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Ìàêñèì ÁÅËÎÓÑÅÍÊÎ

Èèñóñ èç Íàçàðåòà: åâðåéñêèé Ìåññèÿ

Êèåâ «Àçèìóò-Óêðàèíà» 2012


ÓÄÊ 27-247-273 ÁÁÊ 26.37-2 Á43

Áåëîóñåíêî Ì.Â. Á43

Èèñóñ èç Íàçàðåòà: åâðåéñêèé Ìåññèÿ. – Ê.: «Àçèìóò-Óêðàèíà». – 2012. – 440 ñ. + èëë. ISBN 978-966-1541-32-9

Êíèãà ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïîñòðî÷íûé êîììåíòàðèé íà ÷åòûðå êàíîíè÷åñêèå Åâàíãåëèÿ, â êîòîðîì íîâîçàâåòíûå ñîáûòèÿ ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ èñòîðèè, ïîëèòèêè, òðàäèöèé è ðåëèãèîçíîãî êóëüòà åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà (516 ã. äî í. ý. – 70 ã. í. ý.).  êíèãå ñäåëàíà ïîïûòêà íà îñíîâå ðåçóëüòàòîâ ñîâðåìåííûõ áèáëåéñêèõ è íîâîçàâåòíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïîêàçàòü, ÷òî Èèñóñ èç Íàçàðåòà áûë îðãàíè÷åñêîé ÷àñòüþ åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà, æèë è äåéñòâîâàë â ðàìêàõ ñóùåñòâîâàâøåé ðåëèãèîçíîé òðàäèöèè – Óñòíîé Òîðû – è íèêîãäà íå îòâåðãàë íè ñîâðåìåííîãî åìó èóäàèçìà, íè åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà, íè Çàêîíà Ìîèñååâà. ÁÁÊ 26.37-2

 îôîðìëåíèè îáëîæêè èñïîëüçîâàí ôðàãìåíò êàðòèíû Ã. Ñåìèðàäñêîãî «Õðèñòîñ ó Ìàðôû è Ìàðèè»

ISBN 978-966-1541-32-9

© Áåëîóñåíêî Ì.Â., 2012 © Õóä. îôîðìëåíèå «Àçèìóò-Óêðàèíà», 2012


ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ

Ïðåäèñëîâèå. È.À. Êîçëîâñêèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Îò àâòîðà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Êîììåíòàðèé: Åâàíãåëèå îò Ìàòôåÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Åâàíãåëèå îò Ìàðêà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

157

Åâàíãåëèå îò Ëóêè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

217

Åâàíãåëèå îò Èîàííà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

343

Ãëîññàðèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

397

Ñïèñîê èñïîëüçîâàííîé ëèòåðàòóðû . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

414

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ÏÐÅÄÈÑËÎÂÈÅ

Êíèãà, ïðåäëàãàåìàÿ íà ñóä ÷èòàòåëÿ, ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé êîììåíòàðèè íà òåêñòû Åâàíãåëèé êàê âàæíåéøåé ÷àñòè íîâîçàâåòíîãî êàíîíè÷åñêîãî òåêñòà. Íîâîçàâåòíûé êàíîí, ïðèíÿòûé â áîëüøèíñòâå õðèñòèàíñêèõ öåðêâåé, âêëþ÷àåò ÷åòûðå Åâàíãåëèÿ – îò Ìàòôåÿ, îò Ìàðêà, îò Ëóêè è îò Èîàííà, ïîñâÿùåííûå îïèñàíèþ çåìíîé æèçíè, ó÷åíèþ, ñìåðòè è âîñêðåñåíèþ Èèñóñà Õðèñòà. Ãðå÷åñêîå ñëîâî «åâàíãåëèå» òðàäèöèîííî ïåðåâîäèòñÿ êàê «áëàãîâåñòèå». Îòåö Àëåêñàíäð Ìåíü óêàçûâàë íà òî, ÷òî â àíòè÷íîì ñëîâîóïîòðåáëåíèè òåðìèí «åâàíãåëèå» îçíà÷àë ïðîâîçãëàøåíèå êàêîé-ëèáî îòðàäíîé íîâîñòè (íàïðèìåð, ñîîáùåíèå î ïîáåäå), òîðæåñòâî â ÷åñòü ýòîé íîâîñòè èëè íàãðàäó, êîòîðóþ ïîëó÷àë âåñòíèê ðàäîñòè. Êðîìå òîãî, ìîæíî âñïîìíèòü, ÷òî ñëîâî «àíãåë» ïåðåâîäèòñÿ êàê «âåñòíèê». Ïðè ýòîì â ñëîâàõ ñàìîãî Õðèñòà, Åãî àïîñòîëîâ ïîä ñëîâîì «åâàíãåëèå» âîâñå íå ïîäðàçóìåâàëàñü êàêàÿ-òî îïðåäåëåííàÿ êíèãà (âåäü ñàì Õðèñòîñ íå ïèñàë Ñâîåãî ó÷åíèÿ, à ïåðåäàâàë åãî èçóñòíî), êàê ýòî äîâîëüíî ÷àñòî ïîíèìàåòñÿ â ñîâðåìåííîì ìèðå. Åâàíãåëèå äëÿ Õðèñòà è àïîñòîëîâ áûëî íå ÷åì èíûì, êàê ñàìîé áëàãîé âåñòüþ, åå ïðîïîâåäüþ, à òàêæå ñîäåðæàíèåì ýòîé áëàãîé âåñòè, ïðîâîçãëàøàåìîé æèâûì Ñëîâîì Èñòèíû, à âîâñå íå íàïèñàííûì òåêñòîì. Óïîòðåáëåíèå ñëîâà «åâàíãåëèå» â îòíîøåíèè òåêñòà îòíîñèòñÿ òîëüêî êî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå ²² ñòîëåòèÿ í. ý. À ïîñêîëüêó ñàìî ýòî áëàãîâåñòèå âîñõîäèëî ê îäíîìó èç àïîñòîëîâ, òî è ñàìè òåêñòû ïîëó÷èëè â íàçâàíèè ñïåöèôè÷åñêîå äîïîëíåíèå: «åâàíãåëèå îò Ìàòôåÿ», «åâàíãåëèå îò Ìàðêà», «åâàíãåëèå îò Ëóêè», «åâàí4


ãåëèå îò Èîàííà». Èíûìè ñëîâàìè, åâàíãåëèå – ýòî áëàãàÿ âåñòü, ïåðåäàííàÿ Ìàòôååì, Ìàðêîì, Ëóêîé, Èîàííîì. Êðîìå Åâàíãåëèé, êîòîðûå ñòàëè êàíîíè÷åñêèìè, – îò Ìàòôåÿ, Ìàðêà, Ëóêè è Èîàííà, – ñóùåñòâîâàëè è äðóãèå ðàññêàçû îá Èèñóñå, Åãî äåëàõ, ñëîâàõ è ó÷åíèêàõ, îäíàêî ôîðìèðóþùàÿñÿ õðèñòèàíñêàÿ öåðêîâü â Ðèìñêîé èìïåðèè ïðèçíàëà òîëüêî ýòè ÷åòûðå â êà÷åñòâå ïîäëèííîãî âûðàæåíèÿ àïîñòîëüñêîãî áëàãîâåñòèÿ. Íàèáîëåå ðàííèå ïèñüìåííûå ñâèäåòåëüñòâà èìåííî îá ýòèõ ÷åòûðåõ êàê î ñâÿùåííûõ êíèãàõ, ïðèíÿòûõ öåðêîâüþ, âîñõîäÿò êî ²² â., à îêîí÷àòåëüíàÿ ôèêñàöèÿ èõ êàê êàíîíè÷åñêèõ áûëà îñóùåñòâëåíà ê IV â. í. ý. Åâàíãåëèÿ ïèñàëèñü íå â îäíî÷àñüå. Ïðîøëî ìíîãî âðåìåíè, ïðåæäå ÷åì ýòè òåêñòû ïîëó÷èëè çíàêîìûé íàì âèä è ñîäåðæàíèå. Êàæäûé åâàíãåëèñò ïèñàë äëÿ ñâîåé àóäèòîðèè, â îïðåäåëåííîå âðåìÿ, è ïîòîìó öåëü è ôîðìû êàæäîãî èç íèõ áûëè îáóñëîâëåíû ìíîæåñòâîì êîíêðåòíûõ ñîöèàëüíûõ è èñòîðè÷åñêèõ ôàêòîðîâ. Ïîëàãàÿñü íà ñâîþ ïàìÿòü, íà çàïèñè, íà âîñïîìèíàíèÿ æèâûõ î÷åâèäöåâ, àïîñòîëû ïîñòåïåííî ñîñòàâëÿëè ñâîè Åâàíãåëèÿ. Ìèð Åâàíãåëèé ìíîãîëèê, êàê ìíîãîëèê è èõ àäðåñàò. Åâàíãåëèñòû îáðàùàëèñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ê ÷åòûðåì êóëüòóðíûì àðåàëàì: èóäåéñêîìó, âîñòî÷íîýëëèíèñòè÷åñêîìó, ãðå÷åñêîìó è ðèìñêîìó. Ýòî áûëè è Ïàëåñòèíà, è äèàñïîðà, Ìàëàÿ Àçèÿ è Ñèðèÿ, Åãèïåò è Ðèì. Êàæäîå Åâàíãåëèå íåñåò íà ñåáå îòïå÷àòîê àâòîðà, ýïîõè, àäðåñàòà, êóëüòóðíîãî, ðåëèãèîçíîãî è èíûõ êîíòåêñòîâ, â êîòîðûõ ñîçäàâàëèñü ýòè ïèñàíèÿ. Âåäü ìèð, êîòîðîìó ïðåäñòîÿëî óñëûøàòü åâàíãåëüñêóþ ïðîïîâåäü, èìåë áîãàòîå êóëüòóðíîå íàñëåäèå. Âìåñòå ñ òåì íå ñëåäóåò çàáûâàòü, ÷òî ñàìè ýòè òåêñòû îñíîâàíû íà ïðåäàíèÿõ ñàìîãî ðàííåãî ïåðèîäà, ïåðèîäà çåìíîé æèçíè Õðèñòà è áëèæàéøèõ ê íåé ãîäîâ, òåõ ãîäîâ â èñòîðèè Èåðóñàëèìñêîé öåðêâè, êîòîðûå ïðåäøåñòâîâàëè ìèññèè êàê ñðåäè ÿçû÷íèêîâ, òàê è ñðåäè èóäååâ äèàñïîðû. À, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû ïðàâèëüíî, íàèáîëåå ïîëíî, öåëîñòíî, îáúåìíî è àäåêâàòíî ïîíÿòü ñîäåðæàíèå Åâàíãåëèé, èõ ëèíãâèñòè÷åñêèå îñîáåííîñòè, ñïåöèôèêó êóëüòóðíîé, ðåëèãèîçíîé ñèòóàöèè, îòðàæåííîé â åâàíãåëüñêîì òåêñòå, íþàíñàõ è ïîäðîáíîñòÿõ æèçíåííîãî ïóòè Õðèñòà è àïîñòîëîâ, ãëóáîêèé ñèìâî5


ëèçì òåêñòà, ðå÷åíèé, ïðèò÷, ìàëî ïðîñòî ÷èòàòü èõ ñîâðåìåííûì ãëàçîì è ïîíèìàòü òàê, êàê íàì ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ ñ âûñîòû ïðîøåäøèõ âåêîâ. Çà÷àñòóþ òàêîå, ñêîëüçÿùåå ïî ïîâåðõíîñòè ïîíèìàíèå îñòàâëÿåò çà ðàìêàìè öåëûå ïëàñòû ñìûñëîâ, ñîäåðæàùèõñÿ â ýòîì âåëèêîì áëàãîâåñòèè. Êîììåíòàðèè ê Åâàíãåëèÿì ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ðàíî, è ýòî áûëè ðàçìûøëåíèÿ Îòöîâ Öåðêâè. Ïðåêðàñíî èçâåñòíû ðàííèå êîììåíòàðèè áëàæ. Àâãóñòèíà, ñâ. Àôàíàñèÿ Âåëèêîãî, ñâ. Ãðèãîðèÿ Âåëèêîãî, ïðåï. Åôðåìà Ñèðèíà, áëàæ. Èåðîíèìà Ñòðèäîíñêîãî, ñâ. Èëàðèÿ Ïèêòàâèéñêîãî, ñâ. Èîàííà Çëàòîóñòà, ñâ. Êèðèëëà Àëåêñàíäðèéñêîãî è äðóãèõ Îòöîâ. Âïîñëåäñòâèè ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ ìíîæåñòâî êîììåíòàðèåâ, ïðåñëåäóþùèõ ðàçíûå öåëè è èñïîëüçóþùèõ ðàçëè÷íóþ ìåòîäèêó òîëêîâàíèÿ â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ðåëèãèîçíîé òðàäèöèè, öåëåé êîììåíòèðîâàíèÿ, ïîëèòè÷åñêîé è ñîöèàëüíîé îáñòàíîâêè. Ïîçæå, ñ íà÷àëîì Íîâîãî âðåìåíè, â èñòîðèè èçó÷åíèÿ è êîììåíòèðîâàíèÿ íîâîçàâåòíûõ òåêñòîâ ìû âñòðå÷àåì ìíîæåñòâî òðóäîâ, ïîñâÿùåííûõ êóëüòóðíî-èñòîðè÷åñêîé, ðåëèãèîçíîé ñèòóàöèè òîé ýïîõè, ò.å. ïîïûòêå âïèñàòü Åâàíãåëèÿ â èñòîðè÷åñêèé êîíòåêñò òîãî âðåìåíè, êîãäà îíè áûëè íàïèñàíû, à èìåííî – â ýïîõó èñòîðèè Èçðàèëÿ ìåæäó âîçâðàùåíèåì åâðååâ èç âàâèëîíñêîãî ïëåíà è ðàçðóøåíèåì Âòîðîãî Õðàìà ðèìñêèìè ëåãèîíàìè Òèòà è Âåñïàñèàíà. Ðå÷ü èäåò î êðàéíå âàæíûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ, òàêèõ, êàê, íàïðèìåð, ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûé òðóä Õ. Øòðàêà è Ï. Áèëëåðáåêà «Êîììåíòàðèé ê íîâîìó Çàâåòó èç Òàëìóäà è Ìèäðàøåé», âûïóùåííûé â íà÷àëå ÕÕ â., ãäå Åâàíãåëèÿ ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ â êîíòåêñòå èóäåéñêîé äóõîâíî-ðåëèãèîçíîé òðàäèöèè ýëëèíèñòè÷åñêîé ýïîõè, òî åñòü íàèáîëåå î÷åâèäíîãî èñòî÷íèêà, èç êîòîðîãî âûðîñëà åâàíãåëüñêàÿ òðàäèöèÿ è áåç ïîíèìàíèÿ êîòîðîé ïðàêòè÷åñêè íåâîçìîæíî ïðàâèëüíîå âèäåíèå ìíîãîîáðàçèÿ ñìûñëîâ ýòîãî íåïðîñòîãî, ìíîãîìåðíîãî, ìíîãîóðîâíåãî òåêñòà. Òàêîé ïîäõîä ÷ðåçâû÷àéíî àêòóàëåí è ïîëåçåí, òàê êàê îòêðûâàåò âîçìîæíîñòè äëÿ îáúåêòèâíîãî è öåëîñòíîãî ïîíèìàíèÿ ñîäåðæàíèÿ åâàíãåëüñêèõ òåêñòîâ, à áåç íåãî ïîíèìàíèå èõ ñìûñëà è çíà÷åíèÿ ìîæåò áûòü íåïîëíûì, à ÷àñòî è ïðåâðàòíûì. 6


Èìåííî òàêóþ çàäà÷ó è ïðåñëåäóåò àâòîð äàííîé ðàáîòû: óâèäåòü â Èèñóñå Åâàíãåëèé íå ïðîñòî óíèâåðñàëüíîãî Õðèñòà, Õðèñòà âñåõ íàðîäîâ, à ðåàëüíîãî, æèâîãî ÷åëîâåêà, ïðèíåñøåãî áëàãóþ âåñòü ìèðó, îäíàêî ðîäèâøåãîñÿ â êîíêðåòíîì ìåñòå è â êîíêðåòíîå âðåìÿ – â Èçðàèëå ïåðåä ðàçðóøåíèåì Âòîðîãî Õðàìà, áûâøåãî ÷àñòüþ åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà, ãîâîðèâøåãî íà èâðèòå, ïðîïîâåäîâàâøåãî â ñèíàãîãàõ è èåðóñàëèìñêîì Õðàìå, íîñèâøåãî åâðåéñêóþ îäåæäó. È ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïîíÿòíî, ÷òî ïåðåä íàìè íå ïðîñòî êîììåíòàðèé, ýòî äîñòàòî÷íî ãëóáîêèé àíàëèç ñìûñëîâûõ íþàíñîâ åâàíãåëüñêîãî òåêñòà: ðåëèãèîçíûõ, êóëüòóðíûõ, ÿçûêîâûõ, íàöèîíàëüíûõ, ñèìâîëè÷åñêèõ è ïîâñåäíåâíûõ. Êíèãà íàïèñàíà äîñòóïíûì è ïîíÿòíûì ÿçûêîì, íî âìåñòå ñ òåì íå óïðîùàåò òåìó, à ðàñêðûâàåò åå íà õîðîøåì, êà÷åñòâåííîì íàó÷íîì óðîâíå. Êàê çàêîí÷åííîå öåëîñòíîå ïðîèçâåäåíèå, áóäåò èíòåðåñíà è ïîëåçíà âñåì, êòî èíòåðåñóåòñÿ èñòîðèåé õðèñòèàíñòâà è èóäàèçìà, è, íàäåþñü, ïîñëóæèò óêðåïëåíèþ âçàèìîïîíèìàíèÿ ìåæäó ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿìè ðàçíûõ ðåëèãèé. È.À. ÊÎÇËÎÂÑÊÈÉ, ïðåçèäåíò Öåíòðà ðåëèãèîâåä÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé è ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ äóõîâíûõ îòíîøåíèé ã. Äîíåöê Ìàðò 2012 ã.

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ÎÒ ÀÂÒÎÐÀ

Ìíîãî ñòîëåòèé ïîäðÿä õðèñòèàíå ñ÷èòàëè, ÷òî îñíîâàòåëü èõ ðåëèãèè ðàçîðâàë ñâÿçü ñ åâðåéñêèì íàðîäîì, îòâåðã óñòàðåâøèé è îáâåòøàâøèé Çàêîí, Òîðó, äàííóþ Áîãîì Ìîèñåþ íà ãîðå Ñèíàé, ñî âñåìè ïðàçäíèêàìè, æåðòâàìè è ïèùåâûìè îãðàíè÷åíèÿìè è ñîçäàë, â ïðîòèâîâåñ ñóõîìó çàêîííè÷åñòâó åâðåéñêèõ ó÷èòåëåé, íîâóþ ðåëèãèþ, ðåëèãèþ ëþáâè è ìèëîñåðäèÿ, íå ñêîâàííóþ âíåøíèìè îáðÿäàìè. Ýòî îòðàæàëîñü íà òîëêîâàíèè Åâàíãåëèé, èíòåðïðåòàöèè ñëîâ è äåéñòâèé Èèñóñà, â êîòîðûõ äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ íå ïðèíèìàëè âî âíèìàíèå åâðåéñêèé ðåëèãèîçíûé, ýêîíîìè÷åñêèé, ïîëèòè÷åñêèé, áûòîâîé êîíòåêñò ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà. Òåïåðü ÿñíî, ÷òî ýòî áûëà ñåðüåçíàÿ îøèáêà. Çàïàäíàÿ áèáëåèñòèêà, ïðîéäÿ òðóäíûé ïóòü èçó÷åíèÿ åâðåéñêèõ êîðíåé õðèñòèàíñòâà è ïîèñêà «èñòîðè÷åñêîãî Èèñóñà», êîòîðîãî îíà íå ñòîëüêî èñêàëà, ñêîëüêî êîíñòðóèðîâàëà â ïðîòèâîâåñ Õðèñòó öåðêâè, ê êîíöó ÕÕ – íà÷àëó ÕÕI âåêà ïðèøëà ê ÿñíîìó âûâîäó: îòîðâàòü Èèñóñà îò åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà è åãî èñòîðèè, ïëîòü îò ïëîòè êîòîðûõ îí áûë, íåâîçìîæíî. Èçâåñòíûé àíãëèéñêèé èññëåäîâàòåëü Ð. Áîêõåì â êíèãå «Åâðåéñêèé ìèð Íîâîãî Çàâåòà» âåðíî îáîáùèë âçãëÿäû ìíîæåñòâà ñóùåñòâóþùèõ ñåãîäíÿ øêîë è òå÷åíèé áèáëåèñòèêè: «Áîëüøèíñòâî èññëåäîâàòåëåé Íîâîãî Çàâåòà ñîãëàñèëèñü áû ñåé÷àñ, ÷òî òåêñòû Íîâîãî Çàâåòà âñåöåëî ïðèíàäëåæàò åâðåéñêîìó ìèðó ñâîåãî âðåìåíè. Íàñêîëüêî áû íè áûëè ñåðüåçíûìè êîíôëèêòû ñ äðóãèìè åâðåéñêèìè ãðóïïàìè, ýòè êîíôëèêòû èìåëè ìåñòî â ðàìêàõ ñàìîãî åâðåéñêîãî ìèðà. Äàæå ðàáîòû àâòîðîâ Íîâîãî Çàâåòà, àäðåñîâàííûå ÿçû÷íèêàì, íå ñîáëþäàþùèì Òîðó, âñå æå âðàùàþòñÿ âíóòðè åâðåéñêîãî ìèðà èäåé. Èõ Áîã – íåñîìíåííî Áîã Èçðàèëÿ è äëÿ íèõ ñàìî ñîáîé ðàçóìååòñÿ, ÷òî åâðåéñêèå Ïèñàíèÿ ïðèíàäëåæàò èì. Èèñóñ äëÿ íèõ – Ìåññèÿ 8


Èçðàèëÿ è Ìåññèÿ äëÿ âñåõ íàðîäîâ òîëüêî ïîòîìó, ÷òî îí – Ìåññèÿ Èçðàèëÿ» [82, ð.1]. Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, ðóññêîÿçû÷íàÿ àóäèòîðèÿ ñåãîäíÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå èìååò âîçìîæíîñòè ïîçíàêîìèòüñÿ ñ ëèòåðàòóðîé, îòðàæàþùåé ðåçóëüòàò ðàáîòû ñïåöèàëèñòîâ èç ðàçíûõ ñòðàí, âåðóþùèõ, àãíîñòèêîâ è àòåèñòîâ, â îáëàñòè èññëåäîâàíèÿ åâðåéñêèõ êîðíåé õðèñòèàíñòâà (Jewish Roots of Christianity). Ó íàñ íîâîçàâåòíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ íå ïîëüçóþòñÿ ïîïóëÿðíîñòüþ ó èçäàòåëüñòâ è ñïðîñîì ó ÷èòàòåëåé, â îòëè÷èå îò ñòðàí, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ çà ãðàíèöàìè áûâøåãî ÑÑÑÐ.  òîì ÷èñëå çäåñü íåèçâåñòíû òàêèå êîììåíòàðèè íà Åâàíãåëèÿ èç åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè, êàê «Ñèíîïòè÷åñêèå åâàíãåëèÿ: Ââåäåíèå è êîììåíòàðèè» Ê. Ìîíòåôèîðå, «Ðàââèíñêèå êîììåíòàðèè íà Íîâûé Çàâåò. Åâàíãåëèÿ îò Ìàòôåÿ, Ìàðêà è Ëóêè» Ñ.Ò. Ëàêñà, ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûé òðóä Õ. Øòðàêà è Ï. Áèëëåðáåêà «Êîììåíòàðèé ê íîâîìó Çàâåòó èç Òàëìóäà è Ìèäðàøåé». Èçäàííûé ëèøü íåáîëüøèì òèðàæîì «Êîììåíòàðèé íà Åâðåéñêèé Íîâûé Çàâåò» ìåññèàíñêîãî èóäåÿ Ä. Ñòåðíà íå ìîæåò èñïðàâèòü ýòó ñèòóàöèþ, à êíèãà À. Ýäåðøàéìà «Æèçíü è âðåìÿ Èèñóñà Ìåññèè», ïîÿâèâøàÿñÿ íà ðóññêîì ÿçûêå â êîíöå XIX – íà÷àëå ÕÕ âåêà, ïðî÷íî çàáûòà*. Ïîýòîìó öåëü äàííîé ðàáîòû ñîñòîèò â òîì, ÷òîáû, âî-ïåðâûõ, ïîçíàêîìèòü ðóññêîÿçû÷íîãî ÷èòàòåëÿ ñ ðåçóëüòàòàìè èçó÷åíèÿ åâðåéñêèõ êîðíåé õðèñòèàíñòâà â ôîðìå êîìïëåêñíîãî, ðàçâåðíóòîãî êîììåíòàðèÿ íà Åâàíãåëèÿ è, âî-âòîðûõ, ïîêàçàòü, ÷òî áåç çíàíèÿ åâðåéñêîé ðåëèãèîçíîé òðàäèöèè (Óñòíîé Òîðû) è ëèòåðàòóðû, ñîõðàíèâøåé èíôîðìàöèþ î ìíîãèõ ðåàëüíûõ ñîáûòèÿõ è *

Èñòîðèÿ êîììåíòèðîâàíèÿ Åâàíãåëèé ñ åâðåéñêîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ â Åâðîïå è Àìåðèêå íàñ÷èòûâàåò óæå ñîòíè ëåò, îäíèì èç ðîäîíà÷àëüíèêîâ ýòîãî íàïðàâëåíèÿ áèáëåèñòèêè ñ÷èòàåòñÿ àíãëèêàíñêèé ñâÿùåííèê Äæîí Ëÿéòôóò, àâòîð «Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae» (XVII â.). Òîëêîâàÿ Áèáëèÿ ïîä ðåä. À.Ï. Ëîïóõèíà, ñ íàøåé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ, õîòÿ è èñïîëüçóåò ÷àñòü åâðåéñêèõ ïîíÿòèé, íî äàëåêî íå â òîé ñòåïåíè, êàê ýòî íåîáõîäèìî, è ïîòîìó íå äîòÿãèâàåò äî ëó÷øèõ îáðàçöîâ çàðóáåæíîé ëèòåðàòóðû, ïîñâÿùåííûõ åâðåéñêèì êîðíÿì õðèñòèàíñòâà. Åâðåéñêóþ òðàäèöèþ êîììåíòàðèé Ëîïóõèíà ïðèâëåêàåò âî ìíîãîì èç êíèã À. Ýäåðøàéìà, êîòîðûå â ïîëíîé ìåðå áûëè èñïîëüçîâàíû àâòîðîì íàñòîÿùåé ðàáîòû (Çäåñü è äàëåå – ïðèì. àâò.). 9


îñîáåííîñòÿõ êóëüòóðíî-ðåëèãèîçíîãî êîíòåêñòà Èçðàèëÿ ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà, áåç çíàíèÿ åâðåéñêîãî ÿçûêà, áîãîñëóæåíèÿ â èåðóñàëèìñêîì Õðàìå, ïðàçäíèêîâ åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà, åãî êàëåíäàðÿ, îñîáåííîñòåé îäåæäû è ó÷åáíûõ çàâåäåíèé, ñîöèàëüíîé è ïîëèòè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè ïåðåä ðàçðóøåíèåì Õðàìà, ïîíÿòü äî êîíöà òî, ÷òî Èèñóñ õîòåë äîíåñòè è ê ÷åìó ïðèçûâàë, è äàæå òî, ê ÷åìó ìîã, à ê ÷åìó íå ìîã ïðèçûâàòü, íåâîçìîæíî. Ïðè ñîñòàâëåíèè êîììåíòàðèÿ àâòîð ñòàâèë ïåðåä ñîáîé ñëåäóþùèå çàäà÷è: ¾ Ïîêàçàòü, ÷òî Èèñóñ – åâðåé, ÷åðåç îïèñàíèå åãî âêëþ÷åííîñòè â åâðåéñêèé ðåëèãèîçíûé, ÿçûêîâûé, ýêîíîìè÷åñêèé, ïîëèòè÷åñêèé êîíòåêñò ñâîåãî âðåìåíè. ¾ Äàòü îáùèå ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î Âåòõîçàâåòíîì è îò÷àñòè – ñîâðåìåííîì ðàââèíñêîì èóäàèçìå. ¾ Ïðîÿñíèòü ðÿä ñïîðíûõ âîïðîñîâ, êîòîðûå âîçíèêàþò ó âåðóþùèõ è èññëåäîâàòåëåé Åâàíãåëèé, íà êîòîðûå ëåãêî ìîæíî äàòü îòâåò, èñõîäÿ èç åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè (Öàðñòâî Íåáåñíîå, ïðè÷àñòèå òåëà è êðîâè Ìåññèè, ïðè÷àñòíîñòü ôàðèñååâ ê àðåñòó è êàçíè Èèñóñà, âðåìåííîé ãîðèçîíò åãî ïðîðî÷åñòâ è äð.) ¾ Âíåñòè ïîñèëüíûé âêëàä â áîðüáó ñ õðèñòèàíñêèì àíòèñåìèòèçìîì. Âñå ýòè çàäà÷è â êîììåíòàðèè, êàê óâèäèò âíèìàòåëüíûé ÷èòàòåëü, âûïîëíåíû è ïåðåä íàìè âîçíèêàåò îáðàç æèâîãî ÷åëîâåêà, ìóäðåöà, åâðåÿ Èèñóñà èç Íàçàðåòà, êîòîðûé, ïðåòåíäóÿ íà òî, ÷òîáû áûòü Ìåññèåé, Ìàøèàõîì, Ïîìàçàííûì Öàðåì åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà, ãîâîðèë î ñâîåì ìåññèàíñòâå íà åâðåéñêîì ÿçûêå, èâðèòå, êîòîðûì ïîçæå áûëè íàïèñàíû Ìèøíà è Òàëìóäû, à íå íà ãðå÷åñêîì êîéíå èëè àðàìåéñêîì ÿçûêå, êàê äîëãî ñ÷èòàëîñü, èñïîëüçîâàë åâðåéñêóþ òðàäèöèþ, Óñòíóþ Òîðó, êîòîðàÿ äëÿ èóäàèçìà òàê æå âàæíà, êàê è ïèñàíèÿ Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà (Òàíàõà), â ïåðèîä ñâîåãî ñëóæåíèÿ âûñòóïàë êàê ðàââèí, ìóäðåö, ó÷èòåëü, ñîáèðàþùèé âîêðóã ñåáÿ ó÷åíèêîâ, êàê äåëàëè ìíîãèå åâðåéñêèå ìóäðåöû â åãî âðåìÿ, èñïîëüçîâàë âñå ìåòîäû òîëêîâàíèÿ Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà (Òàíàõà), êîòî10


ðûå çàôèêñèðîâàíû â åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè, èñïîëíÿë ïðàâèëà ôàðèñååâ, ðåãóëèðóþùèå æèçíü åâðåÿ, íå íàðóøèâ íè îäèí èç çàêîíîâ Ïèñüìåííîé è Óñòíîé Òîðû, íå îòìåíÿë Çàêîí, íî óòî÷íÿë åãî äóõîâíûé ñìûñë, ó÷èë òîé æå ýòèêå, ÷òî è äðóãèå ìóäðåöû, ó÷àñòâîâàë âî âñåõ ïðàçäíèêàõ, ïðåäïèñàííûõ Òîðîé, â ïðîïîâåäÿõ èñïîëüçîâàë ïðèåìû, ïðèñóùèå ìíîãèì äðóãèì ìóäðåöàì Èçðàèëÿ, íîñèë îäåæäó îðòîäîêñàëüíîãî èóäåÿ ñâîåãî âðåìåíè, ïîñåùàë ñèíàãîãè äëÿ ÷òåíèÿ Òîðû è ìîëèòâ, ÷èòàë â íèõ ïðîïîâåäè, ìîëèëñÿ ïî-åâðåéñêè, ïðîèçíîñèë áëàãîñëîâåíèÿ, ïðåäïèñàííûå Óñòíîé Òîðîé, ïðîïîâåäîâàë âñå èäåè ôàðèñååâ: ïîêàÿíèå, Öàðñòâî Íåáåñíîå, âñåîáùåå âîñêðåñåíèå, ïðèõîä Ìåññèè (Ìàøèàõà). Ýòî, êîíå÷íî, íå îçíà÷àåò, ÷òî Èèñóñ èç Íàçàðåòà – îðòîäîêñàëüíûé èóäåé ñîâðåìåííîãî òèïà, à õðèñòèàíñòâî – ïðîñòî ðàçíîâèäíîñòü ðàââèíñêîãî èóäàèçìà. Ìåæäó õðèñòèàíñòâîì è èóäàèçìîì Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà, Òàíàõà, åñòü êàê ïðååìñòâåííîñòü, òàê è ðàçëè÷èÿ, íî áåäà â òîì, ÷òî ðàçëè÷èÿ ïîä÷åðêèâàëèñü è óñèëèâàëèñü, à ïðååìñòâåííîñòü, ðîäñòâåííàÿ ñâÿçü ïðàêòè÷åñêè áûëà íå çàìå÷àåìà. Òàêîé ïîäõîä íå äàâàë âîçìîæíîñòè ïîíÿòü òåêñò Åâàíãåëèé ñ åäèíñòâåííî ïðàâèëüíîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ – êàê îðãàíè÷åñêóþ ÷àñòü è ïðîäóêò ìíîãîâåêîâîé ðåëèãèîçíîé, ïîëèòè÷åñêîé, ëèòåðàòóðíîé èñòîðèè Èçðàèëÿ è åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà.  öåëîì êíèãà, êîòîðóþ äåðæèò â ðóêàõ ÷èòàòåëü, ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïîäðîáíûé êîììåíòàðèé ÷åòûðåõ Åâàíãåëèé, ñäåëàííûé íà îñíîâå èçó÷åíèÿ ïàðàëëåëåé íîâîçàâåòíîìó òåêñòó â åâðåéñêîé ðåëèãèîçíîé ëèòåðàòóðå: Âàâèëîíñêîì è Èåðóñàëèìñêîì Òàëìóäàõ, ìèäðàøàõ, ñáîðíèêàõ ìîëèòâ, òîëêîâàíèÿõ ðàââèíîâ, ïåðåâîäàõ Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà íà àðàìåéñêèé ÿçûê (òàðãóìàõ), àïîêðèôàõ, íå âîøåäøèõ â êàíîí Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà, ïñåâäîýïèãðàôàõ (ñî÷èíåíèÿõ, ïîäïèñàííûõ èìåíàìè èçâåñòíûõ áèáëåéñêèõ ïåðñîíàæåé), òî åñòü âî âñåõ èñòî÷íèêàõ, â êîòîðûõ òàê èëè èíà÷å îòðàæåíà åâðåéñêàÿ óñòíàÿ òðàäèöèÿ (Óñòíàÿ Òîðà). Íàèáîëåå ðàííèé åå ñëîé çàôèêñèðîâàí â Ìèøíå – ïåðâîé è ñàìîé ðàííåé ÷àñòè Òàëìóäîâ (~ 200 ã. í.ý.), ñáîðíèêå ïîñòàíîâëåíèé, êîììåíòàðèåâ íà Ïèñàíèÿ ìóäðåöîâ-ôàðèñååâ, æèâøèõ äî, âî âðåìÿ è äâåñòè ëåò ñïóñòÿ ïîñëå 11


Èèñóñà, è, âîçìîæíî, â íåêîòîðûõ òàðãóìàõ. Ñåãîäíÿ Òàëìóäû è ìèäðàøè ñ÷èòàþòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íîé íàäåæíûì èñòî÷íèêîì ñâåäåíèé îá óñòíîé òðàäèöèè èçðàèëüñêîãî íàðîäà ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà.* Îñíîâó êîììåíòàðèÿ ñîñòàâèë ìàññèâ ðàáîò Èåðóñàëèìñêîé øêîëû ñèíîïòè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé (Jerusalem School of Synoptic Research), Èçðàèëü, Èåðóñàëèì. Îíà áûëà ñîçäàíà è âîçãëàâëÿëàñü ìíîãèå ãîäû àìåðèêàíñêèì ïðîòåñòàíòîì, ïðîôåññîðîì Ðîáåðòîì Ëèíäñååì (1917–1995) è îðòîäîêñàëüíûì èóäååì, ñïåöèàëèñòîì â îáëàñòè ðàííåãî õðèñòèàíñòâà, ïðîôåññîðîì Äàâèäîì Ôëþññåðîì (1917–2000). Øêîëà ñóùåñòâóåò â Èåðóñàëèìå óæå ìíîãî äåñÿòèëåòèé. Ñåãîäíÿ îíà ïðåäñòàâëåíà ñàéòîì Jerusalem Perspective Online: Exploring the Jewsh Background to the Life and Words of Jesus (www.jerusalemperspective.org). Íà÷àëî îñóùåñòâëÿåìûõ åå ñïåöèàëèñòàìè èññëåäîâàíèé áûëî ïîëîæåíî â ïÿòèäåñÿòûå ãîäû ÕÕ â., êîãäà Ð. Ëèíäñåé íà÷àë ïåðåâîä Åâàíãåëèé íà èâðèò. Ê åãî óäèâëåíèþ, òåêñò îò Ìàðêà, Ìàòôåÿ è îñîáåííî Ëóêè ïåðåâîäèëñÿ íà èâðèò áåç èçìåíåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðû ïðåäëîæåíèé: îêàçàëîñü, ÷òî ýòè Åâàíãåëèÿ â çíà÷èòåëüíîé ÷àñòè ñâîåé íàïèñàíû íà èâðèòå, èëè òî÷íåå èâðèòîãîâîðÿùèìè àâòîðàìè, à çàòåì ïîñëîâíî ïåðåâåäåíû íà ãðå÷åñêèé êîéíå. Äëÿ îáðàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå òðåáóåòñÿ ìåíÿòü ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ, è ýòîò ïîðÿäîê íà ãðå÷åñêîì òàêîâ, êàêîâ îí äîëæåí áûòü íà èâðèòå. Òàê áûëî ñäåëàíî îòêðûòèå, ñîãëàñíî êîòîðîìó â îñíîâå ãðå÷åñêèõ òåêñòîâ èçâåñòíûõ íàì Åâàíãåëèé ëåæèò åâðåéñêèé ïðàòåêñò. À çíà÷èò – åâðåéñêàÿ òðàäèöèÿ è åâðåéñêèé êîíòåêñò. À çíà÷èò, èçó÷àÿ ïîñëåäíèå, ìîæíî ëó÷øå ïîíÿòü ïåðâûé. Òàê ðîäèëàñü èäåÿ èññëåäîâàíèÿ åâðåéñêîãî ÿçûêà è åâðåéñêèõ òðàäèöèé ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà íå òîëüêî ñ öåëüþ ïåðåâîäà Íîâîãî Çàâåòà, íî è óòî÷íå*

Êàê ïîêàçàë Ä. Íüþñíåð, ñóùåñòâóåò ïðîáëåìà äàòèðîâêè òðàäèöèé, ïðèïèñûâàåìûõ ðàçíûì ìóäðåöàì â Òàëìóäàõ, ñì. íàïð. Inston-Brewer D. Review Article: The Use of Rabbinic Sources in Gospel Studies // Tyndale Bulletin. – ¹ 50. – 1999. – ð. 281–298. Îäíàêî ìû, âñëåä çà Èåðóñàëèìñêîé øêîëîé ñèíîïòè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé, èñõîäèì èç òîãî, ÷òî, áëàãîäàðÿ ñâîåìó ãëóáîêî áëàãîãîâåéíîìó îòíîøåíèþ ê òåêñòó Ïèñàíèÿ è ìíîãîâåêîâîé ñïîñîáíîñòè íàèçóñòü çàó÷èâàòü ìíåíèÿ è èíòåðïðåòàöèè, ðàââèíû ñìîãëè îòðàçèòü â ñâîåé ëèòåðàòóðå òðàäèöèè ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà. 12


íèÿ ñìûñëà ñëîâ è äåÿòåëüíîñòè Èèñóñà è åãî ó÷åíèêîâ. Èìåííî ýòî ïîçâîëèëî «ðàçãðûçòü» ìíîæåñòâî òðóäíûõ ìåñò â Åâàíãåëèÿõ è äàòü íîâûå èíòåðïðåòàöèè, áîëåå ãëóáîêèå, ÷åì ó äðóãèõ åâðîïåéñêèõ è àìåðèêàíñêèõ èññëåäîâàòåëåé. Ê Ëèíäñåþ è Ôëþññåðó ïðèñîåäèíèëèñü åäèíîìûøëåííèêè: Ä. Áèâèí, Ø. Ñàôðàé, Á. ßíã, Ì. Óèëñîí, Ä. Ïðàéîð, Ñ. Íîòëè è äð., ïîÿâèëàñü Èåðóñàëèìñêàÿ øêîëà, âûõîäèò æóðíàë «Èåðóñàëèìñêàÿ ïåðñïåêòèâà» (ñåé÷àñ â ýëåêòðîííîé ôîðìå). Âàæíûì îòëè÷èåì ýòîé øêîëû îò äðóãèõ èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèõ ïðîãðàìì è íàïðàâëåíèé áûëè ñîåäèíåíèå âåðóþùèõ èññëåäîâàòåëåé-õðèñòèàí è èóäååâ â îäíîì ïðîåêòå è èñêðåííÿÿ ëþáîâü âñåõ ó÷àñòíèêîâ ê åâðåéñêîìó íàðîäó è åãî òðàäèöèÿì. Êðîìå òîãî, ïðè ðàáîòå íàä êîììåíòàðèåì ïîìîùü îêàçàëè âàæíûå ðàáîòû ìåññèàíñêèõ èóäååâ Ä. Ôèøåðà, Ä. Ôðèäìàíà, À. Ôðóõòåíáàóìà, àíãëèêàíñêèõ èññëåäîâàòåëåé Ð. Áîêõåìà è áûâøåãî åïèñêîïà Äàðåìñêîãî Í.Ò. Ðàéòà, åâðåÿ-õðèñòèàíèíà À. Ýäåðøàéìà, ïðàâîñëàâíûõ ãåáðàèñòîâ, îäíîãî èç àâòîðîâ ñèíîäàëüíîãî ïåðåâîäà Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà Ä. Õâîëüñîíà, è íûíåøíåãî çàâåäóþùåãî êàôåäðîé áèáëåèñòèêè ÌÄÀ î. Ëåîíèäà Ãðèëèõåñà, à òàêæå êíèãè Ð. Ñàíòàëû, êàòîëè÷åñêîãî ïðîôåññîðà Á. Ïèòðè, åâðåéñêîãî èññëåäîâàòåëÿ Ä. Íüþñíåðà è äð. Àâòîð íå áûë çàêðûò íè îò êàêîé èíôîðìàöèè, ëèøü áû îíà ïîäðîáíî îïèñûâàëà îáû÷àè è âåðîâàíèÿ åâðååâ ýïîõè äî ðàçðóøåíèÿ Âòîðîãî Õðàìà. Åñòåñòâåííî, àâòîð ñ÷èòàë ñåáÿ ñâîáîäíûì â êîìïîíîâêå ìàòåðèàëà è âûâîäàõ, çà êîòîðûå íåñåò ïîëíóþ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü. Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû ÷èòàòåëþ, äàëåêîìó îò çíàíèÿ åâðåéñêîé èñòîðèè è èóäàèçìà, áûëî ëåã÷å îðèåíòèðîâàòüñÿ â ñëîæíîé òåðìèíîëîãèè è ïîíÿòèéíîì àïïàðàòå, â êîíöå êíèãè ïðèâåäåí äîñòàòî÷íî ïîäðîáíûé ãëîññàðèé, â êîòîðîì óïîð ñäåëàí íà îñîáåííîñòè èóäàèçìà ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà. Òàê êàê â ðàáîòå æèçíü, ñëîâà è äåëà Èèñóñà ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ êàê áû «ñî ñòîðîíû», ñî ñòîðîíû èñòîðèè è ëþäåé, êîòîðûå âñòðå÷àëèñü ñ íèì è âñòóïàëè â îáùåíèå, ïóñòü äàæå ñ÷èòàÿ åãî Ìåññèåé, Ìàøèàõîì, òî âåçäå â òåêñòå «îí», «åãî», «åìó» â îòíîøåíèè Èèñóñà ïèøåòñÿ ñ ìàëåíüêîé áóêâû, à âðåìåííàÿ øêàëà èìååò îáîçíà÷åíèå «í. ý.», «äî í. ý.», à íå «ïîñëå Ð.Õ.», «äî Ð.Õ.». 13


Öèòàòû èç Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà (Òàíàõà) è Åâàíãåëèé äàþòñÿ ïî òåêñòó Ñèíîäàëüíîãî ïåðåâîäà. Âñëåä çà Èåðóñàëèìñêîé øêîëîé ñèíîïòè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé, ìû èñõîäèì èç òîãî, ÷òî ó åâðååâ â Èçðàèëå ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà îñíîâíûì ðàçãîâîðíûì ÿçûêîì áûë èâðèò, à íå àðàìåéñêèé, êàê ÿñíî ïîêàçàë Ø. Ñàôðàé [340]. Òàêæå ìû èñõîäèì èç òîãî, ÷òî ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î «íåãðàìîòíûõ ãàëèëåéñêèõ ðûáàðÿõ» íå ñîîòâåòñòâóþò äåéñòâèòåëüíîñòè è åâðåè òîé ýïîõè êàê â Èóäåå, òàê è â Ãàëèëåå â çíà÷èòåëüíîé ñâîåé ìàññå óìåëè ÷èòàòü è çíàëè ñ äåòñòâà áîëüøèå ïîðöèè èëè âñå ïèñàíèå Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà (Òàíàõà) íàèçóñòü, ïîëüçîâàëèñü îáùåðàñïðîñòðàíåííûìè ìåòîäàìè åãî òîëêîâàíèÿ, ÷òî è îòðàçèëè òåêñòû Åâàíãåëèé. Áóêâà % èâðèòà â òåêñòå, ïðåæäå âñåãî íà ìåñòå àðòèêëÿ, ïåðåäàåòñÿ êàê ðóññêàÿ õ, ÷òîáû íå çàòðóäíÿòü ôîðìàòèðîâàíèå è ÷òåíèå, êîòîðîå è òàê ïåðåãðóæåíî íåîáû÷íîé òåðìèíîëîãèåé. Êíèãó íàäî ÷èòàòü, äåðæà â ðóêàõ Ñèíîäàëüíûé ïåðåâîä Åâàíãåëèé, òàê êàê ìû ïðèâîäèì â òåêñòå íå âñå íîâîçàâåòíûå ñòèõè, à òîëüêî òå, íà êîòîðûå äàåì êîììåíòàðèé, ïîýòîìó áåç ïîëíîãî òåêñòà ïîä ðóêîé ìîæåò íàðóøàòüñÿ öåëîñòíàÿ êàðòèíà. Ìàêñèì ÁÅËÎÓÑÅÍÊÎ ã. Äîíåöê Ìàðò 2012 ã.

ÏÐÈÍßÒÛÅ ÑÎÊÐÀÙÅÍÈß ÍÎÂÛÉ ÇÀÂÅÒ Åâàíãåëèå îò Ìàòôåÿ – Ìò. Åâàíãåëèå îò Ìàðêà – Ìê. Åâàíãåëèå îò Ëóêè – Ëê. Åâàíãåëèå îò Èîàííà – Èí. Äåÿíèÿ àïîñòîëîâ – Äåÿí. 14


ÂÅÒÕÈÉ ÇÀÂÅÒ (ÒÀÍÀÕ) Áûòèå – Áûò. Èñõîä – Èñõ. Ëåâèò – Ëåâ. ×èñëà – ×èñ. Âòîðîçàêîíèå – Âòîð. Êíèãà Èèñóñà Íàâèíà – Èèñ. Íàâ. Êíèãà Ñóäåé Èçðàèëåâûõ – Ñóä. Êíèãà Ðóôè – Ðóô. Ïåðâàÿ êíèãà Öàðñòâ – 1 Öàð. Âòîðàÿ êíèãà Öàðñòâ – 2 Öàð. Òðåòüÿ êíèãà Öàðñòâ – 3 Öàð. ×åòâåðòàÿ êíèãà Öàðñòâ – 4 Öàð. Ïåðâàÿ êíèãà Ïàðàëèïîìåíîí – 1 Ïàð. Âòîðàÿ Êíèãà Ïàðàëèïîìåíîí – 2 Ïàð. Ïåðâàÿ Êíèãà Åçäðû – 1 Åçä. Êíèãà Íååìèè – Íååì. Âòîðàÿ êíèãà Åçäðû – 2 Åçä. Êíèãà Òîâèòà – Òîâ. Êíèãà Èóäèôè – Èóäèôü. Êíèãà Åñôèðè – Åñô. Êíèãà Èîâà – Èîâ Ïñàëòèðü – Ïñ. Ïðèò÷è Ñîëîìîíà – Ïðèò. Ñîë. Êíèãà Åêêëåçèàñòà – Åêêë. Ïåñíü ïåñíåé Ñîëîìîíà – Ïåñí. Ïåñí. Êíèãà Ïðåìóäðîñòè Ñîëîìîíà – Ïðåì. Ñîë. Êíèãà Ïðåìóäðîñòè Èèñóñà, ñûíà Ñèðàõîâà – Ñèð. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Èñàéè – Èñ. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Èåðåìèè – Èåð. Ïëà÷ Èåðåìèè – Ïë. Èåð. Ïîñëàíèå Èåðåìèè – Ïîñë. Èåð. 15


Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Âàðóõà – Âàð. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Èåçåêèèëÿ – Èåç. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Äàíèèëà – Äàí. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Îñèè – Îñ. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Èîèëÿ – Èîèë. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Àìîñà – Àì. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Àâäèÿ – Àâä. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Èîíû – Èîí. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Ìèõåÿ – Ìèõ. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Íàóìà – Íàóì. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Àââàêóìà – Àââ. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Ñîôîíèè – Ñîô. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Àããåÿ – Àãã. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Çàõàðèè – Çàõ. Êíèãà ïðîðîêà Ìàëàõèè – Ìàë. Ïåðâàÿ êíèãà Ìàêêàâåéñêàÿ – 1 Ìàê. Âòîðàÿ êíèãà Ìàêêàâåéñêàÿ – 2 Ìàê. Òðåòüÿ êíèãà Ìàêêàâåéñêàÿ – 3 Ìàê. Òðåòüÿ êíèãà Åçäðû – 3 Åçä.

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ÊÎÌÌÅÍÒÀÐÈÉ

ÅÂÀÍÃÅËÈÅ ÎÒ ÌÀÒÔÅß


Ìàòôåé – Ìàòèòüÿõó, åâðåéñêîå èìÿ, îçíà÷àåò «äàð Áîãà», «äàð ßõâå». Åâàíãåëèå – íà ãðå÷åñêîì «áëàãàÿ âåñòü», íà èâðèòå – áåñîðà. Ïðîèñõîäèò îò ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî áàñàð, «ïëîòü», «òåëî». Ãëàãîë áàñàð áóêâàëüíî îçíà÷àåò «ïðèäàâàòü òåëó õîðîøóþ ôîðìó», «äåëàòü òó÷íûì, ïîëíûì».  ïåðåíîñíîì ñìûñëå îçíà÷àåò «ïðèíîñèòü, ïåðåäàâàòü ðàäîñòíîå èçâåñòèå».  êîíòåêñòå Íîâîãî Çàâåòà áàñàð îçíà÷àåò «íåñòè èçâåñòèå î òîì, ÷òî Ìåññèÿ (Ìàøèàõ) ïðèøåë â ìèð», «ñîîáùàòü, ÷òî Áîã ïðèñòóïèë ê ðåàëüíîìó èñêóïëåíèþ ìèðà». Ýòî ïîäòâåðæäàåòñÿ óïîòðåáëåíèåì ýòîãî èëè ðîäñòâåííûõ ñëîâ â Âåòõîì Çàâåòå (Òàíàõå): «ß âîçâåùàë [áèñèðòè] ïðàâäó Òâîþ â ñîáðàíèè âåëèêîì; ÿ íå âîçáðàíÿë óñòàì ìîèì: Òû, Ãîñïîäè, çíàåøü» (Ïñ. 39:10), «Ïîéòå Ãîñïîäó, áëàãîñëîâëÿéòå èìÿ Åãî, áëàãîâåñòâóéòå [áàñðó] ñî äíÿ íà äåíü ñïàñåíèå Åãî» (Ïñ. 95:2), «Êàê ïðåêðàñíû íà ãîðàõ íîãè áëàãîâåñòíèêà [ìåáàñåð], âîçâåùàþùåãî ìèð, áëàãîâåñòâóþùåãî [ìåáàñåð] ðàäîñòü, ïðîïîâåäóþùåãî ñïàñåíèå, ãîâîðÿùåãî Ñèîíó: «âîöàðèëñÿ Áîã òâîé!» (Èñ. 52). Ïîñëåäíÿÿ öèòàòà èç Èñàéè ïîä÷åðêèâàåò, ÷òî «áëàãîâåñòâîâàòü» – çíà÷èò ãîâîðèòü «âîöàðèëñÿ Áîã òâîé!», òî åñòü ÷òî Áîã íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ñòàë ïðàâèòü ìèðîì, ïðèøëî Öàðñòâî Íåáåñíîå (Ìò. 4:17). Ïðè ýòîì áëàãîâåñòíèê, ìåáàñåð, åâàíãåëèñò – ýòî íå òîëüêî íåêîòîðîå ëèöî, ïåðåäàþùåå âåñòü î ïðèõîäå Ìåññèè, íî è Ïðåäòå÷à (ïðåäøåñòâåííèê) Ìåññèè, à òàêæå è ñàì ÌåññèÿÌàøèàõ, îáðàùàþùèéñÿ ê ëþäÿì. Öåíòð òÿæåñòè áëàãîâåñòèÿ ïðèõîäèëñÿ íå íà ñîäåðæàíèå èçâåñòèÿ, òî åñòü êàê èìåííî ïðèäåò Ìåññèÿ, òàê êàê ïðèçíàêè åãî ïðèøåñòâèÿ îïèñûâàëè ïðîðîêè, à íà ñàì ôàêò îáúÿâëåíèÿ: âîò çäåñü è ñåé÷àñ, â òàêîì-òî ìåñòå ÿâèëñÿ Ìåññèÿ, âûõîäèòå âñòðå÷àòü [4, ñ. 116–117].

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Ãëàâà 1 Ðîäîñëîâèå Èèñóñà Õðèñòà, Ñûíà Äàâèäîâà, Ñûíà Àâðààìîâà. 2 Àâðààì ðîäèë Èñààêà; Èñààê ðîäèë Èàêîâà; Èàêîâ ðîäèë Èóäó è áðàòüåâ åãî; 3 Èóäà ðîäèë Ôàðåñà è Çàðó îò Ôàìàðè... 5 Ñàëìîí ðîäèë Âîîçà îò Ðàõàâû; Âîîç ðîäèë Îâèäà îò Ðóôè; Îâèä ðîäèë Èåññåÿ; 6 Èåññåé ðîäèë Äàâèäà öàðÿ; Äàâèä öàðü ðîäèë Ñîëîìîíà îò áûâøåé çà Óðèåþ; 7 Ñîëîìîí ðîäèë Ðîâîàìà... 11 Èîñèÿ ðîäèë Èîàêèìà; Èîàêèì ðîäèë Èåõîíèþ è áðàòüåâ åãî, ïåðåä ïåðåñåëåíèåì â Âàâèëîí. 12 Ïî ïåðåñåëåíèè æå â Âàâèëîí, Èåõîíèÿ ðîäèë Ñàëàôèèëÿ; Ñàëàôèèëü ðîäèë Çîðîâàâåëÿ; 13 Çîðîâàâåëü ðîäèë Àâèóäà... 16 Èàêîâ ðîäèë Èîñèôà, ìóæà Ìàðèè, îò êîòîðîé ðîäèëñÿ Èèñóñ, íàçûâàåìûé Õðèñòîñ. 1

Ðîäîñëîâíàÿ Èèñóñà ó Ìàòôåÿ ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ïîêàçàòü, ÷òî Èèñóñ – îáåùàííûé Èçðàèëþ Ìåññèÿ Äàâèäîâ (Ìàøèàõ). Ýòà ãåíåàëîãèÿ ïîñòðîåíà íà îñíîâå 1–9-é ãëàâ 1-é Êíèãè Ïàðàëèïîìåíîí, ãäå ÷åðåç ïåðå÷èñëåíèå ðîäîñëîâíûõ ñæàòî ðàññêàçàíà âñÿ èñòîðèÿ Èçðàèëÿ êàê èñòîðèÿ ïîäãîòîâêè ïðèõîäà Ìåññèè. Îíà íà÷èíàåòñÿ ñ Àâðààìà, ïðîõîäèò ÷åðåç îñòàëüíûõ ïàòðèàðõîâ, ïîòîì – ÷åðåç åãèïåòñêèé ïåðèîä, ïóñòûíþ è äàðîâàíèå Çàêîíà (Òîðû), ïåðèîä ñóäåé, öàðåé, èçãíàíèå â Âàâèëîí, âîçâðàùåíèå è ñòðîèòåëüñòâî Âòîðîãî Õðàìà è çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ Èèñóñîì. Ìåññèàíñêèé õàðàêòåð ãåíåàëîãèè ïîä÷åðêèâàåòñÿ òåì, ÷òî â íåé òîëüêî äâà ÷åëîâåêà ñ òèòóëàìè – öàðü Äàâèä è Èèñóñ-Ìåññèÿ. Îíà ðàçáèòà íà òðè ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòè ïî ÷åòûðíàäöàòü ïîêîëåíèé. Öàðü Äàâèä ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïåðåõîäîì îò ïåðâîé ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòè êî âòîðîé, à äåïîðòàöèÿ (ïåðåñåëåíèå) â Âàâèëîí – ïåðåõîä îò âòîðîé ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòè ê òðåòüåé. Ïåðâàÿ ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü – îò èçáðàíèÿ Àâðààìà äî Äàâèäà – ïðèõîä Èçðàèëÿ ê çåíèòó â ñëóæåíèè öàðÿ Äàâèäà, çåíèò öàðñòâà, âòîðàÿ ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü – çàêàò öàðñòâà, åãî óïàäîê. Òðåòüÿ – ñ Èèñóñîì, åå ïèê – îáåùàííîå âîññòàíîâëåíèå äèíàñòèè âî ãëàâå ñ âå÷íûì öàðåì. Òðè óìíîæèòü íà ÷åòûðíàäöàòü ñîîòâåòñòâóåò òðèæäû âçÿòîìó ÷èñëó ÷åòûðíàäöàòü, êîòîðîå åñòü ñóììà ÷èñëîâûõ çíà÷åíèé åâðåéñêèõ áóêâ èìåíè «Äàâèä» (ïðèìåð ãåìàòðèè). Âûðàæåíèå «è áðàòüåâ åãî» îçíà÷àåò âêëþ÷åíèå â èñòîðèþ ïîäãîòîâêè Ìåññèè âñåõ äâåíàäöàòè êîëåí Èçðàèëåâûõ, òàê êàê 19


Ìåññèÿ äîëæåí áûòü öàðåì âñåãî åâðåéñêîãî íàðîäà. Ðîäîñëîâíàÿ íà÷èíàåòñÿ íå ñ Äàâèäà, à ñ Àâðààìà, òàê êàê Ìåññèÿ äîëæåí áûòü íàñëåäíèêîì ïîñëåäíåãî, â êîòîðîì áëàãîñëîâÿòñÿ âñå íàðîäû. Èìåííî ýòî ñâÿçûâàåò íà÷àëî – ãåíåàëîãèþ – ñ êîíöîì Åâàíãåëèÿ, êîãäà âîñêðåñøèé Èèñóñ âåëèò àïîñòîëàì èäòè êðåñòèòü âñå íàðîäû âî èìÿ Îòöà, Ñûíà è Ñâÿòîãî Äóõà. Òîé æå öåëè – ñâÿçè ÿçû÷åñêèõ íàðîäîâ ìèðà ñ Ìåññèåé Èçðàèëåâûì, ïî ìíåíèþ Ð. Áîêõåìà, ñëóæèò âêëþ÷åíèå ÷åòûðåõ æåíùèí â ãåíåàëîãèþ: Ôàìàðü (Òàìàð), Ðààâ (Ðàõàâ), Ðóôü (Ðóò) è Âèðñàâèè (Áàò Øåâû). Òðè ïåðâûå áûëè ÿçû÷íèöàìè, î ïðîèñõîæäåíèè Âèðñàâèè íè÷åãî íå èçâåñòíî, íî âîçìîæíî, ÷òî îíà òàêæå íå áûëà èçðàèëüòÿíêîé. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âñå ÷åòûðå æåíùèíû ÿçû÷íèöû, à Ðààâ åùå è ïðîñòèòóòêà, òî åñòü íè îäíà èç íèõ íå ìîãëà áû, â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ òðåáîâàíèÿìè Òîðû, ïðèñîåäèíèòüñÿ ê Èçðàèëþ. Îäíàêî, ïî Áîæüåìó ïîïóùåíèþ, îíè âõîäÿò â íàðîä Áîæèé è, áîëåå òîãî, ñòàíîâÿòñÿ ïðàìàòåðÿìè Ìåññèè. Ýòèì åùå ðàç ïîä÷åðêèâàåòñÿ òî, ÷òî â Ìåññèè áóäóò áëàãîñëîâëåíû âñå íàðîäû çåìëè, êàê áûëî îáåùàíî Àâðààìó [78, ð. 19–22, 44–46], [263, ð. 2–3]. Ó ðîäîñëîâíîé Èèñóñà åñòü òàêæå åùå îäíà öåëü: îòâåñòè îáâèíåíèÿ, âèäèìî, âîçíèêøèå î÷åíü ðàíî, î íåëåãèòèìíîì ðîæäåíèè Èèñóñà èç-çà íåäîñòîéíîãî ñóïðóæåñêîãî ïîâåäåíèÿ åãî ìàòåðè [263, ð. 2]. Ñîãëàñíî Þëèþ Àôðèêàíñêîìó, êîòîðûé æèë â Ýììàóñå â íà÷àëå òðåòüåãî âåêà í. ý., ðîäñòâåííèêè Èèñóñà, âîçìîæíî, åãî ñâîäíûå áðàòüÿ è ñåñòðû, êîòîðûõ íàçûâàëè ïî-ãðå÷åñêè äåñïîñèíîé [«òå, êîòîðûå ïðèíàäëåæàò õîçÿèíó èëè ñîâåðåíó: äåñïîòåñ»], ïðèíàäëåæàëè ê òåì ñåìüÿì, êîòîðûå ñîõðàíèëè ñïèñîê ñâîåé ãåíåàëîãèè, êîãäà Èðîä Âåëèêèé ñæåã îôèöèàëüíûå ðîäîâûå çàïèñè, õðàíèâøèåñÿ â Õðàìå. Îíè ïóòåøåñòâîâàëè ïî Ïàëåñòèíå è, âåðîÿòíî, ïðîïîâåäîâàëè Åâàíãåëèå âìåñòå ñ îñòàëüíûìè àïîñòîëàìè, à òàêæå ïîêàçûâàëè ýòî ðîäîñëîâèå, ñëè÷àÿ åãî ñ Êíèãîé Ïàðàëèïîìåíîí äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû îáîñíîâàòü ðîäñòâåííóþ ñâÿçü Èèñóñà ñ öàðåì Äàâèäîì. Îíè æèëè â ãîðîäå Íàçàðåòå è ìåñòå÷êå Êîõàáà (ñîâð. Êàóêàá), íàõîäèâøåìñÿ â äåñÿòè ìèëÿõ ê ñåâåðó îò ïåðâîãî. Î áðàòüÿõ Èèñóñà óïîìèíàåò àïîñòîë Ïàâåë â (1 Êîð. 9:5): «Èëè íå èìååì âëàñòè èìåòü ñïóòíèöåþ ñåñòðó, æåíó, êàê è ïðî÷èå Àïîñòîëû, è áðàòüÿ Ãîñïîäíè, è Êèôà?». Âàæíîñòü Íàçàðåòà è Êîõàáû â òîì, ÷òî íàçâàíèå ïåðâîãî ãîðîäà îòñûëàåò ê ìåññèàíñêîìó íåöåð, «âåòâü», «îòðàñëü», ïîä êîòîðîé ïîäðàçóìåâàëàñü «Îòðàñëü Äàâèäîâà» – Ìåññèÿ, òîãäà êàê íàçâàíèå âòîðîãî îçíà÷àåò «çâåçäà», à ýòî òàêæå óêàçûâàåò íà ìåñ20


ñèàíñêîå ïîíÿòèå «çâåçäû îò Èàêîâà» (×èñ. 24:17). Âèäèìî, ÷ëåíû çåìíîé ñåìüè Èèñóñà èãðàëè âàæíóþ ðîëü â ïåðâûõ îáùèíàõ âåðóþùèõ [77]. Õðèñòîñ – «ïîìàçàííûé», ìàøèàõ. Çíà÷åíèå òèòóëà ñâÿçàíî ñ öåðåìîíèåé ïîìàçàíèÿ îëèâêîâûì ìàñëîì öàðåé è ñâÿùåííèêîâ ïðè âñòóïëåíèè â äîëæíîñòü, ïîýòîìó ïîíÿòèå «ìåññèÿ» íåñåò èäåþ ïîëó÷åíèÿ îò Áîãà ñâÿùåííè÷åñêîé è öàðñêîé âëàñòè [51, ñ. 25], [47, ñ. 80–81], [1, ñ. 195–196]. Ñûíà Äàâèäîâà – ýòîò òåðìèí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôàêòè÷åñêè îäíèì èç òèòóëîâ Ìåññèè â åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè.  çíà÷åíèè òàêîãî òèòóëà âïåðâûå èñïîëüçóåòñÿ â ïîçäíåì ïñåâäîýïèãðàôå Ïñàëìû Ñîëîìîíà (Ïñ. Ñîë. 17:23, 36).  Íîâîì Çàâåòå îí èñïîëüçóåòñÿ 15–20 ðàç, à â ñîâðåìåííîì èóäàèçìå ïðèìåíÿåòñÿ è ñåãîäíÿ. Ê ïðèìåðó, ïÿòíàäöàòîå áëàãîñëîâåíèå öåíòðàëüíîé åâðåéñêîé ìîëèòâû Àìèäà (Ñòîÿíèå, èëè Øìîíý-Ýñðå) çâó÷èò òàê: «Îòïðûñêó Äàâèäà, ðàáà Òâîåãî, äàé ñêîðî âîçðàñòè, è ðîã åãî äà âîçâûñèòñÿ ïîìîùüþ Òâîåþ. Èáî íà Òâîþ ïîìîùü ìû óïîâàåì âñÿêèé äåíü. Áëàãîñëîâåí Òû, Ãîñïîäè, âîçäâèãàþùèé ðîã ñïàñåíèÿ».  öåëîì â Ïèñàíèè (Òàíàõå) ìíîæåñòâî óêàçàíèé íà òî, ÷òî ïîòîìîê öàðÿ Äàâèäà èñêóïèò Èçðàèëü (2 Öàð. 7:12–13,16), (Èñ. 11:1), (Èåð. 23:5–6), (Çàõ. 3:8), (Àì. 9:11–12) è äð. [51, ñ. 373]. Èîñèô æå, ìóæ Åå, áóäó÷è ïðàâåäåí è íå æåëàÿ îãëàñèòü Åå, õîòåë òàéíî îòïóñòèòü Åå.

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Õîòåë òàéíî îòïóñòèòü Åå – «ïðàâèëüíûé» ðàçâîä ïðè îáðó÷åíèè âêëþ÷àë ïåðåäà÷ó ÷àñòíûì îáðàçîì èëè â ïðèñóòñòâèè äâóõ ñâèäåòåëåé Ìàðèè (Ìèðüÿì) ðàçâîäíîãî ïèñüìà (ãåò), ïðè ýòîì Èîñèô (Éîñåô) ìîã íå îáúÿñíÿòü ïðè÷èíó ðàçâîäà. Ðÿä èçâåñòíûõ ðàââèíîâ (ðàáè Ýëåàçàð, Éîõàíàí, Çåðà) íå ðåêîìåíäîâàëè âûñòàâëÿòü æåíùèíó íà âñåîáùèé ïîçîð [70, ñ. 196]. Ïðàâåäåí – ñì. êîììåíò. ê (Ëê. 1:6). Íî êîãäà îí ïîìûñëèë ýòî, – ñå, Àíãåë Ãîñïîäåíü ÿâèëñÿ åìó âî ñíå è ñêàçàë: Èîñèô, ñûí Äàâèäîâ! íå áîéñÿ ïðèíÿòü Ìàðèþ, æåíó òâîþ, èáî ðîäèâøååñÿ â Íåé åñòü îò Äóõà Ñâÿòàãî. 20

ßâëåíèå àíãåëà âî ñíå äîëæíî áûëî ïîäåéñòâîâàòü íà Èîñèôà (Éîñåôà) î÷åíü ñèëüíî, òàê êàê «äîáðûé ñîí» áûë îäíèì èç ïðèçíàêîâ áëàãîâîëåíèÿ Áîæèÿ. Ñóùåñòâîâàëà íàðîäíàÿ ïîñëîâèöà î òîì, ÷òî åñëè êòî-òî ñåìü äíåé ñïèò è íå âèäèò èëè íå ìîæåò 21


âñïîìíèòü ñîí, òî îí äîëæåí íàçûâàòüñÿ íåñ÷àñòíûì, òàê êàê î íåì íå âñïîìèíàåò Áîã [70, ñ. 198]. Ðîäèò æå Ñûíà, è íàðå÷åøü Åìó èìÿ Èèñóñ, èáî Îí ñïàñåò ëþäåé Ñâîèõ îò ãðåõîâ èõ.

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Èèñóñ – íà èâðèòå Éåøóà ñ óäàðåíèåì íà ó, áîëåå ðàííÿÿ ôîðìà – Éåõîøóà, òåîôîðíîå èìÿ, ñîäåðæèò ñâÿùåííîå èìÿ Áîãà, òî÷íåå, ïåðâûé åãî ñëîã Éå. Îçíà÷àåò «Áîã ñïàñàåò» èëè «ñïàñåíèå Ãîñïîäíå». ßâëÿåòñÿ ôîðìîé ìóæñêîãî ðîäà ñëîâà éåøóà (æ.ð.), «ñïàñåíèå».  åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè óïîìèíàþòñÿ ïÿòü ÷åëîâåê, êîòîðûì èìåíà áûëè äàíû äî ðîæäåíèÿ: Èñààê (Éèöõàê), Èçìàèë (Éèøìàýëü), Ìîèñåé (Ìîøå), Ñîëîìîí (Øëîìî), Èîñèÿ. Øåñòûì, êîòîðîìó áóäåò íàðå÷åíî èìÿ äî ðîæäåíèÿ, ñòàíåò Ìåññèÿ [1, ñ. 196], [70, ñ. 192], [51, ñ. 30]. À âñå ñèå ïðîèçîøëî, äà ñáóäåòñÿ ðå÷åííîå Ãîñïîäîì ÷åðåç ïðîðîêà, êîòîðûé ãîâîðèò... 22

Ñêàçàííîå... ÷åðåç ïðîðîêà, êîòîðûé ãîâîðèò – ôðàçó ìîæíî ïîíèìàòü êàê «ñêàçàííîå Ãîñïîäîì ÷åðåç ïðîðîêà, ÷åðåç êîòîðîãî Ãîñïîäü ãîâîðèò» èëè òàê, ÷òî ãîâîðèò îò Ãîñïîäà ñàì ïðîðîê.  ëþáîì ñëó÷àå çäåñü ïðèñóòñòâóåò ãåáðàèçì «ñêàçàííîå... ãîâîðèò», äâàæäû ðàçíûìè ñëîâàìè ãîâîðèòñÿ îá îäíîì è òîì æå [52]. Äà ñáóäåòñÿ... – «ñáûâàòüñÿ», «èñïîëíÿòüñÿ» (ëåêàéåì) (ñì. êîììåíò. ê (Ìò. 5:17–18), òåõíè÷åñêèé òåðìèí ìóäðåöîâ Èçðàèëÿ, èñïîëüçóåìûé ïðè ïîäòâåðæäåíèè ñëîâ Ïèñàíèåì, íå÷òî âðîäå «ïîäòâåðæäàòü» [263, ð. 6]. Âñòàâ îò ñíà, Èîñèô ïîñòóïèë, êàê ïîâåëåë åìó Àíãåë Ãîñïîäåíü, è ïðèíÿë æåíó ñâîþ, 25 è íå çíàë Åå, êàê íàêîíåö Îíà ðîäèëà Ñûíà Ñâîåãî ïåðâåíöà, è îí íàðåê Åìó èìÿ Èèñóñ. 24

Ïðèíÿë æåíó ñâîþ – íåìåäëåííî æåíèëñÿ íà íåé, òàê êàê â ïðîòèâíîì ñëó÷àå îíà íå ìîãëà áû ïóòåøåñòâîâàòü ñ íèì â Âèôëååì (Áåéò Ëýõåì) [70, ñ. 198]. Ýòî òàêæå çíà÷èò, ÷òî Èîñèô (Éîñýô) ïðèíÿë Èèñóñà êàê ñâîåãî ñûíà. Ñîãëàñíî åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè, îòðàæåííîé â Òàëìóäå, òîìó ÷åëîâåêó, êîòîðûé ãîâîðèò: «Âîò ìîé ñûí», íóæíî âåðèòü è ïðåäîñòàâèòü òàêîìó ðåáåíêó âñå ïðàâà íàñëåäîâàíèÿ èìóùåñòâà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, Èèñóñ ïî ïðàâó íàñëåäóåò ïðåñòîë öàðÿ Äàâèäà ÷åðåç ñâîåãî íàçâàííîãî îòöà, Èîñèôà, ïîòîìêà Äàâèäà [51, ñ. 35]. 22


Ãëàâà 2 Êîãäà æå Èèñóñ ðîäèëñÿ â Âèôëååìå Èóäåéñêîì âî äíè öàðÿ Èðîäà, ïðèøëè â Èåðóñàëèì âîëõâû ñ âîñòîêà è ãîâîðÿò: 2 ãäå ðîäèâøèéñÿ Öàðü Èóäåéñêèé? èáî ìû âèäåëè çâåçäó Åãî íà âîñòîêå è ïðèøëè ïîêëîíèòüñÿ Åìó. Èðîä – Õîðäîñ Âåëèêèé, öàðü Èçðàèëÿ èäóìåéñêîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ, ïðàâèë ñ 40 ïî 4 ã. äî í.ý. Öàðñòâîâàíèå åãî õàðàêòåðèçîâàëîñü ìàñøòàáíûì ñòðîèòåëüñòâîì ãîðîäîâ è êðåïîñòåé, çàâèñèìîñòüþ îò Ðèìà, çàìåòíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîñòüþ è ÷óäîâèùíîé æåñòîêîñòüþ ïî îòíîøåíèþ êî ìíîãèì ñëîÿì åâðåéñêîãî íàñåëåíèÿ. Ïåðåñòðîèë Âòîðîé Õðàì, ïîñòðîåííûé Çîðîâàâåëåì (Çðóáàáåëåì) â 520–516 ãã. äî í. ý. Âîëõâû – ìàãè ñ Âîñòîêà, âåðîÿòíî èç Ïåðñèè.  åâðåéñêèõ ïèñàíèÿõ ÷àñòî óïîìèíàþòñÿ êàê ìàãóø, èëè àìåãóøà.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå îíè ñèìâîëèçèðóþò âñå íàðîäû, êîòîðûå ïðèâåòñòâóþò ðîæäåíèå ñïàñèòåëÿ (ñì. íèæå). Èáî ìû âèäåëè çâåçäó Åãî – çâåçäà âîñïðèíèìàëàñü êàê ïðèçíàê ïðèøåñòâèÿ Ìåññèè íà îñíîâå ïðîðî÷åñòâà Âàëààìà, ñûíà Âåîðà (Áèëàìà áåí Áåîðà): «Âèæó Åãî, íî íûíå åùå íåò; çðþ Åãî, íî íå áëèçêî. Âîñõîäèò çâåçäà îò Èàêîâà è âîññòàåò æåçë îò Èçðàèëÿ, è ðàçèò êíÿçåé Ìîàâà è ñîêðóøàåò âñåõ ñûíîâ Ñèôîâûõ» (Èñõ. 24:17). Òàê, íà îñíîâàíèè ýòîé ñòðîêè ðàáè Àêèâà ïðèçíàë ðóêîâîäèòåëÿ âîññòàíèÿ ïðîòèâ Ðèìà â 131–135 ãã. í. ý. Øèìîíà Áàð Êîçèáó ìåññèåé, è ïîòîìó òîò íàçûâàëñÿ âïîñëåäñòâèè Áàð Êîõáà, «ñûí Çâåçäû» [263, ð. 8–9]. Èñòîðè÷íîñòü Âàëààìà (Áèëàìà) ïîäòâåðæäåíà àðõåîëîãèåé.  1967 ã. íà ãîðîäèùå Òåëü Äèð-Àëëà â Èîðäàíñêîé äîëèíå ãîëëàíäñêèìè àðõåîëîãàìè áûëà íàéäåíà ÷àñòü ñòåëû ÿçû÷åñêîãî, î÷åâèäíî ìèäèàíèòÿíñêîãî, õðàìà ñ íàäïèñÿìè î ïðîðîêå è ìàãå Áèëàìå, ñûíå Áåîðà. 3 Óñëûøàâ ýòî, Èðîä öàðü âñòðåâîæèëñÿ, è âåñü Èåðóñàëèì ñ íèì. 4 È, ñîáðàâ âñåõ ïåðâîñâÿùåííèêîâ è êíèæíèêîâ íàðîäíûõ, ñïðàøèâàë ó íèõ: ãäå äîëæíî ðîäèòüñÿ Õðèñòó? 5 Îíè æå ñêàçàëè åìó: â Âèôëååìå Èóäåéñêîì, èáî òàê íàïèñàíî ÷åðåç ïðîðîêà: 6 «È òû, Âèôëååì, çåìëÿ Èóäèíà, íè÷åì íå ìåíüøå âîåâîäñòâ Èóäèíûõ, èáî èç òåáÿ ïðîèçîéäåò Âîæäü, Êîòîðûé óïàñåò íàðîä Ìîé Èçðàèëÿ». Åâðåéñêèå ïèñàíèÿ ñîäåðæàò çíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî óêàçàíèé íà òî, ÷òî Ìåññèÿ ðîäèòñÿ â Âèôëååìå, ñî ññûëêîé íà òå æå 1

23


Ïðèâàëèâ áîëüøîé êàìåíü – áîëüøîé êàìåíü íàçûâàëñÿ ãîëåëü, êàê ïðàâèëî, îí ïîäïèðàëñÿ ìåíüøèì êàìíåì, äîôåêîì [208, ð. 616].

Ãëàâà 28 Èòàê, èäèòå, íàó÷èòå âñå íàðîäû, êðåñòÿ èõ âî èìÿ Îòöà è Ñûíà è Ñâÿòîãî Äóõà, 20 ó÷à èõ ñîáëþäàòü âñ¸, ÷òî ß ïîâåëåë âàì; è ñå, ß ñ âàìè âî âñå äíè äî ñêîí÷àíèÿ âåêà. Àìèíü. 19

Âî èìÿ – èäèîìà èâðèòà, îáîçíà÷àåò òîãî, ÷üå èìÿ ïðîèçíîñèòñÿ ïîñëå. Òàê, «âî èìÿ Ãîñïîäíå» îçíà÷àåò «Ãîñïîäü», «âî èìÿ ßõâå» – «ßõâå». Ñìûñë ôðàçû òàêîâ: «Êðåñòÿ [ïîãðóæàÿ] èõ â Îòöà, Ñûíà è Ñâÿòîãî Äóõà».  öåëîì ïåðåä íàìè íîâîå îòêðîâåíèå î òîì, êòî åñòü Áîã: åñëè Ìîèñåþ îí îòêðûëñÿ êàê òåòðàãðàììàòîí (âîçìîæíî, ßõâå, Âå÷íî Ñóùåñòâóþùèé), òî Èèñóñ îòêðûë åäèíîãî (ýõàä íà èâðèòå) èñòèííîãî Áîãà Èçðàèëåâà êàê Îòöà, Ñûíà è Ñâÿòîãî Äóõà [170], [81, ð. 57]. Ìíîãèå ó÷åíûå, íàñòðîåííûå ïðîòèâ âåðû â Òðèåäèíñòâî Áîæüå, ñ÷èòàëè è ñ÷èòàþò ýòó ñòðîêó áîëåå ïîçäíåé âñòàâêîé, îòðàæàþùåé ýâîëþöèþ âåðû â ïåðâûõ îáùèíàõ îò âåðû â Ìåññèþ Èèñóñà êàê ïðîñòîãî ÷åëîâåêà, «ó÷èòåëÿ», äî âåðû â íåãî êàê Áîãà. Îäíàêî ñêðóïóëåçíûé òåêñòîëîãè÷åñêèé è èñòîðè÷åñêèé àíàëèç ïîêàçûâàåò àóòåíòè÷íîñòü ýòîãî âûñêàçûâàíèÿ è ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü åãî ñàìîìó Èèñóñó [249].

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ÅÂÀÍÃÅËÈÅ ÎÒ ÌÀÐÊÀ


Ãëàâà 1 1

Íà÷àëî Åâàíãåëèÿ Èèñóñà Õðèñòà, Ñûíà Áîæèÿ,

Íà÷àëî – Êíèãà Áûòèÿ, à âìåñòå ñ íåé Ïÿòèêíèæèå (Òîðà) è âåñü êàíîí Âåòõîãî Çàâåòà îòêðûâàåòñÿ ñëîâàìè «â íà÷àëå», áýðåøèò. Åâðåéñêèé ÷èòàòåëü áûë ïðèó÷åí îòíîñèòüñÿ ñ áîëüøèì âíèìàíèåì ê òîìó, êàêàÿ áóêâà ñòîèò â íà÷àëå ñâÿùåííîãî òåêñòà; èóäåéñêàÿ òðàäèöèÿ ñîõðàíèëà ðàññóæäåíèÿ î òîì, ïî÷åìó ïåðâàÿ áóêâà òåêñòà Òîðû — èìåííî áýò, , à íå êàêàÿ-ëèáî èíàÿ. Ýòî îáúÿñíÿëîñü òåì, ÷òî ñ äàííîé áóêâû íà÷èíàåòñÿ êîðåíü ãëàãîëà áåðàõ, «áëàãîñëîâëÿòü», èëè òåì, ÷òî åå ôîðìà, íàïîìèíàþùàÿ ñêîáêó, âûðàæàåò çàïðåò ñïðàøèâàòü î òîì, ÷òî áûëî äî ñîòâîðåíèÿ ìèðà.  ìèäðàøå èçîáðàæàëñÿ ñïîð âñåõ áóêâ àëôàâèòà çà ïðèâèëåãèþ ñòîÿòü íà ýòîì ïî÷åòíîì ìåñòå, è ïðîèãðàâøèå áóêâû ïîëó÷àëè â óòåøåíèå êîìïåíñàöèþ – ïðàâî ñûãðàòü îñîáóþ ðîëü â äðóãèõ ýïèçîäàõ Ñâÿùåííîé Èñòîðèè è ÷àñòÿõ Òîðû (íàïðèìåð, îäíà èç íèõ áóäåò íà÷èíàòü Äåêàëîã). Íà÷àëî âñåõ ÷åòûðåõ Åâàíãåëèé òàê èëè èíà÷å âûðàæàåò èäåþ «íà÷àëà» – íîâîãî íà÷àëà, ñîïîñòàâèìîãî ïî ñâîåìó çíà÷åíèþ ñ ñîòâîðåíèåì ìèðà, – è îòñþäà îòñûëêà ê íà÷àëó Êíèãè Áûòèÿ. Ïåðâûå ñëîâà ó Ìàòôåÿ – «êíèãà ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ» (áûòèå, ãåíåñèñ), âî ââîäíîì ïîñâÿùåíèè Ëóêè âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ñëîâî «îò íà÷àëà». Íàêîíåö, ïðîëîã Èîàííà îòêðûâàåòñÿ òîé æå ôîðìóëîé «â íà÷àëå», áýðåøèò, ÷òî è Òîðà [1, ñ. 207–208]. Åâàíãåëèå – çäåñü ýòî ñëîâî ïîíèìàåòñÿ íå êàê îïðåäåëåííûé òåêñò èëè êíèãà, à êàê óêàçàíèå íà âåñòü î òîì, êòî òàêîé Èèñóñ èç Íàçàðåòà è êàêîå Öàðñòâî îí íåñåò ñ ñîáîé è â ñåáå (ñì. êîììåíò. ê (Ìò. 1). È âûõîäèëè ê íåìó âñÿ ñòðàíà Èóäåéñêàÿ è Èåðóñàëèìëÿíå, è êðåñòèëèñü îò íåãî âñå â ðåêå Èîðäàíå, èñïîâåäóÿ ãðåõè ñâîè. 5

Èñïîâåäóÿ ãðåõè ñâîè – âîçìîæíî, ÷òî èñïîâåäü ãðåõîâ áûëà ïóáëè÷íîé, ëþäè ëèáî íàçûâàëè âñëóõ ñâîè ïðåãðåøåíèÿ ïðîòèâ Òîðû, ëèáî çàÿâëÿëè î ñâîåì ðàñêàÿíèè â îáùåé ôîðìå, ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå, íà ýòî óêàçûâàþò íåìíîãî áîëåå ïîçäíèå ñïîðû ðàââèíîâ. Ïðàêòèêà îáùåñòâåííîãî ïîêàÿíèÿ ïðèìåíÿëàñü â ïðàçäíèê Äåíü Èñêóïëåíèÿ (Éîì Êèïóð). Îäíà èç ïðåäëàãàåìûõ ôîðìóë ïîêàÿíèÿ áûëà òàêîâà: «ß ïðèçíàþ âñå çëî, êîòîðîå ÿ ñîâåðøèë ïå158


ðåä Òîáîé, õîäÿ çëûìè ïóòÿìè. Òî, ÷òî ÿ ñäåëàë, ÿ íå áóäó áîëüøå òâîðèòü ñíîâà. Äà ïðîñòèøü Òû ìíå, î Ãîñïîäü è Áîã ìîé, âñå ìîè ãðåõè è âñå ìîå íåïîñëóøàíèå è äàðóåøü ìíå ïðîùåíèå âñåõ ãðåõîâ» [1, ñ. 216], [263, ð. 37–38]. Èîàíí æå íîñèë îäåæäó èç âåðáëþæüåãî âîëîñà è ïîÿñ êîæàíûé íà ÷ðåñëàõ ñâîèõ, è åë àêðèäû è äèêèé ìåä.

6

Ñì. êîììåíò. ê (Ìò. 3:4). Îáðàç æèçíè Èîàííà íàïîìèíàåò àñêåòè÷åñêóþ ïðàêòèêó ïðîðîêà Èëèè (Èëèÿõó): «Îíè ñêàçàëè åìó: ÷åëîâåê òîò âåñü â âîëîñàõ è êîæàíûì ïîÿñîì ïîäïîÿñàí ïî ÷ðåñëàì ñâîèì. È ñêàçàë îí: ýòî Èëèÿ Ôåñâèòÿíèí» (4 Öàð. 1:8) [1, ñ. 216]. ÿ êðåñòèë âàñ âîäîþ, à Îí áóäåò êðåñòèòü âàñ Äóõîì Ñâÿòûì.

8

Èçëèÿíèå Ñâÿòîãî Äóõà äîëæíî áûëî ÿâèòüñÿ ìåññèàíñêîé çàäà÷åé, íàïð.: «È áóäåò ïîñëå òîãî, èçëèþ îò Äóõà Ìîåãî íà âñÿêóþ ïëîòü, è áóäóò ïðîðî÷åñòâîâàòü ñûíû âàøè è äî÷åðè âàøè; ñòàðöàì âàøèì áóäóò ñíèòüñÿ ñíû, è þíîøè âàøè áóäóò âèäåòü âèäåíèÿ. È òàêæå íà ðàáîâ è íà ðàáûíü â òå äíè èçëèþ îò Äóõà Ìîåãî» (Èîèë. 2:27-28), «èáî ß èçîëüþ âîäû íà æàæäóùåå è ïîòîêè íà èññîõøåå; èçëèþ äóõ Ìîé íà ïëåìÿ òâîå è áëàãîñëîâåíèå Ìîå íà ïîòîìêîâ òâîèõ» (Èñ. 44:3). È áûëî â òå äíè, ïðèøåë Èèñóñ èç Íàçàðåòà Ãàëèëåéñêîãî è êðåñòèëñÿ îò Èîàííà â Èîðäàíå. 9

Íàçàðåò áûë äåðåâíåé, â êîòîðîé, ïî ñîâðåìåííûì äàííûì, æèëî ïðèìåðíî 120 ÷åëîâåê è áûëî îêîëî 28 çäàíèé âìåñòå ñ ñèíàãîãîé, ðàñïîëàãàâøèõñÿ âäîëü îäíîé óëèöû [52]. Îäíàêî ðÿäîì, ïðèìåðíî â ïÿòè êèëîìåòðàõ, íàõîäèëñÿ êðóïíûé áîãàòûé ãîðîä ñ ïðåîáëàäàþùèì åâðåéñêèì íàñåëåíèåì, ðàâíûì ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî 15 òûñ. ÷åëîâåê, – Ñåïôîðèñ (Öèïîðè) [52]. È êîãäà âûõîäèë èç âîäû, òîò÷àñ óâèäåë Èîàíí ðàçâåðçàþùèåñÿ íåáåñà è Äóõà, êàê ãîëóáÿ, ñõîäÿùåãî íà Íåãî. 11 È ãëàñ áûë ñ íåáåñ: Òû Ñûí Ìîé âîçëþáëåííûé, â Êîòîðîì Ìîå áëàãîâîëåíèå. 10

Ñíèñõîæäåíèå Ñâÿòîãî Äóõà – ìåññèàíñêîå è ïðîðî÷åñêîå ïîìàçàíèå. 159


Ðàçâåðçàþùèåñÿ íåáåñà – îáðàç èç Ïèñàíèÿ (Òàíàõà): «Î, åñëè áû Òû ðàñòîðã íåáåñà è ñîøåë!» (Èñ. 64:1), «È áûëî â òðèäöàòûé ãîä, â ÷åòâåðòûé ìåñÿö, â ïÿòûé äåíü ìåñÿöà, êîãäà ÿ íàõîäèëñÿ ñðåäè ïåðåñåëåíöåâ ïðè ðåêå Õîâàðå, îòâåðçëèñü íåáåñà, è ÿ âèäåë âèäåíèÿ Áîæèè» (Èåç. 1:1) [1, ñ. 219]. Íåìåäëåííî ïîñëå òîãî Äóõ âåäåò Åãî â ïóñòûíþ. 13 È áûë Îí òàì â ïóñòûíå ñîðîê äíåé, èñêóøàåìûé ñàòàíîþ, è áûë ñî çâåðÿìè; è Àíãåëû ñëóæèëè Åìó. 12

 Âåòõîì Çàâåòå (Òàíàõå) äèêèå çâåðè àññîöèèðóþòñÿ ñî çëîì è ñ ïîáåäîé ïðàâåäíèêà íàä íèìè [263, ð. 52]. È ïðèõîäÿò â Êàïåðíàóì; è âñêîðå â ñóááîòó âîøåë Îí â ñèíàãîãó è ó÷èë. 22 È äèâèëèñü Åãî ó÷åíèþ, èáî Îí ó÷èë èõ, êàê âëàñòü èìåþùèé, à íå êàê êíèæíèêè... 32 Ïðè íàñòóïëåíèè æå âå÷åðà, êîãäà çàõîäèëî ñîëíöå, ïðèíîñèëè ê Íåìó âñåõ áîëüíûõ è áåñíîâàòûõ. 21

Áîëüíûõ ïðèíîñèëè âå÷åðîì, òî åñòü ïîñëå îôèöèàëüíîãî îêîí÷àíèÿ ñóááîòû (ìîöàýé øàááàò) äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû íå íàðóøàòü çàêîíû ôàðèñååâ î çàïðåùåíèè ðàáîòû â ýòîò äåíü [62, ñ. 23].  ñèíàãîãå èõ áûë ÷åëîâåê, îäåðæèìûé äóõîì íå÷èñòûì, è âñêðè÷àë: 24 îñòàâü! ÷òî Òåáå äî íàñ, Èèñóñ Íàçàðÿíèí? Òû ïðèøåë ïîãóáèòü íàñ! çíàþ Òåáÿ, êòî Òû, Ñâÿòûé Áîæèé. 23

×òî òåáå äî íàñ – áóêâàëüíî «÷òî íàì è òåáå», óñòîé÷èâîå âûðàæåíèå â èâðèòå [52]. Íî Èèñóñ çàïðåòèë åìó, ãîâîðÿ: çàìîë÷è è âûéäè èç íåãî. Òîãäà äóõ íå÷èñòûé, ñîòðÿñøè åãî è âñêðè÷àâ ãðîìêèì ãîëîñîì, âûøåë èç íåãî. 25

26

Çàìîë÷è è âûéäè èç íåãî – «Âîí! Ïîøåë âîí!», ïî-åâðåéñêè öå. Ñòàíäàðòíàÿ ôîðìóëà èóäåéñêîãî ýêçîðöèçìà, èçãíàíèÿ áåñîâ.  Òàëìóäå åñòü ðàññêàçû î òîì, êàê ðàââèíû Ýëåàçàð áåí Éîñå è Øèìîí áåí Éîõàé èçãîíÿëè áåñîâ òåì æå ñëîâîì èç äî÷åðè ðèìñêîãî èìïåðàòîðà [377, p.3]. 160


È âñå óæàñíóëèñü, òàê ÷òî äðóã äðóãà ñïðàøèâàëè: ÷òî ýòî? ÷òî ýòî çà íîâîå ó÷åíèå, ÷òî Îí è äóõàì íå÷èñòûì ïîâåëåâàåò ñî âëàñòüþ, è îíè ïîâèíóþòñÿ Åìó? 27

×òî ýòî çà íîâîå ó÷åíèå... ïîâåëåâàåò ñî âëàñòüþ – â îòëè÷èå îò ìíîãèõ äðóãèõ ó÷èòåëåé Èçðàèëÿ ó Èèñóñà áûëà âëàñòü íàä áåñàìè. Ïîýòîìó «íîâîå ó÷åíèå» ïðèâåëî â èçóìëåíèå ñëóøàâøèõ. Òàðãóì Îíêåëîñà (ïåðåâîä Ïÿòèêíèæèÿ Ìîèñååâà íà àðàìåéñêèé ÿçûê, âûïîëíåííûé ïðîçåëèòîì Îíêåëîñîì), ñîñòàâëåííûé, ïî-âèäèìîìó, â I â. í. ý., îáúÿñíÿåò îòðûâîê èç Êíèãè Èñàéè 12:3, ñòàâøèé ïåñíåé äëÿ òðàäèöèîííîãî èçðàèëüñêîãî òàíöà (Óøàâòýì ìàéèì áåñàññîí ìè ìààÿíåé õàéåøóà – «È â ðàäîñòè áóäåòå ÷åðïàòü âîäó èç èñòî÷íèêîâ ñïàñåíèÿ») ñëåäóþùèì îáðàçîì: «È âû ïîëó÷èòå íîâîå ó÷åíèå îò ïåðâîðîäíîãî ïðàâåäíîãî ñûíà Áîæüåãî». Òàêèì îáðàçîì, Îíêåëîñ òîëêóåò ýòî ìåñòî â Êíèãå Èñàéè êàê ìåññèàíñêîå ïðîðî÷åñòâî: åâðåéñêèé íàðîä ïîëó÷èò îò Ìåññèè íîâîå ó÷åíèå, âîçìîæíî íîâîå òîëêîâàíèå Òîðû. Ñëîâà ëþäåé î íîâîì ó÷åíèè â äàííîì ñòèõå ðàâíîñèëüíû èõ ïðèçíàíèþ Èèñóñà èç Íàçàðåòà Ìåññèåé Èçðàèëÿ. Îí è äóõàì íå÷èñòûì ïîâåëåâàåò ñî âëàñòüþ – â Òàëìóäå ñêàçàíî, ÷òî ðàáè Éîõàíàí áåí Çàêêàé, ñîáðàâøèé Ñèíåäðèîí (Ñàíõåäðèí) â ßâíå ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî â 90 ã. í. ý., íà êîòîðîì áûëè ðàçðàáîòàíû îñíîâû èóäàèçìà ïîñëå ðàçðóøåíèÿ Õðàìà, èçó÷àë ðå÷ü øåäèì (áåñîâ), íî øåäèì åìó íå ïîâèíîâàëèñü [51,ñ. 140]. Âûéäÿ âñêîðå èç ñèíàãîãè, ïðèøëè â äîì Ñèìîíà è Àíäðåÿ, ñ Èàêîâîì è Èîàííîì. 30 Òåùà æå Ñèìîíîâà ëåæàëà â ãîðÿ÷êå; è òîò÷àñ ãîâîðÿò Åìó î íåé. 31 Ïîäîéäÿ, Îí ïîäíÿë åå, âçÿâ åå çà ðóêó; è ãîðÿ÷êà òîò÷àñ îñòàâèëà åå, è îíà ñòàëà ñëóæèòü èì. 29

Ãîðÿ÷êà – ýøàòà öåìèðòà.  Òàëìóäå ïðåäïèñûâàåòñÿ ñëîæíîå ìàãè÷åñêîå ëå÷åíèå, ñîåäèíåííîå ñ ÷òåíèåì Ïèñàíèÿ (Òîðû) [70, ñ. 611]. Ñîãëàñíî âçãëÿäàì (ãàëàõå) øêîëû Ãèëëåëÿ, Èèñóñ èìåë ïðàâî èñöåëèòü òåùó Ñèìîíà (Øèìîíà) â ñóááîòó, òàê êàê ýòî íå áûëî ñâÿçàíî ñ ïåðåâîçêîé áîëüíîé. Îäíàêî øêîëà Øàììàÿ íå ñîãëàñèëàñü áû ñ ýòèì ïî ðÿäó ïðè÷èí [62, ñ. 24]. 33

È âåñü ãîðîä ñîáðàëñÿ ê äâåðÿì.

Êàïåðíàóì – Êôàð Íàõóì, «ñåëåíèå Íàóìà». Ðûáîëîâåöêèé ïîðò áûë ðàñïîëîæåí íà 700 ì íèæå óðîâíÿ ìîðÿ, îáëàäàë ðàçâè161


íàïðàâëåííîñòü ïðàçäíèêà íà îæèäàíèå âñåîáùåãî âîñêðåñåíèÿ, Áîã îáåùàåò íå òîëüêî óðîæàé çåìíîé, íî è óðîæàé âå÷íîé æèçíè, à íà ñëåäóþùèé äåíü Îí âîñêðåøàåò Èèñóñà. Âïîëíå âîçìîæíî, ÷òî ó÷åíèêè Èèñóñà, â ïå÷àëè ïðèøåäøèå â Õðàì â ñóááîòó, ìîãëè ñëûøàòü ïðîðî÷åñòâî Èåçåêèèëÿ, à íà ñëåäóþùèé äåíü ýòî ïðîðî÷åñòâî íà÷àëî îñóùåñòâëÿòüñÿ [365, ð. 108-109]. 6 Îí æå ãîâîðèò èì: íå óæàñàéòåñü. Èèñóñà èùåòå Íàçàðÿíèíà, ðàñïÿòîãî; Îí âîñêðåñ, Åãî íåò çäåñü. Âîò ìåñòî, ãäå Îí áûë ïîëîæåí. 7 Íî èäèòå, ñêàæèòå ó÷åíèêàì Åãî è Ïåòðó, ÷òî Îí ïðåäâàðÿåò âàñ â Ãàëèëåå; òàì Åãî óâèäèòå, êàê Îí ñêàçàë âàì. 8 È, âûéäÿ, ïîáåæàëè îò ãðîáà; èõ îáúÿë òðåïåò è óæàñ, è íèêîìó íè÷åãî íå ñêàçàëè, ïîòîìó ÷òî áîÿëèñü. Ïî÷åìó æåíùèíû ìîë÷àò? Îíè âîñïðèíÿëè ñëîâà þíîøè â áåëîé îäåæäå êàê óêàçàíèå íà òî, ÷òî èì ïåðåäàí àïîêàëèïòè÷åñêèé ñåêðåò, êîòîðûé äî îïðåäåëåííîãî âðåìåíè íå ìîæåò áûòü îòêðûò íèêîìó, êðîìå ó÷åíèêîâ Èèñóñà. Ïîýòîìó ñëîâà «è íèêîìó íè÷åãî íå ñêàçàëè, ïîòîìó ÷òî áîÿëèñü» íóæíî ïîíèìàòü òàê, ÷òî æåíùèíû æäàëè, ïîêà ñìîãóò îòêðûòü íåîáû÷íóþ âåñòü àïîñòîëàì, à â îòíîøåíèè îñòàëüíûõ ëþäåé áóäóò õðàíèòü ìîë÷àíèå. Òîëüêî ïîñëå òîãî, êàê âîñêðåñøèé Èèñóñ ÿâíî äàåò âñåì ó÷åíèêàì, ìóæ÷èíàì è æåíùèíàì óêàçàíèå èäòè è ñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàòü âñåìó ìèðó î åãî äåëàõ è î âîñêðåñåíèè èç ìåðòâûõ, æåíùèíû ñòàëè îòêðûòî ïðîïîâåäîâàòü òî, ÷òî îíè âèäåëè â ãðîáíèöå. Òàê ÷òî â äàííîì ñëó÷àå ñòðàõ è ìîë÷àíèå æåíùèí – ýòî òðåïåò â îæèäàíèè çíà÷èòåëüíûõ ñîáûòèé, ê êîòîðûì èõ íàïðàâèë àíãåë. Êðîìå òîãî, ïåðâûå âåðóþùèå, îñîáåííî ñëóøàòåëè ïðîïîâåäåé àïîñòîëà Ïåòðà, ÷üè ðàññêàçû ëåãëè â îñíîâàíèå Åâàíãåëèÿ îò Ìàðêà, õîðîøî çíàëè, ÷òî ïîñëåäîâàëî â ðåàëüíîñòè ïîñëå òîãî, êàê æåíùèíû âåðíóëèñü îò ãðîáíèöû Èèñóñà, ïîýòîìó èì íå íóæíî áûëî ðàññêàçûâàòü âñå â ïîäðîáíîñòÿõ. Âèäèìî, ñîáûòèÿ âîñêðåñåíèÿ áûëè â öåíòðå ïðîïîâåäè àïîñòîëà, à Åâàíãåëèå êîíöåíòðèðîâàëîñü íà òîì, ÷òî ñëóøàòåëè íå çíàëè ïîäðîáíî [78, ð. 290].

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ÅÂÀÍÃÅËÈÅ ÎÒ ËÓÊÈ


Ãëàâà 1 Âî äíè Èðîäà, öàðÿ Èóäåéñêîãî, áûë ñâÿùåííèê èç Àâèåâîé ÷ðåäû, èìåíåì Çàõàðèÿ, è æåíà åãî èç ðîäà Ààðîíîâà, èìÿ åé Åëèñàâåòà. 5

Èç Àâèåâîé ÷ðåäû – âî âðåìåíà Âòîðîãî Õðàìà ôóíêöèîíèðîâàëî äâàäöàòü ÷åòûðå ÷åðåäû (ñìåíà – ìèøìàðà, ìí. ÷. – ìèøìàðîò) ñâÿùåííèêîâ, êîòîðûå ñëóæèëè â Õðàìå ïî äâà ðàçà â ãîä â òå÷åíèå îäíîé íåäåëè. Æèëè ñâÿùåííèêè ïî âñåé Çåìëå Èçðàèëÿ (Ýðåö Éèñðàýëü), à êîãäà íàñòóïàëà î÷åðåäü èõ ñëóæáû, ñîáèðàëèñü è øëè â Èåðóñàëèì. Ãëàâà êàæäîé ñìåíû íàçûâàëñÿ ðîø õàìèøìàð. Äàæå ïîñëå ðàçðóøåíèÿ Õðàìà äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ ñâÿùåííèêè ñåëèëèñü è æèëè êîìïàêòíî â îòäåëüíûõ ñåëåíèÿõ; â ÷àñòíîñòè, Íàçàðåò áûë äîìîì äëÿ âîñåìíàäöàòîé ÷åðåäû Õàïïèööåö. Ñëóæåáíûé (ðåëèãèîçíûé) ãîä íà÷èíàëñÿ âåñíîé â ìåñÿöå íèñàí (ñåðåäèíà ìàðòà – ñåðåäèíà àïðåëÿ), âîñüìàÿ ÷åðåäà Àâèè (Àáèè) ñëóæèëà â êîíöå ìåñÿöà àéÿð (ñåðåäèíà àïðåëÿ – ñåðåäèíà ìàÿ) è ñíîâà â êîíöå ìåñÿöà ìàðõåøâàí (ñåðåäèíà îêòÿáðÿ – ñåðåäèíà íîÿáðÿ). Êîãäà òî÷íî ýòî ïðîèñõîäèëî, íåèçâåñòíî, è íåèçâåñòíî ðåøåíèå ïðîáëåìû äîïîëíèòåëüíîãî ìåñÿöà, êîòîðûé âñòàâëÿëñÿ äâàæäû êàæäûå ñåìü ëåò èç-çà òîãî, ÷òî åâðåéñêèé êàëåíäàðü áûë ëóííûé. Ñìåíà ÷åðåä ïðîèñõîäèëà â ñóááîòó. Óïîìèíàíèå î ðàñïðåäåëåíèè ÷åðåäû Àâèè ìîæíî íàéòè â 1-é Êíèãå Ïàðàëèïîìåíîí, 24:10. Ñåìüÿ Àâèè áûëà ñåìüåé ñâÿùåííèêîâ Ààðîíîâñêîãî íàñëåäîâàíèÿ, êîòîðàÿ âåðíóëàñü â çåìëþ Èçðàèëÿ âìåñòå ñ Çîðîâàâåëåì (Çðóáàâåëåì) è Èèñóñîì (Íååì. 12:4). Óïîìèíàåòñÿ òàêæå Àâèÿ, êîòîðûé ïîäïèñàë çàâåò íå îòñòóïàòü îò Áîãà, ïðåäëîæåííûé Åçäðîé (Íååì. 10:7). Æåíà Çàõàðèè (Çåõàðüè) áûëà òàêæå èç ñâÿùåííè÷åñêîãî ðîäà, è õîòÿ ñâÿùåííèêàì íå îáÿçàòåëüíî áûëî æåíèòüñÿ íà äî÷åðÿõ ñâÿùåííèêîâ, ýòî áûëî îáû÷íûì äåëîì [335]. Çàõàðèÿ (Çåõàðüÿ) – «Áîã âñïîìíèë» [263, ð. 16–17]. Îáà îíè áûëè ïðàâåäíû ïðåä Áîãîì, ïîñòóïàÿ ïî âñåì çàïîâåäÿì è óñòàâàì Ãîñïîäíèì áåñïîðî÷íî.

6

Ïðàâåäíûé – íà èâðèòå öàäèê. Öàäèê òùàòåëüíî èñïîëíÿë âñå çàïîâåäè Çàêîíà (Òîðû), â òîì ÷èñëå ãàëàõè÷åñêèå ïîñòàíîâëåíèÿ ôàðèñååâ [70, ñ. 173], [263, ð. 6]. Ïåðåä Áîãîì – òî÷íåå, «âî ìíåíèè Áîæüåì», ëèôíå Àäîíàé [263, ð. 17]. 218


Ó íèõ íå áûëî äåòåé, èáî Åëèñàâåòà áûëà íåïëîäíà, è îáà áûëè óæå â ëåòàõ ïðåêëîííûõ. 7

Ê òîìó, êòî óìåð áåçäåòíûì, ïðèëàãàëèñü ñëîâà ïðîðîêà Èåðåìèè: «...íî ãîðüêî ïëà÷üòå îá îòõîäÿùåì â ïëåí, èáî îí óæå íå âîçâðàòèòñÿ è íå óâèäèò ðîäíîé ñòðàíû ñâîåé» (Èåð. 22:10). Áåçäåòíûé ïðèðàâíèâàëñÿ ê ìåðòâîìó. Íè îäèí ÷åëîâåê â Èçðàèëå íå äîëæåí áûë îñòàâàòüñÿ áåçäåòíûì, òàê êàê â ëþáîé ñåìüå ìîã ïîÿâèòüñÿ Ìåññèÿ [207, ð. 98]. Îäíàæäû, êîãäà îí â ïîðÿäêå ñâîåé ÷ðåäû ñëóæèë ïðåä Áîãîì, 9 ïî æðåáèþ, êàê îáûêíîâåííî áûëî ó ñâÿùåííèêîâ, äîñòàëîñü åìó âîéòè â õðàì Ãîñïîäåíü äëÿ êàæäåíèÿ, 10 à âñå ìíîæåñòâî íàðîäà ìîëèëîñü âíå âî âðåìÿ êàæäåíèÿ, – 11 òîãäà ÿâèëñÿ åìó Àíãåë Ãîñïîäåíü, ñòîÿ ïî ïðàâóþ ñòîðîíó æåðòâåííèêà êàäèëüíîãî. Íåñêîëüêî ñîòåí ñâÿùåííèêîâ ñëóæèëè åæåäíåâíî â èåðóñàëèìñêîì Õðàìå, îäíàêî óòðåííèå è äíåâíûå îáùåñòâåííûå æåðòâû (òàìèä) îñóùåñòâëÿëèñü òîëüêî íåáîëüøèì êîëè÷åñòâîì ñâÿùåííèêîâ ïî æðåáèþ. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ôóíêöèé, èñïîëíÿåìûõ â Õðàìå, îñóùåñòâëÿëîñü äâóìÿ óòðåííèìè æðåáèÿìè, ïåðåä êîòîðûìè ñâÿùåííèêè ìîëèëèñü, â òîì ÷èñëå ÷èòàëè ìîëèòâó «Ñëóøàé, Èçðàèëü!...» (Øìà, Éèñðàýëü!..). Íàèáîëåå ïðåñòèæíûì áûëî êàæäåíèå ëàäàíà íà çîëîòîì àëòàðå íåáîëüøîãî ðàçìåðà â Ñâÿòîì Õðàìå, êîòîðîå îñóùåñòâëÿë îäèí ÷åëîâåê. Åãî îáÿçàííîñòü äîñòàâàëàñü åìó ïî æðåáèþ, è, êàê ïðàâèëî, òîëüêî îäèí ðàç â æèçíè, ïîñëå ÷åãî îí íàçûâàëñÿ «áîãàòûì». Îí âîñêóðÿë ëàäàí, ïàäàë íèö â áëàãîãîâåíèè è âûõîäèë èç ñâÿòèëèùà. Ó òàêîãî ñâÿùåííèêà áûëî äâà èçáðàííûõ ïîìîùíèêà èç äðóçåé èëè ðîäñòâåííèêîâ. Îäèí èç íèõ ñíèìàë îñòàòêè óãëÿ è ôèìèàìà ïðîøëîãî äíÿ, à âòîðîé ïðèíîñèë óãëè ñ æåðòâåííèêà, íà êîòîðîì ñæèãàëèñü æåðòâåííûå æèâîòíûå. Äíåâíîå âîñêóðåíèå ñ÷èòàëîñü áîëåå âàæíûì, ÷åì óòðåííåå, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî ÿâëåíèå àíãåëà Çàõàðèè (Çåõàðüå) áûëî èìåííî â äíåâíóþ ñìåíó. Âèäåíèÿ è ÿâëåíèÿ àíãåëîâ áûëè íå ðåäêè ïðè âîñêóðåíèè ëàäàíà. Òàê Ñèìîí Ïðàâåäíûé (Øèìîí Öàäèê), êîòîðûé ñëóæèë ïåðâîñâÿùåííèêîì îêîëî 200 ã. äî í. ý. â òå÷åíèå ñîðîêà ëåò, â ïîñëåäíèé ãîä íà Äåíü Èñêóïëåíèÿ (Éîì Êèïóð), êîãäà ïåðâîñâÿùåííèê åäèíñòâåííûé ðàç çàõîäèë â Ñâÿòàÿ Ñâÿòûõ Õðàìà ñ êðîâüþ äëÿ êðîïëåíèÿ è ëàäàíîì, ñêàçàë, ÷òî â ýòîò ãîä îí óìðåò. Êîãäà åãî ñïðîñèëè, îòêóäà îí çíàåò, îí ñêàçàë: «Êàæäûé ãîä â ýòîò äåíü ñòàðûé ÷åëîâåê 8

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â áåëîé îäåæäå âõîäèë â Ñâÿòîå Ñâÿòûõ è âûõîäèë ñî ìíîé.  ýòîò ðàç îí çàøåë, íî íå âûøåë ñî ìíîþ» [356], [70, ñ. 171, 174–175]. Àíãåë æå ñêàçàë åìó: íå áîéñÿ, Çàõàðèÿ, èáî óñëûøàíà ìîëèòâà òâîÿ, è æåíà òâîÿ Åëèñàâåòà ðîäèò òåáå ñûíà, è íàðå÷åøü åìó èìÿ: Èîàíí. 13

Íàðå÷åøü åìó èìÿ... – «íàçîâåøü åãî èìÿ»; «íàçâàòü èìÿ» – ãåáðàèçì, íàïðèìåð: «...è íàðåêóò èìÿ Åìó [íàçîâóò åãî èìÿ]: ×óäíûé...» (Èñ. 9:6). èáî îí áóäåò âåëèê ïðåä Ãîñïîäîì; íå áóäåò ïèòü âèíà è ñèêåðà, è Äóõà Ñâÿòàãî èñïîëíèòñÿ åùå îò ÷ðåâà ìàòåðè ñâîåé. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ñ äåòñòâà Èîàíí äîëæåí áûë áûòü ïîñâÿùåí â îáåò íàçîðåéñòâà (×èñ. 6). Íàçîðåþ çàïðåùåíî áûëî ñòðè÷ü âîëîñû íà âðåìÿ îáåòà, åñòü è ïèòü ÷òî-ëèáî, õîòÿ áû â ìàëåéøåé ñòåïåíè ñâÿçàííîå ñ âèíîãðàäîì, à òàêæå ïðèêàñàòüñÿ ê ìåðòâîìó òåëó. Íàçîðåþ, êàê îñîáî ïîñâÿùåííîìó [îòäåëåííîìó] Áîãó, ïðåäïèñûâàëèñü ñïåöèàëüíûå æåðòâû. Îáåò ìîã áûòü äàí íà îïðåäåëåííûé ñðîê, íî ìîã è íà âñþ æèçíü. Èñêðåííèå íàçîðåè âûñîêî ïî÷èòàëèñü [339]. 16 è ìíîãèõ èç ñûíîâ Èçðàèëåâûõ îáðàòèò ê Ãîñïîäó Áîãó èõ. Ñûíîâ Èçðàèëåâûõ – áíåé Éèñðàýëü, èäèîìà èâðèòà, ñíà÷àëà îáîçíà÷àëà 12 ñûíîâåé Èàêîâà, ðîäîíà÷àëüíèêîâ êîëåí Èçðàèëÿ, à âî âðåìåíà Âòîðîãî Õðàìà – èóäååâ âîîáùå, èçðàèëüòÿí [60, ñ. 42]. 19 Àíãåë ñêàçàë åìó â îòâåò: ÿ Ãàâðèèë, ïðåäñòîÿùèé ïðåä Áîãîì, è ïîñëàí ãîâîðèòü ñ òîáîþ è áëàãîâåñòèòü òåáå ñèå. Ãàâðèèë – Ãàáðèýëü, «Áîã – ìîÿ ïîìîùü», «ãåðîé Áîæèé», «âîèí Áîæèé».  åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñïðàâåäëèâîñòü, ñóä Áîæèé, òîãäà êàê Ìèõàèë (Ìèõàýëü, «êòî ïîäîáåí Áîãó?») – ìèëîñåðäèå Áîæüå. Ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, ÷òî èìåííî Ãàâðèèë ðàçðóøèë Ñîäîì, ïîðàçèë ñëóæàíîê åãèïåòñêîé ïðèíöåññû ïîñëå òîãî, êàê îíè õîòåëè óäåðæàòü åå îò òîãî, ÷òîáû îíà âûòàùèëà Ìîèñåÿ èç Íèëà. Îí ñïàñ òðåõ þíîøåé â ïå÷è âàâèëîíñêîé è îí æå óáèë ëþäåé, ñòîÿùèõ ðÿäîì ñ íåé.  êíèãå ïðîðîêà Èåçåêèèëÿ åñòü ìåñòî, êîòîðîå ïðèâÿçûâàåòñÿ òðàäèöèåé ê ýòîìó àðõàíãåëó (÷åëîâåê â ëüíÿíîé îäåæäå): «È âèäåë ÿ, è âîò íà ñâîäå, êîòîðûé íàä ãëàâàìè Õåðóâèìîâ, êàê áû êàìåíü ñàïôèð, êàê áû íå÷òî, ïîõîæåå íà ïðåñòîë, âèäèìî áûëî íàä íèìè. È ãîâîðèë Îí ÷åëîâåêó, îäåòîìó 15

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â ëüíÿíóþ îäåæäó, è ñêàçàë: âîéäè ìåæäó êîëåñàìè ïîä Õåðóâèìîâ è âîçüìè ïîëíûå ïðèãîðøíè ãîðÿùèõ óãîëüåâ ìåæäó Õåðóâèìàìè, è áðîñü íà ãîðîä; è îí âîøåë â ìîèõ ãëàçàõ... òîãäà èç ñðåäû Õåðóâèìîâ îäèí Õåðóâèì ïðîñòåð ðóêó ñâîþ ê îãíþ, êîòîðûé ìåæäó Õåðóâèìàìè, è âçÿë è äàë â ïðèãîðøíè îäåòîìó â ëüíÿíóþ îäåæäó. Îí âçÿë è âûøåë» (Èåç. 10:1–2,7). Ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, ÷òî Ãàâðèèë õðàíèë óãîëü øåñòü ëåò â íàäåæäå, ÷òî Èçðàèëü ïîêàåòñÿ. Åñòü òàêæå óòâåðæäåíèå, ÷òî êîãäà öàðü Ñîëîìîí (Øëîìî) æåíèëñÿ íà äî÷åðè ôàðàîíà, òî àðõàíãåë Ãàâðèèë ñîøåë â ìîðå è âîòêíóë â äíî òðîñòíèêîâûé øåñò, âîêðóã êîòîðîãî íàìûëî ïî÷âó, íà êîòîðîé âûðîñ ëåñ è âïîñëåäñòâèè áûë îñíîâàí Ðèì, êîòîðûé â ñâîå âðåìÿ îâëàäåë Èçðàèëåì. Ñ÷èòàëîñü, ÷òî Ãàâðèèë ñîçäàí èç îãíÿ, à Ìèõàèë – èç ñíåãà, íî, ñòîÿ ðÿäîì äðóã ñ äðóãîì, îíè íå îïàëÿþò è íå îõëàæäàþò îäèí äðóãîãî. Ìèõàèë, â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü, ñòîèò ïî ïðàâóþ ðóêó îò òðîíà Áîæüåãî è ÿâëÿåòñÿ àíãåëîì, ïðåäñòàâëÿþùèì Èçðàèëü â íåáåñàõ, åãî íåáåñíûì êíÿçåì. Îí ñïàñ Ëîòà, áûë îäíèì èç òðåõ àíãåëîâ, ïðèøåäøèõ ê Àâðààìó ó äóáðàâû Ìàìðå. Ìèõàèë ñ÷èòàåòñÿ áîëåå âûñîêî ñòîÿùèì â èåðàðõèè àíãåëîâ, ÷åì Ãàâðèèë [208, ð. 748–749]. Ìåæäó òåì íàðîä îæèäàë Çàõàðèþ è äèâèëñÿ, ÷òî îí ìåäëèò â õðàìå. 22 Îí æå, âûéäÿ, íå ìîã ãîâîðèòü ê íèì; è îíè ïîíÿëè, ÷òî îí âèäåë âèäåíèå â õðàìå; è îí îáúÿñíÿëñÿ ñ íèìè çíàêàìè è îñòàâàëñÿ íåì.

21

Êàê ëþäè îïðåäåëèëè, ÷òî ó Çàõàðèè (Çåõàðüè) áûëî âèäåíèå? Ñóùåñòâîâàëî îñîáîå îæèäàíèå îòíîñèòåëüíî ñâÿùåííèêà, âõîäèâøåãî â Õðàì. Ëþäè äîëæíû áûëè áûòü óáåæäåíû, ÷òî âñå èäåò â ñâÿòîì ìåñòå êàê ïîëîæåíî: îá ýòîì ãîâîðèëî òî âðåìÿ, êîòîðîå ñâÿùåííèê ïðåáûâàë âíóòðè Ñâÿòîãî èëè Ñâÿòîãî Ñâÿòûõ. Íàïðèìåð, â Äåíü Èñêóïëåíèÿ (Éîì Êèïóð) ïåðâîñâÿùåííèê âõîäèë åäèíñòâåííûé ðàç çà âåñü ãîä â Ñâÿòîå Ñâÿòûõ, îêðîïëÿë åãî êðîâüþ, çàòåì âîñêóðÿë ëàäàí, ìîëèëñÿ è âûõîäèë ê ëþäÿì, îæèäàþùèì âî äâîðàõ Õðàìà. Ðàââèíñêèå ïèñàíèÿ óòâåðæäàþò, ÷òî «îí íå äîëæåí áûë ìîëèòüñÿ äîëãî, ÷òîáû íå èñïóãàòü Èçðàèëü». Ñèìîí Ïðàâåäíûé (Øèìîí Öàäèê – îêîëî 200 ã. äî í. ý.), ïåðâîñâÿùåííèê, îäíàæäû äîëüøå îáû÷íîãî ìîëèëñÿ â Ñâÿòîì Ñâÿòûõ. Áóäó÷è ñïðîøåííûì, ïî÷åìó îí çàäåðæàëñÿ, îòâåòèë, ÷òî îí ìîëèëñÿ î òîì, ÷òîáû Ãîñïîäü îòâðàòèë ðàçðóøåíèå Õðàìà. Ëþäè ñêàçàëè åìó, ÷òî îí âñå ðàâíî íå äîëæåí áûë ìîëèòüñÿ òàê äîëãî. Ïîýòîìó ëþäè ïîíÿëè, ÷òî Çàõàðèÿ âèäåë âèäåíèå ïîòîìó, ÷òî îí 221


Ìåñòî Òåêñò â Ïèñàíèè Èñ. 60:1 Âîññòàíü, ñâåòèñü, [Èåðóñàëèì], èáî ïðèøåë ñâåò òâîé, è ñëàâà Ãîñïîäíÿ âçîøëà íàä òîáîþ Èñ. 61:1 Äóõ Ãîñïîäà Áîãà íà Ìíå, èáî Ãîñïîäü ïîìàçàë Ìåíÿ áëàãîâåñòâîâàòü íèùèì, ïîñëàë Ìåíÿ èñöåëÿòü ñîêðóøåííûõ ñåðäöåì, ïðîïîâåäûâàòü ïëåííûì îñâîáîæäåíèå è óçíèêàì îòêðûòèå òåìíèöû Èñ. 61:10 Ðàäîñòüþ áóäó ðàäîâàòüñÿ î Ãîñïîäå, âîçâåñåëèòñÿ äóøà ìîÿ î Áîãå ìîåì; èáî Îí îáëåê ìåíÿ â ðèçû ñïàñåíèÿ, îäåæäîþ ïðàâäû îäåë ìåíÿ, êàê íà æåíèõà âîçëîæèë âåíåö è, êàê íåâåñòó, óêðàñèë óáðàíñòâîì Èñ. 65:25 Âîëê è ÿãíåíîê áóäóò ïàñòèñü âìåñòå, è ëåâ, êàê âîë, áóäåò åñòü ñîëîìó, à äëÿ çìåÿ ïðàõ áóäåò ïèùåþ: îíè íå áóäóò ïðè÷èíÿòü çëà è âðåäà íà âñåé ñâÿòîé ãîðå Ìîåé, ãîâîðèò Ãîñïîäü

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Ìåññèàíñêîå çíà÷åíèå Ñîáûòèÿ âðåìåí Ìåññèè

Ðàññêàç î Ìåññèè

Ðàññêàç î Ìåññèè

Ðàññêàç î âîñêðåñåíèè ïîñëå ïðèõîäà Ìåññèè


ÅÂÀÍÃÅËÈÅ ÎÒ ÈÎÀÍÍÀ


Ãëàâà 1  íà÷àëå áûëî Ñëîâî, è Ñëîâî áûëî ó Áîãà, è Ñëîâî áûëî Áîã. 2 Îíî áûëî â íà÷àëå ó Áîãà... 3 Âñå ÷ðåç Íåãî íà÷àëî áûòü, è áåç Íåãî íè÷òî íå íà÷àëî áûòü, ÷òî íà÷àëî áûòü... 14 È Ñëîâî ñòàëî ïëîòèþ, è îáèòàëî ñ íàìè, ïîëíîå áëàãîäàòè è èñòèíû; è ìû âèäåëè ñëàâó Åãî, ñëàâó, êàê Åäèíîðîäíîãî îò Îòöà. 1

 íà÷àëå – áýðåøèò, ïåðâûå ñëîâà êíèãè Áûòèå: «Â íà÷àëå ñîòâîðèë Áîã íåáî è çåìëþ» (Áûò. 1:1), ñì. êîììåíò. ê (Ìê. 1:1). Ñëîâî – ìåìðà íà àðàìåéñêîì. C ýòèì ñëîâîì ñâÿçàíà äàâíÿÿ òðàäèöèÿ îòíîñèòü ñîçäàíèå õðèñòîëîãèè Åâàíãåëèÿ îò Èîàííà ê âëèÿíèþ ýëëèíèçèðîâàííîãî åâðåÿ-ôèëîñîôà Ôèëîíà Àëåêñàíäðèéñêîãî, êîòîðûé èñïîëüçîâàë ãðå÷åñêîå ñëîâî «ëîãîñ» («ñëîâî», «ðàçóì») â ôèëîñîôñêèõ öåëÿõ. Îäíàêî Ôèëîí íå èìååò ê Åâàíãåëèþ íèêàêîãî îòíîøåíèÿ è èñòî÷íèêîì, ïîñëóæèâøèì îñíîâàíèåì äëÿ ñëîâîóïîòðåáëåíèÿ Èîàííà, ÿâëÿåòñÿ åâðåéñêàÿ òðàäèöèÿ.  àðàìåéñêèõ ïàðàôðàçàõ Ïèñàíèÿ (Òàíàõà), òàê íàçûâàåìûõ òàðãóìàõ, ñ öåëüþ ñíèçèòü àíòðîïîìîðôíîñòü (÷åëîâåêîîáðàçíîñòü) îïèñàíèÿ Áîãà, åâðåéñêèìè àâòîðàìè äîáàâëåíû ðàçëè÷íûå îïèñàíèÿ Áîæåñòâà. Íàïðèìåð, âìåñòî «È ñîòâîðèë Áîã ÷åëîâåêà ïî îáðàçó Ñâîåìó» â òàðãóìàõ ìîãëî áûòü íàïèñàíî: «È ñëîâî [ìåìðà] Áîæèå ñîçäàëî ÷åëîâåêà ïî ñâîåìó îáðàçó», âìåñòî «È ñêàçàë Áîã: äà áóäåò ñâåò» – «È ñëîâî Áîæèå ñêàçàëî: Äà áóäåò ñâåò». Òî÷íî òàêæå èñïîëüçîâàëèñü ñëîâà «ñëàâà» (èêàð) è «ïðèñóòñòâèå», «ñëàâà», «æèëèùå», «îáèòàíèå» (øåõèíà). Âñå ýòî äåëàëîñü äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû íèêòî íå ïîäóìàë, ÷òî Áîã ãîâîðèò èëè ïðèñóòñòâóåò èëè äåëàåò ÷òî-òî òàêèì æå îáðàçîì, êàê ÷åëîâåê, ÷òî ó íåãî åñòü òàêèå æå ðîò, ðóêè, íîãè, ìûøöû. È õîòÿ áîëüøèíñòâî òàðãóìîâ ñåãîäíÿ äàòèðóþòñÿ áîëåå ïîçäíèì âðåìåíåì, ÷åì Åâàíãåëèÿ, òðàäèöèÿ, êîòîðóþ îíè îòðàæàþò, î÷åâèäíî, íàìíîãî áîëåå ðàííÿÿ, ÷åì âðåìÿ èõ íàïèñàíèÿ. Ð. Ìîñëè óêàçûâàåò, ÷òî åâðåéñêèå ìóäðåöû ðàçðàáîòàëè ôàêòè÷åñêè öåëüíóþ äîêòðèíó ìåìðû, êîòîðàÿ âêëþ÷àëà â ñåáÿ øåñòü ôóíêöèé, è âñå îíè ñîçíàòåëüíî èñïîëüçóþòñÿ Èîàííîì [247, ð. 133–134]: • ìåìðà èíîãäà îòëè÷íî îò Áîãà, èíîãäà òî æå ñàìîå, ÷òî è Áîã: «Â íà÷àëå áûëî Ñëîâî, è Ñëîâî áûëî ó Áîãà, è Ñëîâî áûëî Áîã»; 344


• ìåìðà áûëî àãåíòîì ïðîöåññà òâîðåíèÿ: «Âñå ÷ðåç Íåãî íà÷àëî áûòü, è áåç Íåãî íè÷òî íå íà÷àëî áûòü, ÷òî íà÷àëî áûòü»; • ìåìðà áûëî àãåíòîì ñïàñåíèÿ: «À òåì, êîòîðûå ïðèíÿëè Åãî, âåðóþùèì âî èìÿ Åãî, äàë âëàñòü áûòü ÷àäàìè Áîæèèìè»; • ìåìðà áûëî ïîñðåäíèêîì Áîãîÿâëåíèÿ: «È Ñëîâî ñòàëî ïëîòèþ, è îáèòàëî ñ íàìè, ïîëíîå áëàãîäàòè è èñòèíû; è ìû âèäåëè ñëàâó Åãî, ñëàâó, êàê Åäèíîðîäíîãî îò Îòöà» [Ñëîâî êàê ñðåäñòâî ïðîÿâëåíèÿ è ïîêàçà Áîãà-Îòöà]; • ìåìðà áûëî àãåíòîì çàêëþ÷åíèÿ Çàâåòà: «èáî çàêîí äàí ÷ðåç Ìîèñåÿ; áëàãîäàòü æå è èñòèíà ïðîèçîøëè ÷ðåç Èèñóñà Õðèñòà» [Íîâûé Çàâåò ÷åðåç Ñëîâî-Èèñóñà]; • ìåìðà áûëî àãåíòîì îòêðîâåíèÿ: «Áîãà íå âèäåë íèêòî íèêîãäà; Åäèíîðîäíûé Ñûí, ñóùèé â íåäðå Îò÷åì, Îí ÿâèë». Èîàíí, òàêèì îáðàçîì, èñïîëüçóåò ïîíÿòèéíûé àïïàðàò, ïðèñóùèé åâðåéñêèì òàðãóìèñòàì è, î÷åâèäíî, èìåâøèé ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå â èóäåéñêîé òðàäèöèè óæå â åãî âðåìÿ, òîëüêî ñ îäíèì âàæíûì îòëè÷èåì: îí èñïîëüçóåò ïîíÿòèÿ åâðåéñêîé ýêçåãåçû òàê, ÷òîáû ïîêàçàòü, ÷òî îí îïèñûâàåò íå ïðîñòî ñâîéñòâà Áîãà (ñëîâî, ñëàâó, ïðèñóòñòâèå), íî îñîáóþ è åäèíñòâåííóþ â ñâîåì ðîäå ëè÷íîñòü Áîãà, êîòîðàÿ ïðèñóòñòâîâàëà íà çåìëå. È Ñëîâî ñòàëî ïëîòèþ, è îáèòàëî ñ íàìè, ïîëíîå áëàãîäàòè è èñòèíû; è ìû âèäåëè ñëàâó Åãî, ñëàâó, êàê Åäèíîðîäíîãî îò Îòöà – â ðóêîïèñè Åâàíãåëèÿ äëÿ «îáèòàëî» èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ðåäêîå ãðå÷åñêîå ñëîâî ñêåíîî, «æèòü â [ïàëàòêå]», êîòîðîå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ýêâèâàëåíòîì ñëîâà øåõèíà (êîðåíü ñ-ê-í), ñëàâà. «È ìû âèäåëè ñëàâó åãî» – îïÿòü èñïîëüçóåòñÿ òî æå ñëîâî øåõèíà èëè èêàð. «Êàê åäèíîðîäíîãî», «åäèíîðîäíûé» – åäèíñòâåííûé ðîæäåííûé â òîì ñìûñëå, ÷òî îäèí âûðàæàåò âñþ ïðèðîäó òîãî, êòî åãî ðîäèë (Èí. 3:16). Èîàíí ñîçíàòåëüíî èñïîëüçóåò ïîíÿòèéíûé ðÿä åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè, è îí çíàåò, ÷òî åãî ÷èòàòåëè äîëæíû óëîâèòü ýòè ïîíÿòèÿ ñ öåëüþ ïîêàçàòü, ÷òî Áîæåñòâî, êîòîðîå ïðèøëî â íàø ìèð, åñòü îñîáàÿ áîæåñòâåííàÿ ëè÷íîñòü, íàõîäÿùàÿñÿ ðÿäîì ñ Îòöîì Íåáåñíûì, íî âñå æå îòëè÷íàÿ îò Íåãî. Âñå ÷ðåç Íåãî [òî åñòü ñëîâî, ìåìðó] íà÷àëî áûòü – ñëîâà, êîòîðûå ÷àñòî áûëè íà óñòàõ ó âåðóþùåãî èóäåÿ. Êîãäà âî âðåìåíà Èèñóñà ïðîèçíîñèëîñü áëàãîñëîâåíèå Áîãó íàä åäîé (áëàãîñëîâåíèé, êàê ìû âèäåëè, áûëî ìíîãî äî è ïîñëå åäû) è áûëî íå ÿñíî, êàêîå èç íèõ âûáðàòü, èñïîëüçîâàëîñü ñàìîå îáùåå áëàãîñëîâåíèå çà òî, ÷òî âñå ïðèâåäåíî èì ê æèçíè [âñå ÷åðåç Åãî ñëîâî íà÷àëî áûòü – øåõàêîëü íèõèÿ âèäâàðî]. Òàëìóä óòâåðæäàåò, ÷òî 345


ïðîèçíîñÿ äàííîå áëàãîñëîâåíèå, ÷åëîâåê âûïîëíÿåò ñâîþ îáÿçàííîñòü áëàãîäàðèòü Áîãà ïåðåä åäîé [192]. È îò ïîëíîòû Åãî âñå ìû ïðèíÿëè è áëàãîäàòü íà áëàãîäàòü, 17 èáî çàêîí äàí ÷ðåç Ìîèñåÿ; áëàãîäàòü æå è èñòèíà ïðîèçîøëè ÷ðåç Èèñóñà Õðèñòà. 18 Áîãà íå âèäåë íèêòî íèêîãäà; Åäèíîðîäíûé Ñûí, ñóùèé â íåäðå Îò÷åì, Îí ÿâèë. 16

Âñå ìû ïðèíÿëè è áëàãîäàòü íà áëàãîäàòü – áîëåå òî÷íûé ñìûñë ôðàçû: «Ìû ïîëó÷èëè äâå áëàãîäàòè: ïåðâàÿ – Çàêîí (Òîðà) ÷åðåç Ìîèñåÿ, âòîðàÿ – áëàãîäàòü è èñòèíà, êîòîðûå ïðèøëè ÷åðåç Èèñóñà-Ìåññèþ (Ìàøèàõà)». Ðå÷ü èäåò íå î ïðîòèâîïîñòàâëåíèè – ñëîâî «èáî» è ÷àñòèöà «æå», – à î äîïîëíåíèè: ó ãîðû áëàãîäàòè, êîòîðàÿ åñòü Çàêîí (Òîðà), ïîÿâèëàñü âåðøèíà – Èèñóñ-Ìåññèÿ, ÷åðåç êîòîðîãî ïðèøëà îêîí÷àòåëüíàÿ èñòèíà è ïðîùåíèå ãðåõîâ [192].  åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè íåñêîëüêî âåùåé Ãîñïîäü ñîçäàë äî ñîçäàíèÿ ìèðà (â ðàçíûõ èñòî÷íèêàõ ïî-ðàçíîìó): ïðåñòîë ñëàâû, Ìåññèþ-Öàðÿ, Çàêîí (Òîðó), èäåàëüíûé Èçðàèëü, Õðàì, ïîêàÿíèå è ãååííó, èëè Çàêîí (Òîðó), ãååííó, ðàé, ïðåñòîë ñëàâû, Õðàì, ïîêàÿíèå è èìÿ Ìåññèè, èëè äâå âåùè äåéñòâèòåëüíî ñîòâîðåííûå – Çàêîí (Òîðó) è ïðåñòîë ñëàâû, è ÷åòûðå, êîòîðûå Áîã áûë òîëüêî íàìåðåí ñîòâîðèòü: îòöîâ, Èçðàèëÿ, Õðàì è èìÿ Ìåññèè [70, ñ. 223]. Åäèíîðîäíûé Ñûí, ñóùèé â íåäðå Îò÷åì, Îí ÿâèë – ïðåäëîæåíèå ïîñòðîåíî ïî îáðàçöó ìíîãèõ åâðåéñêèõ ôðàç, â êîòîðûõ ïîäëåæàùåå èëè äîïîëíåíèå ñòîèò â íà÷àëå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ («åäèíîðîäíûé ñûí») êàê áû îòäåëüíî îò òîãî, ÷òî èäåò äàëåå («ñóùèé â íåäðå îò÷åì»), à çàòåì äóáëèðóåòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèåì («îí»). Òàêèå ãåáðàèçìû âñòðå÷àþòñÿ â Åâàíãåëèè îò Èîàííà 28 ðàç, ó Ìàòôåÿ – 11 ðàç, ó Ìàðêà – 4 ðàçà è ó Ëóêè – 6 ðàç, íàïðèìåð: «...äåëà, êîòîðûå òâîðþ ß âî èìÿ Îòöà Ìîåãî, îíè ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò î Ìíå» (Èí. 10:25) [60, ñ. 27–28]. È âîò ñâèäåòåëüñòâî Èîàííà, êîãäà Èóäåè ïðèñëàëè èç Èåðóñàëèìà ñâÿùåííèêîâ è ëåâèòîâ ñïðîñèòü åãî: êòî òû?

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Ñëîâî «èóäåè» âñòðå÷àåòñÿ âî âñåì Íîâîì Çàâåò ïî÷òè 200 ðàç, à â Åâàíãåëèè îò Èîàííà – ñåìüäåñÿò îäèí ðàç. Êîãî â Åâàíãåëèÿõ íàçûâàþò «èóäåÿìè»? Ìîæíî óòâåðæäàòü âñëåä çà Ä. Ñòåðíîì, ÷òî ýòîò òåðìèí (ïî-ãðå÷åñêè èóäàéîé, åä. ÷. – èóäàéîñ) íèêîãäà íå íåñåò óêàçàíèÿ íà åâðåéñêèé íàðîä â öåëîì (âåðóþùèõ åâðååâ, â ñîâðåìåííîì çíà÷åíèè èóäååâ) è ïîòîìó ýòî ñëîâî â Íî346


âîì Çàâåòå íåëüçÿ ïåðåâîäèòü êàê «åâðåè». Âîçìîæíû òðè ðàçëè÷íûõ çíà÷åíèÿ ñëîâà èóäàéîé è ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî åìó åâðåéñêîãî éåõóäèì: 1) ïðåäñòàâèòåëè êîëåíà Èóäû (èâð. Éåõóäà, ãðå÷. Éóäàñ); 2) ëþäè, èñïîâåäóþùèå èóäåéñêóþ ðåëèãèþ, òî åñòü èóäåè; 3) ëþäè æèâóùèå â Èóäåå èëè ðîäîì èç íåå (èâð. Éåõóäà, ãðå÷. Éóäàéà). Òàê êàê ãðàíèöû Èóäåè íå îñòàâàëèñü ïîñòîÿííûìè, âî âðåìåíà Èèñóñà ïîä ýòèì íàçâàíèåì ìîãëè ïîäðàçóìåâàòüñÿ òðè ðåãèîíà: à) Èóäåÿ «â ñòðîãîì ñìûñëå» – òåððèòîðèÿ, çàêðåïëåííàÿ çà êîëåíîì Èóäû, íå âêëþ÷àþùàÿ Ñàìàðèþ (Øîìðîí) è Ãàëèëåþ (Ãàëèëü); á) òåððèòîðèÿ, íàõîäÿùàÿñÿ ïîä âëàñòüþ ïðîêóðàòîðà Ïîíòèÿ Ïèëàòà, à èìåííî Èóäåÿ âàðèàíòà (à) ïëþñ Ñàìàðèÿ è Èäóìåÿ; â) öàðñòâî Èðîäà (Õîðäîñà) Âåëèêîãî è ïîñëåäíèõ Õàñìîíååâ, òî åñòü èñòîðè÷åñêàÿ Çåìëÿ Èçðàèëÿ (Ýðåö Éèñðàýëü) â öåëîì: Èóäåÿ âàðèàíòà (á) ïëþñ Ãàëèëåÿ, ïëþñ òåððèòîðèÿ íà ñåâåð îò Ãàëèëåè (ñîâðåìåííûé Ëèâàí) è ê âîñòîêó îò ðåêè Èîðäàí (Ãîëàíñêèå âûñîòû è îáëàñòè ñîâðåìåííûõ Èîðäàíèè è Ñèðèè).  íàøå âðåìÿ ñëîâî èóäàéîé îçíà÷àåò ëèøü âòîðîé èç ýòèõ òðåõ âàðèàíòîâ (èóäåè ïî âåðîèñïîâåäàíèþ), âî âðåìåíà æå Èèñóñà áûëè âîçìîæíû âñå òðè çíà÷åíèÿ. Íà ïðîòÿæåíèè âñåõ ÷åòûðåõ Åâàíãåëèé è â Êíèãå Äåÿíèé 1–8 èóäàéîé îçíà÷àåò «èóäåÿíå», òî åñòü æèòåëè Èóäåè âàðèàíòà 3à, à íå «åâðåè». Êîãäà ýòè êíèãè íàçûâàþò åâðååâ èóäàéîé, ýòî îáû÷íî äåëàåòñÿ äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ïðîâåñòè ðàçëè÷èå ìåæäó åâðåÿìè èç Èóäåè, òî åñòü èóäåÿíàìè, è åâðåÿìè Ãàëèëåè è äðóãèõ îáëàñòåé. Êîãäà åâðåè òîãî âðåìåíè ãîâîðèëè î ñåáå â ðåëèãèîçíîì ñìûñëå, îíè íåèçìåííî óïîòðåáëÿëè âûðàæåíèå «íàðîä Èçðàèëÿ». Ýòî ìîæíî óâèäåòü êàê â Ìèøíå, òàê è â Íîâîì Çàâåòå (Ðèì. 9–11), (Ðèì. 11:26à), (Åô. 2:12). Åâðåè èç ïðîâèíöèè Èóäåÿ (èóäåÿíå) ñëàâèëèñü îñîáîé ïðèâåðæåííîñòüþ ê òåì ôîðìàì èóäàèçìà, êîòîðûå ðàçðàáàòûâàëè äâå ïàðòèè ñî «øòàá-êâàðòèðàìè» â Èåðóñàëèìå – ïàðòèÿ ôàðèñååâ è ïàðòèÿ ñàääóêååâ (ê êîòîðûì ïðèíàäëåæàëî áîëüøèíñòâî ñâÿùåííèêîâ, êîõàíèì). Èìåííî ýòè åâðåè èç Èóäåè, ïðè÷åì, ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü, äàæå íå âñå îíè, à ëèøü îïðåäåëåííàÿ ãðóïïà íàõîäèëèñü â ïåðâûõ ðÿäàõ îïïîçèöèè Èèñóñó, êàê îá ýòîì ïîâåñòâóåò Èîàíí. Êîãäà òåðìèí èóäàéîé èñïîëüçóåòñÿ íååâðåÿìè â Åâàíãåëèÿõ è â Êíèãå Äåÿíèé 1–8, òî ÷àùå âñåãî ïîäðàçóìåâàþòñÿ çíà÷åíèÿ 3á èëè 3â, òàê êàê â ýòîì ñëó÷àå îíî íåñåò äîïîëíèòåëüíûé ïîëèòè÷åñ347


Çà÷åì Ïåòð ïðûãàë â îçåðî? Âî ÷òî îí áûë îäåò? Íà Ãåíèñàðåòñêîì îçåðå (Êèíåðåò) ðûáó ëîâèëè ÷àñòî îñîáûì ñïîñîáîì, íàçûâàåìûì «âåðàíäà», «òåððàñà». Íåâîä, ñîñòîÿâøèé èç äâóõ-òðåõ ñëîåâ ñåòè, áðîñàëñÿ â âîäó, îêðóæàÿ êîñÿê ðûáû. Íåâîä óõîäèë â âîäó âåðòèêàëüíî, ðÿäîì ñ íèì çàáðàñûâàëñÿ âòîðîé, êîòîðûé ïîääåðæèâàëñÿ ïóñòîòåëûì òðîñòíèêîì íà ïëàâó. Çàòåì ðûáó ïóãàëè è îíà íà÷èíàëà âûïðûãèâàòü ÷åðåç êðàé ïåðâîãî íåâîäà è ïîïàäàëà âî âòîðîé. Îñòàòêè ðûáû â ïåðâîì íåâîäå ëîâèëèñü ïóòåì çàáðàñûâàíèÿ ïðîñòîé ñåòè â öåíòð êðóãà. Ýòîò òðåòèé íåâîä íåìåäëåííî äîñòàâàëñÿ ðûáàêàìè èç âîäû ñî äíà îçåðà âìåñòå ñ óëîâîì.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå Ïåòð áûë ïîëíîñòüþ áåç îäåæäû, êàê è áîëüøèíñòâî ðûáàêîâ òîãî âðåìåíè. Îí òîëüêî ÷òî çàáðîñèë òðåòüþ ñåòü è ñîáèðàëñÿ ïðûãíóòü çà íåé â âîäó. Åñëè îí íå äîñòàë áû åå ñðàçó, òî îí ìîã íå íàéòè åå ïîçæå íà äíå. Íî îí äîëæåí áûë ÿâèòüñÿ ïåðåä Ó÷èòåëåì, â êîòîðîì óçíàëè Èèñóñà, â îäåæäå. Ìèíèìóìîì áûëî äëÿ íåãî ïîÿâèòüñÿ â íàáåäðåííîé ïîâÿçêå. Î÷åâèäíî, åå îí è íàäåë, çàòåì îí ïðûãíóë çà ñåòüþ è, ïîäíÿâøèñü íà ïîâåðõíîñòü, ïîäíÿë ñåòü â ëîäêó è âñå ïîïëûëè ê áåðåãó [302]. Êîãäà æå îíè îáåäàëè, Èèñóñ ãîâîðèò Ñèìîíó Ïåòðó: Ñèìîí Èîíèí! ëþáèøü ëè òû Ìåíÿ áîëüøå, íåæåëè îíè? Ïåòð ãîâîðèò Åìó: òàê, Ãîñïîäè! Òû çíàåøü, ÷òî ÿ ëþáëþ Òåáÿ. Èèñóñ ãîâîðèò åìó: ïàñè àãíöåâ Ìîèõ... 17 Ãîâîðèò åìó â òðåòèé ðàç: Ñèìîí Èîíèí! ëþáèøü ëè òû Ìåíÿ? Ïåòð îïå÷àëèëñÿ, ÷òî â òðåòèé ðàç ñïðîñèë åãî: ëþáèøü ëè Ìåíÿ? è ñêàçàë Åìó: Ãîñïîäè! Òû âñå çíàåøü; Òû çíàåøü, ÷òî ÿ ëþáëþ Òåáÿ. Èèñóñ ãîâîðèò åìó: ïàñè îâåö Ìîèõ.

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Èèñóñ âîññòàíàâëèâàåò àïîñòîëüñòâî Ïåòðà òðèæäû, ïî ÷èñëó îòðå÷åíèé, òðåáóÿ ó íåãî çàâåðåíèé â ëþáâè ê ñåáå. Òåì ñàìûì îí äåëàåò åãî, ïðîøåäøåãî ñëîæíûé ïóòü ïàäåíèÿ è âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ, ðóêîâîäèòåëåì îñòàëüíûõ âåðóþùèõ, ïàñòóõîì Èèñóñîâûõ îâåö [80, ð. 396].

396


ÃËÎÑÑÀÐÈÉ

Àãàäà – ÷àñòü Óñòíîé Òîðû, ñîñòîÿùàÿ èç ïðèò÷, ëåãåíä, ïðîïîâåäåé, ïîýòè÷åñêèõ ãèìíîâ, ðàñøèðÿþùèõ è äîïîëíÿþùèõ áèáëåéñêèå ñþæåòû. Àìåí – ñëîâî, ïîäòâåðæäàþùåå êëÿòâó èëè ìîëèòâó, îäîáðèòåëüíîå õâàëåáíîå âûñêàçûâàíèå, ïîäòâåðæäåíèå âûïîëíåíèÿ áîæåñòâåííûõ îáåùàíèé. Àìèäà – îñíîâíàÿ ìîëèòâà èóäåéñêîãî áîãîñëóæåíèÿ, êîòîðàÿ ïðîèçíîñèòñÿ òðè ðàçà â äåíü, ñâîèì íàçâàíèåì îáÿçàíà îáû÷àþ ïðîèçíîñèòü ìîëèòâó ñòîÿ. Òàêæå íàçûâàåòñÿ òåôèëà, «ìîëèòâà» èëè Øìîíý-Ýñðå, «âîñåìíàäöàòü», òàê êàê â ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîì âèäå ñîñòîÿëà èç âîñåìíàäöàòè áëàãîñëîâåíèé (áåðàõîò). Àïîêðèôû è ïñåâäîýïèãðàôû – ñôàðèì õèöîíèèì, «âíåøíèå êíèãè», äâå ãðóïïû ñî÷èíåíèé ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà, ñâÿçàííûå ïî ñâîèì òåìàì èëè ìîòèâàì ñ Áèáëèåé, íî íå âêëþ÷åííûå â åâðåéñêèé áèáëåéñêèé êàíîí. Àïîêðèôû áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ ÿâëÿþòñÿ àíîíèìíûìè ñî÷èíåíèÿìè èñòîðè÷åñêîãî è äèäàêòè÷åñêîãî õàðàêòåðà, à ïñåâäîýïèãðàôû – êíèãàìè âèäåíèé, ïðèïèñûâàåìûìè ïàòðèàðõàì (Åíîõó, Èñàéå, Ìîèñåþ è äð.). Áåéò-Ãèëëåëü è Áåéò-Øàììàé – äâå øêîëû òîëêîâàíèÿ Òîðû, íàçâàííûå òàê ïî èìåíàì Ãèëëåëÿ è Øàììàÿ, æèâøèõ íà ðóáåæå íàøåé ýðû. Äèñêóññèè ýòèõ øêîë îõâàòûâàþò îñíîâíîå ñîäåðæàíèå Óñòíîé Òîðû ïîñëåäíèõ äâóõ-òðåõ ïîêîëåíèé ïåðèîäà Âòîðîãî Õðàìà. Áëàãîñëîâåíèå (áðàõà) – ìîëèòâåííàÿ ôîðìóëà, ñîäåðæàùàÿ áëàãîäàðíîñòü Áîãó. 397


Áîãîõóëüñòâî (õèëëóëü õàØåì) – îñêâåðíåíèå èìåíè Áîãà.  Áèáëèè óïîòðåáëÿëîñü â äâóõ çíà÷åíèÿõ: êàê áîãîõóëüñòâî è êàê íàðóøåíèå ðåëèãèîçíûõ çàïðåòîâ. Ïîçæå ê íåìó îòíåñëè ëþáûå äåéñòâèÿ, îòñòóïàþùèå îò ðåëèãèîçíîãî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà. Âîñêðåñåíèå èç ìåðòâûõ (òõèÿò õàìåòèì) – âåðà â òî, ÷òî â îïðåäåëåííîå âðåìÿ ìåðòâûå áóäóò îæèâëåíû âî ïëîòè è áóäóò ñíîâà æèòü íà çåìëå, îäíî èç îñíîâíûõ ïîëîæåíèé åâðåéñêîé ýñõàòîëîãèè íàðÿäó ñ âåðîé â ïðèøåñòâèå Ìåññèè. Ãàëàõà – íîðìàòèâíàÿ ÷àñòü èóäàèçìà, ðåãëàìåíòèðóþùàÿ ðåëèãèîçíóþ, ñåìåéíóþ è ãðàæäàíñêóþ æèçíü åâðååâ, ñîâîêóïíîñòü çàêîíîâ, ñîäåðæàùèõñÿ â Òîðå, Òàëìóäå è â áîëåå ïîçäíåé ðàââèíñêîé ëèòåðàòóðå, à òàêæå êàæäûé èç ýòèõ çàêîíîâ â îòäåëüíîñòè. Ãåáðàèçì – îáîðîò, ñâîéñòâåííûé äðåâíååâðåéñêîìó ÿçûêó, èâðèòó. Ãåçåðà øåâà («àíàëîãèÿ») – îäíî èç åâðåéñêèõ ïðàâèë òîëêîâàíèÿ Ïèñàíèÿ (ìèäîò), êîòîðîå ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ òàêæå â Íîâîì Çàâåòå. Óìîçàêëþ÷åíèå, îñíîâàííîå íà âûÿâëåíèè â òåêñòå Ïèñàíèÿ îäèíàêîâûõ âûðàæåíèé èëè ñëîâ. Ãåìàòðèÿ – íàóêà î áóêâàõ (îò ãðå÷. ãåîìåòðèÿ èëè ãðàìàòåÿ), òåõíèêà èíòåðïðåòàöèè òåêñòà, êîòîðàÿ èñïîëüçóåò ñóùåñòâóþùåå â àëôàâèòå èâðèòà ñîîòâåòñòâèå ìåæäó áóêâîé è öèôðîé, êîãäà áóêâà àëôàâèòà îäíîâðåìåííî ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷èñëîì, è ïîýòîìó ëþáîå ñëîâî ìîæåò âîñïðèíèìàòüñÿ êàê øèôð. Ãèëëåëü – íàèáîëåå çíà÷èòåëüíûé èç çàêîíîó÷èòåëåé ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà (êîíåö I â. äî í. ý. – íà÷. I â. í. ý.). Ðîäèëñÿ â Âàâèëîíèè. Ñîãëàñíî òðàäèöèè, ïðîèñõîäèë èç ðîäà Äàâèäà. Çàíèìàë äîëæíîñòü ãëàâû Ñèíåäðèîíà ïðèìåðíî ñ 30 ã. äî í. ý. ïî 10 ã. í. ý. Óñòàíîâèë äèíàñòèþ, êîòîðàÿ áîëåå 400 ëåò ðóêîâîäèëà åâðåéñêîé æèçíüþ, ðàçðàáîòàë ìíîæåñòâî ïðàâèë òîëêîâàíèÿ Òîðû è âûâåäåíèÿ èç íåå çàêîíîâ. Ãîé – â Áèáëèè ñëîâî óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â çíà÷åíèè «íàðîä».  Êíèãå Èñõîä (19:6) îí èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê èçðàèëüòÿ398


íàì («ñâÿòîé íàðîä», ãîé êàäîø). Âî ìíîæåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå (ãîèì) ýòîò òåðìèí îáîçíà÷àåò ÿçû÷åñêèå íàðîäû, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ åâðåè áóäóò ðàññåÿíû â ñëó÷àå íåñîáëþäåíèÿ çàïîâåäåé Òîðû è ñ êîòîðûìè Çàâåò íåâîçìîæåí. Äåñÿòü çàïîâåäåé – «äåñÿòü ñëîâ», àñåðåò õàäåâàðèì, àñåðåò õàäèááðîò, ïðåäïèñàíèÿ, íèñïîñëàííûå Áîãîì ñîáðàâøèìñÿ ïîñëå áåãñòâà èç Åãèïòà ó ïîäíîæèÿ ãîðû Ñèíàé åâðåÿì. Åññåè – ðåëèãèîçíàÿ ãðóïïà êîíöà ýïîõè Âòîðîãî Õðàìà. Îáðàçîâàëè îáîñîáëåííîå è çàìêíóòîå áðàòñòâî, ñ÷èòàÿ ñåáÿ åäèíñòâåííî èñòèííûì Èçðàèëåì, òàê êàê, ïî èõ ìíåíèþ, ðåëèãèîçíàÿ æèçíü â ãîðîäàõ è Õðàì áûëè áåçíàäåæíî èñïîð÷åíû. Æåðòâîïðèíîøåíèÿ – âûðàæåíèå ïîêîðíîñòè è áëàãîäàðíîñòè Áîãó, èñêóïëåíèå ãðåõîâ è î÷èùåíèå îò íå÷èñòîòû.  Êíèãå Áûòèå îáùèì òåðìèíîì äëÿ æåðòâîïðèíîøåíèÿ ñëóæèò ñëîâî ìèíõà («äàð»), îáîçíà÷àâøåå äâà îòäåëüíûõ âèäà æåðòâîïðèíîøåíèé: îëà («âñåñîææåíèå») è çåâàõ («çàêëàíèå»). Îëà ñæèãàëàñü íà æåðòâåííèêå, öåëèêîì ïðåäíàçíà÷àÿñü Áîãó, à çåâàõ ñúåäàëè ïîñëå æåðòâîïðèíîøåíèÿ, ñæèãàëàñü òîëüêî ÷àñòü æåðòâû. Âïîñëåäñòâèè ê îñíîâíûì âèäàì æåðòâîïðèíîøåíèÿ äîáàâèëèñü èñêóïèòåëüíûå æåðòâû, õàòòàò è àøàì, a òàêæå ðàçíîîáðàçíûå äîáðîâîëüíûå æåðòâû, â òîì ÷èñëå áåñêðîâíûå. Çàâåò (áðèò) – äîãîâîð, çàêëþ÷åííûé ìåæäó Áîãîì è èçáðàííûì Èì èçðàèëüñêèì íàðîäîì.  îòâåò íà îáåùàíèå Áîãà äàðîâàòü ñâîåìó íàðîäó áåñ÷èñëåííîå ïîòîìñòâî ïîñëåäíèé áðàë íà ñåáÿ îáÿçàòåëüñòâà ñîáëþäàòü ïðåäïèñàííûå Áîãîì çàïîâåäè (ìèöâîò). Âïåðâûå Çàâåò áûë ïðîâîçãëàøåí ìåæäó Áîãîì è ïàòðèàðõîì Àâðààìîì, âïîñëåäñòâèè åãî ïîäòâåðäèëè ïàòðèàðõè Èñààê è Èàêîâ. Îêîí÷àòåëüíîå îôîðìëåíèå äîãîâîðà ïðîèñõîäèò â ìîìåíò Îòêðîâåíèÿ íà Ñèíàå. Èçãíàíèå – ãàëóò, ãþëà, ïåðâîíà÷àëüíî îáà ñëîâà îçíà÷àëè èçãíàíèå åâðååâ ñî ñâîåé çåìëè ïîñëå ïàäåíèÿ Ñåâåðíîãî öàðñòâà ïîä óäàðàìè Àññèðèéñêîãî âîéñêà â 721 ã. äî í. ý. è íàøåñòâèÿ âàâèëîíÿí íà Þæíîå öàðñòâî â 587 ã. äî í. ý., à â ïåðèîä ýëëèíèçìà ãþëà ñòàëà îçíà÷àòü âñå ñòðàíû çà ïðåäåëàìè Çåìëè Èçðàèëÿ, ãäå ïðîæèâàëè åâðåè. Ïîçæå âîçâðàùåíèå èçãíàííûõ åâðååâ íà ðîä399


íóþ çåìëþ ñòàëî ðàññìàòðèâàòüñÿ êàê âàæíåéøåå ñîáûòèå, îòêðûâàþùåå ìåññèàíñêóþ ýïîõó. Èçðàèëü (Ýðåö Éèñðàýëü, «Çåìëÿ Èçðàèëÿ») – ïåðâîíà÷àëüíî ñëîâî Èçðàèëü îáîçíà÷àëî ïàòðèàðõà Èàêîâà, à ïîçäíåå áûëî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíî íà âåñü íàðîä, îáðàçîâàííûé åãî ïîòîìêàìè («äåòè Èçðàèëåâû», áíåé Éèñðàýëü).  ïåðâîé Êíèãå Öàðñòâ (13:19) âïåðâûå ãîâîðèòñÿ î «çåìëå Èçðàèëÿ», Ýðåö Éèñðàýëü, è ñ òåõ ïîð ýòî âûðàæåíèå óïîòðåáëÿëîñü ïîñòîÿííî äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ ñòðàíû. Éîì Êèïóð – «Äåíü ïðîùåíèÿ», «Äåíü èñêóïëåíèÿ», «Ñóäíûé Äåíü», ñàìûé âàæíûé â åâðåéñêîé òðàäèöèè ïðàçäíèê, äåíü ïîñòà, ïîêàÿíèÿ è îòïóùåíèÿ ãðåõîâ. Îòìå÷àåòñÿ â äåñÿòûé äåíü ìåñÿöà òèøðè (ñåíòÿáðü-îêòÿáðü) è ÿâëÿåòñÿ çàâåðøåíèåì äåñÿòè äíåé ïîêàÿíèÿ. Áèáëèÿ òîëüêî ýòîò ïðàçäíèê íàçûâàåò «ñóááîòîé ïîêîÿ», ïðåäïèñûâàÿ â Éîì Êèïóð «íèêàêîé ðàáîòû íå äåëàòü» è «ñìèðÿòü äóøó (òî åñòü ïîñòèòüñÿ).  ýïîõó Âòîðîãî Õðàìà âñþ ñëóæáó ïðàçäíèêà âåë ïåðâîñâÿùåííèê, ñîâåðøàÿ æåðòâîïðèíîøåíèÿ – êàê îáû÷íûå, òàê è äëÿ î÷èùåíèÿ Õðàìà, Ñâÿòàÿ Ñâÿòûõ, æåðòâåííèêà è ñâÿùåííîé óòâàðè, à òàêæå âî èñêóïëåíèå ãðåõîâ ñâîèõ è ñîáñòâåííîé ñåìüè, ñîñëîâèÿ ñâÿùåííèêîâ è âñåãî íàðîäà.  õîäå ñëóæáû ïðàçäíèêà îí åäèíñòâåííûé ðàç â ãîäó ïðîèçíîñèë âñëóõ ïîäëèííîå èìÿ Áîãà, âõîäèë â Ñâÿòàÿ Ñâÿòûõ, ãäå âîñêóðÿë ôèìèàì, îêðîïëÿë êðîâüþ æåðòâåííûõ æèâîòíûõ ñòåíû è ìîëèëñÿ çà áëàãîäåíñòâèå íàðîäà. Êàëåíäàðü áèáëåéñêèé – ëóííûé êàëåíäàðü, íàçâàíèÿ áîëüøèíñòâà ìåñÿöåâ êîòîðîãî áûëè çàèìñòâîâàíû åâðåÿìè â ïåðèîä âàâèëîíñêîãî ïëåíåíèÿ, õîòÿ íàðÿäó ñ ýòèì ñîõðàíèëèñü îðèãèíàëüíûå äðåâíååâðåéñêèå íàçâàíèÿ íåêîòîðûõ ìåñÿöåâ. Ìåñÿö ýòàíèì/òèøðè áûë ìåñÿöåì, ñ êîòîðîãî íà÷èíàëñÿ îòñ÷åò íîâîãî áèáëåéñêîãî ãîäà. Ïîñëå èñõîäà èç Åãèïòà Áîã èçìåíèë ýòîò ïîðÿäîê, îáúÿâèâ ïåðâûì ìåñÿöåì ãîäà àâèâ/íèñàí. Êàëü âýõîìåð («ëåãêîå è òÿæåëîå») – îäíî èç åâðåéñêèõ ïðàâèë òîëêîâàíèÿ Ïèñàíèÿ (ìèäîò), êîòîðîå ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â Íîâîì Çàâåòå, óìîçàêëþ÷åíèå îò ìåíåå ñëîæíîãî (êàëü, «ëåãêîå») ê áîëåå ñëîæíîìó (õîìåð, «òÿæåëîå»). Èìååò ôîðìó «åñëè À, òî íàñêîëüêî áîëüøå/ìåíüøå Á». 400


Êàøðóò – êîìïëåêñ ïðàâèë, êàñàþùèõñÿ âîïðîñîâ ïèòàíèÿ è ðàçðåøåííûõ äëÿ ýòîãî ïðîäóêòîâ, êîòîðûå îñíîâûâàþòñÿ íà Òîðå. Êíèæíèêè (ñîôåðèì) – îñîáàÿ ãðóïïà ìóäðåöîâ, êîòîðûå ñîãëàñíî ðàââèíñêîé òðàäèöèè ïðèøëè íà ñìåíó ïðîðîêàì. Ïîëó÷èâ îò ñâîèõ ïðåäøåñòâåííèêîâ óñòíóþ òðàäèöèþ (Óñòíóþ Òîðó), îíè ïåðåäàëè åå Ñèìîíó Ïðàâåäíèêó (Øèìîíó Öàäèêó), ïåðâîìó óïîìèíàåìîìó â òàëìóäè÷åñêèõ èñòî÷íèêàõ ðàââèíó, æèâøåìó â III â. äî í. ý. Ïåðâîíà÷àëüíî â îáÿçàííîñòè êíèæíèêîâ âõîäèë ïîäñ÷åò áóêâ â Áèáëèè äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ñîõðàíèòü òåêñò â èçíà÷àëüíîì ñîâåðøåíñòâå: ñâèòîê, â êîòîðîì áûëà äîïóùåíà îøèáêà äàæå â îäíîé áóêâå, íå ïîäëåæàë èñïîëüçîâàíèþ. Êîâ÷åã Çàâåòà (àðîí õàáåðèò) – äåðåâÿííûé êîâ÷åã, èçãîòîâëåííûé ñïåöèàëüíî äëÿ õðàíåíèÿ ñêðèæàëåé Çàâåòà.  ãîäû ñêèòàíèé åâðååâ ïî ïóñòûíå õðàíèëñÿ â ïåðåíîñíîé ñêèíèè, à çàòåì áûë óñòàíîâëåí â Ñâÿòîå Ñâÿòûõ â Õðàìå. Êîøåðíûé – «ïðèãîäíûé», «ïîäõîäÿùèé» (â îòëè÷èå îò ïàñóëü – «íåïîäõîäÿùèé»). Ïîíÿòèå èñïîëüçóåòñÿ â ðàçëè÷íûõ îáëàñòÿõ ðàââèíñêîãî ïðàâà, îäíàêî â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ñ ïîíÿòèåì êîøåðíîãî àññîöèèðóåòñÿ òà îáëàñòü ïðàâà, êîòîðàÿ êàñàåòñÿ ïèùåâûõ îãðàíè÷åíèé. Ëåâèðàòíûé áðàê (éèáóì) – áèáëåéñêèé îáû÷àé, êîòîðûé ïðåäïèñûâàåò äåâåðþ («áðàòó ìóæà» îò ëàò. ëåâèð, îòñþäà «ëåâèðàòíûé») èëè çà íåèìåíèåì åãî – ëþáîìó äðóãîìó íàèáîëåå áëèçêîìó ðîäñòâåííèêó âäîâû áåç ðåáåíêà îáÿçàííîñòü âçÿòü åå â æåíû, ÷òîáû äàòü åé ïîòîìñòâî, êîòîðîå áóäåò ñ÷èòàòüñÿ ïîòîìñòâîì óìåðøåãî ñóïðóãà. Ëåâèòû – ÷ëåíû êîëåíà Ëåâèÿ, îäíîãî èç ñûíîâåé Èàêîâà-Èçðàèëÿ, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ðîäà Ààðîíà. Èõ îáÿçàííîñòè ñâîäèëèñü ê òîìó, ÷òîáû ïðèñëóæèâàòü ñâÿùåííèêàì (êîõýíàì) ïðè ñîâåðøåíèè ðåëèãèîçíûõ îáðÿäîâ, íàïðèìåð ïåíèåì è òàíöàìè. Äëÿ ïîääåðæàíèÿ ñîáñòâåííîãî ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ îñóùåñòâëÿëè ñáîð äåñÿòèíû, ÷àñòü îò êîòîðîé îòäàâàëè ñâÿùåííèêàì. Ëóëàâ – âåòâü ôèíèêîâîé ïàëüìû, îäèí èç ÷åòûðåõ âèäîâ ðàñòåíèé, êîòîðûå íåîáõîäèìî äåðæàòü â ðóêàõ â äåíü Ïðàçäíèêà Øàëàøåé (Ñóêêîò). 401


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