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Volume XVII Number 3 Spring 2010 An Independent, Community-Based Magazine About Latin@s at Ohio State

In This Issue: Strategizing For Survival in the Face of an Economic Downturn Recruiting Hispanics Students to Ohio State in a Tight Ohio Market The 2010 Census and Hispanics in Historical Perspective The Transition of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? It’s Time to Start the Countdown to the World Cup!

Latin@s at Ohio State Show Their Creativity

www.quepasa.osu.edu


Spring Is a Welcome Friend

Esquina del Editor

By Michael J. Alarid

Lo! where the rosy-bosomed Hours, Fair Venus' train, appear, Disclose the long-expecting flowers, And wake the purple year! Ode on The Spring —Thomas Gray (1742) We enter spring; happily bidding farewell to winter’s chill and welcoming the mildest and most pleasant season in the state of Ohio. Here and in most places, spring is commonly associated with a time of rebirth, a season for blooms and blossoms. For us, this spring is also the time of the U.S. Census, a chance for the Latin@ community in Ohio and beyond to be counted and to secure much needed resources for local schools and community development. This remains our top priority as Latin@s so please encourage your family and friends to actively participate this year, so that we too might blossom. Interestingly, spring also signals the end of a school year and gives us cause to reflect on the progress for the year, the current challenges we face, and the future of both ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? and the Latin@ community at OSU. We have made a good deal of progress this year, specifically by making a concerted effort to showcase the scholarship and talents of our student body. While we are always pleased to supply our readers with profiles, news, and useful tips, we are also proud to have added more diverse subject matter to our content. Thus far the History and Folklore sections have featured articles from both graduate students and recent graduates of OSU, and we expect these sections to continue into next year.

In addition, we are proud to note that all of our covers this year were provided by OSU students! This edition is no exception, as our cover features artwork by local painter and current OSU student Ana Higuera; she and two other artists are the subject of our feature article and pictorial, The Artistic Side. We continue our tradition of highlighting prominent faculty by exploring the career of Professor Jose Cabral in A Lifetime of Service; we also take a look at the unlikely career of graduate student Carlos Pimentel in Language Is Happiness. In addition, our History section continues with The 2010 Census and Hispanics in Historical Perspective, a timely article by historian and recent Ohio State Ph.D. Robert Robinson. Our Folklore section features the writing of Mickey Weems, another recent Ph.D. from OSU, who explores the lives of some new immigrants to Ohio in The Chipotle Chronicles. We continue to face new challenges with every passing day, but the one that looms largest is the sagging economy, a reality that many OSU graduates are about to confront. To prepare students we offer guidance from Ernesto Escoto in Bouncing Back, a guide to keeping a good attitude if you are unable to find a position after graduation. Additionally, Ana Berríos helps students entering the job market think more strategically in Tight Market Demands More Effort. To round out our advice for students completing their degrees, Vincent Sanchez Jr. advocates for the continuing development of a Hispanic Alumni Society in Staying Connected. Finally, our future is examined: Normando Caban looks at the state of Latin@ recruitment and how recruitment policies might

Editorial Board

Mauricio Espinoza

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affect the Latin@ community in his thoughtprovoking article Facing the Challenges on our Horizon. Additionally, Yolanda Zepeda looks at the blossoming Latin@ communities in the Midwest and discusses the importance of education in Aiming for Success. On a less serious note, our designer Bruno Ribeiro gazes into his crystal ball and gets us all excited for World Cup action in Predictions for South Africa. In addition, Giovana Covarrubias and I continue our food reviews by evaluating a new Cuban restaurant with a bright future in Plantain Café Enriches Downtown with Cuban Fare. Finally, here at ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? we are experiencing something of a rebirth ourselves, as long-time Director Víctor Mora passes the torch to Dr. José Villa and steps back to become part of our Editorial Board. We appreciate his 17 years of service to the magazine and wish him well in his new role. We also formally announce that we are now part of the Office of Minority Affairs, a partnership that will no doubt solidify the place of our Latin@ publication within the university for years to come. This transition is more thoroughly explored by Víctor Mora in his article The Transition of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Regardless of these changes, trust that you can continue to count on ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? to produce a high-quality product designed to represent the Latin@ community at OSU, in Columbus, and beyond. We appreciate your readership and in many cases the friendships we have developed this year; we look forward to continuing to serve your needs in years to come. Kindest regards, M.J. Alarid

Staff

Monica Frías-Boson

Víctor Mora

Michael J. Alarid

Bruno Ribeiro

Giovana Covarrubias


Editor Michael J. Alarid Designer Bruno Ribeiro

6 8 10

Volume XVII Number 3 Spring 2010

Assistant Editor Giovana Covarrubias

Features

Editorial Board Mauricio Espinoza Monica Frías-Boson Víctor J. Mora

Bouncing Back Coping and Thriving in Our Current Financial Woes By Ernesto R. Escoto, Ph.D. Tight Market Demands More Effort Strategizing For Survival in the Face of an Economic Downturn By Ana Berríos The Transition of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? By Victor J. Mora

14 20 22

Executive Officer Víctor J. Mora

The Artistic Side Creative Latin@s at OSU Share Their Stories and Their Art By Giovana Covarrubias Facing the Challenges on Our Horizon Recruiting Hispanics Students to Ohio State in a Tight Ohio Market By Normando Caban Predictions for South Africa It’s Time to Start the Countdown to the World Cup! By Bruno Ribeiro

Please send all letters, press releases, and other materials to: ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? 063 Mount Hall 1050 Carmack Road Columbus OH 43210

Sections

2 4 5 12 16

Esquina del Editor Spring Is a Welcome Friend By Michael J. Alarid Faculty Profile Dr. Jose Antonio Cabral A Lifetime of Service By Michael J. Alarid Student Profile Carlos Pimentel Language Is Happiness By Michael J. Alarid Su Opinión Aiming for Success Latin@ Students Must Be the Priority in Growing Latin@ Communities By Yolanda Zepeda

18 24 26 27

Contributors Francesca Amigo Ana Berríos Lise Byars Normando Caban Benjamin Diehl Ernesto R. Escoto Mauricio Espinoza Bruno Ribeiro Robert S. Robinson Vincent Sanchez Jr. Gretchen Turner Mickey Weems Yolanda Zepeda

Folklore Series The Chipotle Chronicles Notes From the Field by a Recent OSU Folklore Ph.D. By Mickey Weems Winter 2010 Events

Winter 2010 Graduates

Food Review Plantain Café Enriches Downtown with Cuban Fare By Michael J. Alarid with Giovana Covarrubias

This publication is supported by The Office of Academic Affairs and the Office of Minority Affairs. This publication is funded through the Hispanic Oversight Committee. The Ohio State University is not responsible for the content of this publication. This publication does not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the staff or the editorial board. All submissions for publication must include name and phone number or e-mail of the person(s) responsible for the work. ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? reserves the right to refuse any and all submissions for publication at any time. Note: We use “@” instead of “o/a” because we want all Latin@s, men and women, to feel included. Cover: Painting by Ana Higuera

History Series The 2010 Census and Hispanics in Historical Perspective Considering the Past Roots of Modern Demographic Trends By Robert S. Robinson

www.quepasa.osu.edu

Spring Quarter 2010

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Dr. Jose Antonio Cabral A Lifetime of Service

Faculty Profile 4

Among the numerous responsibilities associated with a professorship at Ohio State is a certain amount of required university service. Though there are many ways to fulfill this requirement, Professor Cabral of OSU Newark chooses to utilize this obligation for the betterment of the Hispanic community at Ohio State. Going beyond the normally required service time, Professor Cabral has long served as member of the Hispanic Oversight Committee (HOC), the Organization of Hispanic Faculty and Staff (OHFS), and as a volunteer for ¿Qué Pasa OSU? When asked what drives him and other volunteers who have devoted so much of their personal time to the local Hispanic community, Professor Cabral responded with no hesitation, “The need to build and develop the presence of a Hispanic community, to make sure Hispanic faculty have an opportunity to grow, and to give Hispanic faculty and students the opportunity to contribute scholarship.” These goals were not the start of service for Professor Cabral, but rather are the culmination of a lifetime of service. Professor Cabral has come a long way since his family left its native Portugal for the wintery state of Connecticut. Professor Cabral was very young when he arrived in 1967, but he quickly adjusted to his new surroundings. “We came for economic reasons,” he told ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? “My family was looking for a better way of life, and since we already had family in Connecticut, it made a lot of sense.” Once they had moved, Cabral’s father began a career in construction, while his mother found work at the local hospital. With a stable transition complete, Cabral excelled academically and in 1979 earned his B.S. in chemistry from Trinity College. After a brief hiatus from academia, during which he worked in a chemistry lab and as a community organizer, Professor Cabral was accepted into the Ph.D. program at Wesleyan University, and in 1987 he received his degree in chemistry. Since the completion of his Ph.D., Professor Cabral’s career path has been filled with both academic success and service to his community. After graduation,

he was given a post-doctoral appointment at France’s Ecole Polytechnique; the completion of that commitment in 1988 was followed by a post-doctoral award at Ohio State from 1988-1993. While in residence at OSU, Professor Cabral continued to develop in his area of expertise, which is carbon and natural compounds. This was specifically useful to tire companies in Ohio, as Professor Cabral studied the thermodynamics of compounds vital to the tire industry and published his research in The Journal of the American Chemical Society and The Journal of Organic Chemistry, the two premier national and international journals in organic chemistry. Still Professor Cabral’s career has remained primarily an academic one, and since the completion of his post-doc at Ohio State, he has been working for OSU Newark. “I started working in Newark in 1993, and have been here ever since,” Cabral said with a smile. While at Newark, Cabral has received numerous teaching awards: he is a three-time recipient of the Barnes Award for Exemplary Teaching, was awarded a Faculty Service Award, and received an award for teaching excellence in 2007. While Professor Cabral has demonstrated his teaching excellence, it is his community service that has come to define him to his friends and colleagues. “I guess I started as a community organizer, specializing in crime prevention in Hartford, Connecticut,” Professor Cabral explained. “It started at OSU when one of my colleagues in chemistry, who was involved in recruiting Latinos, recruited me,” Cabral noted. “This became the Hispanic Oversight Committee, which was the result of the Hispanic Plan of Action.” Cabral notes that the purpose of the HOC is to oversee money that will go to students, faculty, staff, and all designated resources that aid in the development of the Latin@ community. “The HOC was instrumental in helping found the Latino Studies Department; I think that’s one of the things I’m most proud of.” In addition to the HOC, Professor Cabral has been an active member of the Organization of Hispanic Faculty and Staff,

FOTO PROVIDED BY DR. JOSE ANTONIO CABRAL

By Michael J. Alarid

which uses its resources to promote professional development of Hispanic personnel at the university. “There is a bit of a higher turnover rate among minority faculty and staff, especially among Hispanics,” Cabral stated. “OSU wants diversity, and to me diversity means creating an environment where people can succeed regardless of their ethnicity: this is the big priority of our organization.” Still, much like the HOC, the Organization of Hispanic Faculty and Staff remains dependent on volunteers like Cabral. Fortunately, Professor Cabral shows no sign of slowing down and still sees the potential for more growth and development. “We all have a good sense of belonging to the community,” he said of individuals whose volunteer efforts have helped solidify the Hispanic community at OSU. “Part of our involvement is because we still believe; I think we have accomplished a lot and I’m very proud, but there is always room for more.” It’s believable that we can expect a good deal more from Professor Cabral in the years to come.


Carlos Pimentel Language is Happiness

A long way from his home in Brooklyn, NY, an unsuspecting Carlos Pimentel was immersed in the language and culture of Japan; it was his first year of language study, and Carlos had just changed host families. Only days after moving, tragedy struck when the ground began to jostle, shutter and jolt his new home. “I really didn’t know what was going on… We don’t have anything like that in New York,” Carlos told ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Carlos could not have imagined the level devastation he would find when the earth finally settled: the Hanshin Earthquake of 1995 was a magnitude 6.9 and resulted in 5,500 deaths along with over 26,000 injured. The infrastructure had collapsed, with water and electricity being unavailable. “I called my mom, but I never thought about going home. I remember she told me to stay and help the people.” That’s precisely what Carlos and his host family did, utilizing his host father’s construction company resources to deliver water and supplies every morning to the people who so desperately needed them. “I remember going around at five in the morning, helping people, giving them supplies… They had lost their houses, but there I was, a foreigner volunteering and it was like I became a distraction... For a moment, they forgot about this great tragedy.” Having grown up in New York City, Carlos Pimentel is a first-generation college student and the son of Puerto Rican immigrants who settled in Brooklyn first, then later in Queens. “My parents

www.quepasa.osu.edu

were always very supportive, they never went to college, but they always made sure that my education came first. That was the main thing: finish school, get your education.” Carlos attended high school in Queens, a tough school that did little to prepare him for college. In addition, Carlos was very much a minority in this school, which was dominated by inner-city students from Queens. “I’m glad for the experience because it built character; but the bad thing was that I had to do a lot of catching up when I got to college.” Making the best of a difficult situation, Carlos took all the highest level classes and was accepted into the University of Massachusetts. It wasn’t long before Carlos found his calling, which was the study of Japanese both as a language and culture. In his first class, he discovered even more. “I was inspired when I met the professor for my Japanese literature course; he was writing Chinese characters without effort, and I thought it was amazing because I knew he wasn’t a native speaker and that he had to learn that.” For Carlos, it was a moment of clarity. “I wanted to do that, I knew it and it stuck in my heart and never went away…” After completing his B.A., Carlos took a job with the Japan Travel Bureau, but his dream of a professorship finally led him back to graduate school. Now pursuing his Ph.D. in Japanese, Carlos spends his time teaching at OSU and is in the process of completing his dissertation. Carlos believes that Japanese has a lot to offer Latin@ students, but understands that learning the language may seem daunting. “It takes a bit of time to learn, but it is accessible so I would encourage people to take a look,” Carlos said. Citing career potential that includes federal and state jobs, Carlos maintains that in a struggling economy one will receive more consideration and have access to higher paying positions if one learns Japanese. Additionally, Carlos notes that there is a dearth of Latin@ scholars in the field of East Asian Studies. “We are not taking advantage of the opportunities that are available to us, but I hope that will change.” Should one find interest in Japanese,

Carlos stresses the benefits of studying a highly marketable subject while being able to travel and learn about a different culture. “The culture is tied to the language, and in order to learn to use the language appropriately you have to understand when to use honorific and formal.” Carlos hopes that other Latin@ students will take notice of Japanese as a major, and that they will consider making it a part of their experience at OSU. “Learning Japanese and linguistics affords you the marketability of a business major with the experience of the humanities: very few majors can offer you that.” For Carlos, the dream of becoming a professor is fast approaching and he hopes to see more Latin@s join the field of Japanese language and culture. “There is a lot of potential for Latin@s here, so I hope they take notice.” Indeed, he has never doubted his career path. “This was the best decision I’ve ever made, hands down, no regrets at all. It was a turning point in my life; in an instant everything changed, and I’ve been happy ever since…” A proud Latin@, Carlos hopes to be only one of many who will choose to enrich the field of East Asian Studies.

Spring Quarter 2010

Student Profile

FOTO PROVIDED BY CARLOS PIMENTEL

By Michael J. Alarid

5


Bouncing Back Coping and Thriving in Our Current Financial Woes

SXC / ILCO

By Ernesto R. Escoto, Ph.D.

Many have referred to our current economic crisis as the “worse recession since the Great Depression.” The six degrees of separation between knowing others who have lost their job, been unemployed for more than three months, or even lost their homes have now become three or even two degrees of separation. Most of us know of someone or live with someone in such circumstances. Job prospects for graduating seniors range from poor to better-than-expected. This range is largely due to a serious decline in most sectors of the economy to continued growth in other areas such health care and other related fields. CNNMoney.com has reported that hiring by smaller companies, those with 500 or fewer employees, is expected to jump 15 percent this year. Nonetheless, most graduating seniors are appropriately anxious about their prospects. In the spring of 2009, a survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers indicated that over sixty percent of graduating seniors expressed concern about finding a job. I suspect the mood this year among graduating seniors may not be far from the

6

one reported by the 2009 class. How do you make the best of dire circumstances as graduation nears in the horizon? How do you maintain or regain your emotional health in the midst of a global financial crisis? It’s not simple, but in this article you will find a few pointers that may prove helpful in this process. Primarily, I’d like to suggest that you work on building your resiliency skills. Resilience is roughly defined as one’s ability to bounce back from a setback or crisis. In our current global financial crisis, one is going to need to bounce back, unfortunately, with some regularity. Education. Government agencies and companies often invest time and money on re-training communities where massive lay-offs have taken place, giving citizens the opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge to match the needs of our changing economy. Fortunately, as a graduating senior, you have already accomplished this critical step. So, focus on your strengths. Work with a career counselor or a mental health counselor to clarify your strengths in the form of professional skills and knowledge as well as

personality or other traits that enhance your training and experience. Think “both/and” rather than “either/or.” When we think “either/or,” we usually look at the world dichotomously. It’s all bad or all good. This thinking usually goes something like this: “I will never find employment in this economy” or “It should take me no more than 3-5 interviews or a month to find work.” This type of thinking is likely to lead to feelings of frustration and failure, which soon could turn into decreased self-esteem or self-efficacy. This is a difficult place to find oneself during a prosperous or a declining economy. “Both/and” thinking allows you to prepare for the worse while planning for a positive outcome. Though you may have entered college with the hope of working for the likes of PricewaterhouseCoopers or GE, it is important to reassess your plans and needs. Don’t give up on the job with a large prestigious firm, but also seriously look into jobs among mid-size and small business. So, applied to all three and, if you land a job with a smaller firm, begin building a resume with the type of


activities and experience that will increase your chance, after a couple of years, of working for a larger corporation. Similarly, “both/and” thinking allows us to find opportunities in the future rather than looking at present problems as insurmountable obstacles. One must accept problems for what they are and move towards identifying more-likely-to-besuccessful responses to the present crisis. Once you have identified these to-beresponses, turn them into actions. Prepare for a longer job search period. Whereas it may have taken 3 months or so to find work during a healthy economy, today it may take twice or, in some cases, much longer to find work. In the meantime, hopefully your circumstances will allow you to volunteer in some form. If they do, look for volunteer opportunities that match your values (“What type of cause would I want to give my time and expertise to?") and will enhance your skills and experience, thus continuing your preparation of an ideal job. While you look for work, stay connected. During this challenging period it is very important, for all kinds of reasons, some of which I will discuss next, that you stay connected with colleagues, friends and family. Staying connected is good for you at many levels. First of all, your friends, colleagues and family members are your social convoy — i.e., the group of people that travel with you in life, during

good and bad times. If parents are facing financial difficulties of their own and are unable to offer a shoulder to lean on, maybe a sibling or friend might. Maybe a former classmate is now working with the small business that recently posted a job position that fits your training and experience, this would be a good time to contact her and let her know you are applying for this position, possibly even ask for an informational interview. Along the same lines, work on keeping your social life active. Invite friends for coffee, if not at the local coffee shop maybe at home, or go to the gym with a friend. The American Psychological Association (APA) also encourages people to consider becoming active in faith-based organizations or civic groups. This type of involvement generally affords social support and can reestablish hope. Generally, when we help others in their time of need, we also help ourselves. Take care of yourself. Exercise can help decrease stress while generating a sense of efficacy as you work towards measurable exercise goals. Also, establish goals surrounding your day-to-day activities such as eating and sleep. Reaching these goals (e.g., eating three healthy meals daily, exercising 45 minutes five times a week, sleeping a reasonable 6-8 hours daily, etc.) on a daily basis can contribute to increased self-efficacy, which is necessary to wear off helplessness, and increase your sense

of wellbeing immensely. Furthermore, practice mindfulness in your daily life. That is, pay close attention to mundane activities. Experts talk about eating or walking mindfully, being constantly aware of your body movement or the flavors of the foods you eat. Last, if problems become too much to bear alone and building resiliency is hard to do, activate support systems outside of friends and family such as the Wellness Student Center (www.swc. osu.edu), Career Connection (www. careerconnection.osu.edu), Wilce Student Health Services (www.shc.osu.edu) or Counseling and Consultation Service (www.ccs.ohio‑state.edu). Keep in mind, the U.S. is mostly made up of descendants of immigrants or recent immigrants who have had to rebuild their lives at one point or another. Others have overcome great oppression. Throughout history, resiliency has been characteristic of our many groups that make up this country. Our current generation is faced with one of the most significant obstacles of our time, both a time of trial and opportunity. In order to thrive under these circumstances, it is important to both accept and change. Accept the challenges our current financial crisis presents and adapt, be it in the form of creative change or how we go about building our own professional opportunities, in order to thrive.

Fastest Growing Professional and Business Services Sectors Area Name

Jobs in Sector

Jobs in Sector

Sector Share of

Growth

Cumulative

2009

2009

Jobs 2009

2008 - 2009

Growth

Growth

(thousands) (percent of total) (percent growth)

2001 - 2009

2001 - 2009

(thousands)

Cumulative

27.2%

1.5%

22.4%

65.0

5.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV

558.7

23.0%

0.9%

22.8%

103.6

5.1

Austin-Round Rock, TX

112.4

14.4%

3.3%

18.7%

17.7

3.6

Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX

382.3

14.7%

0.9%

19.2%

61.5

3.2

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC

106.6

14.0%

2.8%

8.0%

7.9

2.9

Bethesda-Frederick-Rockville, MD

125.7

21.9%

2.1%

9.0%

10.4

2.6

Wichita, KS

31.5

10.1%

3.5%

16.4%

4.4

1.1

Chattanooga, TN-GA

25.9

10.6%

4.3%

11.8%

2.7

1.1

Peoria, IL

23.0

12.1%

4.5%

43.2%

6.9

1.0

Rochester, NY

61.8

11.9%

1.5%

1.9%

1.1

0.9

Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC

31.0

14.5%

3.0%

7.5%

2.2

0.9

5.1

9.1%

19.4%

4.1%

0.2

0.8

20.8

22.2%

4.2%

20.2%

3.5

0.8

195.4

14.6%

0.4%

3.9%

7.4

0.8

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO

33.5

16.2%

2.2%

34.2%

8.5

0.7

Macon, GA

12.1

11.9%

5.5%

31.2%

2.9

0.6

158.9

13.9%

0.4%

14.5%

20.1

0.6

30.7

10.3%

1.9%

23.3%

5.8

0.6

Mansfield, OH Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA St. Louis, MO-IL

Pittsburgh, PA Fresno, CA

www.quepasa.osu.edu

PHOTO BY MICHAEL J. ALARID

355.2

Spring Quarter 2010

SOURCE: NEWGEOGRAPHY.COM

(percent growth) (percent growth) Northern Virginia, VA

7


Tight Market Demands More Effort Strategizing For Survival in the Face of an Economic Downturn By Ana Berríos

8

Unemployment rate, seasonally adjusted August 2007 – August 2009 10% 9% 8% 7% 6% 5%

or by participating in civic engagement activities. Learn how to Network: This is not about who you know but rather who knows you. It is well known that almost 70% of the jobs are the result of a network! Don’t be afraid of joining student and professional organizations. Get to know your faculty and staff from the beginning of your college career and attend and participate in departmental meetings The people you meet there may also become the source of your letters of recommendation. Learn how to conduct informational interviews and make cold calls to employers. For those who are transitioning out, many cities have young professionals groups that provide recent college graduates with opportunities to socially and professionally network. You can search for the groups on the Internet, call the career services office at your local college, or check with the local Chamber of Commerce.

Aug 09

May 09

Feb 09

Nov 08

Aug 08

May 08

Feb 08

Nov 07

4% Aug 07

Whether you are a first year student starting college or a senior searching for a job in this tight market, chances are that you may be feeling challenged. You may be concerned about your education and where it can take you. Nationally, more jobs were eliminated in January 2009 than in any year since 1974. Almost 2.6 million people have been out of work for more than six months, the largest number of long-term unemployed since 1983. The unemployment rate in Ohio is at its highest level (almost 10 percent) since 1992. Most people have seen retirement accounts and other investments decline in value by 40% or more. Although the economic news seems discouraging, the following ideas, along with a positive attitude, could assist you while in college and when you are ready to transition to the world of work. Be Proactive: Being proactive about your career and the decisions you make through your college experience can pay off if you also factor in what you are really interested in and capable of offering to yourself, an employer, and community. Visit Career Services and/or take Edu Paes 270.02 to learn more about how to make decisions, understand OSU majors and minors, how to job search, write resumes, cover letters, and interview, as well as apply to graduate and professional schools. The sooner you learn these skills, the better. If you choose to respond to job ads, understand that there are multiple job search strategies and that you need to be using all of them, particularly in this changing economy. Engage in Early Experiences: Your ability to engage in early experiences will be critical to develop the skills needed to join the job market. Because internships may be limited in your field, do not underestimate the power of volunteering for a company or even job shadowing. Involvement in extracurricular activities is also a viable way not only to stay connected to OSU, but also to develop transferable skills that employers really value. For example, you can develop leadership, budget, teamwork and even organizational skills by joining a student organization, a service learning program,

Be Aware of How You Use Facebook, MySpace, Blogs, and E-mail: Check your information and what others have to say about you. Consider making your profile private and be careful about what you post on your front page. You can also benefit from using online social networks — in proper fashion. Set up your page to make a positive impression on potential employers. A Facebook page, for example, can be an extension of your resume and provide insight into your personality, work ethic, and interests. You also may use these sites to network with potential employers or gain information about an employer prior to an interview. Consider joining LinkedIn, a professional network where you can include your professional and academic information, resume, samples, portfolios, and certifications. Know How to Job Search: If you are a first year student, don’t think it’s too early to prepare for your career. Consider learning


A part-time position avoids an employment gap on your resume and helps pay the bills. In addition, working the evening shift keeps your days open for job searching, networking meetings, and job interviews. Consider joining the Peace Corps, Americorps, or seasonal opportunities such as resorts and summer camps. Finding a job is a full-time job! Develop a plan and stick with it. The job isn’t going to find you. Know you’ll have days that are more productive than others. The key is to keep searching. Use Temporary and Employment Agencies: Companies use employment agencies to complete the initial screening of applicants for a job opening. Companies may use employees sent from temp agencies to determine if a person is capable of doing the job on a permanent basis. If you consider using a temp agency, do your homework. Avoid agencies that charge fees. Additionally, know that if you take a job through an employment agency, you technically work for the agency and not the company. It means: No benefits.

Learn how to Manage your Finances and Take Care of Yourself: In this economic time it could be stressful to be a college student. However, you need to know that this crisis is temporary. Thinking about how to manage your finances, pay for school, and how to secure future employment could be challenging. You may feel overwhelmed and perhaps may be experience thoughts about skipping classes, exhaustion, or loss of appetite. The Wellness Center can teach you how to manage your finances and Career Connection can assist you with managing your stress regarding career, employment decisions, and concerns related to lay- offs, and life after college in general. Visit Career Connection and your College Career Services Office: Whether it’s your first time visiting the office or you’re a repeat visitor, your campus career services office is a great resource to assist with your major and career exploration as well as your internships and job search process. For more information about career services at OSU visit www.careers.osu.edu.

BENJAMIN DIEHL

how to approach and talk to employers, how to make the most of job fairs, how to network, and how to respond to ads. Hone your writing skills and prepare yourself for the interviewing process. These are all critical skills that need to be acquired. You may find it’s too late to learn how to write a resume the quarter you are graduating. Know Where to Look for Jobs: Those who are job searching may want to consider moving to an industry where some jobs are more in demand, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These areas are healthcare, education, law, energy, government, and public work. For example, if applying for finance jobs, you may want to consider applying for finance jobs in the healthcare or educational settings. Similarly, if relocating is something that you have been considering, North and South Dakota, Iowa, Idaho and West Virginia are among the states with the lowest unemployment rates. Explore Part-time Jobs and Other Options: The ideal situation after graduation is finding full-time employment. But today’s job market doesn’t present as many ideal situations as in past years.

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Spring Quarter 2010

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The Transition of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? By Victor J. Mora

After nearly sixteen years of overseeing ¿Qué Pasa, OSU?, I am choosing to step down and transition the magazine into another area in the university. As this transition is now nearing completion, I think it is important to put things in perspective, so our readers can understand the history and purpose of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU?, its growth and evolution, and current arrangements that have been made. Most importantly, I hope to convey how pivotal it is for members of the Hispanic/Latino community to remain engaged and active, so that we might preserve both the focus and the scope of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? in the years to come. Brief History ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? is one of the successful initiatives of the university’s Hispanic Action Plan, which was developed in the late 1980’s to address the recruitment, retention, and academic and cultural enrichment of Hispanic students, faculty, and staff at Ohio State (the full document can be found in www.quepasa.osu. edu). ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? was born in the early 1990’s as a result of the collaborative efforts between the University-wide Council of Hispanic Organizations (UCHO) and the Hispanic Oversight Committee (HOC). While UCHO represented the voice of Hispanic/Latino organizations, the HOC, as a committee of the Provost, served as a liaison with the Hispanic/Latino community to address initiatives aimed at making improvements for the betterment of

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Latinos at Ohio State. The creation of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? was closely tied to the goals of the Hispanic Action Plan and thus had the support of the Provost. ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? was created to serve as a mechanism to keep Latinos engaged with each other and with the rest of the university community. Initially, ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? was a newsletter produced by a graduate student (Editor), under the oversight of an Editorial Board. There was no physical location or equipment provided for the publication, thus it was produced in the university’s computer labs. At the beginning, the Editorial Board was very engaged and provided direction and support to the graduate student. However, things changed as circumstances and players changed; ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? ended up having little direction and its production was cumbersome because of the limited availability of software, which varies from lab to lab. It was at this point that I assumed responsibility for the operation; I was able to take on this challenge thanks to the support and commitment of Dr. James (Jim) Mager, my boss and head of what is now known as the Office of Enrollment Services. Jim provided the space, furniture, the fiscal support services, and allowed me the time to oversee the production of this publication. Over the years, ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? expanded its purpose to include support to student outreach and recruitment and to help Hispanics/ Latinos become engaged with resources and services available to the larger university community. Through the enthusiastic energy of one of its editors, ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? became a magazine; and thanks to the talent and efforts of many other editors, the webpage has been developed. Purpose and Scope Throughout all of these changes ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? has remained focused on its primary mission, which is to provide a voice for the Hispanic community and to serve as a vehicle of expression for Hispanic/Latino individuals and organizations at OSU. Over the years, the magazine has been directed by the strong

service of volunteer efforts from dedicated members of the Hispanic community at OSU. These grass roots efforts have ensured that ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? holds to its mission: to voice interests and concerns of the Hispanic/Latino(a) community of faculty, staff and students, and to increase diversity at OSU through the recruitment and retention of Hispanics. ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? has always strived for the highest standards in both its journalistic content and quality of publication. Despite its reliance on seasonal employment of graduate and undergraduate students, the magazine has evolved into the standard format you see today, which includes regular features such as the “profiles” of undergraduate and graduate students, staff, and faculty. I am proud that the magazine has addressed issues relevant to the greater OSU community, such as the Hispanic Action Plan, the general effects of the Michigan ruling on affirmative action, and how OSU has taken action to address the challenges of recruiting Latinos in this competitive market. Finally, I am pleased that for several years the web site www.quepasa.osu.edu has functioned as a complement to our hardcopy publication, simultaneously expanding copy and providing information that is current, relevant, and useful. Transfer to a New Location and New Structure The physical housing of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? has now moved from Enrollment Services to the Office of Minority Affairs. The funds for personnel, equipment, and operations have also been transferred to OMA; we are deeply grateful for OMA’s role in securing these vital necessities. These two changes, then, mark the complete transfer from the Office of Enrollment Services to OMA. Since its inception, ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? has been a grass roots initiative dedicated to the services of the Hispanic/Latino(a) community. As such, it has depended on the support and good will of many individuals, organizations, and offices. This ideal is now formalized and will continue as a three-fold structure of the governing body of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Firstly, the day


to day functions of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? will be overseen by an Executive Director volunteer. Secondly, ¿Qué Pasa, OSU?’s goals, mission, and objectives will be overseen and directed by an Executive Committee. And thirdly, both the Executive Officer and the Executive Committee shall be components of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Magazine Editorial Board, which will provide council and guidance for the magazine. By-laws and charges pertaining to each body of this formalization are included. A list of current members of the Executive Committee is also included. Members are comprised of OSU faculty, staff, and students. Membership in the Executive Committee is comprised of the members listed below: Dr. Jose Cabral Interim Chair Associate Professor of Chemistry, OSU Mr. Victor Mora Associate Director of Enrollment Services Dr. Fernando Unzueta Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Spanish and Portuguese Dr. Abril Trigo Associate Professor, Department of Spanish

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and Portuguese and Director of the Center for Latin American Studies Mr. Mauricio Espinoza Agriculture and Technological Institute and PhD Student Mr. Fernando Gomez-Bellenge Assistant to the Dean, Fisher College of Business This executive board will represent the interests of the larger board and of the Latino community as a whole. We believe this institutionalization of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? magazine will best secure its future, foster its ability to fulfill its mission, and continue to serve the OSU community. Acknowledgements It is important to first of all acknowledge the commitment and support that has been honored long after Jim Mager retired. The continuation and growth of this publication would not have been possible without the support of Dr. Martha Garland and Dr. Mabel Freeman. It is also important to acknowledge the commitment of resources, operational funds, and personnel from Academic Affairs and the Office of Minority Affairs; they have provided the means to make this operation possible.

There is also a long list of individuals who have generously provided their time, skills, and talents to make ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? a better publication over the years. It is because of their dedication and commitment that ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? has grown and developed to its present format in print and on the web. The credit goes to the many student employees, Editorial Board members, volunteer contributors, and reviewers for their talents and dedication. Because of space limitations, I am unable to list the many, many fine individuals who have left their mark, but I want to express by heartfelt gratitude for their contributions and commitment. In closing, I have enjoyed being a part of the ¿Qué Pasa, OSU?, which began as an identified need and developed into an established and recognized publication dedicated to serving the Hispanic/Latino community and OSU. I shall continue my involvement, but in a more limited capacity. I strongly encourage those who might be interested in providing this type of community service to step up and become involved; it’s a great deal of work and it can be challenging at times, but the rewards are memories that will last a lifetime and a product that will become part of a bookshelf in your home, as they are now in mine.

Spring Quarter 2010

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Aiming for Success Latin@ Students Must Be the Priority in Growing Latin@ Communities By Yolanda Zepeda Para progresar, lo tenemos que enviar. This is the U.S. Census 2010 tag line for the Hispanic outreach campaign. The new census form revised the way that Latin@s are identified, treating Hispanic/Latin@ as an ethnicity separate from race. It is hoped that by allowing Latin@s to choose any race, Census 2010 will result in more accurate counts of Latin@ populations. Of course, there remain concerns that Latin@ immigrants — legal and undocumented — will not complete their forms for fear of deportation or in protest of current immigration laws. With public funding and congressional seats depending on the numbers, the consequences of Latin@ undercounts can impact all members of a community. Meanwhile, we don’t have to wait for April to understand the trends currently underway in America’s Heartland. What we already know is that the bulk of the population growth in the Midwest is due to expansion among Latin@s. For example, the overall population of the Midwest grew by 13% between 1980 and 2008, while the Latin@ population more

than tripled in size. Latin@s contributed two out of every five persons added to the Midwest population during this time (Saenz, 2009). Contrary to popular belief, however, Latin@ expansion is not due solely to immigration; nearly half of the new Latin@s in the region are native born. This young population is the fastest growing sector of the college enrollment pipeline, while the proportion of nonHispanic Whites is shrinking. Yet, Latin@ students face substantial barriers to educational access and success: they tend to be low income, first-generation college students, and they have less academic preparation than their peers. According to the Pew Hispanic Center, half of Latin@s enroll in community colleges and never transfer to four-year institutions. Those who do successfully transition to baccalaureate institutions are at high risk of attrition, challenged by articulation issues and inadequate advising, student financial aid problems, housing issues, and difficulties learning to navigate and actively engage in a new institutional environment. Many of the barriers to educational

SOURCE: CENSUS.GOV. GRAPHIC BY BRUNO RIBEIRO

Ten Midwest States with Most Latin@s in 2008

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Illinois 1,967,568 Michigan 413,286 Indiana 328,725 Ohio 299,778 Wisconsin 286,112 Kansas 254,297 Minnesota 215,821 Missouri 186,829 Nebraska 139,771 Iowa 123,895

opportunity experienced by Latin@s are encountered long before they reach the college doors. Latin@ workers are concentrated in low-wage, unstable and often hazardous jobs, and these jobs typically provide no economic mobility or health care. These patterns are bound up with low educational attainment levels and limited English proficiency, leaving Latin@ families vulnerable and with few advantages to pass along to their children. The fact that Latin@ disadvantages lie outside the purview of higher education, however, is all the more reason that flagship universities like OSU must take every measure to maximize Latin@ inclusion and success. A strong economy in the Midwest requires innovation and increased productivity. The traditional industries at the core of the Midwest’s economy are in decline, and we cannot rely on the skills and education of our aging workforce to fulfill the labor needs in a new, globally competitive environment. Latin@ youth are a key constituent of this new labor force. If the Midwest is to revitalize its economy and broader


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United States Projected Growth Due to Latin@ Population

73.7% 69.3% 60.9& 53.4%

2020-2030

communities help students encounter their differences and create meaningful bridges of understanding across those differences. These experiences not only help Latin@ students, but they are essential to promoting intercultural learning among the broader student community. It is also important to provide curricular options that integrate multicultural perspectives, especially those that affirm the value of Latin@ experiences in the production and application of scholarship. This requires a critical presence of faculty whose research and pedagogy reinforce inclusive classroom practices and learning. Latin@ or Chicano Studies programs play an important role in integrating diverse perspectives into the curriculum and affirming the value of Latin@ scholarship. Although Latin@ studies programs have a long history at many universities in the Midwest, their tenuous status undermines the welcoming and affirmative role that they might otherwise play for Latin@ students. Under-supported or marginalized programs can generate frustrated faculty, particularly among the very faculty who Latin@ students rely on to

2030-2040

2040-2050

facilitate their own positive engagement on campus. If their primary advocates and faculty role models themselves feel alienated on campus, the students are placed at increased risk for marginalization or attrition. While Latin@ studies programs plays a key role in the academic development of Latin@ students and must be supported, inclusive classrooms — both curriculum and teaching styles — should be implemented across all disciplines so that all students, regardless of their background or learning style, can feel welcome and can find success. Flagship institutions like The Ohio State University are the engines that drive social and economic development. For the Midwest, in particular, there is urgent need to invest in the development of human capital that will promote innovation and high productivity. As the fastest growing segment of our educational pipeline and workforce, Latin@s must be a strategic part of that development. We need not wait for Census 2010 in order to act. If we seek to maintain a strong workforce and economy — para progresar — we must make Latin@ student success a high priority.

Spring Quarter 2010

Su Opinión

2010-2020

SOURCE: CENSUS.GOV. GRAPHIC BY BRUNO RIBEIRO

social environment, then investment in the Latin@ educational success is critical for both knowledge production and workforce development. There is much that a university community can do to lower barriers and promote inclusive learning environments where Latin@s can thrive and can make meaningful contributions to the university community. Promising practices include strategic outreach efforts to nurture relationships in Latin@ communities, seeking out promising students beyond the obvious recruiting grounds. Universities should nurture relationships of trust, not only targeting students but also their parents and community leaders. Outreach should not begin with the admissions process, but student connections should be established early enough in their school careers when their aspirations can be formed and they still have time to complete courses required for admission. Holistic admissions practices that more accurately predict Latin@ student success should replace traditional standardized measures that are known to under-predict Latin@ performance. The College Board itself demonstrates the strong and positive correlation between family income and SAT scores, apart from language and cultural influences. Admissions only become real opportunity with sufficient financial aid packages. The process starts with providing Latin@ families in targeted communities with adequate assistance to complete financial aid forms and applications; this includes having Spanish-speakers available to provide FAFSA guidance. Transfer students, in particular, face hardships in finding adequate financial support and securing short term funding to manage the transition. Because Latin@ students overwhelmingly start out at community colleges, Latin@ inclusion strategies must target the financial needs of transfer students. Student support services should be responsive to the academic and developmental needs of Latin@ students. Inclusive orientation programs, learning communities and mentoring practices can address academic needs and promote student engagement while validating the university’s commitment to diversity. Providing a safe space and supporting a critical mass of students can create welcoming environments for Latin@s and will help avoid feelings of tokenism or alienation. Diverse learning

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The Artistic Side Creative Latin@s at OSU Share Their Stories and Their Art By Giovana Covarrubias

Paula Gaetano Adi Born in San Juan, Argentina, Paula arrived in Columbus in the fall of 2008 to pursue her MFA in the Art Department, specifically in the area of Art and Technology. “I  have a hybrid artistic practice in between robotics, performance, sculpture and installations,” she told ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? “I typically use the human and non-human body as a point of departure to conceptually develop my work.” Paula is an artist and researcher working in sculptures, performances, interactive installations and robotic agents. Her work and her conceptual and experimental research inquire into the different ways in which technology performs on various kinds of bodies. Her work has been presented nationally and internationally, including at the National Art Museum of China (Beijing), MejanLabs (Stockholm), ARCO Fair (Madrid), FILE Festival (São Paulo), BIOS4 (Sevilla), BrandenburgerTor Foundation (Berlin), Museum of Modern Art (Buenos Aires),

Espacio Fundación Telefónica (Buenos Aires), among many others. “Becoming Anomal” (pictured left) was an installation conformed by a prosthetic belly (or bag) and 23 fur balls that were displayed in the gallery space as the result of an enactment — or performance. At times they move around the space; at times they stay in the same place shaking their bodies; at times they follow another ball. Their movements are always random, repetitive and unpredictable. In her statement about the work, Paula notes: “Neither this nor that, but both, or something in between. Or I should say: anomal=anomalous but anomal≠abnormal. And also, Becoming NOT Being And also, Anomal not Animal — but animal and anomaly? Onto my body, from my body, to the body.”

she won a UNESCO scholarship to Cuba, where she studied contemporary dance for three months. In 2007, Alejandra came to OSU. “The program at OSU encompasses the experiential, conceptual, and artistic aspects of dance. It is an excellent program to prepare students to function as informed and skillful professionals in the major areas of study chosen.”

When asked what her favorite type of dancing is, Alejandra responded, “As a performer I will rather perform modern, jazz, and dance theatre pieces, but as a member of the audience I enjoy all types of dance. For me it is not about the style, but more about the content and the quality of the piece; of course in my free time I enjoy salsa and tango!”

Alejandra Jara Alejandra Jara first came to Ohio State on a Fulbright Scholarship that allowed her to pursue her MFA in Dance. Alejandra began dancing ballet when she was six years old in Asunción, Paraguay. She began with ballet, and then expanded into modern dance and jazz at the Marisol Pecci Dance Academy. After 12 years of dance technique, six years of music, and three years of theory, Alejandra graduated and began teaching at the academy. In 1999 Alejandra joined the Paraguay National Ballet, a professional contemporary company where she performed for nine years. “My tenure at the National Ballet gave me a lot of experience as a dancer, allowing me to tour nationally and internationally and work with different choreographers from Latin America, Europe and the United States,” she told ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? In 2004 Alejandra won a scholarship to participate in the dance festival El Cruce from Rosario, Argentina, and in 2006

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Ana Higuera Born in Medellín, Colombia, Ana Higuera has been an Ohio resident since 2001 and is a second-year business student planning to graduate in 2012. As a member of the Hispanic Business Student Association, Ana adjusted quickly to OSU. “I was interested in this organization because I wanted to meet other Hispanic students at the university, as well as to network with companies.” Ana is also an International Affairs Scholar, a program that she joined to allow her to travel and learn about different cultures. Still, art remains central to her identity and she finds time to create between all her studies and activities. “I mostly work with watercolors because they’re what I enjoy the most,” Ana explains, “but I also draw and paint with acrylics.” Ana’s paintings are very much a product of her mood, which she explains is often affected by her environment. “I can’t just pick up a brush and start painting… Outside factors such as friends, books, and movies help get me motivated.” Anna told ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? that her biggest inspiration remains a close friend, a ballerina whose art has inspired a series of paintings centered on the ballet. As to her other paintings, Ana finds inspiration in the world around her, including things she sees in everyday life. “Most of my works originate from ads and photographs that catch my eye. As of now, Ana is uncertain about the specifics of her future. “I’m still trying to figure out what my passions are… I am, however, certain that I would like to do something that involves art.”

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Spring Quarter 2010

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The 2010 Census and Hispanics in Historical Perspective Considering the Past Roots of Modern Demographic Trends By Robert S. Robinson

As the U.S. 2010 Census gets underway, one of the most significant trends that it will likely uncover is the continued growth of the Hispanic population in the United States. Previous government studies have already revealed some striking demographic realities. For example, the 2000 Census recorded a Hispanic population of 35.3 million people, which the Census Bureau projects to rise to 47.8 million in 2010, more than a 35 percent increase. This growth rate far exceeds that of the general population. In fact, between 2000 and 2006 Hispanics accounted for a full half of all population growth in the United States, with a growth rate (24.3 percent) more than three times that of the rest of the population (6.1 percent). This phenomenal growth is largely attributable to

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immigration. In 2006, 40 percent of the Hispanic population was foreign born, compared to just 12.5 percent of the general population. Historians and other academics are understandably interested in the origins of such a significant trend. Apart from the population numbers themselves, academics are also interested in the intense political battles which have been waged over Latin American migration. Although programs allowing legal migration have been controversial, the most intense political struggles from World War II to today within the context of Latin American migration have centered on the substantial undocumented migration across the U.S.Mexican border. The study of both types of migration is central to an influential trend

in academia, namely borderlands studies. This piece will briefly consider migration studies and then examine some of the historical roots of modern Latin American migration to the United States. Borderlands research suggests that looking at national borders provides significant insights into the political, social, and cultural trajectory of each of the states involved. Borders are a place where cultural, economic, and other forms of exchange continually occur. People cross the U.S.-Mexican border continually to shop, work, vacation, visit family, or a host of other activities. As they do so, they blur national identity, creating a border culture that mixes and borrows from both cultures while becoming distinct from either. Borderlands also tend to defy precise claims to sovereignty by either nation, and the attitude of national and local governments to these borders can provide significant insight into the character of a state. For example, a quick walk along the Berlin Wall during the height of the cold war would reveal a great deal about the state of relations between the capitalist Western nations and the Communist East. The barbed wire, physical concrete barriers, and guard towers clearly signified suspicion, distrust, and an effort at separation. The only access points were heavily fortified and guarded crossings, such as the famous Checkpoint Charlie. A similar walk along the U.S.-Mexican border would reveal that the attitude of the United States federal government has been far more conflicted and disjointed. The presence of the border patrol and physical barriers, such as the recent border fence, speak to a certain guarded suspicion. But for all of these outward symbols the border remains quite porous, and employers in the United States send a divergent signal by continuing to hire undocumented migrants. National, state, and local governments also send disparate signals by engaging in periodic roundups and deportations at the same time that


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had to be certified. Mexican nationals were to be admitted only under the conditions that there was a specific need that could not be met by domestic sources, and that the Mexican workers would not displace U.S. workers. Once the need had been certified, employers were authorized to begin recruiting. At the recruiting center, which was always in the interior of Mexico rather than on the border itself, the laborers were given a physical exam by medical examiners from both Mexico and the United States and then matched with prospective employers. After crossing the border, the employer could then transport the workers to their final destination at the employer’s expense. This process is interesting for several reasons. Its tightly prescribed set of rules made it unique among foreign work contracting agreements at the time. The Mexican government was interested in creating a series of protections for its citizens. It was concerned about domestic public opinion, and not particularly desperate to have its workers travel to the United States. As the President’s Commission on Migratory Labor in American Agriculture put it, "Mexico is the only country which requires an intergovernmental agreement; by coincidence, Mexico is the country which is ostensibly least interested in having its nationals do farm work in the United States." Because of this, in addition to the inspection of transportation, there were also rules regarding housing, and guarantees of minimum wages. As the program was originally designed, braceros were to be paid the prevailing wage, with a floor of 30 cents an hour, and they were guaranteed work for 75 percent of the workdays they were under contract. These provisions often meant that the Mexican laborers were paid better than their U.S. counterparts. As a result of these concerns, there was a large-scale presence of government officials from both sides of the border throughout the process. In addition to this legal program, the late 1940s also saw a sharp increase in the number of undocumented migrants. This migration was tied to migratory patterns within Mexico. Mexican workers migrated to the northern regions of the country to perform agricultural labor. When they would arrive in the border regions, workers on the Mexican side of the border earned an average of $1.10 per day (in U.S. dollars) in 1947. These wages were in a steady

decline. By 1949, average earnings were down to 69 cents per day. On the U.S. side of the border, average wages during this period were more than 50 cents an hour for legal workers during this period, and steadily increasing. The pull of earning many times what they could get in Mexico, as well as the saturation of the market on the Mexican side of the border, induced many migrants to risk an illegal crossing. Although undocumented workers could not expect to earn as much as legal workers, they could still earn much more than their expected wage in Mexico. It is striking that in trying to deal with this undocumented migration in the 1940s and 50s the U.S. and Mexican governments used many of the same strategies, and worked through many of the same political difficulties, which define the modern political landscape. For example, in 1947, 1949, and 1950 the U.S. government offered amnesty to undocumented workers who had lived in the United States for a sufficient period of time and who were willing to regularize their status. There were also political proposals to increase fines and penalties for employers, rather than focusing all of the enforcement effort on the workers themselves. In addition, there were continual calls for increasing border security. There was even a fear that communist agents would sneak across the southern border into the United States, a fear echoed today by anxiety over terrorists entering the country in this way. The political continuities are striking, and the migration patterns initiated during this period have continued down to the present. Thus, the current Census will find evidence of trends that have their origins more than half a century ago. Migration continues to be a hot-button political issue for many. In the 2008 presidential election border and migration issues briefly played a significant role, particularly in the Republican primary. The 2010 Census corresponds with the midterm Congressional elections. So far in 2010, unemployment and healthcare have seen this issue shunted to the side, but it has not disappeared, and may yet play a meaningful role in the current election cycle. The future for many of these issues remains murky, what is clear is that migration, cultural exchange, the borderlands, and transnational interactions of populations will continue to provide interesting fodder for academic study.

Spring Quarter 2010

History Series

they offer undocumented migrants drivers’ licenses and various social services. At some points in history, such as a particularly dramatic example at El Paso in 1948, the Border Patrol has even performed the opposite of its intended function by intentionally opening the border and facilitating undocumented migration. Finally, on the subject of borderlands, it is worth noting that the term is sometimes more useful as a concept than as a specific geographic location. For example, some cities that are not on a national border, such as New York and Chicago, nevertheless function as borderlands. Florida, similarly, despite being surrounded by water, is functionally a borderland between the United States and Cuba. Thus, it is no surprise that three of the five states with the highest Hispanic population according to 2006 census data are Florida, New York, and Illinois. Only California and Texas have a higher Hispanic population. To understand the current debates about border control and migration, it is useful to understand the origins of current patterns of Latin American migration to the United States. Many of these trends began during the Second World War. That conflict created a massive demand for labor in the United States, including agricultural labor from Latin America and the West Indies. Mexican labor predominated, and the system of migratory labor known as the Bracero Program was instituted to provide that labor through a series of intergovernmental agreements between the United States and Mexico. After a temporary program in 1942, the first significant agreement was codified with the passage in the United States of Public Law 45, on April 29, 1943. This law laid the groundwork for a program that would significantly outlast the war, ending only in 1962. Under the Bracero Program, the contracting of laborers proceeded according to a clearly outlined process. The governments of Mexico and the United States worked out the basic framework of an Individual Work Contract. That framework involved a substantial amount of bureaucracy and paperwork. Both the employer and the incoming migrant would have to sign this contract. In addition, the employer would have to fill out an Application for Permission to Retain and/or Import Mexican Agricultural Labor. Before this application on the part of the employer was approved, the need for foreign laborers

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The Chipotle Chronicles Notes From the Field by a Recent OSU Folklore Ph.D. By Mickey Weems

Some time ago, I began working at Chipotle Mexican Grill. Even though I finally have a PhD and completed my first book, there have not been many jobs for gay folklorist-journalists who write about Circuit parties and political issues involving the LGBTQ community. The only teaching employment I can find is adjunct professor (academic equivalent to migrant worker) at the local community college. Since my writing gigs for newspapers pay less now than they did a couple years ago, I found myself wanting. The collapse of Wall Street made things even worse. I needed to make more money, yet still have time to write. So five times a week, I would go into Chipotle from 8-11 a.m. to clean the dining area and do prep work.

El Restaurante The restaurant’s kitchen is divided entre the grill/deep fryer atrás and the area en frente in which customers' orders are taken and prepared on the spot. Both areas are within view of the customers. The trabajo for Chipotle morning pre-opening set-up is divided roughly between work for hombres and work for mujeres, although there are no reglas setting these things in stone — I get the impression that the workers are more comfortable in certain gendered roles. Cooking on the grill is hombre’s trabajo; setting up the front counter and deep-frying is mujer’s trabajo. When las puertas are opened for business (usually 10:30 a.m.), this division remains somewhat throughout el día, even though the demand for rapid completion of orders brings mujeres and hombres together en frente once the restaurant opens. The grill, however, tends to remain hombre’s domain. Two of the hombres (all workers in this historia are given pseudonyms of their choice), Papi Tigre and Pancho Cachondo, bring in CDs en español that are played antes de the restaurant opens. La música played by the Mexican workers is becoming familiar to me, as cantores and grupos como Kapaz, Ana Gabriel, Tigres del Norte, and Daddy Yankee swirl about us as we do our jobs. I have been charmed by the powerful voz of Gloria Trevi. I’m learning to recognize duranguenses (which, I was told, originated from the Mexican comunidad in Chicago), corridos, and narcocorridos. Songs about Zeta, continuing a tradition of singing the lives of outlaws that no doubt originated well before Pancho Villa, are enveloped

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The following is written in the form of fieldnotes, the “raw data” of ethnography, a common research method utilized by folklorists. While in the field, ethnographers become immersed in the culture they are studying. The resulting fieldnotes document their observations, personal responses, and analytical insights. Fieldnotes provide a revealing window into the culture being observed as well as the fieldworker’s position in relation to that culture. Most of my fellow workers come from Mexico, with a strong contingent from Oaxaca. Spanish is spoken in the day-to-day chores more than English. Through these fieldnotes, I offer a window into my linguistic-social world from 8-11.

in what to my ears sounds like traditional accordion-and-brass Mexican music rather than the digitalized and stripped-down sampling of American gangsta rap, although gangsta can also be found in música popular mexicana and reggaeton. La Música I’ve learned that one of the most distinctive features of música mexicana is a peculiar vocalization done by hombres, a high-pitched laugh or cry called el grito. When I asked my fellow workers from Mexico if there is a more precise nombre for this boisterous yell, they looked at each other and said it was solamente un grito, plain and simple. But the more I look into Mexican folk music, the more complex it becomes, incluyendo el grito, which can be happy, obnoxious, rude, silly, or even ecstatic. Strictly speaking, un grito can be a wail or a shriek. El Grito also refers to the Cry of Mexican Independence in 1810. For more complexity in the midst of simplicity, take the chorus of the popular song, “Cielito Lindo,” un villancico en tiempo de vals: Ay, ay, ay, ay. / Canta y no llores / Porque cantando se alegran / Cielito Lindo, los corazones For those of us who may not recognize the song by its lyrics, la melodía has passed into American commercialized folk music: “Ay, ay, ay, ay, I am the Frito Bandito…” This is exactly what the gringo trabajadores at Chipotle sang when Ana Gabriel’s beautiful version of “Cielito Lindo” was played one morning. When we translate las palabras from Spanish to English, the lyrics mean something like this:

Ay, ay, ay, ay. / Sing and don’t cry / Because singing gladdens, / Beautiful Little Heaven, (the) hearts This translation is only an awkward approximation because actual lyrics in Spanish do things that I cannot do in English without maiming the text. The first crime committed in my translation is the attempt to give an English equivalent to “ay,” which expresses intense emotion in many ways, including pain (such as the Standard English “ouch/ow,” the Coastal Carolinian “oy,” or the local Hawaiian “owee”), astonishment, pleasure, and even sexual arousal. “Canta y no llores” is really interesting. Directly translated, the line contains two commands, given first formally (sing) and then informally (don’t cry). We cannot do this in English because we no longer have formal and informal in ordinary speech. I can only approximate the informal tone of “no llores” by using a contraction (don’t). The last two lines are even more complex despite their outwardly simple and streamlined appearance. The words “cantando se alegran” is reflexive, that is, “los corazones” make themselves happy when singing, hence the inherent absurdity of direct translation (“Because singing, hearts gladden themselves” — ecccch). There is also no direct term of affection in English that corresponds with “beautiful little heaven/sky” so I didn’t even try. English cannot capture the delicate interweaving of alegría and tristeza that seem to effortlessly flow through the chorus and the rest of the lyrics. “Cielito Lindo” is proof that, when done with aesthetic


www.quepasa.osu.edu

La Comida When we sit down together to eat before the restaurant opens, las mujeres such as Anastacia will ask me how my Kevin is doing, addressing him as my esposo. This is partially due to the fact that Kevin and I have been going to this same Chipotle for years, and I knew most of them before I started working. Now I normally live according to the reglas of weight-lift kosher, avoiding fatty foods so I can preserve my girlish figure. Pero me gusta guacamole to the point of obsession. I justify eating it because the good things in it override the bad, and I try to limit myself to only indulging every other day. But when we eat comida mexicana from people who know what they are doing in the kitchen, the rules go out the window. My excuse: I’m doing research. We open a bit later on sábado and domingo, so Sunday mornings we occasionally have comida especial prepared by some of the trabajadores. Among us are some excellent cooks who make excellent things, such as tamales (cinco tipos diferentes) made by Gema. One domingo a couple of semanas pasadas, Ashley and Papi Tigre made chilaquile, a dish made with corn chips cooked in salsa and served with huevos, pollo, sour cream and guacamole. The chilaquile was picante but too good to pass up. I now understand the purpose of sour cream, arroz, and guac in the scheme of Mexican cuisine: they calm the fuego. La Fiesta de Navidad Chipotle trabajadores had our holiday fiesta in mid-December in the Upper Arlington restaurant in Columbus, Ohio. Unlike every other holiday party I’d ever attended, the event was alcohol-free rather than free alcohol. Most everyone had brought a dish of some kind. Ham,

wings, and raffle prizes were provided by Chipotle. Lack of alcohol was a good thing. People felt more comfortable bringing their kids, the real entertainment of the evening. It was more like a fun church social, but without a mandatory sermon. Kids were running around all over the place. The crowd of about 50 people was about 70 percent mexicano. After everyone had eaten, a frilly piñata blanca shaped like a burro had been set up for the niños, and a broomstick was liberated from its bristles so it could be used as a bat. All the pequeñitos gathered cerca del burro, which hung por encima by a string around its pescuezo. Un muchacho was given the stick. He came to the game with a strategy: strike the burro so that it swung away. When it swung back, strike otra vez, utilizing la fuerza of its vuelta to break it open. But this piñata was a real tough burro; it wouldn’t break! Other kids took their turns, beating sin misericordia el pobrecito until they severed la cabeza from el cuerpo. La cabeza stayed in the air, while the rest of el cuerpo (holding todos los dulces) fell to el suelo sin romper. The adults brought the burro pedazos back together in the air, el cuerpo dangling precariously from a hasty attachment to la cabeza. Más todavía, the pendulum strategy was used, the burro swinging wildly and the bateador swinging wildly after it. I was a little worried for the other participants who were fixated on getting the goodies the moment the piñata broke, but they wisely stayed clear of the stick. Por fin, a smart blow caused the cuerpo to rupture and spin, unleashing a dazzling lluvia de dulces the like I’d never seen from a piñata. Los niños were delighted. To read more from the Chipotle Chronicles, please visit quepasa.osu.edu.

Spring Quarter 2010

Folklore Series

PHOTO BY BRUNO RIBEIRO

adroitness, simplicidad is the essence of elegancia. Simplicity can also mask profound ambiguity. Here is the first verse: De la sierra morena, Cielito Lindo, / Vienen bajando / Un par de ojitos negros, Cielito Lindo, / De contrabando. There is some dispute as to the meaning of “morena.” Does it refer to the Sierra Morena, a mountain range in southern Spain, or a dark-skinned woman (morena Cielito Lindo) descending from the mountain singular? The song is also wonderfully ambiguous in gender. “Cielito” is presumably a woman with forbidden (or illegal) little black eyes. Yet the word “cielito” is masculine, so it can swing both ways. Ana Gabriel could possibly be singing about a man, and Luciano Pavarotti (who also sang this song accompanied by a full orchestra and Enrique Iglesias — check it out on YouTube!) could be singing about a woman. Or Ana could be singing about the woman she loves, and Luciano and Enrique could be crooning to each other. Forbidden love, indeed! Rich ambiguity can also be found in some of the most beloved transplants from Mexico, such as “La Cucaracha,” a song that is much more than what it seems: La cucaracha, la cucaracha / Ya no puede caminar / Porque no tiene, porque le falta / Marihuana que fumar. And another verse of this happy song, with seriously dark subtext: Ya murió la cucaracha Ya la lleven a enterrar Entre cuatro zopilotes Y un ratón de sacristán The song is over a hundred years old, and “la cucaracha” could mean many things and refer to many people, good and bad. When I read the lyrics in this day and age, however, I see it as symbolic of the downtrodden. With violence from the guerra de drogas that is spilling into the United States and Canada, the controversy over medical marijuana for people suffering from AIDS and cancer, and immigrants dying abandoned in the deserts of the Southwest with only zopilotes for pall-bearers and ratones to conduct funeral rites, these satirical lyrics from the time of the Mexican Revolution at the beginning of the twentieth century are depressingly applicable to ahora mismo. Por otro lado, my Mexican co-workers were amused when I asked them why la cucaracha no puede caminar sin marihuana.

19


Facing the Challenges on Our Horizon Recruiting Hispanics Students to Ohio State in a Tight Ohio Market

260%

220%

Cumulative Percent Projected Change in Ohio Public High Scholl Graduates Relative to 2004-05 by Race/Ethnicity

Hispanic 183%

180%

140%

81%

20

Asian / Pacific Islander Black non-Hispanic

-3%

-4%

White non-Hispanic

A few months back I received an email from an inquisitive former student, who is now a father reviewing college options for his oldest daughter. He began his remarks with the following questions: “Well Normando, how has recruiting Hispanics to OSU changed since I last attended? How is OSU’s competitive admissions impacting Hispanic enrollments?” WOW! It’s amazing how a couple of innocent questions can send your mind into a frenzy of speculation! In truth, I have been actively recruiting at OSU for quite some time, so for me there are numerous variables that I perceive are affecting Hispanic outreach and recruitment efforts. Below, I share with you my personal thoughts, speculations, and theories about the Hispanic community, recent enrollment trends, and how OSU can maintain a competitive admission policy while still increasing the Hispanic student presence on campus.

descent. According to the U.S. Census Bureau it is estimated that out of the 5.6 million additional school-age children entering our educational systems, 93 percent of them will be Hispanic. In spite of Hispanics historically having one of the country’s highest high school attrition rates, we continue to have more Hispanics graduating from high school and slowly trickling into college. There is no sign of a slowing in Hispanic growth either. If demographers are correct, and at the moment they are predicting 30 percent of our country’s population will be of Hispanic descent by 2020, it will be an inescapable fact that a large portion of Ohio State’s student recruitment market will be influenced by the Hispanic presence. As this shift in the surrounding demographics continues, OSU will have to continue to reinvent itself and its marketing strategies to remains competitive for its share of the Hispanic market.

Changes in the Community In thinking over my friend’s questions, one of the first factors that comes to mind is the rapidly shifting demographics in both Ohio and the United States as a whole. Hispanics presently constitute approximately 15 percent of our nation’s population and this population is young; within the next decade, one out every 3 high school students in the country is expected to be of Hispanic

Enrollment Trends The other major factor directly impacting OSU’s Hispanic enrollments is the shift in admissions trends. In the old days Ohio State, like most public institutions, ran an open admissions process: as long as a student graduated from high school, they could enroll. The pros and cons of open admissions are that while they certainly provided entry for aspiring students,

2021-22

2020-21

-14% 2019-20

2013-14

2012-13

2011-12

-9%

2018-19

6%

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

24%

7%

4%

Years 2004-05

-20%

32%

2017-18

15% 9%

2016-17

20%

American Indian / Alaska Native

88%

2015-16

40%

2014-15

60%

2005-06

Percentage

100%

open admissions also resulted in the worst Hispanic retention and graduation rates ever witnessed at OSU. However, the current standards employed in the competitive admissions process seem to clash directly with the realities of national Hispanic trends, especially with regard to test scores. This is limiting access to OSU for many academically talented Hispanic students and stunting the growth of the developing Hispanic student presence on campus. Even worse, I believe that rejecting Hispanic students who are obviously qualified can potentially damage Ohio State’s relationship within the local Hispanic communities. Thus there could be a residual effect that can potentially hamper our future recruitment efforts; there is a danger that an overly competitive process may prove counterproductive and retard the positive relationships with the various Hispanic communities that we have historically relied upon. Those who follow competitive admissions practices can certainly tell you (and it’s no state secret) that a more competitive admissions process typically skews the tables more favorably toward students from more affluent school districts. If we were to conduct a review of the typical Hispanic student being admitted to Ohio State, we would notice some inescapable characteristics: they are mostly suburban, 2nd college

SOURCE: THE WESTERN INTERSTATE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION (WICHE). GRAPHIC BY BRUNO RIBEIRO

By Normando Caban


generation, middle to upper middle class, and from mixed cultural heritages. Now, before anyone misinterprets this and takes offense, I mention this not as a criticism, but as an observation of the obvious reality. As Ohio State continues to annually increase the academic profiles of its admitted new freshmen who are coming mainly from the suburban districts, it is inherently changing the OSU campus Hispanic community. Considering that 70 percent of our country’s 35 million Hispanic citizens reside in urban and rural settings, are 1st generation college students, and are traditionally culturally linked, one can see why some detractors are concerned that the current competitive process puts most Hispanic students at a major disadvantage during the admissions review process. Competitive Admissions So am I contending that the competitive admissions process is essentially bad for Hispanics because most of them can’t meet the competitive standards? No not at all, but I do believe that some balance in how one interprets academic excellence in the admissions process needs to be reached. I strongly believe Ohio State can achieve its goal of becoming one of the top public institutions in the country without jeopardizing its quest for academic excellence, and it can still make strides in increasing its Hispanic enrollment. There is no reason to view these two goals as mutually exclusive, or to interpret my noting these statistical realities as a call to regress toward academic mediocrity.

I state this because it has already been proven by other highly ranked universities that with some strategic alignment of current best practices and resources, institutions such as Ohio State can realize more positive dividends in Hispanic enrollments without jeopardizing its academic profiles. Recognizing that Hispanics from traditional cultural backgrounds historically will not perform as well in the standardized tests used in the competitive admissions, the question is, “What is Ohio State willing to adjust in its admission’s yardstick to permit more equity in the access of Hispanics?” If anything, has been already demonstrated through programs such as the defunded College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), when it comes to Hispanic students from traditionally challenged backgrounds, it is unfair to apply the same standardized test yardstick to evaluate their academic abilities. CAMP proved that such students were more than capable of excelling at OSU, as the majority of CAMP participants routinely and consistently performed well, despite their much lower ACT or SAT averages. Conclusion While the current competitive admissions process is presently achieving its desired results in terms of promoting OSU’s academic reputation, the elephant in the room remains: how long can Ohio State maintain this approach before being forced to look at an alternative admissions evaluation process? I say this because Ohio State, like other major competitive

universities, is already over stressing its recruitment markets and venturing into the crossroads of diminishing returns. The statistical reality is undeniable: there is a decline in the national birth rate for White, non-Hispanics, and this coupled with declining high school graduation rates is already pressuring not only Ohio State, but many other major universities into a furious recruitment arena. In this arena, universities are being forced to dig deeper into their scholarship and financial resources just to maintain their desired enrollments goals. How OSU wrangles with this reality will greatly impact enrollment, diversity, and the future student community as a whole. As a person who has participated and watched the admissions game the past thirty years, I can honestly say that the old adage, “the more things change, the more they remain the same” certainly does not apply in the case of Hispanics enrollment. One of the most costly mistakes any institution can make, is to approach their future enrollment planning with the same attitude that doing business as usual will continue to pay the same dividends without putting into perspective the total social and economic impact Hispanic enrollments will ultimately have on their institutions. As Ohio State makes great strides to expand its vision of becoming one of the top public institutions in the country, I certainly hope it also recognizes that it will need to adapt and perhaps introduce a different yardstick to maximize its positive returns from the potential Hispanic student market.

United States Mexican 64.2%

Ohio Mexican 49.5%

Mexican 64.2% Puerto Rican 9.1%

Other Hispanic 7.2%

www.quepasa.osu.edu

South American 5.5% Other Hispanic 7.2%

Puerto Rican 28.5%

Puerto Rican 9.1%

Cuban 3.5% Dominican 2.7% Central American 7.8%

Mexican 49.5%

Cuban 3.5% Dominican 2.7% Central American 7.8%

South American 5.5%

Other Hispanic 10.2%

Puerto Rican 28.5%

Cuban 1.8% Cuban 1.8% Dominican 0.5% Dominican 0.5% Central American Central American 5.1% South 5.1% South American American 4.4% 4.4% Other Hispanic 10.2%

SOURCE: U.S. CENSUS BUREAU, 2007 AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY. GRAPHIC BY BRUNO RIBEIRO

Percent Distribution Hispanics/Latinos by Origin

Spring Quarter 2010

21


Predictions for South Africa It's Time to Start the Countdown to the World Cup!

PHOTO: COURTESY OF FIFA

By Bruno Ribeiro

As April draws closer I'm sure that in my native Rio de Janeiro there is only one subject that dominates the bar tables, the casters on the beach, or conversations with taxi drivers.  It does not matter the age, social class, or level of education; the subject is still the same. In fact, it doesn’t even matter if one likes or dislikes futebol: there is no place in Rio where the World Cup isn’t the main topic of discussion. I’m not sure if there is an American equivalent. Every four years, Brazil is overwhelmed with the effusion of patriotism, which lingers even a few days after the final goal.  As the World Cup draws close, Brazilians paint their streets with green and yellow and find commonality, pride, and unity as Brazilians. For us, the World Cup magically unifies our whole nation in ways no other force can. And in unison, in pubs, homes, and the streets, unity is expressed either in one scream or in deep silence. When it comes to futebol, Brazilians have high standards and even higher expectations. In Brazil, the bets are not waged on how far Brazil can reach at the World Cup because there are only two

22

possibilities: win the championship or be defeated.  Much the way Americans feel about international baseball, in Brazil there is no merit in reaching the final or quarterfinal. Runner-up and last are one in the same, and to not win the cup is to be an abject failure. As in many Latin American nations, the World Cup is about the reputation of the national team and the nation as a whole. And in truth we are just terrible when it comes to losing: everyone will be condemned for the loss, from the goalkeeper to the coach, to the bad wardrobe someone selected, to somehow the Brazilian President!  We are not alone in our passion for the World Cup, for indeed most of the 32 countries that have qualified for the event have the same pride and passion. And when these countries play their matches, you will no doubt find cities with empty streets and sense the same ebb and flow of glory and failure in the air. At such times it is safe to assume that any gathering of more than three people is a sign that there is a television showing the game in their midst. It is telling that even when all

but two nations remain in the final game on July 11, more than 700 million people worldwide will be watching. For those of us who find ourselves here in Columbus, we have already begun making plans on where to watch the matches and who will be invited to join us on this rollercoaster of emotions.  And there is no doubt that those from Latin American nations, including Brazilians, Argentinians, Uruguayans, and Mexicans, are among the most excited.  As the students of OSU celebrate their graduation and the closing school year, many of us will be more excited about the first World Cup game than the conclusion of our final exams. I’m not an internationally renowned sports writer, but like any good Brazilian I know a great deal about the World Cup and am usually pretty accurate in my forecasting. That said, now is as good a time as any to start speculating about what will happen in South Africa!  Listed below are the groupings, my picks, my final four, and finally my prediction for this year’s World Cup Champion.


Group A South Africa, Uruguay, Mexico, France

Group D Germany, Australia, Serbia, Ghana

Group G Brazil, North Korea, Ivory Coast, Portugal

While France is the team with the biggest reputation, I believe they are actually quite weak this year. Remember, they qualified thanks to a controversial goal, one scored thanks to the hand of Tierry Henry instead of his foot; expect them to have some problems with the referees and you can bet that any close calls go against them. For me, Mexico is a safe pick and a team that always seems to make it through to the second stage. My upset special has Uruguay advancing as well with the best team that they have fielded in the last 20 years.  Sadly, South Africa will be the first host country to be eliminated in the first round of the World Cup action.

Expect Germany to be efficient and to advance with ease.  As most fans know, the Germans don’t fool around in the World Cup play. In fact, Germany has been in the top four in eleven of their sixteen tournament runs! They won’t have any difficulty qualifying in this group.  However, Australia, Serbia, and Ghana come to South Africa having played well during the qualifying matches, making this a tough selection.  Although none of them will pose a serious threat to Germany, expect a highly competitive and entertaining series of matches in this grouping. Serbia sent a strong message in the European qualifier, taking first place in their group and sending a powerful message to France. In the end, expect Serbia to advance.

This is the toughest group in the tournament, with three legitimate contenders vying for only two seats.  North Korea is the weakest link, while five-time champion Brazil (more championships than anyone else) is always the team to beat in any World Cup competition. Thus far, this Dunga coached team has not excited Brazilian fans, but with the talents of Luis Fabiano and Kaká Brazil should be poised to win this group outright. Portugal should nab second place in this group, though I expect it to be close. While many are betting on goals by Drogba to lead the Ivory Coast to the second round, Cristiano Ronaldo should make a difference in favor of the Portuguese team.

Group E Netherlands, Denmark, Japan, Cameroon

Group H Spain, Switzerland, Honduras, Chile

The Netherlands is playing great futebol right now, as is evidenced by their run in the European qualifier; they are without question the class of this group.  The tandem of Arjen Robben and Wesley Sneijder should have no problem breezing past this relatively weak grouping.  Denmark and Cameroon will vie for second place, but don’t expect Japan to seriously contend. While the Danes played a good European qualifier too and were classified in the group in which Sweden was eliminated, expect the talent of Eto'o to tip the balance toward the side of the Africans and expect the Cameroonians in the second round.

As the leading team in the FIFA rankings, Spain arrives to the World Cup all but assured for the round-of-sixteen. Spain is simply playing better than any other team in the world, and the Spaniards fell into the easiest group of the draw to boot.  Switzerland, Honduras, and Chile will not make for great watching, but since someone has to win I should think it will be Chile. Indeed, I think it is unlikely that a team coached by Marcelo "El Loco" Bielsa will be surprised by the likes of Switzerland and Honduras.

Group B Argentina, Nigeria, South Korea, Greece Though Argentina struggled to qualify for the World Cup, it would be a big mistake to think that any team coached by Diego Maradona would go to South Africa just for a vacation. With veteran playmakers like Juan Sebastián “La Brujita” Verón and young stars like Lionel Messi (considered the best player of the world today), such conclusions will cost you any chance to win your betting pool! Expect Argentina to advance, but after Argentina the waters get a bit murky. My expectation is that Nigeria will find a way to advance, even though they aren’t nearly as strong now as they were in the '90s.

Group C England, USA, Algeria, Slovenia There won’t be any surprises in this group: England and the United States will advance and you can quote me on that!  The English team, coached by Italian Fabio Capello, is a lock to advance in this top heavy group. The United States, coming off an excellent run in the Confederations Cup last year, will also advance. Indeed, the USA has greatly improved in the last ten or fifteen years. No doubt the kids who watched the 1994 World Cup, which was hosted by the USA, have grown up with big dreams that will finally land them in South Africa. The Americans will make a good showing and will to prove that the United States is on the road to becoming a world power in a sport that is growing more popular with every passing year. Still, don’t expect the Americans to come home with any hardware yet; that’s still quite a few years away...

www.quepasa.osu.edu

The top four

Group F Italy, Paraguay, New Zealand, Slovakia The defending champions, the Italians, drew a weak group, but World Cup history tells us that the Italian team always finds a way to make something that should be simple seems so complicated! Still, expect Italy to find a way into the next round, as they always seem to do. Thanks to the play of Roque Santa Cruz, I think you can punch a ticket into the second round for Paraguay too, who I believe will overcome the surprising Slovakia.  For New Zealand, just making the tournament must be considered a great victory, but don’t expect them to win a single game this time around...

Picking the top four teams of the World Cup is always a difficult, but there are certainly markers that indicate some legitimate favorites! Although I think that Latin America can have six teams in the round-of-sixteen, I believe that only Argentina (shedding tears now) will make it to the semifinals; at that point Argentina will be eliminated by Spain. Obviously, I would personally love Brazil to win again, but I don’t see it happening this time. I believe the Netherlands will eliminate Brazil in the quarter-final and take a measure of revenge for their losses to Brazil in 1994 and 1998. England is our forth pick for the semifinals, but they will be eliminated by the Dutchmen. Thus, the final will feature Spain and Netherlands, two countries that in the past had good teams but always fallen short. The winner? La Furia Española will win the 2010 World Cup!!!

Spring Quarter 2010

23


Winter 2010 Events

L.A.S.E.R. Kick-Off

24

Frederick Aldama (pictured, above, left) welcomes faculty, students, and staff to the new L.A.S.E.R. facility. L.A.S.E.R., or the Latino & Latin American Studies Space for Enrichment and Research is an initiative provides a forum to engage in scholarly discourse, ensuring that the most up to date body of knowledge and research concerning Latino and Latin American studies is communally dispersed. All are encouraged to visit the space, located at 2174 Smith Lab


PHOTO BY GIOVANA COVARRUBIAS

SUR Meeting

SUR (Strength Unity and Respect) met in the Hale Black Cultural Center

PHOTO BY GIOVANA COVARRUBIAS

BELLA Meeting

BELLA met in the basement of the Multicultural Center in Lincoln tower to watch the movie Maria Full of Grace, a movie about a Colombian girl who becomes a drug mule.

The Intercultural Leadership Series

PHOTOS BY BRUNO RIBEIRO

The Multicultural Center presented part of their series, The Intercultural Leadership Series (ILS), which focuses on interculturalism and post-Baccalaureate pursuits, including job searches and graduate school. Students enjoyed lunch and engaged in a dialogue aimed at understanding how to work more effectively in intercultural settings.

www.quepasa.osu.edu

Spring Quarter 2010

25


Winter 2010 Graduates

26

Doctoral Degrees

Name

Citizen Major

Degree

College

Name

Citizen Major

Degree

College

Arisso, Maurice

USA

Journalism

BAJournal

SBS

Best, Victoria Maria

USA

PhD

MED

Balser, Dylan F

USA

Finance

BSBusAdmin

BUS

Casillas-Ituarte, Nadia

Mexico Env.Science

PhD

AGR

Camacho, Peter Javier

USA

Psychology

B.A.

SBS

Hernandez, Edith

Mexico Spanish & Portuguese PhD

Carr, Michael Armando

USA

German

B.A.

HUM

Machado Parrula, Maria Cecilia Portugal Vet. Biosciences

PhD

VME

Collazo, Eduardo Antonio

USA

Communication

B.A.

SBS

Rodriguez, Benjamin Andrew

PhD

MED

Davila, Eliseo

USA

Med Technology

BSAlldHthP

AMP

Delgado, Jorge

USA

History

B.A.

HUM

Doughty, Brandi Marie

USA

Fashion and Retail

BSHumnEcol

EHE

Flores, Michael Allen

USA

Internat. Studies

B.A.

ASC

Franco, Michael Anthony

USA

History

B.A.

HUM

Fuentes, Chris Alex

USA

History

B.A.

HUM

Gamino, Anita Marie

USA

Internat. Bus Admin BSBusAdmin

BUS

Garcia, Jeremy Ray

USA

Fashion and Retail

BSHumnEcol

EHE

Gomez, Anastasia Marielle

USA

Marketing

BSBusAdmin

BUS

Iraheta, Zyra R.

USA

Criminology

B.A.

SBS

Jaramillo, Daniel R

USA

Hospitality Mgmt

BSHsptyMgt

EHE

Johnson, Elizabeth Ann

USA

Nursing

BS Nursing

NUR

Knous, Elizabeth Kaitlynn Leotta USA

Social Work

BSSocWork

Luna, Natalie Marie

USA

Exercise Science Educ. BS Educ

EHE

Marinho de Moraes, Carmen

Brazil

Env. Policy & Mgmt

ENR

Martinez, Belinda Reyes

USA

Personal. Study Prog B.A.

ASC

McCartney, Christie Lynn

USA

English

B.A.

HUM

Miller, Jennifer D

USA

General Business

BSBusAdmin

BUS

Navarro, Matthew Alejandro

USA

Electr and Comp Eng BSElecComE

ENG

Orellana, Lauren Elizabeth

USA

Biology

BacScience

BIO

Parsons, Sophia A

USA

Human Nutrition

BSHumnEcol

EHE

Prieto, Gabriela

USA

International Studies B.A.

ASC

Saldana, Nathan F.

USA

Art

B FineArts

ART

Santamaria, Erik

USA

English

B.A.

HUM

Santos, Jeremiah

USA

Electr and Comp Eng BSElecComE

ENG

Sequeira, Francesla Eunice

USA

Political Science

B.A.

SBS

Varcarcel, Christina Carmen

USA

Political Science

B.A.

SBS

Velasquez, Zachary Tyler

USA

Personal. Study Prog B.A.

ASC

Velez, Andrea Ivette

USA

Spanish

B.A.

HUM

Zakany, Megan Kathryn

USA

Women's Studies

B.A.

HUM

Zamora, Eric

USA

Electr and Comp Eng BSElecComE

BSEnvNatRe

USA

Integrat. Biom.l Sc.

Integrat. Biom.l Sc.

HUM

SWK

ENG

Master's Degrees Name

Citizen Major

Colon-Jimenez, Lisandra

USA

Degree

College

Biomedical Engineering

M.S. ENG

De La Torre Cuba, Carola Maria Peru

Plant Pathology

M.S.

AGR

Diaz, Felicia Jo

USA

Social Work

MSocWork

Ferraro, Fernanda P

Brazil

Horticulture and Crop Science

M.S. AGR

Gonzalez, Katie Lynne

USA

Social Work

MSocWork

SWK

Kane, Yahaira Edit

USA

Public Health (PEP)

MPubHlth

Lushman, Louis Anthony

USA

Mechanical Engineering

M.S. ENG

Pereira, Rosanna Marie

USA

Allied Medicine

M.S.

AMP

Materials Sci and Eng M.S.

ENG

Rincon Troconis, Brendy Carolina VEN

SWK

PBH

PHOTO BY BRUNO RIBEIRO

Winter 2010 Graduates

Bachelor’s Degrees


Plantain Café Enriches Downtown with Cuban Fare

www.quepasa.osu.edu

black bean soup had a good balance of lime and cilantro, giving it a fresh tanginess that is not seen in regular bean servings. As Plantain workers are geared for high volume, our main courses were brought out quickly, hot, and in good order. I examined the Ropa Vieja, which was exactly what the menu described: tender steak in white wine with a light tomato sauce, onions, and green peppers. The steak was without question the highlight of the meal, very tender with each bite offering a burst of white wine and mild spices. The rice was simple, so as not to clash with the flavors infused in the steak blend, and mixing the two with each bite gave a full flavor. Giovana had the Cubano, otherwise known as a Cuban sandwich, which is popular in other Latin American restaurants because it is easy to make and gives patrons quick fast-food style access to food that is of much higher and healthier quality. At Plantain Café it contains roasted pork, ham, Swiss cheese, pickles and the house’s “homemade tangy mustard.” The bread, unlike plain white bread, a baguette, or the telera found in tortas, was pressed and heated, searing the outside and melting the ingredients. The sandwich is presented with plantain chips that are touched with lime juice. For my part, I was a bit jealous (not of the sandwich itself, which I thought was very good but not necessarily suited to my palate) and found myself wanting for bread. Crisp, warm, and very flavorful, I thought the bread stood out as the highlight of Giovana’s meal and a necessity for all dishes at Plantain Cafe. Having tasted both the Ropa Vieja and the bread

from the Cubano, I can wholeheartedly endorse the Ropa Vieja sandwich ($8), and Giovana agrees. As a dessert we were presented with the Natilla ($4), a Cuban custard with a hint of vanilla, lime, and dusted with cinnamon. Unlike many desserts the Natilla might be best described as savory, a blend of natural vanilla bean flavor that is complimented by cinnamon; the custard itself has a very good consistency, very smooth and served chilled, almost a crème brûlée without the crispy coating on top. Still developing its menu and full of promise, I expect that Plantain Café will only get better as time passes. Indeed, it serves its purpose as a lunch spot and has the potential to develop into a flagship for a more formal Cuban restaurant in the years ahead. We suspect that in years to come, Plantain will develop into a popular place for Columbus residents.

Plantain Café 77 East Gay Street Columbus, OH 43215 Phone: (614) 464-2822

www.plantaincafe.com

����� Rating System:

5 chiles = Exceptional 4 chiles = Very good 3 chiles = Average 2 chiles = Poor 1 chile = Very poor

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Spring Quarter 2010

Food Review

For those who have spent a significant amount of time in Florida, Plantain Café is most welcome in a city that is quickly becoming eclectic in its dining options. Situated in the center of what every day seems like a more bustling downtown, Plantain Café sits ready to quell your hunger for comida cubana. From a how about gratifying? simple Cubano Sandwich ($8), to the Tostones ($3.75), to a simple Arroz y Frijoles ($3.50), this new restaurant brings flavors that are familiar and dishes that are well prepared. If you have never experienced Cuban cuisine, Plantain is certainly a good introduction to some of the more common dishes of the island and a few that may not be so readily available. The space itself is small, but clean, well decorated, and full of friendly workers. We were greeted by the owner, who was genuinely warm and welcoming even before he knew we were representatives of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? We were seated, presented a menu, and as always I asked for recommendations. The owner hesitated for a moment, and then marked the Cubano sandwich as both popular and representative of the cuisine he was trying to recreate. Giovana agreed to order the sandwich, as well as the Sopa de Frijoles Negros ($4.25), but I was interested in something more complex. The Ropa Vieja ($11) caught my eye, as did the Sopa de Plátano ($4.25). The Sopa de Plátano came first, and though I thought the presentation was very good, I found it lacking the flavor of plantains. Instead it smacked more of vegetables, specifically carrots, and Giovana agreed with my assessment. I toyed with the pepper, tried a splash of hot sauce, then combined the two in search of a flavor that might suit my palate, but to no avail. This is not to say that the soup was bad, but rather to highlight the fact that my expectation of tasting a spicy plantain soup was not satisfied. On the other hand, I must admit that the Black Bean Soup was rather stunning! For my part, I largely detest the texture of most beans, which I find to be a bit pasty when they are (all too often) overcooked; this soup was light, pureed, and contained an expert touch of lime. Giovana agreed, noting that the

PHOTO BY GIOVANA COVARRUBIAS

By Michael J. Alarid with Giovana Covarrubias

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Spring 2010