuade traditionalists to take alternative solutions seriously. The ten installations demonstrate exhilarating structural elements that challenge the clichĂŠs of current building construction techniques. These techniques, with widespread use of concrete and steel, constitute the majority of the built environment and provide a sterile, uninspiring spatial experience for users. The new form-making process offers an alternative structural approach, which contradicts current clichĂŠs and enlivens and enriches architectural spaces for users. There has been a deliberate intention in this project to introduce these new ideas to next generation to provide them with education and inspiration for their future. The recipe for its success belongs in the structural technique chosen, and its powerful quality of a highly desired infusion of strength and lightweight materials. The ten installations are a revolutionary forward thinking alternative, intended to be ambitious, yet controlled with a degree of constructive placing in order to validate their potential for mechanisation. This study proposes a reinvention of quilting as a contributor to architecture. I am proposing a new form-making process for constructing structures. These new structural techniques which have been identified, prototyped and mechanised offer a new way of thinking of how to produce structures and furthermore, change the face of designing architecture for the future.

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Jinny, B. (1999). Designing tessellations: the secrets of interlocking patterns. Chicago: Contemporary Books.

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Campbell., and Walker, L. (2003). Women’s Places: Architecture and Design 1860 – 1960. Martin, B., Sparke, P, (eds). London: Routledge.

Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus. United States: Murray Printing Company. Berger, S., Hawthorne, G., Cross, J. (2006). Ready Made: How to Make (almost) Everything. London: Thames & Hudson. Bodoano, B. (2011). Cool Craft: Explore Your Creativity! London: Vivays Publishing Ltd. Borden, I., Ray, K. (2006). The Dissertation. Oxford: Architectural Press.

Mason, D. (2001). Experimental Packaging. Switzerland: Roto Vision Book. Miller, R, M. (2006). The Needle’s Eye: Women and Work in the Age of Revolution. Amherst: University of Massachusetts. Prichard, S. (2011). Quilts 1700-2010 Hidden Histories, Untold Stories. London: V&A Publishing. Richards, Emilie. (2008). Sister’s Choice. Mira Books.

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Semper, G. (1989). The four elements of architecture and other writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thomas, L, Katie. (2007). Material Matters. Oxon: Routledge. W, Catherine. (2007). Professional pursuits: women and the American art and crafts movement. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press. Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Wagner, C. (1992). Adapting Architectural Details for Quilts. Paducah: American Quilter’s Society.

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Craft Exhibitions Arts Council England. Exhibition open: 6th September 2011 – 2nd January 2012. Power of Making. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. (Attended: 22nd November).

Sara, R. Feminising Architectural Education. Available at: http://cebe.cf.ac.uk/aee/pdfs/sararj.pdf. (Accessed: 12 March 2012).

Gronw-Lewis, N., and Merret, A. Exhibition open: 3rd – 31st October 2011. Colour Connections. Wells: The Bishops Palace. (Attended: 29th October). Internet and Website Media Bilisik, K. Advances in Modern Woven Fabrics Technology: MultiaxisThree Dimensional (3D) Woven Fabric. Available at: http://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-modernwoven-fabrics-technology/multiaxis-three-dimensional-3dwoven-fabric. (Accessed 9 March 2012). Day, L. (2011). Quilts Inspiring Architecture. Available at: http://freemotionquilting.blogspot.com/2011/05/quiltsinspiring-architecture.html. (Accessed: 12 October 2011).

Spyropoulos, S., Spyropoulos, T. (2011). Minimaforms. Available at: http:www.minimaforms.com/. (Accessed: 3 December 2011) Taylor,R &., Mavlian, S. Do Ho Suh (Room 7). Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/CollectionDisplays?venueid= 2&roomid=6819. (Accessed: 5 March 2012). Urbach, H. (2009). Matsys. Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_wall2009/. (Accessed: 6 March 2012).

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Articles Graft-Johnson de Ann ., Manley, S., and Greed, C. (2003). Why do women leave architecture? UWE. May Craft Design Workshops Trueman, J. Chenille Bag Workshop. 71 Westbury Hill, Westbury on Trym, Bristol, BS9 3AD: Poppy Patchwork. (Attended: 4th November 2011). St Ebbes Church. Making Christmas Crystal Clear. Craft Evening. Oxford: St Ebbes Church, Headington. (Attended: 26th November 2011). Warman, C. (2010). Grompies. Available at: http://www. dezeen.com/2010/05/06/grompies-by-berndon-carlin/. (Accessed: 06 March 2012). Journals Albers, A. (1948). Fabrics. Arts and Architecture. No. 65, March, p.33. Sennett, R. (2008). The Craftsman. United Kingdom: Allen Lane. Semper, G. (1989). The four elements of architecture and other writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thomas, L, Katie. (2007). Material Matters. Oxon: Routledge. W, Catherine. (2007). Professional pursuits: women and the American art and crafts movement. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press. Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Wagner, C. (1992). Adapting Architectural Details for Quilts. Paducah: American Quilter’s Society. Woodcock, V. (2011). State of Craft. London: Cicada Books Limited.


Gronw-Lewis, N., and Merret, A. Exhibition open: 3rd – 31st October 2011. Colour Connections. Wells: The Bishops Palace. (Attended: 29th October). Internet and Website Media Bilisik, K. Advances in Modern Woven Fabrics Technology: MultiaxisThree Dimensional (3D) Woven Fabric. Available at: http://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-modernwoven-fabrics-technology/multiaxis-three-dimensional-3dwoven-fabric. (Accessed 9 March 2012). Day, L. (2011). Quilts Inspiring Architecture. Available at: http://freemotionquilting.blogspot.com/2011/05/quiltsinspiring-architecture.html. (Accessed: 12 October 2011). DelGaudio, T. (2012). Climb on a Multi-Senspry Labyrinth Adorned with Spices. Available at: http://www.psfk. com/2012/02/spice-labyrinth-art-installation.html. (Accessed: 4 March 2012). Groarke, C. (2012). Carmody Groarke. Available at: http:// www.carmodygroarke.com/projects/exhibit/099.html. (Accessed: 4 March 2012). Holmes,C. (2010). Sewing Machines. Available at: http:// www.moah.org/exhibits/virtual/sewing.html. (Accessed: 22 March 2012). Krause, J. (2003). Reflections: The Creative Process of Generative Design in Architecture. Available at: http://arch. blacksquare.com/docs/krause_gen2003_press.pdf. (Accessed: 6 December 2011). Larocca, A. (2008). Chanel in a Shell. Available at: http:// nymag.com/arts/art/features/51351/. (Accessed: 13 April 2012).

Sara, R. Feminising Architectural Education. Available at: http://cebe.cf.ac.uk/aee/pdfs/sararj.pdf. (Accessed: 12 March 2012). Spyropoulos, S., Spyropoulos, T. (2011). Minimaforms. Available at: http:www.minimaforms.com/. (Accessed: 3 December 2011) Taylor,R &., Mavlian, S. Do Ho Suh (Room 7). Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/CollectionDisplays?venueid= 2&roomid=6819. (Accessed: 5 March 2012). Urbach, H. (2009). Matsys. Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_wall2009/. (Accessed: 6 March 2012).

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Front Trapunto Quilting Technique; Experimentation. Inside Trapunto Quilting Technique; Experimentation.

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Preface 1 - 2 Pg 1 - 2 Img.1 - Structured instruction process for a patchwork. Introduction 3 - 8 Pg 3 - 4 Fig.1 Thomas, A, M. Patchwork bed cover. Available at: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O89094/patch work-bed-cover/. (Accessed: 12 November 2011). Img.2 Myself; Construction of a Patchwork Quilt. Fig.2 Wagner, C. (1992). Adapting Architectural Details for Quilts. Paducah: American Quilter’s Society. p.35. Fig.3 Day, L. (2011). Quilts Inspiring Architecture. Avail able at: http://freemotionquilting.blogspot. com/2011/05/quilts-inspiring-architecture.html. (Accessed: 12 October 2011). Fig.4 Day, L. (2011). Quilts Inspiring Architecture. Avail able at: http://freemotionquilting.blogspot. com/2011/05/quilts-inspiring-architecture.html. (Accessed: 12 October 2011). Fig.5 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.181 Fig.6 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.84 Pg 5 - 6 Fig.7 Campbell., and Walker, L. (2003). Women’s Places: Architecture and Design 1860 – 1960. Martin, B., Sparke, P, (eds). London: Routledge. Fig.8 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus. United States: Murray Printing Company. p.217 Fig.9 Adamson, G. (2007). thinking through craft. (2007). Oxford: Berg p.46 Fig.10 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.91

Pg 9 - 10 Fig.11 Best, D and L. Howe Machine Company. Available at: http://www.sewmuse.co.uk/howe.htm (Accessed 10 April 2012). Fig.12 Footnotes. (2011). The Inventor You Never Knew. Available at: http://footnotesfromhistory. blogspot.co.uk/2011/09/inventor-you-never-knew. html (Accessed: April 10 2012). Fig.13 Thinktank Trust. Domestic. Available at: http:// www.birminghamstories.co.uk/collection. php?cat=8&set=0 (Accessed: 20 April 2012). Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London:Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.48 Fig.12 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.48 Fig.15 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus. United States: Murray Printing Company. p.14 Fig.16 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus.United States: Murray Printing Company. p.169 Fig.17 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus.United States: Murray Printing Company. p.57 Fig.18 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus. United States: Murray Printing Company. p.213 Fig.19 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus. United States: Murray Printing Company. p.213 Fig.20 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Bauhaus. United States: Murray Printing Company. p.213 Pg 11 - 12 Fig.21 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.127 Bayer., H., Gropius, W., Gropius., I. (1938). Fig.22 Bauhaus. United States: Murray Printing Company. p.23


Fig 19 - 20 Img.2 Construction of mitred corners and outer edge border. Img.3 Experimentation with folding and cutting quilt. Img.4 Construction process of borders and mitred corners. Img.5 Learning construction process of edge points.

Fig.33 Urbach, H. (2009). Matsys. Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_wall2009/. (Accessed: 6 March 2012). Pg 21 - 22 Fig.34 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.91 Fig.35 Adamson, G. (2007). thinking through craft. (2007). Oxford: Berg p.120 Fig.36 Saletnik, Jeffrey. Schuldenfrei. (2009). Bauhaus Construct. Oxon: Routledge. p.93 Fig.37 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.136 Fig.38 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.137 Fig.39 Adamson, G. (2007). thinking through craft. (2007). Oxford: Berg p.85 Pg 23 - 24 Fig.40 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. Fig.41 Dunlop, A. (2007). Penoyre and Pasrad / Moor fields. The Architects’ Journal. London: Emap Limited No. 16, Apr. 26 (pp.24 – 35) Pg 31 - 32 Img.6 Photograph process of Foundation Paper Piecing. Img.7 Concept formula; Foundation Paper Piecing. Img.8 Concept formula; Strip Piecing. Pg 33 - 34 Img.9 Concept photograph of Basting technique. Img.10 Photograph of Basting formula. Img.11 Concept photograph of Binding technique. Img.12 Concept; Binding process. Img.13 Concept formula; Binding. Img.14 Machine-quilting Stitch technique. Img. 15 Machine-quilting Stitch formula. Img.16 Concept photograph, quilting. Img.17 Concept photograph, quilting formula. Img.18 Concept of Quilting construction process.

IMAGE REFERENCE

Pg 13 - 14 Fig.23 Campbell., and Walker, L. (2003). Women’s Places: Architecture and Design 1860 – 1960. Martin, B., Sparke, P, (eds). London: Routledge. Fig.24 Anscombe, I. (1984). A woman’s touch: women in design from 1860 to the present day. London: Virago Press Limited. p.123 Fig.25 Anscombe, I. (1984). A woman’s touch: women in design from 1860 to the present day. London: Virago Press Limited. p.127 Fig.26 Campbell., and Walker, L. (2003). Women’s Places: Architecture and Design 1860 – 1960. Martin, B., Sparke, P, (eds). London: Routledge. Fig.27 Anscombe, I. (1984). A woman’s touch: women in design from 1860 to the present day. London: Virago Press Limited. p.129 Pg 15 - 16 Fig.28 http://forums.thefashionspot.com/f81/charles- ray-eames-171763.html Fig.29 http://www.modernity.se/20th-Century-Design/ Charles-Eames/Herman-Miller/Ray-Eames/ ArtID/791/Rocking-chair-designed-by-Charles- and-Ray-Eames-for-Herman-Miller.aspx Fig.30 Anscombe, I. (1984). A woman’s touch: women in design from 1860 to the present day. London: Virago Press Limited. p.151 Pg 17 - 18 Fig.32 Anscombe, I. (1984). A woman’s touch: women in design from 1860 to the present day. London: Virago Press Limited. p.138 Fig.32 Anscombe, I. (1984). A woman’s touch: women in design from 1860 to the present day. London: Virago Press Limited. p.141

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IMAGE REFERENCE 89

Pg 31 - 32 Img.19 Photograph concept Quilt Sandwich process. Img.20 Photograph concept of Quilt Sandwich. Fig.42 Do Ho Suh staircase III floating in space. Fig.43 Faith Wilding, Womb Room, crochet Installation. Img.21 Concept formula Quilt Sandwich. Img.22 Tied Quilt formula. Img.23 Tied Quilt concept application. Img.24 Tied Quilt detail photograph. Pg 33 - 34 Img.25 Trapunto process photographs. Img.26 Trapunto formula. Img.27 Trapunto experiment photographs. Img.28 Woven structure experiment photographs. Img.29 Woven structure formula. Pg 35 - 36 Img.30 Photo process woven structure experiment 2. Img.31 Photo process woven structure experiment 3. Pg 37 Img.32 10 tool techniques for architecture application. Pg 39 - 40 Fig.44 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.53 Fig.45 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.69 Pg 41 - 42 Fig.46 DelGaudio, T. (2012). Climb on a Multi-Senspry Labyrinth Adorned with Spices. Available at: http://www. psfk.com/2012/02/spice-labyrinth-art-installation.html. (Accessed: 4 March 2012). Fig.47 DelGaudio, T. (2012). Climb on a Multi-Senspry Labyrinth Adorned with Spices. Available at: http://www. psfk.com/2012/02/spice-labyrinth-art-installation.html. (Accessed: 4 March 2012). Design:related. (2009). AE7: Folded Fig 48 Glass Facades. Available at: http://designrelated. com/news/post_detail/4454/ae7-folded-glass- facades. (Accessed: 21 April 2012).

Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig.51 Fig.52 Fig.53 Fig.54 Fig 55

Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.60 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.60 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.63 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.63 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.61 Braddock, E, S and O’Mahony M. (2005). techno textiles 2. London: Thames & Hudson. p.61 Bustler. (2012). White: Studio 400 Book Show Installation. Availa ble at: http://www.bustler.net/ index.php/article/white_studio_400_book_ show_installation/ (Accessed: 15 April 2012).

Pg 43 - 44 Img.33 Foundation paper piecing constructive experimentation process. Fig 46. Urbach, H. (2009). Matsys. Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_wall2009/. (Accessed: 6 March 2012). Fig.47 Urbach, H. (2009). Matsys. Available at: http:// matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_wall2009/. (Accessed: 6 March 2012). Img.34 Foundation Paper Piecing Installation.

Pg 45 - 46 Img.35 Strip Piecing process.

Pg 47 - 48 Img.36 Photograph of Basting process Img.37 Basting Installation. Pg 49 - 50 Img.38 Photographs of Binding process. Img.39 Binding 3D visualisation. Img.40 Binding Installation. Pg 51 - 52 Img.41 Machine-quilting Stitch photograph process. Img.42 Machine-quilting Stitch Installation.


Pg 67 - 68 Fig.64 Weltge, W, S. (1993). Bauhaus Textiles. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p.123 Fig.65

Fig.59 Dezeen. (2010). Grompies. Available at: http:// www.dezeen.com/2010/05/06/grompies-by- berndon-carlin/ (Accessed: 3 March 2012). Fig.60 Dezeen. (2010). Grompies. Available at: http:// www.dezeen.com/2010/05/06/grompies-by- berndon-carlin/ (Accessed: 3 March 2012). Fig.61 Thomas, L, Katie. (2007). Material Matters. Oxon: Routledge.

Pg 69 - 70 Img.58 Location of 10 quilting structural installations.

Pg 55 - 56 Img.46 Photographs of Quilt Sandwich construction process. Img.47 Quilt Sandwich Installation. Img.48 Concept diagram of Quilt Sandwich. Img.49 Detail of Tied Quilt. Pg 57 - 58 Img.50 Photographs of Tied Quilt construction process. Img.51 Montage of Tied Quilt. Img.52 Tied Quilt Installation. Pg 59 - 60 Img.53 Photomontage of Tied Quilt Installation. Pg 61 - 62 Img.54 Photographs of Trapunto construction. Img.55 Trapunto Installation. Pg 63 - 64 Img.56 Interior space of Trapunto. Pg 65 - 66 Img.57 Construction process of Woven Structure. Fig.62 Groarke, C. (2012). Carmody Groarke. Available at: http://www.carmodygroarke.com/projects/exhibit/099.html. (Accessed: 4 March 2012). Fig.63 Groarke, C. (2012). Carmody Groarke. Available at: http://www.carmodygroarke.com/projects/exhibit/099.html. (Accessed: 4 March 2012).

Pg 71 - 72 Img.59 Photomontage of children. Pg 73 - 74 Img.60 Basting Installation in context. Img.61 Strip Piecing Installation in context. Img.62 Trapunto Installation in context. Img.63 Machine-quilting Stitch Installation in context. Pg 75 - 76 Img.64 Quilt Installation. Img.65 Foundation Paper Piecing. Img.66 Machine-quilting Installation. Pg 77 - 78 Img.67 Quilting Installation interior. Img.68 Machine-quilting Stitch Installation interior Img.69 Tied Quilting Installation interior Img.70 Foundation Paper Piecing Installation interior.

IMAGE REFERENCE

Pg 53 - 54 Img.43 Photographs of Quilting process. Img.44 Quilting 3D visualisation. Img.45 Elevation drawing of Quilting Installation

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Ballance Emily