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Steel Times International 1866-2016

Published by Quartz Business Media 2016 Copyright Š 2016 by Quartz Business Media All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher. Printed and bound in Great Britain Quartz Business Media Quartz House 20 Clarendon Road Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK



150 years of steel

1866 was a very significant year for the steel industry

1 6

Steel - delivering the UN’s sustainable development goals


The iron and steel industry of the United Kingdom 1914-1918


The changing face of steel


EAF steelmaking - a major force in US industry


Early suspension bridges and the men who built them


Iron and steel in Canada


Latin American steel - an historical perspective


Steel in our lives


An evolution in steelmaking


Continually improving


Modern society could not survive without steel

The state of the British steel industry during the Great War Steel, once the foundation of Europe, will be its future too

The Steel Manufacturers Association is optimistic about the US EAF steel sector It was not until the early 19th century that suspensions bridges were built from wrought iron The development of Canada’s iron and steel industry Latin America’s steel industry is centuries old and has faced many challenges Steel is the foundation for the quality of life we have come to expect Was Bessemer ‘the father of steelmaking’? Over the past quarter century, EVRAZ has become a world-leading steelmaker

Rising to meet every challenge


MMK strengthens priority markets


NLMK Group - highly efficient production


The past, present and future of Latin American steel


SSAB Americas - committed to sustainability


Index to Advertisers


Commercial Metals Company has endured 100 years of changing conditions MMK supplies approximately 20% of metal sold on Russia’s domestic market NLMK has maintained full capacity utilisation and has grown its production volumes Ternium reviews the history of steel production in the region and examines its challenges When it comes to sustainability, SSAB is making a world of difference

Foreword If you are in physical possession of this limited edition commemorative book and are reading this foreword, then you have been selected – singled out, no less – to share, first hand, in the celebration – the glory even – of a magazine that has been commenting on the global steel industry for the past 150 years. In fact, it is worth taking a moment to let that fact sink in. At a time when ‘digitalisation’ has become a buzzword, not only in publishing, but in steel production, it is pleasing to note that the printed word continues to pack a punch in a world increasingly populated by tablets and smartphones. Steel is the foundation for the quality of life we have come to expect in modern society, says Thomas Gibson of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Modern society could not survive without steel, according to Dr. Edwin Basson, director-general of the World Steel Association. Think for a moment of the world around you and how it would look without steel. Take it away and there would be no ships, no cars, no railway lines, no bridges or buildings. None of these things would exist in any meaningful way. Steel is simply indispensible. Because steel is 100% recyclable – without losing any of its inherent strength – it is not only at the core of the green economy, it also plays a crucial role in the development of the circular economy and the mantra of ‘reduce, reuse, remanufacture and recycle’. The longevity of Steel Times International is mirrored by the industry it serves, as the articles that follow will testify. One of them, penned by Mick Steeper, makes the bold, but justified, claim that steel underpins our civilisation and has provided the foundation for many of mankind’s greatest achievements. Steel manufacturers, he argues, have also contributed hugely to our collective understanding of science. In the global village in which we live, it is essential for any successful nation to have a central bank, a national airline, a currency, an army and, of course, a flag – but no self-respecting country could survive without an indigenous steel industry, a point worth remembering in these troubled times of overcapacity, increasing trade protectionism and the elusive ‘level playing field’. That said, if steel is delivering the UN’s sustainable development goals, if our technology providers – many of whom are supporting this very publication – continue to develop cutting edge equipment that leads to more efficient steel production and if our steelmakers rise to meet every challenge, then the global steel industry has an incredibly bright future that might see Steel Times International producing another commemorative book, just like this one, in 150 years from now.

Matthew Moggridge Editor, Steel Times International

Steel Times International 1866-2016

VACUUM EXPERTISE FOR MORE THAN 165 YEARS For 165 years, Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum is positioned as a world leader in the vacuum industry, with ample knowledge and experience in all applications and manufacturing processes needing vacuum equipment Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum’s technological leadership

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Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum offers a broad range of advanced vacuum solutions for use in heat treatment and steel degassing processes, for coating, process

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Zumbach Electronics Zumbach Electronics


Steel Times International 1866-2016

On-line Monitoring and Control Equipment sincesince almost 60 60 years On-line Monitoring and Control Equipment almost years


A pioneer of on-line measurement, Zumbach manufactures a comprehensive range A pioneer of on-line measurement, Zumbach manufactures a comprehensive range of non-contact, on-lineon-line measuring and control instruments. Our technology is inisuse of non-contact, measuring and control instruments. Our technology in use world-wide for suchfordimensional parameters as diameter, thickness, eccentricity, world-wide such dimensional parameters as diameter, thickness, eccentricity, outOn-line Monitoring and Control Equipment foroutalmost 60 years of-roundof-round and forand physical or electrical parameters like expansion, capacitance, dielectric for physical or electrical parameters like expansion, capacitance, dielectric strength, more. strength, and more. measurement, Zumbach for all kinds of wire and cables as well as in the Aand pioneer of on-line manufactures a comprehensive range of non-contact,

plastic and rubber industry for the extrusion of

expansion, capacitance, dielectric strength, and more.

Steadfast in holding to the values which made our

ZUMBACH in theand steelmetal and metal industry, for manufacture for hot ZUMBACH systemssystems in the steel industry, used used for manufacture for hot andand pipe, tubing and profiles by thousands of customers on-line measuring and control instruments. Our coldproducts rolled products cold processes for semi-finished products: cold rolled and in and coldinprocesses for semi-finished products: around the world who rely on the quality and technology is in use world-wide for such dimensional Typicalwhere areas where Zumbach systems are are usedhot arerolling hot rolling for wire Typical areas Zumbach systems are used millsmills for wire steelsteel rod,rod, reliability of our instruments and systems. parameters as diameter, thickness, eccentricity, outand seamless the manufacture of welded test stands (NDT) profilesprofiles and seamless pipes, pipes, for thefor manufacture of welded pipes,pipes, test stands (NDT) as as of-round and physical or electrical parameters like as all coldforprocesses, like peeling, grinding, straightening, polishing, well as well all cold processes, like peeling, grinding, straightening, polishing, etc. etc.

Steel Times celebrating 150 years

the metal industry, Zumbach technology is used successfully in theare cable of commitment to progress in the BesidesBesides the steel & steel metal&industry, Zumbach technology is used successfully in the cable success possible, they the guiding principle in for all wire and cables well as inplastic the plastic and rubber industry steel and metal industry. industryindustry for all kind ofkind wireinofand cables wellasindustry, as in the and rubber industry for for proximity through the Zumbach group: Customer ZUMBACH systems the steel andasmetal SteelTimes Timescelebrating celebrating150 150 years years ofof Steel the extrusion of pipe, tubing and profiles by thousands of customers around the world the extrusion of pipe, tubing and profiles by thousands of customers around the world presence and human contact combined with highest used for manufacture for hot and cold rolled products commitment to progress in the steel and commitment to progress in for thethissteel and who rely on the quality and reliability of our instruments and systems. Congratulations milestone who relyand on in thecold quality and for reliability of ourproducts: instruments and systems. quality standards for product, consulting, and metal industry. processes semi-finished metal industry.of service to the public and service. Typical areas where Zumbach systemswhich are used Steadfast in holding to the values made our success possible, they are the Steadfast in holding to the values which made our success possible, they are the profession! Congratulations for The thismagazine milestone of guiding principle infor thewire Zumbach group: Customer proximity through presence and are hot rolling mills steel rod, profiles and Congratulations for this milestone guiding principle in the Zumbach group: Customer proximity through presence and the readers a of service to provides the public and with profession! human contact combined with highest quality standards for product, consulting, and Today, the Zumbach group is represented on all seamless pipes, for the manufacture of welded pipes, service to the public and featuring profession! human contact combined with highest quality standards for product, consulting, and quality publication, The magazine provides the readers service. continents with 11 company-owned enterprises The magazine provides the readers service. test stands (NDT) as well as all cold processes, like everything there is to know on with a quality publication, featuring a quality publication, featuring as well as over 40 Sales and Service Centerswith in peeling, grinding, straightening, polishing, etc. steelisand everything the there to metal know industry on the steel Today, the Zumbach group is represented on all continents with 11 company-owned everything there is to know on the steel Today, the Zumbach group is represented on all continents with 11 company-owned the whole world. For this reason, we are not only and metal throughout industry throughout enterprises as well as over 40 Sales and Service Centers in the whole world. For this the world. the world. as well as over 40 Sales andwith Service Centers in ofthethe whole world. For thiswithof the countries,and e enterprises familiar with the languages butmetal also industry throughout the world. Besides the are steel & metal industry, Zumbach reason, we not only familiar the languages countries, but also reason, national we are and notislocal only familiar with the languages of the countries, butand alsolocal with Zumbach Electronics andinpractices. with national traditions and practices. technology usedtraditions successfully the cable industry Zumbach Electronics Zumbach Electronics national and local traditions and practices. d

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5 09:58

Steel Times International 1866-2016

150 years of steel 1866 was a very significant year for the steel industry. By Mick Steeper*


f you want to know what the global steel

and technology. His undertaking culminated at

skills he found in abundance, but investment

industry was like in 1866, then the writings

the Paris Exhibition of 1867 and is preserved in

proved to be a harder proposition. There were

of one man will guide you through much of

his magnum opus, Iron and Steel Manufacture.

adopters of his steelmaking process among the

it. Ferdinand Kohn was trained in metallurgy at

Kohn’s seminal book reveals the great

city’s steel barons, such as John Brown and Charles

the Polytechnic Institute of Vienna, and received

technologists of the age and the impact of their

Cammell, but others including Mark Firth were

a commission from the Austrian Government

innovations. Chief among them, and the man to

outraged by the incomer’s licence fees. Firth

to report on steel industry representations at

whom his book is dedicated, was Henry Bessemer.

sought out Sir William Siemens, smelting copper

the London International Exhibition of 1862.

By 1866, Bessemer was a well-established

at Landore in West Wales in the forerunner of the

The great commercial conferences of those

resident of the city of Sheffield in the north of

open hearth process, and encouraged him to equip

times featured steel strongly, befitting the

England. He had arrived in the city in 1858, though

Sheffield steel to compete with Bessemer. The

engineering fabric of the age. Kohn evidently

the keystone in the arched gateway of his works

result was the world’s first two bulk steelmaking

found inspiration in the topic, and soon came

in Carlisle Street bears a date of 1856, referring to

technologies being developed in head-to-head

other sponsors who allowed him to continue

the date of his convertor patent. Bessemer’s most

competition in the same place. The effect on

this line of business research. He went on to

famous invention was actually made in London on

Sheffield was enormous – the steelmaking capacity

dedicate six years of his life to travel all over

a site now partially covered by St Pancras Station,

of the city rose 20 times across a single decade,

Europe and beyond, visiting steel companies and

but the great man saw Sheffield as his opportunity,

and for a brief time fully half of Europe’s steel was

compiling a diligent record of their enterprise

both in terms of skilled hires and investors. The

being made within 10 miles of Bessemer’s business premises. Nor did Bessemer’s inventiveness end with his convertor. A year before Steel Times International appeared, his latest experiments in casting steel were attracting too much attention. Bessemer never liked patents, but his innovations in steel were just too big to keep secret. On 25 July 1865, he filed another one in the United States – the first disclosure, anywhere in the world, of the concept of continuous casting. Bessemer’s invention is immediately recognisable today as a vertical twin-roll strip caster. All of his engineering calculations, on speeds and gauges and on the critical aspect of heat transfer, were accurate enough to withstand modern scrutiny. Not for the first or last time in his life, though, Henry Bessemer’s thinking was way ahead of the


Steel Times International 1866-2016

It didn’t last, though. In a lesson that remains

and more benign driver too – better materials

highly relevant today, the bulk steelmaking

for the new medium of commerce in the form

technologies ushered in by Bessemer and Siemens

of the railways. Rail, however, had a smaller

provided what may be the very first example of

market volume than did military armour. Right

one of the harsh realities of globalisation – that

up until WWI, most of the global expansion in

innovation sometimes occurs in places ill-suited to

steel volume was a reflection of steel as the fabric

exploit it. Sheffield, with its surrounding geology

of warfare. Then, in the early years of the 20th

and abundant water power, was a perfect place

Century, the munitions began to prevail in what

to make small volumes of high-quality steel using

had hitherto been an evenly matched competition

Huntsman’s methods, but it soon proved to be a

with the armour. WWII and events like the Battle

poor place to make high volumes of commodity

of Guadalcanal would soon obliterate the idea of

steel. Hills may aid water power but they obstruct

the battleship as an impregnable movable fortress,

the efficient distribution of bulk materials. The

but at much the same time, steel was finding new

proximity of ore deposits would soon be decisive,

markets anyway through the first flush of a new

and Sheffield had none. The city eventually

consumer society.

retrenched in high-quality alloy steel in the time

The home of this new society of steel was not

of Brearley, in the first half of the 20th Century. It

European. The old continent would be sloughed

manufacturing capabilities of his peers. Bessemer

occupies the equivalent niche today to the one it

in its war-habits for decades yet. The opportunity

never proved his caster in commercial operation,

started out in.

was in the same place where the railway boom had

and neither did anyone else for fully a 100 years, at

The story of steel now begins to show other

brought in the largest increase in steel demand,

least in the case of strip production. Slab and billet

changes. The justification for the pursuit of

and thus the most dramatic rise in productive

casting arrived only a little sooner, and the world’s

volume in Bessemer’s time was substantially

capacity. This was the United States. Many of the

first 100% continuous casting-based steel plant,

military, although of course there was another

most enduring names in American commerce

at Shelton in the UK, was commissioned in 1965, exactly a century after Bessemer’s second most famous invention. The first quarter-century of Steel Times was the period of Sheffield’s dominance of the world in steel. Even before Bessemer, Huntsman’s invention of the crucible process, coupled with generations of blade-making expertise and the excellent refractory properties of the local ganister sandstone, had already made Sheffield the source of the cleanest steel available. There were around a thousand “holes” (as the crucible smelting units were known) in the city in the 1840s, but Huntsman’s was a process that was practically impossible to upscale. The reputation of “Steel City” was born instead from the volume process and the coming of Bessemer.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

designed to distribute bulk materials by sea. It has been argued that this trend to leadership by emergent nations was inevitable, since the global steel industry was already too big and too capitalintensive for investment in any other way than war reparations or other forms of state funding. Indeed the third quarter of the twentieth century saw a worldwide trend towards nationalisation, and with it an emphasis on the development of very large integrated plants, which would often become critical props of their regional economies. Many were located in areas of relative deprivation. Technology development nonetheless continued, and the final arrival of Bessemer’s idea of continuous casting brought benefits of process compression, reduced work in progress and energy efficiency. and indeed philanthropy were established

the appearance of the hot strip mill in the early

An eastward shift in steelmaking, presaged by

through this new steel enterprise, but arguably

1920s. The original inventor, in an industry that

Japan and soon followed by Korea and the “tiger

the most important name of all is less well

was already advancing through the collective

economies”, was now in progress. The traditional

known. Frederick Taylor ushered in the modern

efforts of many businesses, is disputed. Townsend

bulk steelmakers of the west began to falter, and

manufacturing era in what has been (somewhat

and Naugle at Butler PA or Tytus at Ashland KY are

in the last years of the century an alternative

sacrilegiously) called the Second Miracle at

most often credited, but more important was the

disruptive model appeared first in the United


economic impact of the concept, preserving the

States, pioneered by Iverson at Nucor. The process

correct strain-temperature path to generate prime

model was one of extreme compression, melting

production line concepts adopted and developed

properties in a near-continuous and hence high-

scrap in arc furnaces and rolling it in a coupled

by Henry Ford and the fledgling motor industry.

volume operation.

caster and hot mill combination. The location was

Taylorism was a direct precursor of the

The Bethlehem steel plant and mills were designed

former farm country, with a fresh workforce. There

and laid out around a series of manual activities,

resource came and went with WWII, and the

was no baggage of any kind, neither in industrial

and these activities were themselves refined and

reconstruction of the economies of the losing

relations nor in traditional investor mindsets.

optimised in order to create an efficient and

protagonists turned out to be the stimulant for the

consistent production method. The repeatability of

next major developments. Marshall Aid rebuilt

begun, the last and largest of the eastern

steel specifications and the adoption of a standard

the remains of Austria’s steel industry, and within

economies to invest in steel now came into play.

factory pattern were two of the outcomes. Steel

a few years yielded the basic oxygen process,

The development of the Chinese economy brought

was changing from a customised product into a

revisiting Bessemer and finally establishing

about an expansion in steel use and production,

high volume commodity.

the converter vessel as the dominant type of

which was unprecedented even in relative terms

thermochemical reactor. Japan meanwhile would

since 19th century America. In absolute terms,

the key application for flat products. The next

soon emerge as the world’s leading steelmaker and

the steel growth of the first decade of the new

decisive innovation in steel was the first since

the operator of its largest and most modern plants,

Millennium is unique and will always remain

medieval times to take place outside Europe, with

constructed on a new model of coastal facilities

so. As much new capacity was added in a single

Cars now replaced warships and food cans as


The last race to make steel as a military

Though the erosion of “Big Steel” had already

Steel Times International 1866-2016

decade and in a single country than had existed worldwide before it. With major capacity increases taking place in the other BRIC countries too, the inevitability of overcapacity was guaranteed. The problem is endemic, because developing economies need more steel to build their initial infrastructure than will ever be required by their domestic manufacturing industries. In the extreme example of this cycle that is represented by China, global business was a willing participant in the party and a decade later it is enduring the hangover. China arguably missed a trick, and the western steel companies battling for survival today can console themselves that their Chinese competitors don’t enjoy an even more decisive efficiency advantage. Though China’s plant is new, it is still

Meanwhile a major shift in the global scrap

low-volume high-value customised steel with its

mostly based on the traditional processes and the

balance is approaching, as the extra half a

high knowledge content will provide niches in a

integrated works concept with its high minimum

billion tonnes per annum of recently-made steel

way that bulk commodity production no longer

economic volume. The world, moreover, is coming

approaches end-of-life in its original applications.


to realise that there is a critical problem arising

New low-carbon electricity generation methods

from blast furnace ironmaking in the form of its

are emerging too. Nucor’s model is likely to prove

the fabric of modern life. It will never be displaced

climate change impact.

to be the sustainable one for steel in the west, and

from its position as the most useful engineering

And in spite of current tribulations, steel is still

material ever discovered. Its range of properties, and their responsiveness to controlled processing changes and to subtle alloying adjustments, will always be unique. Steel has provided the literal foundation for many of mankind’s greatest achievements, and the practitioners of its manufacture and use have contributed hugely to our collective understanding of science. We ought to acknowledge, in fact, that steel underpins our civilisation. It has been quite an eventful 150 years, and this is by no means the end of the journey. It falls to today’s steel metallurgists to chart the way ahead. Let’s relish the privilege.

*Mick Steeper, chair of the Iron and Steel Society, Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.


Tools & Equipment Consulting & Qualification

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Engineering & Projects

Steel Times International 1866-2016


imilar to many other success stories too, the idea

looking at the progress at Badische Stahlwerke opens

behind the launch of BSE is convincingly simple:

their eyes for what is possible at their own plants, too.

One of the most efficiently operating EAF steel plants turns its technology development and management culture into a profit centre of its own and offers its consulting and technology know-how to steel producers all around the world.


njoying highest reputation all around the globe, Kehl and the Badische Group today have become an

international centre of excellence where meltshop and rolling mill experts from all continents gather to find out what BSE can do for their success.


nder the name Korf-BSE Technologie GmbH the new company is filed on January 31st, 1983. Finally

renamed BADISCHE STAHL-ENGINEERING GmbH in 1985, the company today is one of the hot spots of know-how in the minimill steel industry.


imply put: From Steelmaker to Steelmaker – our company’s tagline sums up what our success story

is based on: giving steelmakers all around the globe pride in what they’re achieving on a daily basis in a trustful partnership with BSE.


onsulting and technologies by BSE are never focused on bare production key figures alone.

From day one on, motivation, efficiency, sustainable use of resources and safety have the highest possible significance in BSE’s consultancy and technology development.


ustomers are initially impressed by the convincing way BSE proved the success of their concepts:


teel Times celebrating 150 years of commitment to progress in steelmaking and running its magazine

for more than 30 years. This matches perfectly with what BSE has been working on for more than 3 decades, too. Our heartfelt Congratulations! Keep on doing your good work!

BSE has been operating for more than three decades


Steel Times International 1866-2016


Great Achievements start with us

Since 1949, a passion for Technology REDEX was created in 1949 from a patented process invented by the outstanding engineer Paul Defontenay. Based on the thermoplastic keying of the central parts of a planetary gearbox system which enables a dramatic increase in the torque/volume ratio, it became the famous «epicyclic REDEX differential» More than sixty five years later, REDEX is

The Company relies on three specialized

patents. An average of 8% of its 50 M€ annual

technical offices focused on better accuracy,

turnover is reinvested in innovation and R&D.

higher productivity, continuous cost optimization and eco-design. REDEX is recognized for the introduction of several key

Bringing Tomorrow’s Technologies to Today’s Market

concepts that have set the trend for advanced

Based on an in-depth understanding of

equipment dedicated to flat and long steel

all types of metals, from low carbon steel

products processing industry.

strip to the most advanced alloys, REDEX

European group, Global presence

offers a wide portfolio of equipment and subassemblies dedicated to world class OEMs

still making this taste for innovation the

Structured to manufacture in its own plants

and production plants aiming for the highest

mainspring of its international development.

the high precision key components integrated

added value.

Differential drives provide constant and precise elongation control

in its large range of machines and subassemblies, REDEX’s specialty is to design, manufacture, assemble and commission

REDEX’s exclusive design still uses the home-

machines or machinery components for high

made famous mechanical differential to

precision processing industries.

ensure an unrivaled accuracy in elongation tension control. Therefore, it guarantees the constant and highly accurate elongation whatever the electrical drives and motors quality.

With more than 160 years of combined

REDEX is recognized as a key partner for major precision strip producers, advanced metallurgical laboratories, and re-rolling companies all over the world. Learn more at

precision Wire Rolling Mills and Machine-tool


Drives, REDEX Group carries dozens of active

expertise in Strip Processing Equipment,

Great achievem


Steel Times International 1866-2016

STEEL – delivering the UN’s sustainable development goals Modern society could not survive without steel, says Dr. Edwin Basson*.


notice on our website in a section entitled “the Steel Story” the following comment from the 1860s. “In the first moves from rural to urban

existence, steel rails, which are the foundation of railways, begin to open up the US. In addition, steel framing and reinforced concrete architecture, such as skyscrapers, possible. Steel also replaces iron in shipbuilding, which brings huge cost and weight savings.” There is an interesting theme at the heart of this paragraph which is as true today as it was then and

will no doubt continue to be for the next 150 years. Steel is everywhere in our lives from current transport systems, infrastructure, housing, manufacturing and agriculture to water and energy

Steel is at the heart of the green economy

begins to replace iron in buildings – making steel

Dr. Edwin Basson

supplies and clean environments in kitchens and hospitals. Without steel modern society could not survive. We believe that the steel industry and steel

green economy. Renewable energy, resource- and

the success of a circular economy. The circular

as a product is a key driver of the modern economy

energy-efficient buildings, clean energy vehicles

business model has to replace the old linear model

and is essential to the technologies and solutions

and recycling facilities – all these things depend on

(manufacture, use then discard): all products

that meet society’s everyday needs – 150 years ago,

steel. In addition, many of the challenges posed by

must be manufactured to be able to be repaired,

today and in the future.

population growth, urbanisation, poverty reduction

remanufactured, reused and recycled.

But the key word in any discussion about steel is “sustainable”. The steel industry believes

and mitigation of natural disasters can best be met by steel.

of a product, its entire life cycle needs to be taken into consideration. A life cycle assessment (LCA)

that sustainable development must meet the


To understand the environmental performance

needs of the present without compromising the

Circular economy

of a steel product looks at resources, energy and

ability of future generations to meet their own

The most important thing about steel is that it

emissions from the raw material extraction phase

needs. In other words in a successful and thus

is 100% recyclable continuously without loss

to its end-of-life phase, including recycling and

sustainable green economy, economic growth

of properties or performance. This makes it a

disposal. LCA can be used to identify priorities for

and environmental responsibility work hand-

unique material in the world today. It also makes

improvements in process operations and product

in-hand. This is why steel is at the heart of the

it the most important and relevant material for

design and development.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

In particular, LCA aims to support efforts to

to increase living standards, improve energy

Furthermore, if these mechanisms are to be

develop a consistent, rigorous and transparent

efficiency and make cities more environmentally

successful with regard to both production process

methodology to enable society to make informed


improvements and consumer behaviour, they

choices on the environmental impact of products

Given the expected population growth, emerging

must not result in relocation of steel production. A

and processes, and to prevent regulators from

new applications for steel and more sophisticated

global level playing field and consistent application

making decisions based on a lack of information.

steel applications, the annual global steel market

of comprehensive market-based approaches are

For example, it may seem obvious to make

has a potential to grow by between 700 and

necessary conditions to ensure a fair treatment

decisions concerning vehicle manufacturing based

1000 million tonnes in the next 50 years. That is

of the related financial and trade implications

on the reduction of the weight of materials used,

equivalent to a market that is 60% larger than that

throughout the value chain.

which leads to reductions in fuel consumption and,

of today.

therefore, reduced emissions. However, some of

If one longstanding challenge for the industry has been how to produce steel with lower carbon

the lightest materials are much more energy and


emissions, the second is improving the value of

CO2 intensive to produce and are often the most

But as always the industry faces challenges. The

steel in applications. This needs a major focus on


steel industry has made significant reductions in

innovation. As was evidenced 150 years ago, the

greenhouse gas emissions in the past decades by

steel industry has a long history of innovation in

Future drivers of growth

improving energy efficiency and deploying new

both process and product, but the industry is said

In emerging economies, projected population

technologies and practices. However, due to recent

to be sometimes ineffective in commercialising

growth, linked to urbanisation and (hopefully)

dramatic improvements, it is estimated that there

innovation to the level where any producer gains

industrialisation, suggests a bright future for

is limited room for further progress with existing

little more than a very short-term benefit. This is

the steel industry. It is estimated that more than

technology. Governments, the steel industry and

particularly true of process innovation, which has

one billion people will move to towns and cities

other stakeholders will all need to collaborate in

mostly been passed onto the customer for free as a

between now and 2030. This major flow not only

order to overcome the technological and economic

“relationship benefit”.

creates substantial new demand for steel to be

challenges involved to ensure progress.

used in infrastructure development such as water,

But, importantly, steel enables major CO2

To deliver this the industry needs to attract and retain young talent, to drive the process of

energy and mass transit systems, as well as major

mitigation in other sectors. However, there is a risk

innovation forward in all of aspects of the industry.

construction and housing programmes, but the

that unfairness introduced by different national

The search for competitive solutions to supplying

process of urbanisation also leads to, hopefully,

or regional carbon pricing mechanisms could

material for lighter vehicles in the future, for better

a more equitable distribution of wealth. This

jeopardise proper competition. The OECD Council

and more energy-conserving buildings, for more

in turn drives demand for steel for additional

states that “Attempts to price carbon implicitly or

efficient energy production by way of better steels

consumer products such as household appliances,

explicitly will have distributional consequences

and other requirements will require young, talented

vehicles, and more machine building to support

that may be contentious. It requires the

individuals to work with mature professionals in

the industrial processes to manufacture these

determination and creativity of governments to find

the steel industry and drive innovation forward. In

consumer goods.

the right level of arbitrage between the economic

the face of the apparent attractions for the world’s

efficiency and the political and social sustainability

best scientists and engineers to join either the

urban areas plays an important role even in the

of climate policies.” Since as much as 35% of steel

banking and financial or information technology

countries which have already reached a high level

is traded internationally, policies must promote a

and ‘infotainment’ industries this last challenge

of urbanisation. Cities are in a constant process

level playing field to ensure that steel companies

may well be the greatest of them all.

of transformation, improving city organisation

in one region are not put at a disadvantage with

and living standards. Over the last 10 years many

steelmakers from other regions or in relation to

* Edwin Basson, Director General at the World Steel

countries have started revising their urban policies

competing materials.


Moreover, continued transformation of


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Steel Times International 1866-2016


Josef Fröhling GmbH & Co. KG was founded in 1947 by Mr. Josef Fröhling and is today synonymous for advanced cold rolling mills, slitting and cut-to-length-lines, double-sided milling machines as well as auxiliary equipment for the cold-rolling industry. In the 1950s Fröhling developed the first cluster mill

In order to strengthen its presence within the market,

concept and shortly after complete rolling mills and

especially in the segment of non-ferrous metals and

slitting lines were designed and supplied to customers

stainless steel strips, the internationally operating

in Europe and later to customers worldwide.

Danieli Company integrated Fröhling in its group in

The first double-sided milling machine for copper


strip was delivered in 1967. In the early 1970s Fröhling

Since the beginning of the new millennium the

supplied its first 5-stand tandem mill for copper

worldwide economy is characterized by increasing

alloys to the former USSR. The first cut-to-length lines

globalization and concentration of the metals

were started up in 1973. Also in the 1970s, Fröhling

industry. Danieli Fröhling managed to assert itself

supplied their first 12-high and 20-high mills. The

on the market thanks to its technical competence,

direct hydraulic screw-down for cold rolling mills was

flexible adaptation to the actual market as well as to

developed and established in the market. Worldwide

continuously developing further its products.

novelties in the 1980s were – among others – the first vacuum tensioning system and the first fully automatic changing device for cutter tools in slitting lines. In 1991, Fröhling developed and successfully set into operation the world’s first CNC-slitting shear. Today, this principle is standard for high precision circularknife-shears. In 1997, for the first time ever, a trimming

The world´s first flexible cold rolling mill (for tailorrolled blanks) was supplied in 2004. Meanwhile, 4 of such mills designed and supplied by Fröhling are in

View into a modern Fröhling cold mill

production. In 2007, Fröhling moved its offices and workshops from Olpe to Meinerzhagen, into modern premises.

line for aluminium strip which had been designed and

In order to complete its scope of services, Fröhling

supplied by Fröhling reached a processing speed of

developed electro-static oiling machines in 2007. At

more than 1500 m/min.

about the same time Fröhling supplied their first rolling-oil filter as well as, the DAN-ECO2 fume-exhaust suction and oil recovery system for aluminium rolling mills. Customer services including spare parts supply, revamping, technological consultancy have been strongly built-up in recent years and became an essential part of Fröhling’s portfolio as well.

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

CMI GROUP TWO CENTURIES OF ENGINEERING IN THE SERVICE OF THE INDUSTRY Cockerill Maintenance & Ingénierie, just like Steel Times: a long history, inextricably linked to that of the industrial revolution… In 1817, the British businessman John Cockerill

visits abroad, always on the lookout for

CMI has never stopped enlarging its

begins his industrial activity in Wallonia

new technologies and new projects. His

geographical reach and its portfolio of

by supplying weaving looms to the wool

conquering spirit has thrived through the

technologies. The Group today counts

industry. He rapidly diversifies his activities:


operational units in Africa, Brazil, China,

blast furnaces, industrial boilers, warships… Passionate about steam machinery, in 1835 Cockerill builds the first working steam locomotive to run on the European continent.

Today, with the benefit of this centuries old understanding of industrial processes, and driven by the conquering and innovative spirit of its founder, the CMI Group continues

The tone was set. This thirst for innovation has

to design, install, modernize and maintain

driven the generations of engineers who, for the

equipment across the whole world, and

past two centuries, have been introducing new

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processes bearing the Cockerill brand onto the

value-added services and its expertise in

market: engine designed by Rudolf Diesel, guns,

international project management.

boat engines, water tube boilers, locomotives,

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This technology driven group places numerous beneficial assets at the disposal of its client industries: a unique combination of engineering and maintenance expertise, a

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an ability to innovate in accordance with the

great industrial explorer, he made many

operational needs of its customers.

In 1890, the ‘Cockerill company’ was involved in the construction of the first major Chinese steelmaking complex, located at Hanyang.

Europe, India, New Caledonia, Russia and the United States. In all, some 4 600 members of staff within the Group constitute a pool of talent commensurate with CMI ambitions. With the benefit of this organization, CMI today serves an ever more diversified client base. Whatever their specific needs, in CMI they find a partner of choice, whether as an EPCM services provider across all technologies, for solutions involving reducing the ecological footprint of industrial processes, for specialized services or for the Group’s dynamism in terms of innovation. The CMI Group congratulates Steel Times on its achievements over the past 150 years !

In the 21st century, the teams from the CMI Group perpetuate the John Cockerill tradition, sparing no effort to meet the expectations of their clients.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

The iron and steel industry of the United Kingdom 1914-1918 During the 1914-18 war, steel output increased gradually by 22%, from 7.9 Mton in 1914 to 9.67 Mton in 1918, but this was followed by a y-o-y slump of 17% in 1919 to 8.0 Mton. Throughout the period, open hearth steelmaking predominated over Bessemer, at around 83% of output. Electric steelmaking was a new, but minor method, first appearing in 1915, peaking at 1.3% of production in 1918, before declining once again. Across the country, around 117 companies had 500 blast furnaces, of which about two-thirds were in operation at any one time. By Dr. Tim Smith*


n 1914, Great Britain was ill prepared for

Essen and commented on their advanced research

steel companies were also far more profitable that

war. It did not expect war – and certainly not

& development in special steels saying “we have

British. In 1912-13, Zypen-Wissen was the most

with Germany. On 28 June, the very day that

nothing of the kind in Britain”. A reciprocal

profitable German steelmaker yielding a profit

Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in

delegation to Sheffield by Krupp management were

of 33 shillings (s) and 5 pence (d) per ton of steel.

Sarajevo, the Royal Navy was visiting Kiel and

shown advances in armour plate manufacture –

Maximilianshütte was the next most profitable

Keiser Wilhelm II, wearing the uniform of a British

Hadfield told them an oxymoron: “It was Sheffield’s

yielding 32s 4d and Deutsch Luxembourg the third

Admiral of the Fleet, was being entertained on

boast that it could turn out armour plate that was

at 29s 1d. Hoesch was ranked 7th at 21s 4d and

board the flagship of the British squadron.

proof against any projectile, and a projectile that

Georgs-Marienhütte joint eighth with Rombacker

could penetrate any armour plate”

Hütte at 20s 9d.

Britain was preoccupied with other matters. Revolution in Ireland where Home Rule was

Later, Professor J O Arnold of Sheffield

Producers in the UK complained of German

demanded in the south, the sinking of the Empress

University reported that Krupp was making ingots

steel imports depressing domestic prices with their

of Ireland in Canada’s St Lawrence River with the

by the crucible process weighing 110 tons; but, in a

higher profits resulting from lower labour costs

loss of 2000 lives after a collision on 1 June, and

foretaste of what then was to come, he added that

and a subsidised infrastructure.

indeed, sports with the Henley rowing regatta

these were used to make gun barrels.

taking place on the river Thames in glorious weather.

The onset of war reduced most profits

In 1913, Germany was producing over 14 Mton

somewhat so that in 1913-14 the profit reported

of steel compared with Britain’s 7.66 Mton. German

by Zypen-Wissen fell 18% to 27s 5d, but

Germany was Britain’s major trading partner in Europe. Just five days before the assassination

Table 1 UK Blast furnaces and their output 1913 – 1919 (kilo long tons = 1016kg)

of the Archduke, the London Chamber of








No works








of Manufacturers and Merchants there. Visits

No Blast Furnaces








between German and British industrialists were

No in blast








% in blast














Commerce visited Berlin and hosted a lunch for a party of 120 representatives of the Association

common in those pre-war days. A visit to the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) turbine factory in Berlin greatly impressed the British. Sir Robert Hadfield visited the Krupp works in


Annual Output (ktons) 10405.33

Source: British Blast Furnace Statistics 1790-1980 P Riden & J G Owen Merton Priory Press 1995 pp lviii - lxxxix

Steel Times International 1866-2016

Maximilianshütte remained almost unchanged

Pig iron production

at 32s 3d now making it the most profitable

Pig iron production fell on the commencement

steelmaker in Germany. Hoesch saw a fall of

of war from 10.260 Mton in 1913 to a low of 8.724

29.6% to 15s and Georgs-Marienhütte a fall of

Mton in 1915, after which it grew slowly to 9.338

9.6% to 18s 9d.

Mton in 1917, dropping again to 7.418 Mton in

Industrialists were more wary than politicians

post-war 1919. This was despite the total number

regarding Germany’s growing industrial

of works producing pig iron increasing from 110 in

focus on armaments. Sir Robert Hadfield had

1913 to 119 by 1918. The number of blast furnaces standing remained

unsuccessfully lobbied the government to place orders for shrapnel having equipped one of his

almost constant during the war years; 495 in 1913

factories to make this material during the second

and 491 in 1918, but the number in blast fell by 4%,

Boar war in South Africa, which ended in 1902.

from 340 to 325 over the same period. Typically,

With no orders forthcoming, the equipment was

around two-thirds of the total number of furnaces

scrapped prior to 1914.

were in operation at any time (Table 1). The need to use lower grade domestic ore as

Thus, when the British foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, uttered his prophetic word on the

imports of ore from northern Spain ceased and

eve of the declaration of war: “The lamps are going

from Sweden dwindled was a factor causing the

out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again

falling output.

Blast furnace at Dorman Long & Co Ltd Clarence Iron Works,

North East England remained the region of

in our lifetime”, the United Kingdom was ill-


prepared for mobilisation and the country relied

greatest output during the war years accounting for

heavily on imports from Europe and its colonies

37% of total pig production in 1914 dropping to 33%

per furnace per annum in 1913 to a low of 51.9kton

across the world.

in 1918. Output increased from North West England,

in 1917. Smaller furnaces were generally the norm in

its share growing from 14% to 17% over the same

other regions of the UK. For example, in North Wales

and from November 1915, iron and steelworks

period. Significant production was also accounted

output per furnace averaged just 14.73ktons in 1913

in the country were put under the control of the

for by Scotland and South Wales (Table 2).

and fell to a low of 11.17ktons in 1916. Elsewhere,

The predicted ‘short war’ failed to materialise

The average output of each furnace was greatest

Government, an emergency measure that lasted

in South Wales, but output here fell from 74.1kton

until November 1919.

average outputs ranged from around 14ktons in Scotland to 43ktons in NE and NW England.

Table 2 Share of pig iron output by UK region (%) Year

North East

North West


South Wales



North Staffs.

South Staffs.



North Wales





















































































Source: British Blast Furnace Statistics 1790-1980 P Riden & J G Owen Merton Priory Press 1995 extracted from Table 1.1 *Yorkshire excluding Cleveland


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Scotland boasted the largest number of furnaces in blast, followed by Cleveland, Durham &

Table 4 Production of pig iron by type (ktons) Year

Forge & Foundry

Bessemer Hematite


Spiegle Eisen & ferro alloy


According to a report in the Proceedings of the







Cleveland Institute of Engineers’ the working life of a













the No2 Ormesby furnace was blown-in in May







1876 and finally blown-out in May 1914. During its

Source: British Iron & Trade Association

Northumberland and Derbyshire (Table 3).

furnace could be as long as 38 years. In Cleveland (North East Yorkshire – south of Middlesbrough)

life it produced 1.365349 Mton of iron. The coke rate during this time was close to one ton per ton

of tuyeres 6ft (1.8m) at start but increased to 10ft

the UK was to dissolve the slag in citric acid, but the

of iron. Local ironstone (siderite) was the charge

(3.0m) by 1890.

method was deemed to be unreliable, particularly

at around 3.3tons per ton of iron. The dimensions

where fluorspar was added in open-hearth furnaces.

of the furnace were: height 90 feet (27.4m), Bosh

produced from hematite ore – mainly imported.

A call to use the Belgium process of treating the slag

28ft (8.5m), Hearth 8ft (2.4m), diameter at nose

Figures for production in 1913 and 1914 show

with a dilute solution of mineral acid was made to

the growing output of basic pig iron

make a better assessment of P content and hence

Table 3 Number of furnaces in blast for previous six

compared to pre-war output as higher

make use of the 100 kton of phosphoric acid a year

quarters by region

phosphorous domestic ores had to be

generally discarded in slag.


increasingly sourced (Table 4).

June 1915

June 1916




hematite iron were converted to make

According to the Statistical Bureau of the Iron &

Durham & Northumberland



basic iron. In the Midlands, Stanton

Steel and Allied Trades Federation, output of pig




Ironworks Co Ltd, near Nottingham,

iron in 1916 was 9.047 Mton. This was 1.4% greater




started to produce basic iron from local

than that estimated in the General Report on Mines

ore in the nine furnaces they had in

and Quarries for that year of 8.918 Mton based on





raw material inputs of 21.505 Mton of ore – with




Notts & Leicestershire



production of basic iron, an increase

carbon, 10.30 Mton of coke and 2.61 Mton of coal

S Staffordshire & Worcestershire



in the formation of phosphoric slags

were used. This resulted in an average coke rate of

during steelmaking resulted both from

1.15 and ore rate of 2.41 for the year (Table 5).

North Staffordshire



the basic Bessemer (Thomas) converter

Of the 8.919469 Mton of pig iron made in

West Cumberland



and the open hearth furnace. The basic

1916, 4.319096 Mton (48.4%) was produced from




open-hearth process produced 5cwt

imported ore.

South Wales



(258kg) of slag per ton of steel resulting in an annual slag production of 750 kton

UK ore resources

S & W Yorkshire



equivalent to 100 kton of phosphoric

In 1914, the UK relied heavily on imports of high




acid. This led to technical debates as

grade ore from Sweden and northern Spain in

North Wales



to tests to ascertain the P content of






Prior to the war, the majority of pig iron was

Furnaces previously making

As a result of the increased

Raw materials

some cinder (ie slag) and scale etc also charged. For

the slag and hence its suitability as a

According to a review paper1 of 1917 by Mr CG C

fertiliser. The established method in

Lloyd, the UK had a reserve of 39.5 billion tons (ton

Steel Times International 1866-2016

= 1016 kg) of iron ore – of which 39 billion tons was

The Cleveland district of N E Yorkshire

stratified carboniferous and just 500 Mton hematite

was by far the UK's largest producer of ore. In

and magnetite.

1914 the region extracted 5.2Mt of low grade

The iron content of the riches ores reached 65%,

carbonate ore averaging 27.4% Fe content (37.2%

but lower grade ores predominated ranging in Fe

when roasted), 0.43%P and 0.2%S. This was

content from typically just 19% to 40%.

followed by Lincolnshire (Frodingham), 2.6 Mton

Imports were being disrupted, particularly

averaging 33% Fe; Northamtonshire 2.5 Mton of

on the East coast of the UK, by enemy action –

limonite sands – mainly by open-cast mining,

mainly from submarines – as well as due to British

and Cumberland & Lancashire 1.5-2.0 Mton of

Admiralty restrictions on shipping. In 1914, imports

hematite mainly with an Fe content range of 50-

of ore to Middlesborgh on the East coast, for example, fell to their lowest value since 1904 – a

The Cleveland district on NE Yorkshire was UK’s largest

55%, but some as rich as 66%. Other regions of UK

producer of ore despite being of low grade

together produced around 3.0 Mton in 1914 and

26% drop from 1913.

some 17 locations of ore were identified in Ireland

A joint partnership iron ore mining company, Orconera Iron Ore Company, had been formed in

ton of iron ore not imported sufficient imports of

that had been worked in historic times, but output

flour to bake 70,000 loaves of bread resulted’.

here was minimal.

1873 to exploit reserves near Bilbao in northern

At the same time, he called for iron output to

Spain, owned in equal shares by Guest, Keen &

be increased by 3 Mton a year to solve the shortage

underground mines fell by 7.0% from 6.080 Mton

Nettlefolds Ltd, Consett Iron Co Ltd, a Spanish

of shipping, which was being lost to enemy

in 1915 to 5.648 Mton in 1916. At the same time, the

company and Alfred Krupp. On the outbreak of

submarines. He called for 2.5 times more ships to be

output of limestone dropped 44.5% from 4,464 tons

war, court action was brought under the ‘Trading

built in 1917 as had been built in 1916. (The enemy

to 2,477 tons. The drop was largely the result of a

with the Enemy Act’ against Friedrich Krupp to

had calculated that if shipping losses could exceed

shortage of manpower as men were called to serve

seize their share of the company and administer

600 kton a month Britain could not sustain the loss).

in the army.

it by the government appointed ‘Public Trustee’.

The workforce rallied to the call. In South Wales,

Between 1915 and 1916, ore won from

However, since the mine was now under German

they volunteered to increase the working day to 12

Steel production

control, no further ore could be imported by

hours (an average of 70.8 hours per week for a 5.91

All iron and steel production was put under

Orconera for the duration of hostilities.

day week), to ensure sufficient supply to the local

government control in 1915 and sales were

blast furnaces. By March 1915, 11,842 ore miners

restricted for use in the war effort.

Some ore continued to come from other regions

Steel output leading up to the war increased

of Spain and elsewhere, but suffered from sharply

were employed across the UK, and this number

rising freight costs.

excludes those in open pit ore mines and where ore

annually from 6.461412 Mton in 1911 to 7.835113

was associated with coal mining – an industry then

Mton in 1914. Of this, open-hearth (Siemens

output from domestic mines to be greatly increased

employing nearly three times as many workers at

Martin) steelmaking predominated at 77.3% in 1911

underlining his statement by saying that ‘for every


growing to 83.6% in 1914 (Table 6).

The Minister of Munitions, Dr Addison, called on

In 1914, acid steel accounted for 56.2% of open-

Table 5 Raw material consumption 1915 & 1916 (Million long tons)

hearth output and 62.4% of Bessemer output, a


Pig Iron




Ore Rate

Carbon Rate

decrease over the previous year when the share of








acid steel was 62.9% and 65.5% respectively. This








was because the war restricted imports of highgrade acid ores resulting in ironworks increasingly

*Ore includes 138269 tons of forge and mill cinder, steel turnings, scale etc in 1916 and 36250 tons in 1915

having to rely on domestic basic ores. As output

Source: The General Report on Mines and Quarries

increased in 1915, the share of acid steel increased


Steel Times International 1866-2016

12000 10000

Electric steelmaking

Table 7 Wrought iron production by puddling

Electric steelmaking in sufficient

during and post war (kilo tons)

quantities to be significant was first

Puddled Iron

% WI as total






ktonnes, a figure not exceeded again until


No data












furnaces and arc furnaces. One such arc




furnace advocated towards the end of the




war was the ‘Stobie’ furnace in which a








recorded in 1915 when 22 ktonnes were


produced. Output peaked during the war


years in 1918 with the production of 128

2000 0 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 Bessemar




Figure 1 UK steel production by process 1911 – 1920 (metric tonnes x 1000)

once more to 58.7% for OH and 68.1% for Bessemer

At this time, many early designs of electric furnaces were being tried including induction furnaces, resistance

steel. Acid steel was considered to be of higher

single electrode entering vertically through the roof

quality than basic.

was protected from oxidation from air by enclosing

In 1917, the Minister for Munitions, Dr Addison,

it in a chamber. This furnace, it was proposed,


Source: British Iron & Steel Federation

called for a 50% growth in steel capacity in the UK

could turn basic open-hearth steel into a higher

upon-Tyne with a capacity of 5,000 tons a year. By

– a figure not achieved in practice. Indeed, the 1917

quality product than acid open-hearth and at a

this time, demand for electrodes in the UK was

steel output of 9.873 million metric tonnes would

lower cost.

around 4,000 tons a year.

not grow by 50% until after WWII when it reached

Pre-war, arc furnaces relied on a supply of electrodes from Germany and Austria, a source no

Special steels

Fig 1 indicates steel production by process for

longer available from late 1914. Electrodes thus

Pre-war, Sir Robert Hadfield had visited the Krupp

the 10 years 1911 to 1920 showing a peak production

had to be imported from the USA until, in 1917,

works in Essen and, on his return, commented on

of 9.873 Mton (metric) occurring in 1917.

The Nitrogen Products and Carbide Co, erected

their advanced research & development in special

an electrode manufacturing facility in Newcastle-

steels observing ‘we have nothing of the kind in

15.1 Mton in 1948.

Britain’. Thus, pre-war, the UK relied heavily on the Table 6 Steel Production in UK 1911-1915 (million long tons)

import of special steel ingots from Germany, and to a lesser extent, Belgium.






Open hearth






Modest amounts of special steels were made by

of which acid






the crucible process. Indeed, the process continued

and basic






well into 1950s. As an example, during the war







years a 12-hole furnace of the Huntsman type with

of which acid






natural draught was in use at the Cyclops Works in






Sheffield owned by Scottish shipbuilder, Cammell







% OH






and basic

Laird. Output was just 1.65 tons per day at a coke rate 2.75 tons. Crucibles were made of clay and had


a typical life of just one day averaging 2.5 melts(2).

*1915 acid steels calculated as total minus basic

Today, Sheffield has one preserved crucible furnace

Source: British Iron Trade Association

located at the Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

Carburisation of bar steel was still taking place

oven patent was challenged by Simon-Carves of

martensitic stainless steel to be commercialised,

in cementation furnaces in areas such as Sheffield

Manchester on the grounds that at the outbreak

but further development stopped during the war

during the war although the process had declined

of war they were partners with Koppers in its

years. At about the same time, Krupp in Germany

from a peak of around 200 furnaces there to


developed an austenitic stainless steel containing

just eight by 1934 as induction melting replaced

Ni and Cr which it patented as Nirosta.

crucible steelmaking and the consequential

Stainless steel

demand for blister steel bar made by cementation.

In 1912, Harry Brearley, director of Brown Firth


Doncaster, Daniel & Sons produced 1659 tons in

Research Laboratories in Sheffield, discovered

The tinplate industry suffered from a lack of black

1914, declining to 915 tons by 1918 at their Sheffield

that a low C steel containing 12% Cr did not rust.

plate (to roll to thin sheet) as the war progressed. In

works. Their furnace in Hoyle Street was the last

He named this ‘rustless steel’ and this was the first

1917 tinplate output was 45% below pre-war levels.

to make steel by this method closing in 1951 when 276 tons were produced. This furnace is preserved

Table 8 Imports to UK Jan-March 1914 vs 1915 (tons)

today as a monument.

Class of Material

Q1 1914

Q1 1915

% Change

Iron ore




Belgium had also developed the production of special steels and, following the outbreak of war, it was proposed that steel workers among Belgian

Scrap (excluding rails)




refugees should be recruited to work in British steel

Pig iron




plants. However, the UK Labour Exchanges were

Steel ingot







From Germany
















From Germany








From Sweden












From Germany












Other classes, etc bars, angles, shapes




Wire rod etc




Total Iron & Steel Q1




ill equipped to locate these skilled workers and few ended up in such employment. Innovative steels such as ‘Cobaltcrom’, an air

Puddled bar Steel Bloom, Billet & Slab:

hardening high-speed tool steel, were developed during the war. These offered up to a 50% increase in cutting tool life and could be hardened without the need for normalising. A two-stage cooling process was employed, the steel being initially held

Steel sheet bars & Tinplate bars:

in a slowly cooling muffle furnace followed by air cooling. This heat treatment could also be achieved in a Smith’s hearth by placing the steel in a ceramic

Wrought Iron bar:

tube heated in the hearth. Even during hostilities German patents were recognised but sometimes suspended or negated if the product was needed for the war effort. In

Steel Girders etc:

1917, for example, a patent for high-speed steel containing cobalt previously granted to Stahlwerk Becker was challenged by Darwin & Milner and Arthur Balfour & Co on the grounds that a similar alloy steel containing 15% Co had been developed in Sheffield prior to the date of registration of the Becker patent. Similarly, a Koppers coke

Source: Board of Trade Returns reported in Iron & Steel Trades Journal


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Imports of steel for tinplate production fell 99.6%

reported as ‘strong’. Imports of wrought iron hoop,

between 1914 and 1917, from 278,014 tons in 1914 to

strip and tube were also significant, but fell as

just 985 tons in 1917.

war progressed. In 1916, total imports of wrought

Imports of tin also fell dramatically from 38,896

iron amounted to 64.52 kton but this fell by 60%

tons in 1915 to 27,147 tons in 1917, a 30% fall. The

the following year to 25.8 kton. Imported wrought

price of tin also increased 30.2% from an average

iron tube commanded the highest price averaging

of £182-7s-9d (£182.387) in 1916 to £237-11s-6d

£22-3s) (£22.15) per ton compared with £15-6s-8d)

(£237.575) in 1917.

(£15.34) for hoop and strip iron in 1916. In 1917,

The number of tinplate mills operating in Wales,

these respective prices had risen 32.7% to average

the main area of production, fell to 213 in 1917,

£29-8s (£29.40) per ton for tube and 70.6% to £26-

with 33-50% of mills idle either for want of steel

3s-6d (£26.18) for hoop.

or want of labour – much of the workforce having either been transferred to steelmaking companies

Imports and exports

or having joined the army. By mid-1917, output of

In 1913, 87.5% of ore imported to Britain came

tinplate for the year was estimated to be 350 kton,

800ton Loewy press at Thomas Firth & John Brown Ltd, Sheffield

from Spain, the remainder mainly from Sweden. 60% of food was also imported and, included

compared with 600 kton in 1916. The Welsh tinplate industry was alarmed by the growth in tinplate

applications subject to shock loading was

in this, was 80% of the country’s wheat supply.

output in the USA which reached 1.645 Mton

considered superior to steel.

Thus Britain was highly dependent on imports of

Just prior to war, in 1913, 1.207 Mton were

in 1917, not only threatening the former export

these commodities. Nevertheless, Britain was a

market of Welsh tinplate to the USA but also 10%

produced adding 13.6% to the 8.8 Mton total of steel

net exporter of iron and steel goods exporting 4.3

of US output was now exported – largely to former

and wrought iron output that year. The output of

times the volume compared to imports in 1916

customers of Wales.

puddled iron, however, progressively fell during and

and 4.16 times more in 1917.

after the war years (Table 7) although the process

Wrought iron

did not eventually cease in the UK until 1975.

Wrought iron was still being made by the puddling

In 1917, puddled bar iron was selling for £12-5s

process during and after the war, and for some

(£12.25) a ton in Staffordshire and demand was

compared with 1.295132 Mton in the same period in 1915, a fall of 262.2 kton or 16.8%. The quarterly figures equate to annual imports of around 6.2 Mton in 1914 and 5.2 Mton in 1915. Imports from

Table 9 Imports of iron & steel products 1916 & 1918 (tons) Product

Imports of ore in Q1 1914 were 1.557320 Mton

the Bilbao region of Spain were prevented as the



yoy % change


yoy % change

mine was operated by Alfred Krupp Ag. In 1914 a

Pig irons**






breach of contract case was brought by the Ebbw

Railway rail






Vale Steel, Iron & Coal Company against shippers

Steel ingot






of the delivery of 25,000 tons of Spanish ore from







Bilbao. It was not upheld by the Court as it was

Other steel prod






recognised that hostilities had prevented delivery.







Ebbw Vale had claimed Macleod & Co should have






Macleod & Company in 1914 for non-completion

Value (£M sterling)


foreseen the pending disruption of supply and shipped earlier. However, imports of ore from

*1918 full year calculated from 11 months **Basic; Forge& Foundry; Hematite; ferro alloys

other regions of Spain continued, with imports in

Source: Board of Trade Returns reported in Iron & Steel Trades Journal

the first 11 months of 1917 reaching 83,479 tons

Steel Times International 1866-2016

and increasing 7.7% to 89,930 tons in the same

kton and 733.776 kton respectively were various

period 1918. Total ore imports from worldwide

grades of pig irons (Tables 9 & 10).

destinations for these 11 month periods were 5.761 Mton and 6.099 Mton respectively.

In 1916, exports exceeded imports by 2.58 Mton, a figure which dropped 71.6% in 1917 to

Regarding the import of finished iron and steel,

1.848 Mton. In terms of value, imports fell just

comparing Q1 1914 pre-war and Q1 a year later

3.6% between the two years while exports fell

showed a drop of two-thirds in the totals imported

21.1%, but in both years the value of exports

in Q1 1915.

outweighed that of imports by over £45.7M

Table 8 illustrates the changes between the first quarter results for 1914 and Q1 1915.

(80.3%) in 1916 and over £34.1M (75.8%) in 1917. In the final year of the war, both imports and

In Q1 1914, Germany was the main source of

exports continued to decline by a similar degree,

steel blooms, billet and slab providing 78,991

the totals dropping by around 30% in each case

tons. Belgium was the second largest supplier

(Tables 8 & 9).

at 27,691 tons, followed by USA 6,294 tons and

An increasingly wide range of exports were

other countries 3,720tons. For the same period

prohibited to hostile nations as the war continued.

1915, no steel was imported from Germany and

Those relating to steel products included steel

imports from Belgium fell to just 105 tons. The

of all kinds, nails for boots and shoes, horse and

USA increased exports to 34,795 tons as did other

ox shoes, ferro-alloys, wire drawing dies, barbed

countries to 19,717 tons (Table 8).

and galvanised wire and portable forges. Export

In 1916, the total of iron and steel products

of such goods were permitted only to ports in

imported (excluding ore and scrap) had fallen by

France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal and Russia

around 5% to 772.846 kton (viz 817.480 kton in 1915

(except Baltic ports).

for the full year estimated from Q1 figures) and in

The main recipient of pig iron exports was

1917 the fall increased to 35.7% at 496.816 kton.

France receiving 72.6% of total pig iron exported

However, domestic production was increasing and

in 1917 and 74.3% in 1918. In 1917, the next largest

exports far exceeded these values at 3.356 Mton

recipient of pig iron from the UK was Italy (12%)

in 1916 and 2.345 Mton in 1917 – of which 916.807

followed by USA (7.9%).

Shoes for horses, oxen and mules were vital to the war effort

Steel products were exported widely with France again receiving the greatest share of bar products (73.6%) in 1918, followed by British India (2.4%). France again dominated the receipt of tinplate

Table 10 Exports of iron & steel products 1916 & 1918 (tons) Product

(21.7%) followed by Italy (14.3%) that year.



yoy % change


yoy % change

Pig irons**






Railway rail






for the Royal Navy to keep sea routes open. The

Fence wire Incl barbed






threat from hostile submarines was greatest but

Other steel prod






these became much less effective after 1917 once












Value (£M sterling)

*1918 full year calculated from 11 months **Basic; Forge& Foundry; Hematite; ferro alloys Source: Board of Trade Returns reported in Iron & Steel Trades Journal

Thus Britain was highly dependent on trade throughout the war years and it was a vital task

merchant ships travelled in convoy with a naval escort, losses from enemy action dropping to around 0.8% in these conditions and the enemy target to sink 600,000 tons of shipping a month was more than halved.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

To part combat a shortage of ship plate some

act as a lighthouse to mark the deep water channel.

Table 11 Stewart & Lloyd’s output of

smaller ships, such as tugs, were constructed of

It remains there today as the ‘Nab’ tower. The other

ordnance during the war

concrete, but this proved to be more expensive

was scrapped.

than using ship plate. To counter the threat of


Number x1000

submarines, a chain of concrete and steel towers

The home front

240mm Trench Howitzers


was to be constructed across the Straits of Dover

Throughout the war years business-to-business

Stokes’ Shells


between which heavy netting was to be hung and

(B2B) publications still received and published

mines laid. A honeycomb base was key to enable

information on steel output in Germany, for

Gas Cylinders


the towers to be buoyant so as to be towed to their

example, from the Essen Pig-Iron Syndicate. Unlike

Stromboss Cylinders


location and then the honeycomb flooded so the

the lay press, the technical press made little adverse

Trench Mortars


tower would settle on the sea bed. However, the task

comment to enemy activities. Indeed, when Fritz

Livens’ Projector Drums


proved so complex that only two of these so called

Baare, general director of Bochum Steel Works died

‘Mystery Towers’ were completed before the war

in 1917, this was reported in the weekly ‘Iron & Steel

O2 and CO2 cylinders


ended. After the war, one was towed to the Solent to

Trades Journal’ which by this time had amalgamated with the ‘Iron Trade Circular’.

Steel per annum (k ton)


Source: Stewarts & Lloyds Ltd 1903-1953 p29-31 Pub by S&L

The B2B press of the day did report parliamentary debates which frequently addressed

carriages for 6” (150mm) guns and 250lb (113.6kg)

wartime issues. Particular emphasis was placed

bomb cases for the Royal Flying Corps.

on those debates effecting industrial output such as the need to produce more shipbuilding plate to

in the army. Some were returned to the company

counter merchant ship losses due to enemy action.

by the government to work in skilled jobs but the

In 1917, Dr Addison, then Minister for Munitions,

workforce also had to rely heavily on recruiting

called for an increase in plate making capacity of

women and unskilled workers too old or too young

30% to reduce the amount of plate being imported

to join the forces.

from the USA at twice the cost of domestic plate.

of Munitions as ‘Contaband of War’ were regularly

for to reduce imports from the USA, which cost 30%

reported which, from 1914, included arms of

more than local steel.

all kinds, projectiles, powder and explosives,

ingredients of explosives, gun mountings, armour

peacetime production to wartime, Stewart & Lloyds,

plate, ferro alloys, metals such as W, Mo, V, Ni,

with headquarters in Glasgow, progressively saw

Se, Co, Mn, Cr, Zn, Pb, hematite pig iron and

its output of materials for the war effort grow. The

manufactured goods such as motor vehicles,

company specialised in seamless tube required for

railway materials, warships, horse shoes and

boilers and also the forging of cylindrical sections.

shoeing materials, telegraph materials and fuel.

Such plant was turned to shell and gas cylinder

The sale of all such materials had to be to the

production during the war (Table 11).

government or government-approved customers

Company archives report ‘millions’ of feet of


Restrictions on exports imposed by The Ministry

Likewise, an increase in steel for shells was called

As an example of the changing emphasis from

A massive forging ingot cast by Cammell Laird, shipbuilders

Over 500 employees had left the works to serve

at a controlled price. As the war progressed,

iron and steel tube of all classes were made for

additional items were added to the list including

use in the trenches, government factories and

blast furnace dust which was then being used to

naval construction, as well as cast iron cradle body

recover potash.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

Reports of the prosecution of companies selling

the ‘Trading with the Enemy Amendment Act 1916’

steel was exclusively referred to as ‘Siemens Steel’

such products ‘illegally’ were not uncommon and

was passed which gave the government powers to

throughout UK, before, during and after the war,

also of companies not fully reporting output figures

wind up companies trading with enemy countries.

and the process as the Siemens-Martin open-hearth

in order to generate a surplus to sell, ironically,

Some advertisements carried in the press were

sometimes at a lower price. The Steel Company

more emotive. A call for scrap by Marple & Gillot

By mid-1918, the technical press was looking

of Scotland, for example, a ‘controlled’ company,

of Sheffield claimed ‘The Huns have scrapped the

ahead to peacetime reorganisation of the iron and

complained that the government had fixed the

Wellington Monument (which stood on the Field

steel industry. The resumption of trade post war

price of its products too high leading to excessive

of Waterloo) to make Hun munitions’ ‘Sell us your

was freely discussed.

profits. These improved profits were also helped by

scrap iron & steel to help wreak vengeance for this

the absence of imports from Germany which pre-


war had undercut its prices.

Regrettably, the UK’s The Iron & Steel Institute


In December 1917, Workington Steel and Peech & Tozer amalgamated producing a combined capacity of 1.25 Mton.

Prosecutions for contravening regulations

was more emotive. At its 46th Annual Meeting held

were common. For example, in June 1917 George

in 1915 it debated whether ‘enemy’ members of the

was registered as a private company with a capital

Bennett & Co (Sheffield) were prosecuted under

Institute should be removed from the membership.

of £1 million.

the Munitions War Act for supplying tool steels

A decision was deferred to a later date as a

containing tungsten to firms other than the

consensus was not reached.

Ministry of Munitions. In South Wales, Duffryn

At that same meeting the Bessemer Gold Medal

Tinplate Works at Morriston was prosecuted for

was awarded to Pierre Martin, pointedly cited as

false returns under the ‘Defence of the Realm

‘the inventor of the open-hearth process’, thus

(Consolidation) Regulations of 1914 but was found

ignoring the fundamental work of Carl Wilhelm

‘Not Guilty’ by a jury.

Siemens in developing the regenerative furnace in

A bill was passed in March 1915 allowing the

On 26 October 1918, the British Steel Corporation

On 9 November, the ‘Reinstatement of men in Controlled Establishments’ who had been at war was discussed in parliament and the ending of war contracts on the cessation of hostilities. The technical press, however, made no reference to the Armistice of 11 November 1918. Hence, ended this destructive episode of world

1857, and this was despite C W Siemens becoming

history – sadly, though, only temporarily – it

government to take over works suitable for the

a British citizen in 1859, and adopting the names

requiring the establishment of the European Coal

production of war materials. In the following year

Charles William. Despite this slight, open-hearth

and Steel Community in 1945 – the forerunner of the present day European Community, to ensure a lasting peace. * Dr Smith PhD, C Eng, MIMMM is consulting Editor to Steel Times International. He is a recently retired Member of Council of the Historical Metallurgy Society and Chairman of the Wealden Iron Research Group. FOOTNOTES 1. ‘Report on the resources and production of iron ores and the other principal metalliferous ores used in the iron and steel industry of the United Kingdom.’ Re-published in Iron & Steel Trades Journal & Iron & Steel Circular 1917 (in instalments pp 35, & 66-67 & 151-153 & 202-204) 2. Steelmaking before Bessemer Vol 2 Crucible Steel the growth of technology K C Barraclough The Metals Society

Female workforce turning and boring shell cases at Walter Somers Ltd, Haywood Forge, Halesowen, West Midlands

1984 p356


Steel Times International 1866-2016

GUILD INTERNATIONAL INC Guild International Inc., started out in 1958 as “Guild

on various coil processing lines and these machines

Metal Equipment Company”. The company was started

were built locally under license.

by Donald Wheeler, who, after working at other welder companies, and not being satisfied with the quality of their machines, decided he could do better.

By the early eighties, the previous licensees were terminated and a new cross license arrangement was entered into with a German welder company, allowing

The name Guild was selected, which represented

them to enter into the established Guild arc welder

associations of craftsmen organized to protect their

business and Guild entered into the resistance welder

craft and interests.


The early days of Guild coincided with the early

Today Guild designs and manufactures a full line of

development of tube and pipe mills. The machinery

welders and entry equipment, including the uncoilers,

designed and manufactured by Guild, consisted mainly

flatteners and horizontal accumulators for tube and

of the smaller welders for joining coil ends together

pipe mills, along with a full line of fully automatic

on tube mills. At that time, Guild also manufactured

Zipwelders for steel process lines and a full range of

uncoilers and flatteners and some overhead loopers.

resistance welders for the steel processing industries.

As the tube and pipe mills expanded and became larger, Guild settled into manufacturing mostly the end

For the past 20 years, 80-90% of the Guild machinery has been exported throughout the world.

welding machinery, and moved away from the other

The latest development from Guild is the Fiber Laser

entry machinery, to focus on the welders.

Welder, known as the Guild Zap Welder. While Guild

As the Guild welders grew in size for the larger pipe mills, Guild then started selling more welders on steel process lines, which were for the wider coils. By the mid 1960’s, Guild

has supplied CO2 laser cutting and welding machinery, their focus is on the Fiber Laser instead of the CO2 laser, which presents many technical advantages over the CO2 laser welders.

was selling machinery throughout the world. In the late sixties and seventies, Guild set up a number of licensees throughout Europe and in Japan to supply the popular Guild machinery




Stopinc AG, founded in 1966, is a Swiss company based in Hünenberg, Switzerland. As an engineering and trading company Stopinc AG is the world´s leading supplier of flow control technology and sets market standards for the control of molten metal in the steel and nonferrous metals industry under the trademark INTERSTOP. Stopinc Aktiengesellschaft, 6331 Hünenberg, Bösch 83a, Switzerland phone: +41 41 785 75 00, e-mail:



Steel Times International 1866-2016

STOPINC AG Stopinc AG, founded in 1966, is a Swiss company based in Hünenberg, Switzerland. Stopinc AG is the world’s leading supplier of flow control technology and sets market standards for the control of molten metal in the steel and nonferrous metals industry under the trademark INTERSTOP. Stopinc AG, founded in 1966, is an engineering and

Since January 2012, Stopinc AG, based in

trading company and among the world leading

Hünenberg, Switzerland, belongs to the RHI

suppliers of Flow Control Technology which sets

AG group, Austria, a world market leader in

market standards under the trademark INTERSTOP


for the control of molten metal in the steel and non ferrous industry. Stopinc AG is among the founders of the slide gate technology. This technology is used from the furnaces to the moulds of the continuous casting process and demonstrates

Cutting Edge Technology by our Flow Control Experts

significant quality improvements in the steel and non ferrous production.

Technological leadership has always

been the company’s commitment and the base for true partnership. INTERSTOP

Slide Gate Systems are in operation on

all continents and the company’s global presence fulfils the need of an overall support wherever the customers are located.

Stopinc AG, founded in 1966, is an engineering and trading company and among the world leading supplier of Flow Control Technology which sets market standards under the trademark INTERSTOPfrom for the control Together with refractories RHI, the of molten metal in the steel and non ferrous industry. Stopinc AG is among the founders of the slide gate technology. This technology is used from the furnaces to the moulds of the continuous casting process and demonstrates significant quality improvements in the steel and non INTERSTOP flow control technology is ferrous production.

operational in more than 74 countries.



Cutting Edge Technology by our Flow Control Experts

Technological leadership has always been the company’s commitment and the base for true partnership. INTERSTOP Slide Gate Systems are in operation on all A substantial amount of global steel continents and the company’s global presence fulfils the need of an overall support wherever the customers are located.

production is running through one of the

Together with refractories from RHI, the INTERSTOP flow control technology is operational in more than 74 countries. A substantial amount of global steel production units in operation is 7000 running through one of theworldwide. 7000 units in operation worldwide. Stopinc AG, founded in 1966, is an engineering trading and Austria, among the world leading market supplier of Flow Control which sets market standards Since January 2012, Stopinc AG, based in Hünenberg, Switzerland, belongs to theandRHI AGcompany group, a world leader inTechnology refractories.

g supplier of flow control technology and sets rous metals industry under the trademark INTERSTOP.

under the trademark INTERSTOP for the control of molten metal in the steel and non ferrous industry. Stopinc AG is among the founders of the slide gate technology. This technology is used from the furnaces to the moulds of the continuous casting process and demonstrates significant quality improvements in the steel and non ferrous production.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

The changing face of steel Steel, once the foundation of Europe, will be its future too, says Axel Eggert*


he flag of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), first used in 1958, consisted of two equally-sized horizontal

stripes, the top blue and the bottom black, defaced with stars representing each of the member states. This flag flew until 2002 when, with the expiration of the ECSC treaty, it was finally replaced with today’s more familiar EU flag. The black field is now gone, as is most of the European coal industry it once represented. Only the blue remains – as does the steel industry, which formed the basis of the ECSC and, subsequently, the direction that has shaped European integration. It was Robert Schuman, in proposing the creation of the ECSC, who declared that uniting member states’ capacity for both products would ‘lay a true foundation for their economic unification.’ Steel truly lies behind the process of European economic integration. To study the Schuman Declaration is to rediscover an era when industry – and industrial

moving to a world where services count for more

European steel industry as their employer and as

than ‘old fashioned’ goods.

the basis of their local community. In Europe, steel

And yet, economies turn on their materially

policy – was a top-table issue on which institutions

productive capabilities. The service sector is, of

policy. However, with time and globalisation this

were founded, serious discussion was directed,

course, vital and makes up 73% of the Eurozone

approach to industrial policy has waned. Now, more

and from which concerted policy action derived. It

economy. But these services have to serve

than before, sustainability is the vision – and steel

is to revisit a time when the action of politics had,

something – and to a not insignificant extent

promises to be at the forefront of European efforts

as its purpose, the specific improvement of living

have grown up around serving industry and

to become environmentally, economically and

standards, the modernisation of production and

manufacturing. It is industrial production that

socially sustainable in the long run.

the equal and absolute opening up of markets to

brings in capital, and 80% of all the EU’s exports

encourage greater productivity and wider choice.

come from industrial exports.



Ten years after the ECSC was founded, European3 crude steel production was about 180Mt – 33% of the world total of 530Mt. This

That there was an era when ‘steel’ and ‘industry’


was once the cornerstone of a mighty industrial

were effectively interchangeable words for the

Where next for steel?

made Europe – by quite some margin – the largest

cornerstones of the economy can seem strange to

Steel, therefore, has a fundamental place at the

producer of steel in the world. For comparison,

our modern ears, accustomed as we are today to

heart of the EU economy. It is important that this

China’s production in the same year was estimated

hearing of the advance of digital technology and of

basis is maintained. 320,000 people still rely on the

to be just 14Mt.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

In the main, European steel production volumes

the CO2 reduction levels sought by such policies

have remained more or less even since then.

as the EU’s Emissions Trading System of 43%

However, the greatest change in the last decade

from 2005-2030 – and by 80-95% by 2050 – are still

has been the explosion of steel production capacity

in development. While in the coming decades

in third countries; most notably, China. This has

technology may be developed that could achieve

now reached 800Mt, with an installed capacity of

the CO2 reductions sought, EU climate policy

up to 1.2 billion tonnes. Production there accounts

needs to be adapted to take into account not only

for 45% or more of global production: steel has

the business realities of global steel production,

underpinned China’s development in recent years.

but also of the contribution of steel to climate

This is a seismic shift to the east which needs to

mitigation more generally. Given its achievements since the early days of

be managed carefully to ensure there is a balance of productive capacity around the world; one that

what became the EU, the steel industry continues

reflects anticipated future demand.

to assess economically feasible measures for improvement, while encouraging the use of

Demand for steel could rise to between 2.2 and

methods that incentivise and support the industry’s

3 billion tonnes by 2050 according to WorldSteel,


but a not insignificant amount of this will serve

Steel is still the perfect material for the modern

efforts to further reduce energy use and CO2 emissions.

developing regions that need steel to form the

age, and will continue to be dominant in this

basis of their infrastructure and durable consumer

role. Steel is infinitely and 100% recyclable. Its

goods, such as motor vehicles.

properties do not degrade with age or the number

importance, the steel industry’s best days are still

of processing cycles it experiences. Its significance

ahead of it. With global demand for steel likely to

particularly EU policy – is shifting towards a

in the wider economy means the industry can

continue to rise steadily – there is plenty of space

much greater emphasis on CO2 reduction and

think long-term about not just demonstrating the

for an industry that has underpinned economic

environmental protection. Sustainability is the

environmental performance of its production, but

development for the past two centuries to be the

watchword for everything from the economy,

also in showing how steel can underpin a modern,

basis of those to come.

industry, the environment and social policy.

green and environmentally sustainable future,

This is happening even as global policy –

contributing to an enhanced circular economy.

Given its economic, social and environmental

* Director-general, EUROFER.

The environment and the long-term view

Steel production is not only cleaner than ever, it


The steel industry is, despite the popular image

helps save CO2 as well.


of burly men in filthy overalls hitting red-hot steel

According to a recent study,5 by 2030, the

3. “European” in this context combines ‘Western’ Europe and the

plates with hammers, a highly forward-looking

mitigation potential from steel could be 443Mt

Eastern Bloc countries; Not USSR.

and innovative sector. Modern facilities are not the

of CO2 per year in applications ranging from

‘dark satanic mills’ of Victorian poetry – and the

automotive to energy production and transmission.


best European plants are some of the cleanest and

Set against the 70Mt of CO2 emitted as a result of


most efficient in the world.

steel production for the specific applications, from


a lifecycle perspective, the mitigation rate is a 6:1


ratio of savings to emissions for steel.


Indeed, European steelmakers have been minimising the amount of carbon emitted


as far as is possible, and are approaching the thermodynamic limits of the process. Energy inputs

Advancing steel into the future


too have been reduced to a minimum, also half the

The reality is that the large scale technologies of


level per tonne of steel produced than it was in 1960.

the kind needed to commercially produce steel at



WE MAKE YOUR PRODUCT GOLD Since 1946 the brand KOCKS has stood for technological innovations that go beyond the usual standards in the steel industry. Within the core technology of the manufacturing process of high-quality steel bars and seamless tubes – the 3-roll technology – KOCKS has been for 70 years the clear innovation thinker, setting decisive benchmarks again and again. The 3-roll products offered by KOCKS enable our customers to improve their competitiveness and productivity in the production of special quality long products: Steel which is KOCKS rolled® stands for an extraordinary quality of the finished product made consistently day in and day out. KOCKS customers say: “This is where we make the quality!”


KOCKS rolled is a German trademark registered by KOCKS.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

FRIEDRICH KOCKS GMBH & CO KG Since 1946, the KOCKS brand has been a synonym

train together with closed-loop control of stand

for technological innovations that define the

adjustment during rolling and/or by tension control

performance standards in the steel industry.

of all types of stands in order to repeatedly produce

Dr. Friedrich Kocks, the founder of the company, was the first to apply the 3-roll technology for tube rolling as well as the rolling of wire rod and bar. To date, this philosophy of following new avenues and to continuously optimize what seems to be perfect has determined the development of the company. For the past 70 years, KOCKS has been the clear innovation leader, setting decisive benchmarks again and again. A far-sighted company

the best tolerance bars. A new gauge called “4D EAGLE” powered by Automation W + R supports the SCS® operation. This gauge operates on the light section principle and features the highest measuring frequency available in the industry. The Stretch Reducing Block SRB® with individually driven rolls (Star Drive) is the latest development for the production of high quality seamless and welded tubes with the lowest conversion costs.

management strategy has encouraged a culture

KOCKS offers integrated process solutions including

of innovation, and the unique selling points

Low Temperature Rolling systems to reduce post-

resulting from innovative process and equipment

processing costs while producing the highest quality

development have enabled KOCKS to lead the

SBQ and Tubular products.

market in special rolling mills.

The whole service range includes consulting,

The combination of 3-roll rolling mills and

planning, development, design, supply, assembly

state-of-the-art automation solutions offered by

and commissioning of rolling mills and automation

KOCKS enable our customers to improve their

solutions as well as modification and modernization

competiveness and productivity in the production of

of existing plants.

special quality long products.

KOCKS congratulates

Steel which is KOCKS rolled® is defined as an

Steel Times on its 150th

The latest generation of 3-roll technology for rod and

extraordinary quality finished product made

anniversary and looks forward

bar sizing is the RSB SCS®. This latest development

consistently day in and day out: “We make your

to continuing our good

of the KOCKS RSB® incorporates an innovative drive

product gold.”


RSB®, SCS®, SRB® and KOCKS rolled® are German trademarks registered by Kocks


Steel Times International 1866-2016

TURBODEN  Combined cycles with reciprocating engines

Turboden, a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries company, is a global leader in the design,

and gas turbines, increasing electric

manufacture and after-sales services of

efficiency / minimizing fuel consumption  Geothermal sources, specifically for

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turbogenerators,

medium-to-low-enthalpy sources

which harness heat to generate electric and

 CHP and power-only production from

thermal power from renewable sources

burning wood biomass

(biomass, geothermal and solar energy) and waste heat from industrial processes, waste

 Waste to energy

incinerators, engines and gas turbines,

 Solar thermal power applications

suitable for distributed generation.

offering high efficiency and flexibility, while minimizing O&M costs.

Today, Organic Rankine Cycle technology has become the most popular process for improving sustainability and energy efficiency by generating power from medium and low temperature heat sources. When compared to a traditional steam

ORC in Industrial Heat Recovery  very high turbine efficiency  no water consumption The system also offers operational advantages:

turbine, an important difference shall be

 simple start-stop procedures

emphasized: instead of water vapor, the

 automatic and continuous operation

ORC system utilizes a high-molecular-mass

 partial load operation down to 10% of

organic fluid, resulting in excellent electrical performance and several key advantages. The main technical advantages of an ORC cycle are:  low mechanical stress of the turbine due to the low peripheral speed  low RPM of the turbine allowing the direct drive of the electric generator without reduction gear  no erosion of blades, thanks to the absence of moisture in the vapor nozzles  high cycle efficiency

nominal power  high efficiency even at partial load

ORC systems demonstrated in different energy-intensive industries like cement, glass, metals, are proven to meet the requirements of effective industrial heat recovery installations. The ORC’s simple, automatic, modulating, fail-safe operation can match the actual process regime in all conditions, maintaining the overall system reliability.

 no operator attendance necessary

Decoupling from the main process interface

 quiet operation

is a desirable feature in most heat recovery

 high availability (typically 98%)

applications. This is facilitated by introducing

 low maintenance cost

a heat carrier between the residual heat

 long life

sources of the process (typically streams of

ORC technology can be effectively applied to the following fields:  Waste heat recovery in energy-intensive processes (cement, glass, steel, other ferrous and non-ferrous metals production)

dust laden exhaust gases) and the ORC unit. Different heat carriers such as thermal oil, saturated steam or pressurized water can be used. Efficiency and investment costs also depend on this choice.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

EAF steelmaking –

a major force in US industry

While the global steel industry no doubt currently faces some significant challenges, the SMA remains optimistic about the future prospects of the US EAF steel sector. By Philip Bell*


he Steel Manufacturers Association

emergence of the electric arc furnace (EAF) sector

adapted to numerous economic environments

(SMA) wishes to congratulate Steel Times

of the steel industry in the United States. Much

and have continuously evolved in order to cement

International on 150 years of meaningful

of the historical information that is included in

their status among the world’s most competitive

contributions to the global steel industry. It is

this submission is reliant upon their outstanding

steel manufacturers.

truly a truly remarkable achievement to have

publication, America’s Mini-Mill Industry: A Short

sustained excellence over such an extended


period of time. The SMA looks forward to

In the middle part of the 19th Century, increased steel demand emanating from the growth of the US railroad network fostered the

continuing its close working relationship with

A brief history

development of a sizeable domestic steelmaking

Steel Times International in the years ahead.

Over the last 150 years, the steel industry in

industry. As a result, the rapid growth of the

the United States has undergone remarkable

integrated steel industry provided the foundation

transformations. Domestic steel producers have

for large steelmaking capacity in the United

Additionally, SMA wishes to thank Clyde Selig and Bill Beck for their efforts to chronicle the

States. Indeed, by the mid-1890s, the United States had surpassed Great Britain to become the largest steel producing nation in the world – a position that the United States would maintain until 1974. Alongside the development of the integrated steel sector came the establishment of rerolling mills and other small independent mills, commonly referred to as ‘minimills’. Several entrepreneurs recognised an opportunity to construct relatively small steel mills with reasonable capital requirements. These mills were able to produce certain lower demand steel products, with an emphasis on supplying nearby markets. Their operations were characterised by moderate required investment levels, handson management, high productivity and low production costs. These small mills flourished Steel on the cooling bed


during the first third of the 20th century and

Steel Times International 1866-2016

In addition to strength and value, recyclability is one of steel’s best attributes. Steel can be recovered and remanufactured repeatedly to make new high quality products. By using steel scrap as a primary feedstock, EAF steel companies consume millions of tons of ferrous scrap that might otherwise be deposited as refuse in landfills or disposed of as litter. Steel is recycled five times more than the sum of all other metals combined – including aluminum, copper, lead, nickel, chromium, and zinc. The competitive position of the US EAF steel industry is largely dependent upon the domestic supply of quality ferrous scrap. The US owns the world’s largest ferrous scrap reservoir, due to the size and advanced nature of the nation’s economy, as well as its established recycling networks. US steel producers are committed to ensuring the availability of quality steelmaking raw materials. A major positive development has been increased interest in the development of domestic scrap supplements, including direct-reduced iron (DRI) and hot briquetted iron (HBI). Use of these scrap supplements provides producers with North Star Blue Scope

additional options in their raw material mixes,

provided the foundation for the future emergence

customer specifications, energy efficiency, worker

and allows steelmakers to produce quality steel

and growth of the minimill sector of the US steel

efficiency, environmental control, and expansion

products with low residual levels.


of product lines contributed to the success of EAF

During the second half of the 20th Century, US scrap-based EAF steel producers led the

mill operations. Today, EAF steel production remains the major

In addition to increasing the long-term competitiveness of EAF producers, these investments provide high-paying manufacturing

industry in the development of new and

growth component of the United States’ steel

improved steelmaking processes. The successful

industry. While much of the industry has shrunk

implementation of thin slab casting allowed EAF

over the past four decades, the EAF industry’s

About the SMA

steelmakers to expand their product offerings

share of US steel production has continued to

The steel trade association landscape in the

beyond long products and to move into flat-

grow, from 10% in the 1960s to approximately

United States has evolved along with the steel

rolled markets. These producers also fostered a

63% in 2015. The domestic steel industry

industry itself. In order to support the growth and

culture among their workforces that cemented

continues to play a critical role in protecting US

development of the minimill component of the

their status among the most productive and

national security and in providing high-quality

steel industry, the Rail Steel Products Association

lowest cost producers in the world. Improvement

steel products for the building of the nation’s

was founded in 1911. This group would later be

indicators such as product yield, ability to meet


known as both the Rail Steel Bar Association and

jobs and a sizeable economic impact.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Reflecting the operational mode of its member

highly compensated in all manufacturing industries.

companies, the SMA is

The first heat

Products Association to form the current Steel Manufacturers Association.

low-cost operations and to

The United States is one of the most competitive

achieving impact on the

places in the world to manufacture steel. The

issues of highest priority

nation enjoys marked advantages in practically

to its members, including:

every aspect of steelmaking, including raw

safety improvement; the

material availability, energy costs, workforce

promotion of free and

productivity, access to capital and technology,

fair trade; raw material

and proximity to a sizeable domestic market.

quality and availability;

The consolidation that has occurred within the

environmental stewardship;

industry over the past two decades has served to

energy efficiency; corporate

further enhance the competitive position of US

tax rate competitiveness;

EAF steel producers.

technological innovation; and workforce development. The SMA accomplishes much of its work with

North America is unique among major steel producing regions in that it is a major net importer of steel despite the fact that the region has existing steelmaking capacity that would be

the member-driven leadership of five standing

sufficient to satisfy domestic demand. The US, for

committees, in addition to several ad-hoc task

example, has emerged as the world’s largest net

today serves as the primary trade association

groups and subcommittees that handle specific

importer of steel, despite capacity utilisation rates

for North America’s electric arc furnace steel

issues of importance to the membership. SMA’s

that have recently hovered around 70 per cent.

industry. SMA’s 28 producer member companies

standing committees are: the Plant Operations

collectively account for over 75% of domestic

Division; the Safety Committee; the Environment

in support of open markets, and exports

steelmaking capacity, directly employ more

Committee; the Human Resources Committee;

based upon comparative advantage, rather

than 60,000 workers across North America, and

and the Transportation Committee. These groups

than subsidies or dumping. This flexible,

indirectly generate over 400,000 additional jobs in

hold regular meetings, and also share ideas and

pragmatic steel trade policy approach requires a

supporting industries. SMA also has 118 associate

information through surveys and conference calls

constructive and continuous exchange of views

members worldwide that supply goods and

in order to promote improvements in the EAF

among members of the global steel community.

services to the steel industry.

steel industry.

As such, the SMA regularly engages with the

Headquartered in Washington, DC, the SMA

The SMA has three primary functions: to


The state of the steel industry

infrastructure investment;

the Steel Bar Mills Association (SBMA). In 1989, the SBMA joined forces with the National Steel

committed to maintaining

Steelmaking in the US is highly efficient, with

The SMA espouses free and fairtrade policies

international steel community through active

develop and support public policy positions

the lowest man-hour per ton rate in the world.

participation in multi-lateral forums including

that are consistent with the interests of its

Many EAF producers manufacture steel at a rate

the World Steel Association, the Organisation for

members; to provide a forum for the exchange of

of less than one man-hour per ton. SMA’s member

Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

information on technical matters and operations

companies promote entrepreneurial management

Steel Committee, and the North American Steel

among member companies; and to serve as a

techniques, combined with progressive workforce

Trade Committee.

source of information on the steel industry to

policies, in both union and non-union settings.

suppliers, customers, the media, and various

As a result, the employees at SMA member

facing the global steel industry is the excess

government entities.

companies are among the most efficient and

capacity crisis. In recent years, global steelmaking

In the SMA’s opinion, the greatest challenge

Steel Times International 1866-2016

capacity has grown at an unprecedented rate. The

Addressing the global overcapacity crisis

to survive and even grow in spite of extremely

world’s steel consumption, however, has not kept

will require international dialogue and a co-

difficult conditions. Steelmakers will continue

pace, leading to a large and growing gap between

ordinated programme of actions from all major

to embrace technology and the internet to bring

global capacity and demand. Now estimated at

steel producing regions, including steps to

themselves closer to their customers, to optimise

over 700 million metric tons, this excess capacity

eliminate market-distorting government subsidies

production, and to encourage the exchange of

strains the profitability of even the most efficient

and other support measures that promote and

information in real-time.

producers. In the US, global overcapacity has

sustain excess capacity in the steel industry.

US EAF producers have led the charge on

contributed to a surge in steel imports that

It is highly unlikely that demand will expand

merger and acquisition activity, and continue to

has harmed domestic steel producers, their

sufficiently to bring production into line with

make sizeable investments in their operations.

employees, and surrounding communities.

capacity, so significant net capacity closures will,

With process and technology improvements that

unfortunately, be necessary.

increasingly allow EAF producers to compete in

Too often government policies, rather than market forces, influence the building and

flat product markets, most analysts project that

maintenance of steelmaking capacity. Some

Looking ahead

the EAF share of production will continue to grow

foreign governments have implemented policies

While the global steel industry no doubt currently

both in the United States and abroad.

that include support for the development of export-

faces some significant challenges, the SMA

oriented steelmaking capacity. In the absence of

remains optimistic about the future prospects

international governments explore different

domestic demand, these nations rely upon export

of the US EAF steel sector. It is an industry

measures to address global climate change. A

markets to consume their excess production, often

characterised by entrepreneurship, flexibility,

sizeable reduction in emissions could be achieved

unfairly trading subsidised products.

and efficiency, and it has demonstrated an ability

through the increased global use of EAF technology

This will have important implications as

as a percentage of overall steel production, as the integrated production process generates three to four times the amount of C02 per ton of steel produced compared to the EAF process. Additionally, the steel industry is committed to continuous improvement and ensuring that steel remains the material of choice versus competing materials, including aluminium or composites for automotive production, or wood for building projects. SMA fully anticipates that the steel industry will successfully compete in these product categories as well as others. Tremendous research and design resources are being devoted to the development of high-strength lightweight steels that will increasingly be used in order to help meet environmental and safety standards. SMA’s members are proud to play an active role in sustainably building businesses, lives, and communities. Making steel out of scrap metal is a good example of the circular economy at work

* Director, Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA)


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Steel Times International 1866-2016

FIVES, 1812

an engineering group with more than 200 years of experience 1872-1908:

Stein Surface merged with Heurtey Metallurgie

the time of the Continental Blockade during

The Golden Age

and renamed itself Stein Heurtey; the company

the Anglo-French wars of 1801-1814. One of

In France, Fichet-Heurtey started to design

became a leader in reheating furnaces.

the group’s founder, Jean-François Cail, was a

and construct reheat and heat treatment

prominent French engineer and industrialist,

Foundation of OTO Mills in Italy, a company

furnaces, later the company was renamed

who personally designed different devices

specialized in design and production of mills

Heurtey Metallurgie. Charles Marie Stein

and machines. By the middle of the 19th

and automation systems.

& Cie, specialized in industrial heating and

century, the company became one of the

manufacturing of electrical and oil furnaces

largest industrial groups in France designing

was set up and later renamed as Stein Surface.

The history of Fives originates from

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and acquired Stein Heurtey. Bronx and TaylorWilson merged to form Bronx Taylor-Wilson;

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Fives’ activity in the steel industry

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Compagnie de Fives-Lille became

Fives, a global industrial engineering group which designs and supplies machines, process


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changed its name to Compagnie de Fives-Lille

In USA, Taylor-Wilson Company Ltd.,

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Fives has developed its activities worldwide

Fives-Cail-Babcock (FCB) acquired DMS. FCB


equipment and production lines for different industries.


Fives acquired several

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Mergers and acquisitions Three companies Dujardin, Montbard and Somenor in France merged to create DMS, a mechanical equipment designer and supplier.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

RUSSULA CELEBRATES 28 YEARS OF GROWTH Global Engineering Services Founded in 1988 by engineering experts in steel production, Russula is a global engineering company serving the largest steel producers in more than 30 countries. Besides establishing its headquarters and electrical assembly workshop in A Coruña Spain, Russula has major offices in Brazil, India,

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Russula delivered an eco-friendly 30,000 m3/h

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

Early suspension bridges

and the men who built them... © Royal Pavilion & Museums, Brighton & Hove

It was not until the early 19th century that suspension bridges began to be constructed from wrought iron. By Harry Hodson* Captain Brown RN.

a crossing between two countries, England and

county of Shropshire, and the construction of the

An early example of a wrought

Scotland. When completed, the bridge underwent

coast road through North Wales from Conway

iron chain bridge, which is

rigorous tests with loaded carts, making it probably

to Anglesey. This, of course, meant bridging the

still in existence, is The Union

the world’s first modern suspension bridge. Captain

fast-running stretch of water known as the Menai

Chain Bridge constructed

Brown went on to build other bridges in England

Straits, which separated the mainland from the Isle

by Captain Samuel Brown

and Scotland, among them the famous Brighton

of Anglesey. In his capacity as surveyor general,

RN across the River Tweed

Chain Pier, which was destroyed by a violent storm

Telford proposed a traffic-carrying suspension

in 1906.

bridge of more than 600 feet span, the largest of

in 1820. Brown’s naval career had allowed him to become involved in the development of wrought

its kind ever known at the time. He had previously

iron anchor chains, blocks, and pulleys. He

Thomas Telford.

built a suspension bridge at Conway as part of

put this knowledge to good use following his

As he was nearing the end

the same work—but the technical difficulties of

retirement from the navy in 1812 when he opened

of his career Thomas Telford

connecting the mainland to the Isle of Anglesey

an ironworks at Millwall, London. He registered

(1757-1834) was commissioned

was daunting. Telford, however, had someone who

a number of patents mainly relating to the better

to construct the A5 road to

would help him to overcome this problem. As a

flexibility of chain links for use in suspension

allow passage to Ireland

young man working in and around Shrewsbury

bridges. In 1820 he was commissioned to build a

via Holyhead on the Isle of

he had made a name for himself working as a

suspension bridge across the River Tweed, which

Anglesey in the UK. The work had involved much

stonemason. This allowed him to meet a number

required a span of 449 feet (137 metres) allowing

construction of roads and bridges throughout the

of influential people who persuaded him to join the ancient order of freemasons. At one such meeting of the Shrewsbury lodge in 1787 he struck up a friendship with the local ironmaster William Hazledine (1763–1840). Like Telford, William Hazledine was a self-made man from humble beginnings. As a young man he entered into a partnership with a clockmaker and ironmonger. He wished to expand the business to include an ironworks, but his partner did not wish to enter into this venture and they parted company. He (left) Thomas Telford’s Waterloo Bridge is a fine example of the ironfounding skills of Hazledine’s workmen


Steel Times International 1866-2016

approached his uncle Hazledine for a loan of £1,200 to enable him to enter into the ironworks business. “And what security do you have against the loan?” enquired his uncle. “None except my good conduct,” came the reply; it was a practice that would establish his reputation for the rest of his life, needless to say, the loan was forthcoming. Hazledine’s new venture into the ironworks business would underpin a long association with Telford. Following the construction of the world’s first iron bridge over the River Severn

after the great flood. He thought the bridge was

the masonry. The ancient wood and stone bridge

at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, in 1779, cast iron

‘not mathematically true’ and the secondary arches

a mile upstream at Buildwas was the first to be

became known as the “new material.” Built by the

served little purpose apart from decoration, and

rebuilt by Telford. He completed the 130-foot span

Shropshire ironmaster Abraham Darby III, the

any load on the bridge would be borne by the

using 150 tons of iron less than the Coalbrookdale

378-ton structure was somewhat of a novelty for

main arch ribs. (Tests on a model constructed

Bridge. From then on, the shepherd boy-turned-

the first few years of its life. There was little else

by the author proved contrary to this theory.)

stonemason embarked upon another career

of its kind built in these years, very few having

However, Telford was keen to put the ‘new material’

that would make him the undisputed master

the confidence to use such a brittle material for

(cast iron) to the test. The main reason the Iron

of ironwork as a building material – safe in the

building purposes. In 1795 a flood of ‘biblical

Bridge was still standing after the great flood,

knowledge that he had a plentiful supply that

scale’ caused the River Severn to burst its banks

was more due to design than anything else. It had

could be cast into any shape he desired by William

and destroy dozens of bridges. Such was the

spanned the river from bank to bank requiring


devastation, the government was forced to embark

no support from any central piers—which would

on a rebuilding programme. The aftermath of the

have been needed for a 100-foot stone or brick

flood caused them to appoint Thomas Telford to

bridge. Central piers within the river are the main

The Shrewsbury ironmaster

oversee the rebuilding of these bridges – it was

cause of destruction of a bridge during a flood by

In 1800 Hazledine was

a move that would alter the course of his career.

allowing a build up of debris, this restricts the flow

operating two ironworks near

Telford visited the site of the Iron Bridge shortly

of water which increases side-ways pressure on

Shrewsbury and had further interests in quarrying and farming. With the industrial revolution fast gathering momentum, he was encouraged by Telford to open a large ironworks at nearby Plas Kynaston. This was a very large undertaking, which included two blast furnaces, a few air furnaces, forge, foundry, and wrought iron manufacture. He was assured by Telford that there would be no shortage of work. This was (top) The Menai bridge - Thomas Telford’s greatest challenge (left) eneral view of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, the world’s longest navigatable aqueduct. Engineered by Thomas Telford


Steel Times International 1866-2016

operated by the temporary workforce. When the first nine strands were in position, Telford was seen to scale one of the 100 feet towers, which was no easy task for a 70-year-old. He then hammered a shackle pin into position to join the 180-ton chain to the short spans, his foreman doing likewise on the other tower. With one of the chains now firmly secured, a gasp went up from the crowd as two workmen began to walk along the chain in an effort to be first to cross the uncompleted bridge. The militia was called for, but Telford requested that no action be taken. Let them have their moment of glory, better them than anyone else”, he replied to bemused officials as the men continued their journey to the mainland across the massive chain, The Clifton Suspension Bridge


forged, of course, in the workshops of William

indeed very true as Telford was now in a position

form of a figure 8. Nine strands made up in the

Hazledine. With that, Telford took his leave of the

to hand out lucrative contracts to whoever he

same fashion and joined together by pins were

crowd and boarded a coach and four, declaring he

wished. He demonstrated this by placing an order

placed alongside each other, thus representing

had further business at Chester.

for 300 metres of cast iron trough to carry the canal

one chain. Each strand was measured to span the

over the magnificent Pontcysyllte Aqueduct. The

two 100 foot towers, which had been designed to

cost was £17,000 when the price of castings was

comply with shipping regulations and to be strong

Isambard Kingdom Brunel

£10 per ton. It has often been mentioned over the

enough to carry the two assembled chains each

Over the last few years

years that the other Shropshire Ironmasters, John

weighing 180 tons, and the combined load of the

television documentary

(iron mad) Wilkinson, William Reynolds, and the

bridge decking and traffic it would be carrying.

makers have gone to great

Darby dynasty of Quakers had tendered for this

With the short spans that run from either bank to

lengths to portray Isambard

and other work. As their tenders were very rarely

the top of the towers already secured into position,

Kingdom Brunel as the

answered, one cannot help but wonder whether

the formidable task of raising the long spans across

undisputed genius of British civil engineering.

it was a case of ‘jobs for the boys’. Over the years,

the vast expanse of water would test the nerves of

There is no doubt that this cigar-puffing little man

Telford carried on with his long association with

Telford and his workmen. Telford had previously

was a giant at heart who carried out his projects

Hazledine whom he had now nicknamed Merlin,

placed notices on Anglesey and the mainland

on a grand scale. However, he did have his fair

‘because he conjures up anything I ask of him’. It

requiring any able-bodied men to come to the site

share of failures, which were often overlooked by a

would require several volumes to cover the work

to help raise the chains. Hoards of men turned

further injection of cash from his financial backers.

of Thomas Telford, an extraordinary man whose

up on the promise of a few ounces of tobacco and

career was coming to an end in 1826 when he

plenty of good ale. Telford had the foresight to

father Marc Brunel had a naval career originating

was faced with what may have been his greatest

engage two brass bands to play popular tunes of the

in France. After setting up a workshop near

challenge – the construction of the Menai Bridge.

day, and to drum up a steady rhythm as the chains

Portsmouth he began to manufacture ships’

Telford had decided to carry the bridge on two

were being raised. Each strand of chain weighed 20

pulleys, chains and blocks very much like the

enormous wrought iron chains. Each strand of the

tons and rested on pontoons between the towers.

previously mentioned Captain Brown R.N. This

chains was made up of wrought iron plates in the

They were raised by massive triple and capstans

venture was not very successful and he soon

Born in Portsmouth, England, in 1806, his

Steel Times International 1866-2016

found himself in financial difficulty. Moving

resorts. Clifton would be the most ideal place to

the building of the Bristol Temple Meads Railway

on, he somehow became involved in the boring

quickly cross the gorge and take in the spectacular

Station, which was the start of the GWR route to

of a tunnel under the River Thames, of which

scenery. There was to be a cash prize for the

Paddington, London, eventually going through the

he speeded up the laborious task by inventing

applicant who submitted the most practicable

west country via Devon and Cornwall. He proposed

a boring shield. Meanwhile, after receiving an

plans for the bridge—in effect, it was a contest.

a 7-foot gauge for the railway, but history has

education in France, the young Brunel was sent

The prestige of winning would, of course, be better

shown that it fell out of favour against his friend

to the works of Henry Maudsley at Lambeth to

than the cash prize. There were quite a number

and rival Robert Stephenson’s 56-5-inch gauge.

gain some practical experience on the shop floor.

of applicants submitting plans, including Brunel.

The next 25 years of Brunel’s life saw him caught

On leaving Maudsley’s, he took up employment

Nobody was successful in the first submissions.

up in shipbuilding and other grandiose schemes

working alongside his father Marc, both manually

One of the adjudicators was the ageing Thomas

while continuing to complete his railway to the

and in a supervisory capacity. Five long years of

Telford who had put forward plans of his own.

farthest point of south west England—where his

working on the Thames Tunnel had begun to take

The directors were not impressed, and called for

greatest challenge lay before him. His railway had

a toll on their health. In 1831 Isambard Kingdom

a second round. This time Brunel was successful

to cross the 900-foot wide River Tamar Estuary, but

Brunel decided to convalesce by taking a holiday

after reportedly crossing the gorge in a basket slung

shipping regulations would allow only one central

in Bristol. He may have had other things on his

from a rope while mathematically calculating the

pier and the bridge decking would have to be 100

mind because he would soon become very much

fall of suspension chains. Apart from a slow start

feet above high water. He overcame this problem

involved with the infrastructure of the city. While

on the project, it ran out of funds, and nothing

by constructing two 450-feet spans suspended

out walking and admiring the scenery around the

more happened for the next 30 years.

from bow-shaped wrought iron tubes, each span

Cheddar Gorge, he saw a gang of surveyors at work

Following his escapade in Bristol, Brunel was

weighing 1,100 tons were built on-site on platforms.

and soon learned that they were setting out plans

back at Portsmouth where a new career beckoned.

They were lifted from the platforms by pontoons

to span the gorge with a suspension bridge. In 1831

It was the beginning of the railway age in which he

floated on a rising tide and ferried into position

suspension bridges were becoming quite popular

would play a vital part. In 1836 he was offered the

between the tower bases. They were then raised

with the public, especially those that had been

post of chief engineer to the Great Western Railway

into position by hydraulics in accordance with

erected by Captain Brown at fashionable seaside

Company. He was soon back at Bristol to oversee

the building of the towers. This was Brunel’s final masterpiece before his death in 1859. The Tamar Bridge is a unique design of a suspension bridge made rigid by the wrought iron tubes exerting pressure on the towers and stabilising the whole structure when in use. As for the Clifton Suspension Bridge, it was completed in 1864 with chains reclaimed from one of Captain Brown’s earlier bridges and credited to be the work of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Steel cables eventually replaced wrought iron chains, and was first demonstrated in the construction of Brooklyn Suspension Bridge, Manhattan, New York, in 1883. * The author is a retired foundryman and regular contributor to Steel Times International. View of Brunel’s Tamar Bridge



f Plasma Ladle Furnaces

f Vacuum Furnaces

f Strip Coating Pots

... FOR SPECIAL STEEL APPLICATIONS OTTO JUNKER GMBH Jägerhausstr. 22 52152 Simmerath Germany

Phone: E-Mail:

+49 2473 601-0


INDUGA GMBH & CO. KG Jägerhausstr. 2 52152 Simmerath Germany

Phone: E-Mail:

+49 2473 601-710


Steel Times International 1866-2016

OTTO JUNKER Otto Junker innovations and know-how shape success for many years Since 1924 Otto Junker has been defending its

main objective. Our close cooperation with

leading international role in the manufacture

the University of Aachen’s departments of

of sophisticated industrial furnace systems

electrical engineering and metallurgy has

for metallurgical applications and as a

remained the basis for key innovations until

supplier of ‘ready for installation’ special-

this day.

steel castings. Industrial furnaces currently manufactured Today, several thousand industrial furnaces

by the company for the steelmaking industry

built by OTTO JUNKER are in use all over

specifically comprise the following:

the world. These furnaces melt, cast and  Coreless vacuum induction furnaces for

heat-treat metals and are needed wherever demand exists for dimensionally accurate

the production of high-purity steels and

forgings, castings and high-quality semi-

special alloys including pouring under

finished products such as plates, strips, foils, sections or tubes of diverse metals.

Figure 1: Successful development of an innovative vacuum furnace for making high-grade steel casting alloys (1963/64)

vacuum  Coreless medium-frequency induction furnaces as primary melting units in

Otto Junker established his enterprise in 1924

micro-mills as an alternative to electric arc

to market the water-cooled mould invented


by his father. In the years that followed

 Plasma ladle furnaces for secondary

our company’s founder dedicated his

metallurgical processes in smaller special-

efforts to the development and production

grade steel mills and micro-mills using

of innovative machinery and equipment,

transfer ladles with up to 30 tonnes

maintaining close relations with the


Technical University of Aachen (RWTH).

 Induction heated hot-dip coating pots for steel strip and discrete products.

Thus, it was only logical that the foundation he set up in 1970 and which became the sole owner of OTTO JUNKER GmbH after Dr. Otto Junker’s death should define the promotion of science and technology at RWTH as its

Customized innovative solutions and highly Figure 2: 35-tonne coreless medium-frequency induction furnace receiving a molten metal charge; used in a specialgrade steel mill (2014)

sophisticated equipment attest to the company’s performance.


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Steel Times International 1866-2016

NDC TECHNOLOGIES NDC Technologies – A History of Leading Innovation with World-Class, Precision Measurement Solutions NDC Technologies is part of Spectris plc, a

IRM was the first to supply non-contact, optical

leading global provider of productivity enhancing

flatness measurement to the steel industry. The

instrumentation and controls. NDC Technologies traces

Rometer was introduced in the 1980s and continues to

its origin back to two companies: Infrared Engineering

set the standard for on-line, high-performance flatness

Ltd (acquired in 1992) and NDC Systems Inc. (acquired


in 1997). These companies merged in 1998 to form NDC Infrared Engineering. Both companies were private entities until their merger, each with origins from the rapid sensor technology development in the 1960s and 70s. The IRM Group SA was acquired by NDC in 2011 to spearhead the company’s expansion into the metals industry. In 2014, NDC Infrared Engineering merged with Beta LaserMike, also a Spectris company and a leading provider of laser and ultrasonic measurement systems, to form NDC Technologies. The combination strengthened NDC’s metals position with a more comprehensive portfolio of leading measurement solutions.

AccuRay and IRM measurement systems are used worldwide by the leading steel and aluminium producers, helping them to meet the most demanding product and production requirements. Measuring Length & Speed with LaserSpeed® NDC’s line of Beta LaserMike LaserSpeed length

innovative technology company, developed the original LaserSpeed sensor in 1984. The first system was designed for scientific purposes, but soon thereafter

Thickness, Width & Flatness

ferrous metals industry as a highly accurate,

AccuRay™ and IRM™ brands.  AccuRay established their reputation in the metals industry with high-performance measurement systems using nucleonic technologies for stringent measurement applications. To complement this offering, AccuRay developed the first permanently calibrated X-ray sensors for metal thickness. The same

aluminium producers

history of serving the metals industry. TSI, Inc., an

LaserSpeed was accepted by the ferrous and non-

industry for over 60 years and includes the legendary

used worldwide by the leading steel and

and speed gauges also have a long and successful

Established Reputation in the Metals Industry –

NDC’s metals gauging systems have served the metals

AccuRay measurement systems are

on-line non-contact solution for measuring length and speed. In 2003, Beta LaserMike purchased TSI, Inc., and since then LaserSpeed has gained global

LaserSpeed is used in a wide range of

acceptance in a wide range of metals applications

metal applications

including continuous slab, billet and bloom casters, shear cutting control, elongation control in temper/ skin pass mills, and gauge control in cold rolling mills, to name a few.

calibration technique was then successfully applied to

To learn more, please visit NDC websites:

measure metallic coatings for galvanize lines. and


Second-Hand Machines

New Machines

ALL ABOUT FORGING Service & Support

Special Installations

Engineering for the Forging Industry

Logistics Presstrade AG · Angensteinerstrasse 6 · CH-4153 Reinach BL · Switzerland Phone +41 61 716 20 00 · ·

Steel Times International 1866-2016

PRESSTRADE AG Founded in 1992 for the sole purpose of trading in second-hand machines for massive forming, PRESSTRADE spent the last few years in speeding up its development from a pure second-hand machine dealer to a worldwide technical service provider for various forging industry segments. In the recent past the changed customers and market requirements called for a spatial and structural expansion in the framework of a global concept. In order to meet the growing demand for repair work, technical overhauling, modernizing, automation and turn-key projects in the field of forging, PRESSTRADE’s service portfolio was substantially expanded. With qualified personnel, comprehensive know-how and the latest equipment PRESSTRADE can offer worldwide optimized solutions that

BANNING® brand spraying units, which are produced

perfectly meet the customer requirements.

in Germany and Switzerland.

In the trading sector PRESSTRADE meanwhile

Moreover PRESSTRADE, in cooperation with qualified

offers not only the well-known premium quality

and established machine manufacturers, has

second-hand press equipment, but also its own

developed some standard models that can be provided

new machines and new equipment from

with short delivery times.

different manufacturers. In the new machines range

Thereby the customer has the choice either to buy a second-hand machine at favorable

PRESSTRADE has recently

conditions or a technical tailor-made new

started selling BANNING®


brand new hydraulic double acting hammers and key drivers. These machines are designed and developed in Germany and Switzerland. Additionally they sell

Thus PRESSTRADE is now in the position to provide support and advice to their customers in all matters relating to forging – from the first contact onward to the well-engineered product.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Iron and steel in Canada Iron production in Canada started in 1733 under the French Regime in Quebec and developed further during the British occupation. Canada did not contribute greatly to iron production, but it was in Quebec that the bottom-blowing of oxygen in steelmaking was invented, which is now used world wide. By Fathi Habashi* Charcoal iron works

wrought iron was malleable and could be shaped

erected in Ontario and Nova Scotia. For example,

In 1733 François Poulin de Francheville (1692-

into different forms. At the conquest of New

in 1871 the Canadian Titanic Company built two

1733), a French merchant from Montreal, built

France in 1760, the Forge passed to the British

blast furnaces at Saint Urbain, Charlevoix County

the first furnace in Canada on the bank of the

Government and was operated under military

in Quebec for the utilisation of titaniferous iron

Saint-Maurice River near Trois Rivières located

authorities until shut down in 1883.

ore and using coke.

half way between Québec City and Montreal. The

In the mean time other iron works started

furnace was fuelled by charcoal to process local

operation using charcoal, for example, the

Modern iron ore production

iron ore. Air was blown in the furnace by small

Marmora Ironworks, near Peterborough, Ontario,

The largest source of iron in Canada was

bellows operated by a water wheel. The Saint-

began production in 1823. It consisted of two

discovered in Labrador in 1892 and started

Maurice River is one of the largest tributaries of

charcoal-fired blast furnaces and a forge with

exploitation in the 1950s.

the Saint-Lawrence River. The temperature of

two sets of water-powered hammers. In 1860 at

combustion in the furnace was not enough to

Radnor, not far from the Saint-Maurice Forge,

Iron Ore of Canada

melt the iron produced. Thus, a product called

another furnace was built.

The company was founded in 1949 in Montreal and operates a mine, a concentrator, and a pelletising

‘bloom’, which was wrought iron mixed with slag, was obtained. This was removed from the furnace

Coke iron works

plant in Labrador City, Newfoundland, and

and hammered while hot to squeeze away the slag

All charcoal operated furnaces were shut down

Labrador, as well as port facilities in Sept Îles. It also

and thereby obtain a near carbon-free iron. This

when more efficient coke-fired models were

operates a 418 km railroad linking the mine to the port. Iron concentrate is shipped from the mines, such as Wabush, to Sept Îles. In 1970 a beneficiation complex including a pelletising plant in Sept Îles to process Schefferville ore was installed. In 1992 Mitsubishi became shareholder and in 2000 Rio Tinto became the principal shareholder.

Quebec Cartier Mining Founded in 1957 by US Steel, Quebec Cartier Mining operates from Lac Jeanine to Port Cartier. In 1963 the company built the town of Gagnon to accommodate workers and families. In 1973 Mont Wright mine was started and the town of Fermont was created. In 1981 it extended its Iron production in Canada started in 1733


operations 112 km north to Fire Lake. Iron ore is

Steel Times International 1866-2016

sent from Fermont to Port-Cartier by train on a 400 km railway trip where a pelletising plant was constructed in 1977 by Sidbec-Normines. The falling market forced the company to shut down its Fire Lake and Lac Jeanine plants in the mid-1980s. In 1989, US Steel sold the company to different investors and in 2005 Dofasco became the sole owner. The town of Gagnon was closed and its population moved to Fermont and Port-Cartier. In 2008 it became ArcelorMittal Mines Canada.

Wabush Mining Wabush is next door to Labrador City. Wabush Iron Company Limited opened in 1967 and closed in 2007.


Steelmaking underway in Canada

Dominion Iron and Steel

improved when a domestic rail market developed.

by half. Also, the Wabana Mines were closed in

Dominion Iron and Steel was founded in 1899 by

Whitney then sold its steel and coal companies

1966 and a much higher grade of iron ore was

the American businessman Henry M. Whitney

to a Canadian consortium in 1909. These two

imported from Quebec.

(1839-1923) at Sydney, NS. He had already formed

companies merged under the name Dominion

the Dominion Coal Company in 1893 in Cape

Steel Company and was later expanded by adding

offs and plant closures. By 1967 the plant was

Breton and envisioned a local steel plant as the

more blast furnaces and coke ovens. World War I

losing money. In January 1968, the plant became

ideal outlet for coal. Limestone was also available

was a major economic boom. In 1920, the British

the property of the Provincial Government of Nova

in Newfoundland. Sydney harbour provided a

Empire Steel Corporation acquired all of the

Scotia and became known as the Sydney Steel

shipping outlet to the world. Construction was

company’s assets.


finished in 1901 and it was the most modern

By now the steel industry was in a recession.

The 1960s were characterised by massive lay-

A continuous caster was commissioned in 1975

steel plant in the world with a battery of 400 coke

The plant was shut down and the massive lay-offs

as part of the modernisation. By 1982 the plant

ovens capable not only of producing coke, but

triggered violent strikes. By 1927, the company

was in financial difficulty. On 22 May 2000, the

also of recovering saleable by-products such as

collapsed into bankruptcy. The plant was

lack of a legitimate buyer closed the Sydney Steel

tar, benzene, and industrial salt. It had four blast

operated for two years because of government


furnaces and 10 open-hearth furnaces. Sydney

subsidies, which attracted new investors. In 1929,

coalfield supplied more than 44% of Canada’s coal

a British consortium took over and was called the

Algoma Steel

production and its iron industry produced more

Dominion Steel and Coal Company. The start of

Founded in 1901 in Sault Sainte Marie, Ontario, on

than one-third of the country’s pig iron.

World War II in 1939 signalled a boom cycle. In

the St. Marys River by the American businessman

1942 a 10-ton electric arc furnace was introduced

Francis H. Clergue (1856 –1939). A Bessemer

in 1907 in an attempt to deal with low-grade iron

for the manufacture of speciality steel. Oxygen

converter was put in operation using pig

ore and high-sulphur coal. The company had

lancing was introduced into the open hearths,

iron made from the Helen mine in Sault-Saint

been a constant money loser, but the situation

which reduced the time needed to produce a heat

Marie, but it had to import coal and coke from the

Two Bessemer converter furnaces were added


Steel Times International 1866-2016

United States. Initially the company specialised in the manufacture of rails for Canadian railways. Algoma is currently the second largest steel producer in Canada. In 2007, it was purchased by India’s Essar Group. 

Iron and Steel Company of Canada Also known as Stelco, it was founded in 1910 in Hamilton, Ontario, by Charles S. Wilcox (1856 to 1938). It was formed by combining several existing smaller steelworks. Coke was produced in retorts, iron pellets were charged into the blast furnace. By 1910 the Bessemer process was no longer in use. Hydrochloric acid was later used as a pickle solution replacing sulphuric acid. Iron and steel production grew slowly until World War II and then rapidly as the post-war economic boom

Canadian steelworker

created a tremendous demand for steel. The company filed for bankruptcy in 2007 and was

Atlas Steel

Kennecott Copper in the USA to exploit an ilmenite

bought by US Steel. The Hamilton plant has not

Atlas Steel was founded in 1928 in Welland,

deposit at Lac Tio, near Havre-Saint-Pierre in

produced steel since 2011, but its coke ovens and

Ontario. Originally it was constructed in 1918 by

Quebec. An electric furnace process was developed

cold-rolling finishing works remain in operation.

Dillon Crucible Steel Alloy Company to produce

in 1957 in Sorel near Montreal that was the first of

Market conditions led to a permanent shut down

high-tensile tool steel. In 1920 the Atlas Crucible

its kind in the world to produce titanium dioxide

on 31 December 2013.

Steel Company purchased the business. The facility

feedstock [Sorelslag], pig iron, and steel from this

was acquired by Roy Davis and Daniel Lanthrop

ore. It was recently purchased by Rio Tinto.

Dominion Foundries and Steel

in 1928 and operated under the name Atlas Steel

Dominion Foundries and Steel, now known as

Company. Subsequently it was expanded to include

Quebec Metallic Powders

Dofasco, was founded in 1912 by Clifton Sherman

a rolling mill plus stainless and other speciality

Next door to QIT Fer et Titan is Quebec Metallic

(1872-1955) and his brother Frank Sherman (1887-

steel production. In 1939 the Canadian government

Powders, established in 1968 to produce iron

1967) sons of an American blast furnace and

invested heavily in this facility to produce steel

powder by spraying water on a stream of molten

steel mill superintendent. It introduced the Basic

for World War II and by 1948 it was regarded as

iron obtained from QIT.

Oxygen Process (BOP) to North America in 1954

the largest speciality steel company in the British

and since then the open-hearth process steadily

Commonwealth. It developed the first successful

Midrex process

declined, and none are in use today. Dofasco,

continuous casting machine for steel in North

Sidbec-Dosco was established by the Quebec

the major shareholder of Québec Cartier, was

America in 1954. Since 2010 it was owned by ASW

Government in 1968 in Contrecoeur near Montreal.

bought by Arcelor Mittal, the world’s largest steel


It receives iron ore pellets from Sept Iles and reduces them in shaft furnaces where fuel is

producer. This made Québec Cartier one of the


leading mining facilities of the world’s biggest

QIT Fer et Titan

produced by reforming natural gas. The electric

steel producer. In 1999 Dofasco was the most

Quebec Iron and Titanium Corporation was

furnaces convert the metallic charge together with

profitable steel producer in North America.

founded in 1948 by New Jersey Zinc Company and

scrap into liquid steel. Two continuous casting

Steel Times International 1866-2016

machines solidify the liquid steel into slabs and

gases passing through it. This together with

that hydrocarbons crack readily at a temperature

billets. This is the only direct reduction plant in

the previous point, are responsible for 1–2 %

of about 800ºC and, therefore, the heat absorbed


increased production.

for cracking should result in cooling the tip of

All attempts to use pure oxygen in bottom-

the nozzle. Contacts were made with many steel

Oxygen for the steel industry

blowing were unsuccessful because of the high

companies but nobody was interested.

temperature involved which resulted in the

LD process

destruction of refractories.

After World War II intensive research was

Maximilianhütte In the fall of 1967, Karl Brotzmann, director of

underway to intensify melting of steel scrap

Research in Canada

research for Eisenwerk-Maximilianshütte in

generated during the war. In 1955 researchers

In 1939, Air Liquide Canada, member of the Air

Sulzbach-Rosenberg near Nürnberg in Germany,

at the Vereinigte Österreichische Eisen- und

Liquide Group, headquartered in Paris, hired Guy

having learned of these activities in bottom

Stahlwerke abbreviated (VÖEST) in Linz in Austria

Savard, a young graduate from the Royal Military

blowing, requested a meeting. This company was

came up with the oxygen lance top blowing

College in Kingston, Ontario, as a welding engineer

facing difficulty in smelting its ores. A metal of

technology, the so-called Linzer Düsenverfahren

in its Montreal branch. When Nazi troops invaded

high phosphorus and silicon content refined by

(Linz Lance Technology) or LD process, which

France, directors of Air Liquide left Paris and

the Thomas process had the disadvantages of

had enormous advantages. The plant was built

settled in Montreal. They expanded the Montreal

high nitrogen content and a low scrap rate. It

by the Germans before the war and originally

business and gave it special attention after the war.

was impossible to process this iron by the LD

named the Hermann Göring Works. After the

In 1947 the company hired Robert Lee, a young

process because lime injection was not possible

war, it was considered a German property and

graduate from McGill University, as a research

through the oxygen lance. The meeting took place

was confiscated by the occupying forces. It later

assistant in metallurgy. His assignment was to keep

in Montreal in October, 1967. This led to a license

became an Austrian nationalised industry. The

Air Liquide in contact with the Canadian iron and

agreement which enabled the company to develop

process developed there was adopted worldwide.

steel industry. In 1950, Savard became director of

the process to full industrial scale. This process

As a result, the demand for oxygen increased

a new department at Air Liquide called Industrial

became the major steelmaking process and was

and oxygen production plants were installed at

Gas Applications to which Robert Lee was also

known as Q-BOP, i.e., the Quiet Basic Oxygen

the steelworks. The process, however, had the

attached. Armed with the knowledge that nitrogen

Process, because the consumption of oxygen takes

disadvantage of being noisy and generating a lot of

not only plays no role in oxidation processes, but

place quietly during blowing.

extremely fine dust.

also decreases the efficiency of combustion, Lee persuaded steel companies to use oxygen instead


technology, it was felt that bottom oxygen-blowing

of air. Oxygen was introduced at the burners in the

• F. Habashi, “One Hundred Years of Liquid Air. Canadian

was far superior for the following reasons:

open-hearth furnaces and into lances to accelerate

Contribution”, Bull. Can. Inst. Min. & Met. 96 (1069), 122-125

r The reaction time is shorter because of the

the refining. This technology was adopted by


increased volume of oxygen that can be

steel companies and was also extended to other

• R. Samson, The Foges du Saint-Maurice. Beginnings of the

introduced into a batch.

Canadian industries, such as the pulp and paper

Iron and Steel Industry in Canada 1730-1883, Les Presses de

industry, in rotary kilns in cement manufacture,

l’Université Laval, 500 pages, Quebec City, Canada 1998. The

and in glass-making furnaces.

book is also available in French.

In spite of all the advantages of top-blowing

r The slag formed does not hinder the flow of oxygen as in the case of top blowing. r Less iron evaporates and consequently the

In 1963, Savard and Lee built an experimental

amount of brown smoke is minimal, and the

vessel using bottom oxygen blowing where 150 kg

iron losses are reduced.

of molten iron was used. After months of reflection

r Reduced iron losses by splashing from the converter because of the reduced volume of

• For Dominion Iron and Steel, see

Lee decided to use a shrouded injector with

* Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials

natural gas as the protecting gas. It was argued

Engineering, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada


We transform ... the world of metals.

The whole world of metals ... from one source. What connects the world originates with us. We plan, design, and construct plants worldwide for producing and processing steel, aluminum, and copper.

The result: Quality products that stand up to top strains ensure sustainable quality of life around the globe. And that brings us closer together.


Eduard-Schloemann-Strasse 4 40237 DĂźsseldorf, Germany

Phone: +49 211 881-0 Fax: +49 211 881-4902

Steel Times International 1866-2016

SMS GROUP We congratulate Steel Times International on its 150-year-history of success. With 30,000 readers, mainly in the European and U.S. markets, the magazine today boasts a most impressive circulation. It is certainly a mirror of the market and an outstanding medium of communication within our industry. The success story of the magazine has run in parallel with that of steel, which has evolved in an equally formidable way

furnace technology, including the full range of

roughing process – are directly rolled down

during the last one and a half centuries.

associated electrical and automation systems.

to their final strip gages in the CSP® rolling

In short, we supply highly efficient production

mill. Throughout those developments, Steel

lines that make modern high-performance

Times International has accompanied us as an

materials that meet the requirements of the

extremely trustworthy partner, always giving

specific application.

positive momentum to our business as plant

Also SMS group can look back on a history of more than 140 years. The origins of the familyowned company go back to the year 1871, when a small forge was founded in what at that time


was the heart of iron ore mining in Germany.

Being a plant engineering company that

Since then, the company has grown into one

provides all those products and services from

This is also conducive to further strengthening

of the world’s leading suppliers of plant and

a single source and boasts in-depth know-how

and enhancing our competitiveness in the

machinery for the metallurgical industry.

of materials and the underlying processes,

present, extremely challenging market

Today, SMS group has almost 14,000 employees

SMS group has been paving the way for future-

environment, in which the steel producers

and is synonymous with customized concepts,

oriented steel production towards Industry 4.0.

have to cope with a severe squeeze on

machinery and services supplied from a single

These are essential factors for the production

margins due to worldwide structural

source for the entire process chain: for hot

of high-performance steels, such as higher-

overcapacities. Consequently, the small

metal production, steelmaking, continuous

strength multi-phase steels and advanced

number of large-scale projects on the market

casting, hot and cold rolling, forging, tube and

high-strength steels (AHSS), which combine

make competition extremely severe. In this

pipe making down to processing lines and

high strength with good forming and processing

situation, technological advances are crucial.

properties - the key requirement for designing

The material steel and metallurgical plant

lighter, fuel-saving cars with improved crash

engineering still hold potential for future-

performance. One of the most important

oriented innovations. Therefore, steel is and

technological achievements of the recent past

will remain a product much sought after and

is certainly the trend-setting CSP® (Compact

a mainstay of all industries around the globe.

Strip Production) technology developed by SMS

Against this background, we wish all of us a

group, in which the liquid steel is cast into thin

continuation of our rewarding cooperation and

slabs which – without having to go through a

many exiting achievements.



BRAUN Innovations tions for Steel Cutting-edge technology chnology for cutting and grinding ding

• High-performance abrasive cut-off machines • Combined abrasive cut-off and sawing machines • Multi-functional high-pressure grinding machines • Deburring grinding machines • Flexible solutions for automated turn-key facilities • Technical consulting and life-time service support

INNOVATIONS FOR STEEL BRAUN Maschinenfabrik GmbH - Austria

BRAUN Machine Technologies, LLC - USA

BRAUN Machine Technologies (Beijing) Co., Ltd. - PR China

Steel Times International 1866-2016

BRAUN – A SUCCESS STORY SINCE 1848 – INNOVATIONS FOR STEEL SINCE 1965 Founded 1848 as a family-owned enterprise for the production of cuirasses and forged commodities, BRAUN has always been known as a highly innovative, customer-oriented company. The following milestones of the past 5 decades mark BRAUN‘s development up to the present:


Construction of first abrasive cut-


off machines (dry cutting – new, innovative technology)



First multi-functional high-pressure

applications, slab deburring

grinding machine for billets

grinding machine) (figure 4) Figure 4

First longitudinal high-pressure

Development of first large-scale

grinding machines for large-

abrasive cut-off machine (1250 mm

diameter seamless tubes (figure 3)

cutting wheel dia.) (see figure 1)

Figure 3


First high-pressure grinding machine with product identification unit and post-grinding inspection

Figure 1


First helical high-pressure grinding machine for stainless steel


First traverse abrasive cut-off machine for cutting layers of bars after cooling bed


electrodes and ingots


grinding to remove local surface flaws and new product line BRAUNSILVERCUT for small dry and

First abrasive cut-off machine

wet abrasive cut-off machines for

for 2000 mm cutting wheel dia.

metallographic applications

First integrated cutting installation

(combined chop-stoke/traverse

for index cutting of large-scale

cutting of hot forgings from open-die

ingots (figure 2)



system for fully-automated spot

TODAY BRAUN, the technology leader for cutting and grinding with global presence - 3 BRAUN hubs (Austria,

Various new innovations (first

China, USA), 26 sales and service

combined high-pressure grinding

partners for 45 countries on all 5

machine for ingots and slabs,


combined abrasive cut-off / friction sawing machine, abrasive cutFigure 2

off machines for railway product


BRAUN Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Austria • BRAUN Machine Technologies, LLC, USA • BRAUN Machine Technologies (Beijing) Co., Ltd., PR China


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Latin American steel – an historical perspective

Latin America’s steel industry is centuries old and has faced many challenges over the years. History informs us that its creativity and the intelligence of its workforce will push it forward, says Rafael Rubio*


he Latin American steel industry has a

utensils, working tools, nails, and so on; as in the

long historical trajectory whose formal

case of iron and bronze cannons that were used in

been evolving over time and which constitutes

development goes back to the end of the 18th

the wars of independence.

the backbone of Latin America´s industrial and

It was the beginning of an activity that has

century and early 19th century. At the beginning, the

After the discovery of iron ore, ways for adding

activity was related to the exploitation of iron ore due

value were found and steel production started in a

One of the first records that is known is the

its wide availability in several countries in the region.

rudimentary form in terms of volume and quality.

operation of Real Fábrica de ferro São João de

These beginnings were supported by European

Ipanema in Sorocabo, Brazil, in 1808. Something

Latin America, there were already records of small

migrants or companies that already had more

similar happened in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia,

iron ore foundries for the production of kitchen

technology and experience.

Chile, Peru and Mexico.

Since colonial times and the Spanish presence in

manufacturing base.

The historical evolution of the steel industry can be divided into five stages.

l) The Birth of the Industry – XVIII and XIX Century. During this period, development activity focused on iron ore mining and the appearance of small foundries, driven by the priests who accompanied the Spanish conquest in the region. There was small-scale production with low quality, but it contributed to the development of working tools, which marks the beginning of industrial activity in Latin America. This was an early stage of economic development and political consolidation of government in the region. Production was destined for domestic consumption in local markets, as there was little trade with other regions and countries. Simple and basic products were manufactured. (left) Usiminas-Planta Lpatinga, Brazil


Steel Times International 1866-2016

industry grew and diversified its operations to supply all kinds of steel products. In several countries, national steel industry development plans were implemented, to promote the activity and consolidate businesses. In some cases, governments nationalised private steel companies since steel production was a matter of industrial honour. The profile of the industry in those years was characterised by large state-owned steel companies, operated by government-designated personnel and receiving financial support to continue growth. Governments had the fiscal capacity to achieve these goals. It should be pointed out that this type of steel and industrial development was not unique to Latin America; many countries around the world had

Ternium, Columbia

similar experiences. However, in spite of these limitations, steel

As large investment was needed to establish a

products were imported and this aroused the

steel company, governments became shareholders

interest of governments, traders and small

of these companies. Sometimes they enrolled

industrialists who developed new businesses and

directly while in others they joined with private

set up companies that were gradually consolidated

investors to start up businesses.

over the years.

To consolidate these industrial developments and allow enterprises a financial return in order

II) The Awakening of the steel industry: 1940-1960. The slow steel and industrial development in Latin

to survive, governments controlled imports and markets were closed to foreign competition. There is no doubt that the Latin American

America gained impetus when the start of World

industrial boom was achieved; but at the cost of

War II caused a worldwide shortage of all kinds of

high price and low quality production.

products and the governments of Latin America activity that allowed them to continue their

III) Consolidation of the industry and its first difficulties: 1960-1980.

economic development.

With the end of World War II and the subsequent

needed to promote industrial and manufacturing

This led to the emergence of the so-called

economic reconstruction, came a period marked by

‘import-substitution strategy’ that was adopted by

high rates of economic growth that enabled global

all Latin American countries. With the support of

and Latin American economic development.

governments, industry started to take-off, and the

It was the “golden age” of economic performance

steel industry played a fundamental role for being a

for many countries in the region where their

necessary input for industrial processes.

industrial base was consolidated and their steel

Aceros Arequipa in Peru


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Around those state-owned enterprises, companies that supplied raw materials – or demanded their products – were established. In this way, industrial centres were gradually established in several countries in the region. Such an unrestricted government support policy becomes limited when those governments faced the economic crisis of the 70s and 80s, causing a reduction in budgets and forcing them to compress expenditures. The foregoing, added to the lack of productive and financial efficiency by state-owned enterprises, became a serious problem for regional governments, which had to decide whether to support their companies at the risk of reducing expenditure for other activities, such as education and health care, or selling their companies to (above) Workers at Ternium, Columbia

private investors.

(below) Tenaris Siderca, Argentina

IV) The transformation of the industry 1980-2000. The financial crossroads faced by governments participating in the steel industry was resolved with the sale or privatisation of their companies. This phenomenon occured throughout the region. Enterprises changed ownership and initiated investments to modernise or update their acquired assets. On the other hand, these were also the years when several Latin American countries started trade liberalisation processes in their domestic markets and integrated into the global economy. The competition began to generalise and Latin American companies had to confront imports from third countries with increased standards of quality and efficiency. Similarly, companies began to export to the rest of the world. It is also worth noting the emergence of the steel industry in China that followed the same


Steel Times International 1866-2016

development pattern of many other countries:

Consumers of steel products are becoming

Second, it must meet demand and customer

an industry strongly supported by a government

increasingly demanding in terms of quality and

requirements in terms of quality and price.

committed to sustain industrial and manufacturing

price. China is no longer just a steel producer;

Steel continues to be the material of choice


it is the world’s largest producer responsible for

for manufacturing activities. It remains an

50% of world production. The global steel trade

irreplaceable product in the life of a society.

The Chinese steel industry is a unique example in the history of steel production as no other

means a significant share of production. Global

Third, the global steel market is a battlefield,

country has developed at the same, dramatic pace.

steel production demands constantly innovating

where sometimes there is not a level playing field,

production technology and an increasingly more

affecting the conditions of competition. To avoid

V) The future of the steel industry in Latin America

specialised workforce.

this, governments should monitor compliance with

Steel production is a global activity. Virtually

American steel industry.

every country in the world has its own indigenous

Many challenges lie ahead for the Latin First, it must remain a sustainable, efficient

international regulations, such as those agreed by the World Trade Organisation. Fourth, China’s steel industry is the central

steel industry. Today, the current challenge is to

and profitable activity and be capable of

variable of the industry. Its absolute and relative

offer world class steel produced by world class

facing stiff global competition in a business

weight in production and global consumption make

companies. Competition is wide and intense and

environment where governments abandoned the

it the key player. Every move made by Chinese steel

national markets in Latin America are practically

practice of direct financial support many years

producers has a significant effect on the rest of the

open to trade.


world industry. China’s current problem of overcapacity and its transition to a market economy without state support, will shape the industry’s future over the coming years.

Creativity and intelligence Steel activity in Latin America has a long history, just like Steel Times International magazine, which this year celebrates 150 years in publishing. The survival of both the Latin American steel industry and Steel Times International speaks volumes about their ability to face and overcome the challenges and emerge stronger on the other side. The current steel situation in Latin America is complex, but history tells us that its creativity and the intelligence of its workforce will push it forward. While steel remains the material of choice to meet the needs of society, Latin American steel companies will fulfil their responsibilities and make a valuable contribution. * General director Latin America Steel Industry Association Thyssen Krupp CSA, Brazil



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Steel Times International 1866-2016

AIC – AUTOMAZIONI INDUSTRIALI CAPITANIO AIC – Automazioni Industriali Capitanio is a global system integrator Italy-based with 40 years of history, providing advanced and tailored automation solutions for the steel industry, with the aim to continuously improve both efficiency, competitiveness and safety of the production processes. With more than 800 applications worldwide, AIC is a leading supplier for the whole metals industry and can boost an unique experience in both greenfield and revamping projects in long products rolling mills and continuous casting machines. Thanks to a skilled team the company designs, manufactures and commissions turnkey electrical, automation and PLC safety systems, ensuring long-time experience and technical knowhow for engineering, AC and DC drives, PLC and SCADA for complete levels 0, 1 and 2 automation and process control, that are the critical issues of Hot Rolling Mills. RACS* integrated platform is a leadingedge technology specially developed from AIC for all Mills applications and requirements. *Rolling Mill Automation Control System. AIC is present not only in Italy but also in North America and India, thanks to local service companies.

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC Thermo Fisher Scientific Company in Ecublens,

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Switzerland develops and produces two types

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of spectrometers based on X-ray and arc/spark

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excitation. The origins of the company date back to

Whether R&D or product control,

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whether raw material inspection or

Research Laboratories, in California starting with

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the development of Arc/Spark OES (optical emission

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spectroscopy) spectrometers. In the 1950s, XRF

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Switzerland. In 1970 the company moved to Ecublens near Lausanne. Since 1996 we are part of the Thermo

X-ray spectrometry is the reference technique for the

Electron Corporation and then of Thermo Fisher

analysis of a wide range of materials. We provide a

Scientific since 2006.

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Arc/Spark OES is the reference technique for the

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

Steel in our lives Steel is the foundation for the quality of life we have come to expect in modern society. By Thomas J. Gibson*


here is hardly an object we use today that

strength, rigidity and durability. While

doesn’t contain steel, or isn’t made with

we may not notice, the computers

steel equipment. Steel is an indispensable

we use 24-7 have steel in them.

of America, engendering a sense of national pride through famous landmarks such as the Golden

part of our everyday lives. It is one of the most

And steel is essential to ensure

recycled materials, and can be recycled repeatedly

the safety of the world’s water

to America’s Pacific Coast,

without loss of quality.

and food supply, and vital

the St. Louis Gateway Arch

to energy generation and

at the crossroads of America,

homes and workplaces. In the kitchen, our

national security. No other

the Chrysler Building that

refrigerator is made of steel – and so many other

material offers the combination

appliances have steel components. On our way

of strength, formability and

to the office, a job site or to school, we rely on


Steel is a critical component in transportation,

the safety of steel to reinforce our roads, define

Gate Bridge welcoming visitors

gives a unique flourish to New York City’s skyline and the new One World Trade Centre, now the tallest building in America. As the backbone of manufacturing, steel is a strategic

trucks. As we glance out of our windows we may

The evolution of advocacy in the American steel industry

notice that signs, guardrails, railroad tracks,

The history of America’s steel industry is

and stability. The steel industry directly employs

construction cranes, pipes, commercial buildings

inseparable from our nation’s economic, political

about 142,000 people in the US, and supports

and telephone utility poles are all made of steel.

and military development. Methods for the mass

almost one million US jobs.

It is only possible to build the skyscrapers

production of steel have been around more than

of the world’s largest cities because of steel’s

150 years. The steel sector helped build the face

our bridges and form the body of our cars and

industry essential to America’s economic growth

The need for an organisation “to take all proper measures for advancing the interests of the trade in all its branches” led ironmasters, clustered mainly in the eastern part of the US, to establish the American Iron Association in 1855. That year, world pig iron production amounted to 7Mt. In 1864, Bessemer steel was made in the US, and the Association, headquartered in Philadelphia, changed its name to the American Iron and Steel Association (AISA). Early in the 20th century, as the industry experienced explosive growth, its leaders saw the need for an organisation to supplement the largely statistical activities carried on by AISA. That led to the founding of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) in 1908, with Elbert H. Gary as its first chief executive. From 1908 to 1912, the

The USS New York


Institute and the Association functioned side-by-

Steel Times International 1866-2016

critical alloying elements. In recognition of

Steel import crisis

that contribution to the winning of the war, the

In 2007, the American steel industry employed

Institute was presented the Distinguished Service

161,000 workers and was operating at 87% capacity

Award by the US Department of the Army. AISI

utilisation. Steel producers were cranking out

also created a special committee on industrial

108Mt of steel to supply major North American

health to help place returning injured war

manufacturers the high quality, performance and

veterans in steel jobs.

strength of steel made by US companies.

The restructuring of the steel industry in recent

Then the great recession happened, which

decades has resulted in far-reaching changes in

led to a significant reduction in manufacturing

advocacy needs. Public policy activity has grown

activity and steel consumption in late 2008 and

in importance – as has collaborative research,

2009. Thereafter steel companies began to slowly

market development activity and the role of the

recover along with much of the manufacturing

supply chain. While the Institute speaks on behalf

sector. But in 2012, and again in 2014, large

of the North American steel industry on a wide

volumes of steel imports flooded the market.

array of issues, including energy, environment,

Many of the imports came from countries where

transportation, tax and workplace safety, the

governments subsidise, or even fully control, their

international crisis in steel trade is top of mind for

steel industries – leaving American steelmakers

AISI members and the steel value chain all across

to compete against not just other companies, but

North America.

foreign governments. Capacity utilisation shrank

The Chyrsler Building, New York

side. However, on 1 January 1913, the Association was merged into the New York-based American Iron and Steel Institute. The beginning of the 20th century was a period of prosperity and expansiveness. Institute statistics showed that the US produced 40% of the world’s supply of iron and steel. In the midst of the Great Depression in 1933, Congress adopted the National Industrial Recovery Act (NRA), and AISI was called upon by the federal government to act for the steel industry in the establishment and administration of a Code of Fair Competition. The NRA, however, was declared unconstitutional in May of 1935 and replaced, in part, by the National Labour Act. During World War II, AISI helped conceive the national emergency steels that conserved

Where steel production and technology meet


to as low as 60% in late 2015, while steel imports were capturing a record high market share of 29%. This is unsustainable. At the same time, domestic steel production has continued to decline. Domestic shipments for 2015 stood at 87Mt, a nearly 12% decrease over what American steel mills shipped in 2014. This surge in imports has effectively decoupled the US steel industry from the modest growth occurring in the rest of the economy. More than 12,000 jobs have been lost in just the past year alone. And nearly one out of every three tons of steel sold in the US in 2015 was produced outside the country. Healthy manufacturing industries create goodpaying jobs, generate investment in research and development, and produce the critical materials we need for our national defense and export trade. Steel industry plant closures and job losses also affect other dependent industry sectors, and ripple throughout the broader economy. The import surge is fueled by the tremendous global overcapacity in steel—in part due to massive subsidisation by foreign governments. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimates that there is about 700 million metric tons of excess steel capacity globally today. China is by far the largest contributor to this crisis. Its steel industry is government-ownedand-supported and accounts for almost half of the world’s steelmaking and over half of the world’s overcapacity. And the size of the Chinese steel industry continues to grow. Between 2000 and 2014, Chinese steel production increased an amazing 540%—while US production actually declined 13%.

(left) The Golden Gate Bridge welcomes visitors to America’s pacific coast

Steel Times International 1866-2016

aggressively use these tools in the current cases to ensure that the full amount of dumping and subsidisation is offset . While strong US trade laws provide critical discipline against unfair trade, there has also been an increase in fraudulent schemes used by countries to evade anti-dumping and antisubsidy orders already put in place. This negates the remedy that is supposed to be in place for producers that have been found by the ITC to have been injured by unfairly traded imports and prolongs the injury to the domestic industry caused by dumped and subsidised imports. As such, it is critical that the US Government agency charged with enforcing the trade laws at the

Billets being formed

China’s industrial and trade policies encourage

border — US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in steel imports into the US. Other major offshore

— uses its authority to collect the full amount of

steel production there to proceed unabated, even

suppliers of steel that have seen substantial

anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties imposed on

as demand for steel in China has fallen for the last

increases in their export volumes to the US market

these imports. To assist in this effort, the Congress

two years. To make up for this falling demand at

in recent years include Korea and Turkey. This

recently passed the ENFORCE Act, which will

home, China has been shipping out ever-greater

surge of imports already has had a devastating

establish new procedures to ensure that these

quantities of steel at below-market prices. In 2015,

effect in the US, driving US plant activity down to

duties are being accurately assessed and collected

China exported a record 112 million metric tons,

the unsustainable levels we mentioned previously.

at the border.

up nearly 20% from its 2014 record of 94 million

If America’s steel industry is to survive, global

Turning point

leaders must ramp up efforts on the international

The Chinese government recently set a goal

Domestic steel producers last year sought relief by

front to eliminate government interventions in

to cut steel overcapacity in China by 100 to 150

filing trade cases with the Commerce Department

the steel industry that fuel the excess capacity

million metric tons over a five-year period,

and the International Trade Commission (ITC)

crisis globally. It is also critical that global

although it has failed to specify how it proposes

on all the major flat-rolled steel products,

leaders resist China’s demand to be designated

to achieve these reductions. What is clear is that

including corrosion-resistant steel, hot-rolled

a market economy by the end of 2016—which

this goal is not enough to address the global steel

steel and cold-rolled steel. Those cases are now

would severely weaken the effectiveness of the

crisis. As one representative of the Chinese steel

under investigation, but many foreign steel

anti-dumping law – until China fully reforms its

industry recently conceded, China must reduce its

producers and their governments have refused

government-controlled economy.

government-owned and directly steel overcapacity

to respond to information requests from the

by around 400 million metric tons if it is to

Commerce Department in an effort to stymie

indispensable role in building America and the

address the problems caused by past Chinese

those investigations. The US Congress gave the

world. It now needs and deserves the support

government industrial policies. And it must make

Commerce Department new tools to address such

of leaders in North America and the world to

these reforms now, before further damage is

tactics when it enacted legislation that made

preserve it.

caused, both in China and around the world.

improvements to the trade remedy laws last

metric tons.

But China is not the only source of the surge

summer. It is now critical that the Department

The steel industry played a central and

* President and CEO, American Iron and Steel Institute


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Steel Times International 1866-2016

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

REFRATECHNIK Intelligent refractory technology is your safety factor for high steel-making performance. The Refratechnik Group today is one of the most

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

An evolution of steelmaking In concept and determination, this paper argues that Bessemer was ‘the father of steelmaking’, but in tonnage terms, the Siemens Martin open hearth (OH) furnace was the predominant steel process during the first half of the 20th century – both in quantity and quality. By Dr. Tim Smith*


he merits of carbon in iron to produce a hardenable alloy have been recognised since iron was first extracted from its ores

in bloomery furnaces at the dawn of the iron age. Such blooms, which form as a solid ‘spongy’ mass, can exhibit a carbon gradient typically ranging from 1% to zero and there is evidence that smiths selected different parts of the bloom for different purposes, hammer welding, for example, a high carbon strip onto a more ductile low carbon core to make a cutting edge, or combining high and low carbon strips of iron by multiple forging and folding to make the famous Damascus steel with its

(left) 25t acid Bessemer converter from Workington in NW

intricate patterns revealed on etching.

England and preserved at Kelham Island museum, Sheffield

Following the arrival of the blast furnace, as early as the 13th century in Europe – and even

(above) OH furnace at Redbourn, Scunthorpe, UK, looking from

earlier in China – much greater yields of iron

pit side

from the ore could be obtained – since calcium

castings, but the much finer morphology of the

from added limestone replaced iron as the flux to

carbon present makes them more applicable to the

applications, and, at its peak of production in

combine with silica and other impurities in the ore

removal of the carbon by oxidation in a secondary

1875 in the UK, over 4.7Mt of puddled iron was

to form slag. The result was molten iron, but with

refining process.

produced, but its low carbon content meant it

a carbon content of around 4%, too brittle for use


Irons for refining were thus cast into ‘pigs’ or

Wrought iron had its uses in structural

was too soft to be useful as cutting tools. Hence

in such implements as tools. Since this iron was

larger ‘sows’ and, for some 300 years, worked in a

controlled amounts of carbon were reintroduced

liquid, it could be cast into useful objects provided

bed of charcoal in refining hearths under a stream

by ‘steelmakers’ first in open forges and later in

these were either sufficiently bulky to withstand

of air to reduce the carbon to close to zero. Later, in

cementation furnaces, the latter, introduced around

shocks – such as cannon – or not subjected to rough

1784, Henry Cort developed a reverberator furnace,

1610, relied on diffusion of carbon into the iron

handling – such as cooking pots and fire backs.

which allowed coal to be used as the fuel as the iron

from various carbon rich materials by sealing these

Irons, so used, were grey irons, with relatively

and coal were confined to separate compartments

together in stone chests which were heated for a

high silicon content and contained much of the

preventing contamination of the iron by sulphur in

week or more. The resulting ‘blister steel’ exhibited

carbon as free graphite. Irons with much lower

the coal. In both cases, this decarburised ‘wrought

a marked carbon gradient and had to be reheated

silicon content retain the carbon as iron carbide,

iron’ was repeatedly hammered, folded and

and worked and folded many times to homogenise

in free form and in pearlite, and are known as

hammered again to homogenise it and finally it was

it, or, introduced by Huntsman in 1740, by melting

‘white irons’. These are too brittle to make useful

drawn out into bars.

in clay crucibles to produce ‘Crucible Steel’.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

Such processes were time- and labour-intensive

Fe-highMn alloy. This was a practice already in use

and resulted in only a few thousand tons of steel

in foundries, and Bessemer was advised to do this

being produced each year. Estimates for the UK

by Robert Mushet, commenting that spiegeleisen

suggest that around 57.7kt of blister steel was

would deoxidise the melt. Mushet, a consultant to

made from imported bar iron in 1882, this falling

the Ebbw Vale steelworks in South Wales, which

to around 48.7kt in 1883, and 23kt of crucible steel

was operating Bessemer converters, had patented

in 1848. While such figures are subject to error as

this process, but allowed it to relapse when due

no official statistics were recorded for cemented

for renewal in 1859. Thus Bessemer was able to

or crucible steel production, cemented iron output

implement it without infringing the patent.

contrasts starkly with the later mass production

Sweden led commercial exploitation when, in

of steel by the Bessemer converter and the OH

1858, Goran Goransson, head of Elfstrand & Co

(Siemens Martin) furnaces, which commenced

steelworks, modified the converters to provide

commercial production in the UK in 1860 and 1869,

a harder blow to remove all of the carbon by


increasing the size of the tuyeres. The Swedish

Output of puddled wrought iron continued to rise until 1875 when it peaked at 4.73Mt at which time Bessemer steel production was 620kt and

ore was acid-based and the iron was made largely A Bessemer blow - described by Percy in 1864 as ‘a magnificent pyrotechnic effect’. Pic courtesy of Kelham Island Museum, Sheffield

OH 88kt. Thereafter, puddled iron output steadily

in charcoal blast furnaces, which ensured a low sulphur content. Goransson recognised a preference to use low sulphur irons and preferably

After a short-lived commercial success, the

high manganese ores. The latter were lacking to

below 1Mt in 1901 when it accounted for just 15.6%

process ran into serious problems. Bessemer’s

Goransson, which resulted in the first ‘rimming’

of production, but not finally ceasing until the

original source of iron had been acid pig iron

ingots to be cast in which porosity is confined close


made from silica- bearing ore. Much of the UK’s

to the edge of the ingot and counters shrinkage

declined as steelmaking grew, output dropping

ore, however, contained high levels of phosphorus,

on solidification so improving the yield. From July

Bessemer steel

which resulted in a ‘basic’ (ie phosphoric) iron.

1858, output was around 15 tons a week.

The British inventor, Henry Bessemer, patented

Such irons reacted with the silica lining of the

his steelmaking method in 1856 and commercial

converter vessel causing erosion and early failure

in Sheffield incorporating the modifications

production began in 1858. His process was to

of the vessel lining, and the resultant steel was high

Goransson had made and using Swedish iron

decarburise molten pig iron by blowing air through

in phosphorus, which causes cold shortness of the

provided by him. Initial attempts to blow

the melt. Contrary to the ‘wisdom’ of the time, this

steel when working it, and sulphur, which caused

to the required carbon level resulted in an

did not cause the iron to freeze, but rather for the

hot shortness.

inhomogeneous steel of varying carbon content

temperature to rise due to the exothermic reactions

In 1859, Bessemer established a steelworks

Even when using acid irons, problems of

so the practice was adopted to blow close to zero

of oxidation of carbon, silicon and manganese

porosity arose due to trapped gases and also

carbon content and then recarburise by adding a

in the iron as they were ‘burnt’ off. The reaction

nitrides were formed by reaction with the air blow,

calculated amount of carbon.

took place in an ‘egg-shaped’ convertor lined with

which embrittled the steel, limiting its use mainly

silica bricks, which was partly filled with liquid

to structural applications.

iron, through which air was blown via a series of

It is to Bessemer’s credit that he persisted to

The problem of treating high phosphorus basic irons was not solved for 21 years when Sydney Gilchrist Thomas proposed an alternative lining

channels (tuyeres) in the base. The converter could

alleviate these deficiencies, placing his fortune

for the converter consisting of fired crushed

be tipped to receive molten iron at the start of the

at risk by setting up a steelworks in Sheffield to

dolomite bonded with boiled tar (boiling removed

process and again on completion to pour out the

prove the process. The problem of porosity was

moisture). Although the initial work and trials

steel. The whole process took just 20 minutes or so.

overcome by adding manganese in the form of a

were undertaken at Blaenavon ironworks in


Steel Times International 1866-2016

South Wales, this basic lining was developed

The importance of both the Bessemer process to

commercially by Thomas at Bolckow, Vaughn & Co

treat acid irons and the Thomas process (or basic

in Middlesborough where it was first used in 1879.

Bessemer) to treat phosphorus irons had not gone

This lining did not react with the basic iron and,

unnoticed elsewhere.

additionally, adding a lime-based highly-basic slag

With the advent of the basic Bessemer, Bessemer

Table 1 Bessemer steel production in Europe in 1885 (kt) Country

Acid Bessemer

Basic Bessemer







reduced the phosphorus significantly and removed

steelmaking could enter much larger regions of

about 30% of the sulphur from the refined steel.

Europe. In the UK, plants were set up in Yorkshire,

Again, this knowledge was not obtained in isolation.

Cleveland (NE England), NW England and South




George Snelus, a chemist at Dowlais steelworks


Austro Hungary






in South Wales, had been lining Bessemer vessels

In mainland Europe, France and Sweden were

with ground limestone and also fired magnesia

the first countries outside of the UK to install a

and, in 1872, found that high lime slags reduced

Bessemer converter in 1858. In France, this was at

the phosphorus in the iron. At Middlesborough, the

Saint-Seurin, which had three converters, the first

which had already been introduced at the Hörder

work’s metallurgist, Stead, improved phosphorus

of charge weight 1.5ton and two later of 3ton each.

Verein works the previous year. This brought total

removal to 0.2% by introducing an after-blow

In Germany, Krupp was the first to use the

output of German ‘Bessemer’ steel to 686kt. From

(after all the C, Si & Mn had been removed) which

Bessemer process at Essen in 1862. In 1877, there

then onwards, Germany dominated production of

oxidised some of the iron which assisted further P

were 76 Bessemer (acid) converters in operation in

both acid and basic Bessemer steel in Europe. By

removal. Thomas recognised that the high P slag

Germany, 70% in the Ruhr region.

1885 it was producing 550kt of acid Bessemer steel

produced could be used as a fertiliser, the value of which met the cost of steelmaking.

In 1880, after considerable effort, Thomas received a German patent for the Basic Bessemer

and 500kt of basic Bessemer steel, nearly four times and over two and a half times respectively, that of its nearest nation competitor, the UK (Table 1). Ten years later, output of basic Bessemer steel in Germany had risen to 2.87Mt, its closest rival being the UK at 0.5Mt, while the other nations were all producing less than 120kt. Further afield, in the USA, the first Bessemer steel shop was built by Alexander Holley in 1865 despite conflicting patents owned by the US citizen, William Kelly, who, in 1857, patented an unsuccessful ‘air boiling’ vessel to decarburise liquid iron from his blast furnace at Eddyville. Also, John Martien had been granted a US patent to refine iron by blowing air into it as it ran in a trough from the blast furnace, and Mushet’s earlier UK patent to add Fe-Mn to deoxidise Bessemer steel was also possibly valid in the USA. The main demand for steel in the USA was for railways and Bessemer steel was eminently suited Row of surviving open hearth chimneys on the site of Carnegie’s Homestead works near Pittsburgh, now a shopping mall (left)


Steel Times International 1866-2016

for rail track, which lasted much longer than the wrought iron rails then used. Also, there was a need for bridges for which Bessemer steel was again suited. By 1884, 12 Bessemer steel shops were built (11 by Holley) and Carnegie – initially a railroad man who expanded into steel – was president of one of the largest, Edgar Thomas. Together, these steelworks controlled output of Bessemer steel through a trade organisation, the Bessemer Association. When, in 1881, Thomas gained a US patent for his basic process, the Bessemer Association bought all rights for its application in the USA to prevent it competing with their investment in acid Bessemer steelmaking. Bessemer steelmaking lasted 123 years. r 1889 UK Bessemer production peaks at 2.25Mt r 1960 Thomas (Basic Bess) peaks in Germany at 12Mt r 1974 Last Bessemer blow in UK at Workington r 1977 Last Thomas (Basic Bess) blow in Germany r 1981 Last recorded Bessemer production in Argentina, Brazil, India, South Africa & DR Germany with a total 12.8Mt – 0.2% of world steel production. In the 1950s, with the advent of tonnage oxygen, trials were made to blow pure oxygen into the converter to overcome the problem of pick-up of nitrogen. Indeed, Bessemer had recognised the advantage of this, but in his day, tonnage oxygen was unavailable. The main problem was excessive wear of the tuyeres due to the much higher temperatures when blowing oxygen. At Port Talbot steelworks in South Wales the VLN (very low nitrogen) converter was introduced which blew a mixture of oxygen and steam, the endothermic reaction of the decomposition of the steam cooling the tuyere area. In the USA, hydrocarbons were simultaneously Bessemer’s evolution – a modern day basic oxygen converter (right)


Steel Times International 1866-2016

blown down the outer segment of



cracking of the hydrocarbon was endothermic, causing a cooling


15000 10000

effect and so protecting the tuyeres.


While the Bessemer converter

0 1880

no longer makes steel today, a

80 60 40 20



Total crude

number of vessels have been preserved across the world. To


% by process


was blown down the centre, again

Kilo tonnes

an annular tuyere while pure oxygen





Open hearth BOS


0 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 BOF


Fig 2 UK steel production by process 1886 -1995



concast %

Fig 3 World steel by process 1979 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2015

my knowledge, the present count is 25: - ten in Sweden, seven in Germany, two in

steelmaking in the UK and the decline of Bessemer/

to convert coal to gas to provide a fuel, which was

the UK (including Bessemerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pilot converter),

Thomas steel.

easier to handle and could also be pre-heated

The OH furnace is a regenerative furnace in

two in Argentina and one each in Austria, The Netherlands, the USA and Canada. These stand as

which the air to burn the fuel is pre-heated to a

Charles Attwood in Sheffield commissioned

monuments to the 19th century steelmakers who

high temperature by passing it through a heat

Siemens to build an OH furnace on this principle

made the process work.

exchanger of bricks pre-heated by the exhaust

to melt pig iron, but reverted to the puddling

gases of the furnace. Two heat exchangers are used

process to refine it. The Martins family in Sireuil,

Open hearth steelmaking

alternately, one being heated by the exhaust gases

France, first applied the furnace to refining.

In the early days, the Bessemer process made more

while the other supplies heat to the combustion

Previous attempts had resulted in early refractory

steel than the OH (Siemens Martin) process. In

air. This enabled much higher temperatures to be

failure of the furnace roof due to the high

1869, when the first OH steel was recorded in the

achieved as well as a substantial saving in fuel.

temperatures generated. The Martins, however,

statistics, British Bessemer steel production was

The principle of regeneration was developed

had access to very pure silica refractories which

214.4kt compared with 8kt of OH. Peak Bessemer/

by Carl Wilhelm Siemens, a German scientist

could withstand these high temperatures. In

Thomas production in the UK was in 1889 when

(the younger brother of Werner Siemens who

1863, Emile Martins melted a charge of pig

it reached 2.25Mt at which time OH production

established the present day company) who moved

iron and scrap wrought iron and, in 1864, took

was 1.5Mt. 1891 was the first year in which

to Britain in 1847 to represent the company, and

out a UK patent for the furnace. Meanwhile,

production of OH steel exceeded that of Bessemer/

took up British citizenship in 1859, adopting the

Siemens persisted in his attempts in the UK to get

Thomas steel with outputs of 1.71Mt and 1.64Mt

names Charles William. With the help of his

steelmakers to adopt the process.

respectively. Fig. 1 illustrates the growth of OH

younger brother, Frederick, a UK patent for the

30000 Kilo tonnes

25000 20000 15000 10000

0 1880


Total crude

1920 Open hearth




Fig 1 Bessemer versus OH steel production in the UK 1886-1980


As with the Bessemer process, the first OH

regenerative furnace was granted in 1856.

furnace hearths were lined with silica â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an

The principle was first applied to a reheating

acid brick, and so could not remove sulphur or

furnace in Sheffield and later in a puddling

phosphorus from the metal. However, the much

furnace in Bolton, regeneration achieving a

longer period of refining the iron, 8-10 hours was

75% reduction in fuel use.

typical compared with just 20 minutes or so for

Frederick returned to Germany and



as well as the combustion air. In the same year,

the Bessemer converter, allowed greater control

successfully applied the principle to glass

of the carbon content. By 1884, basic brick linings

furnaces. Meanwhile, Charles remained

for the hearth were developed and the open-hearth

in the UK developing more efficient steel

furnace capable of treating high phosphorus irons

furnaces. In 1862 he devised a gas producer

was born.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

In the UK, the acid OH still predominated as most of the iron was produced from acid ores

OH). OH steelmaking in the UK peaked in 1960

steelmaking (BOS) converter in the 1950s.

% share

at 20Mt followed by a steep decline (Fig. 1) with the adoption of the present-day basic oxygen OH steel production saw a similar decline BOS but also the growth of electric arc steelmaking and continuous casting (Figs. 2 & 3). The regular supply of steel needed for continuous casting is


Germany in 1983, having peaked there in 1960 at 30Mt. In France, OH steelmaking ceased around 1984, in China 1982, and in USA it returned as late as 1992 when a furnace at Bethlehem was


N America

Asia excl. China



30W Europe USSR N America Asia excl. China China 20 60 10 50 0 40 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CIS

N America

Asia excl. China



half of the 20th century, from 1950 onward an evolution of the Bessemer/Thomas process, the basic oxygen converter, came to dominate

as the Kaldo vessel and the Oberhausen Rotor vessel, both of which suffered excessive refractory wear. Today’s challenge to the BOS is the EAF, which offers around a 75% saving in energy compared with the blast furnace/BOS integrated route. In a sense, this is more akin to the OH furnace in that its main charge is recycled scrap

10 0

the major steelmaking process of the first

attempts to produce bulk steel using oxygen, such


30Europe EU28

In conclusion, while the OH furnace became

steel production and outshine numerous other

1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Fig 5 Changing regional share of world steel production 2005-15

% share

OH steelmaking ended in the UK in 1979, in

W Europe 10


difficult to achieve from an open-hearth furnace, even when modified to partly blow oxygen.

production (Figs. 4 & 5).

15 30 10 25 5 20 0 15 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

5 Fig 4 Regional share of world steel production 1967-77

% share

worldwide, not only because of the adoption of the

where China now accounts for half of total world

20 % share

furnace (3.838Mt of acid OH, 0.797Mt of basic

steelmaking in Europe and North America to Asia


imported from Spain and Sweden. In 1905, for example, 83% of OH steel was made in the acid

By region, there has been a marked shift from


helping to meet the sustainability credentials of modern steelmaking.

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Europe EU28


N America

Asia excl. China



restarted to meet a sudden demand for steel.

Present day

To the late R J Stubbles for much of the

in 2014, it represented 20.5% (5.57Mt) of that

Just like the Bessemer process, today’s basic

information on personalities, the late Frederick

nation’s steel production, and in Russia (2.8%

oxygen furnace (BOF) is a pneumatic process and

Toussaint for Bessemer/Thomas production in

= 2Mt). These furnaces differ from the original

may be considered an evolution of the Bessemer

mainland Europe, Dr Peter King for wrought iron

concept being twin hearth furnaces in which

converter. Instead of blowing air through tuyeres

statistics, the Iron & Steel Statistics Bureaux and

the combustion gases in the melting hearth are

in the base of the converter, oxygen is blown

worldsteel for steelmaking statistics.

pre-heated by exhaust gases from the hearth

at supersonic speed through a lance above the

containing the metal being refined, and oxygen is

charge in the converter. Modern vessels take much

* Consulting editor Steel Times International and a

used to accelerate reactions.

larger charges than the Bessemer converter, 150t

member of the Historical Metallurgy Society

It continues today only in the Ukraine where,

Because of the much larger structure of these furnaces compared with the Bessemer converter, I know of only two preserved examples, the

to 200t being not uncommon compared with the largest Bessemer charge of 25t. In 2015, 1599.484Mt of crude steel were

Bibliography The Original Steelmakers by J R Stubbles Iron &

largest in the Industrie Museum of Brandenburg,

produced, a small dip compared with 2014 when

Germany, and a small 8-ton unit at Munkfors

1663.240Mt were made. In 2014, 73.9% of this

in Sweden. In the USA, at the site of Carnegie’s

steel was made by the BOS process, 25.6% in the

Sir Henry Bessemer: Father of the steel industry

Homestead works near Pittsburgh, an impressive

electric arc furnace (EAF), 0.5% in the OH and

Edited by C Bodsworth, IoM Communications

row of OH chimneys has been preserved on the

0.1% by other methods. Of the total output, 96.1%

1998 ISBN 1 86125 054 1

site of what is now a shopping mall.

was continuously cast.

Steel Society 1984


VISION BECOMES REALIT Y Slag Pot Transporters in a platform or U-Frame design, Slab and Coil Transporters, Industrial Lift Transporters with cabin on top or under platform â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the TII Group offers an extensive range of transporters to meet the requirements of the metallurgy industry. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; We turn the world into motion.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

â&#x20AC;&#x201C; YOUR FULL RANGE SUPPLIER The range of vehicles of the TII Group for the

units for KAMAG power units,

metalworking industry is just as wide as the range

the TII Group ensures your

of transport assignments in this sector. Scrap


management, molten steel, slag or slabs and semifinished product transportation: wherever and whenever a transport task is required, the TII Group provides the right solution. Safety and reliability always play a central role. When transporting an extremely heavy slag pot, everything needs

Our product range includes: r Slag Pot Transporter (Platform and U-frame design) r Molten Steel Transporter

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occupational safety go hand-in-hand during the

r Slab Transporter

development of our vehicles. For operators, efficiency considerations are also of great importance - with concepts such as the modular replacement of engine

r Industrial Lift Transporter (with overhead cabin)


Steel Times International 1866-2016

A THIRD GENERATION FAMILY BUSINESS GOES INTERNATIONAL DRIVEN BY TECHNOLOGY AND AFFORDABLE PRICING Preet Machines Limited, a family owned business in the field of providing EPC & EPCF Solution for Long Product Hot Rolling Mills has gone international, during its operation after 40 years and is now controlled by its third generation. It is a matter of pride for Preet Group as admitted by its MD Mr. Preet Singh Chauhan, that during this phase of steel the project suppliers termed it as BAD TIME for steel but for Preet machines it is the busiest time in workshop, at site and signing new contracts/agreements. Q. Mr. Preet, what

Q. What is your project execution

with the best companies internationally.

are your current


Lastly our edge is in Capex: we provide the

business activities?

This largely depends on the Client. We

Our company is mainly

are flexible with all options by delivering

offering turnkey solutions

all our commitments. We have seven on-

for long product rolling

going projects - capacity 0.25M â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.60M

mills including Rebar,

Chairman (Mr Kuldip Singh Chauhan)

TPA in the Gulf, CIS & India.

clients at an affordable cost.

Q. What are your future plans? Looking at the global market demand for Preet Group we are planning for

Wire Rod, Merchant Bars, Section & equipmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.

latest design with international quality to our

Q. What is your competitive edge?

manufacturing facility expansion in the Gulf to support the regional demand & creating

Q. Can you tell us about your

The competitive edge comes in many forms,

local after sales support to our customers

achievements in supplying mills

the first is the infrastructure in the form of

by opening nine new offices around the


a machine building shop equipped with the

globe and employing qualified teams. We

latest CNC machines tools. We have divided

believe that the future is bright and a lot

our shops into various units where each

of opportunities are available for capable

unit manufactures one type of equipment

companies like us.

We were started as a small Indian family, owned company by our founder chairman Mr. Kuldip Singh. Today Preet Group is a well known name in the Global Market with a 930 -strong qualified workforce, which has successfully executed many projects ranging range 100,000 to 600,000 TPA with the latest technology.

only. This increases our productivity which supports all of our clients with the latest design at reasonable cost and the shortest delivery period. Over the years we have developed a large and reliable pool of vendors and partners. We have forged

We are the only company in India with such

alliances with international companies

an international exposure by executing EPC

having specialized technologies which puts

& EPCF project capacity up-to 600,000 TPA.

us in the forefront and allows us to compete

Left - Mr Preet Singh Chauhan (MD), right - Mr Gurmeet Singh Chauhan (JMD)


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Continually improving In 2017 EVRAZ celebrates its 25th anniversary. Over the past quarter century, the company has become one of the top-25 steel producers in the world, a leading player on the international vanadium market and a number one producer of coking coal in Russia.


he different business sectors serviced by

constructed to improve passenger comfort and

company’s mill in Pueblo, USA, has produced rails

EVRAZ support each other and provide

safety. Since then, no more foreign rails have been

since 1881 and is number one supplier for the

stable revenues; moreover, control over

supplied to Russia as customers can rely upon the

North American market where it has a 40% market

all production processes have established EVRAZ

quality of the Russian product. Over the next two


as one of the lowest cost global steel producers.

years EVRAZ commenced production of 100-metre

Implementation of new technologies and

long rails for low temperatures, high-speed mixed

Building a new reality

equipment and an expanding product portfolio

traffic, difficult routes, and so on. Increased

EVRAZ steel is ubiquitous in Russia. The Russky

have enabled the company to strengthen its

capacity and improved quality enabled EVRAZ

bridge in Vladivostok, the Olympic sport centres

positions even despite the current market volatility.

to produce rails for foreign countries. By 2016,

in Sochi, and the football stadiums under

EVRAZ had entered the Latin American, South-

construction for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, Moscow

Making the world stronger

East Asian, African and Middle Eastern markets

City’s business centre and the Krasnoyarsk power

In keeping with its mission of making the world

and remains Russia’s and the CIS’s number

plant are among the latest works constructed with

stronger, EVRAZ participates in key infrastructure

one rail supplier with a 90% market share. The

EVRAZ steel.

and transportation projects around the world. Business centres, stadiums and other sports venues, bridges, power plants, pipelines, airports in different parts of the world are built, using EVRAZ’s products. The company is also the largest producer of rails globally. EVRAZ rails cover more than 1.5 million kilometres. The company’s Russian mills have been producing rails since 1932 and, therefore, EVRAZ combines unique experience with cutting-edge technology and equipment. Safety and comfort became key factors for railway companies in the 21st century. In 2010 EVRAZ started a large-scale reconstruction of its rail mill in West-Siberia (EVRAZ ZSMK). Thanks to modernisation, EVRAZ was able to produce a new generation of rails with a higher life cycle and quality rivalling foreign producers. In 2013 Russian railways, as well as other customers, got new head-hardened rails designed and


Steel Times International 1866-2016

technology one year later at its West-Siberian Steel Plant. In 2013 EVRAZ also launched a new steel mill in Kazakhstan that produces rebar for the growing Central Asian market. The new facility enabled the company to strengthen its market position in the CIS. Having completed all key investment projects by 2014, EVRAZ continues selective investments: for instance, the company is upgrading continuous casting machines in Novokuznetsk, expanding mining of iron ore in Kachkanar and Sheregesh and LPD production in Regina, Canada.

Creating the future Maintaining its leading positions, EVRAZ constantly seeks new possibilities for development, improving customer focus, product portfolio, quality of products and services. The company is EVRAZ is Russia’s number one producer of

such as beams, rebar, wheels and rails. Entering

always looking for new markets and new segments.

beams, structural shapes, grinding balls and rails

new markets is not an easy task as certification

For example, a new project supported by EVRAZ

and the number one producer of large diameter

can take several years, but EVRAZ already has

and other steel producers, designers and plants

pipes in North America.

TSI certificates for its wheels and rails and has

producing steel products is the Steel Construction

designed rebar for Europe, the USA and South-

Development Association (SCDA). The main

Eastern Asia.

objective of the SCDA is to expand residential

To secure leading positions in its key markets, EVRAZ is continuously improving its technologies, working on quality of products and expanding its

construction using steel instead of concrete.

portfolio. The company tries to offer customers

Investing in quality and efficiency

the best products and service available and has not

Over the last five years EVRAZ has completed

construction material, but steel offers many

only completed a large-scale modernisation of its

several large-scale investment projects aimed

advantages: the construction period is shorter

rail mill, but also upgraded a wheel shop in Nizhny

at improving product quality, expanding its

for a start as it doesn’t depend upon the season,

Tagil. The Nizhny Tagil Steel Plant can produce

product portfolio, reducing environmental

steel saves on materials and offers wider scope in

more than 40 types of locomotive and freight-car

impact and providing 100% safety to employees

terms of building design. The Association plans

wheels for Russia, CIS, Europe and the United

while increasing production effectiveness. In

to “conquer” 5-6% of the market over the next five


2013 the company launched a new coal mine –

years, which will help increase steel demand in

EVRAZ is traditionally a large exporter of

“Erunakovskaya-VIII” – where highly advanced


semi-finished products as the company’s steel

safety systems have been installed. Also in 2013

production capacity exceeds its rolling capacity.

EVRAZ’s Nizhny Tagil Steel Plant became the first

finished to high-margin rolled and rail products.

The company is working on the quality of its semi-

in Russia to launch pulverised coal injection,

In the short-term the company plans to launch

products and has succeeded in producing high-

which provides better blast furnace efficiency,

around 30 new high-margin products, including

margin slabs for the pipe industry. Meanwhile,

reduces demand for coke and natural gas and

nine different types of wheel and 18 types of rolled

it is expanding its exports of finished goods,

reduces air pollution. EVRAZ adopted the same

construction and rail products.

In Russia concrete is the most widespread

Meanwhile EVRAZ continues to shift from semi-


GSM up to 350 t capacity

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

GLAMA MASCHINENBAU GMBH IN GERMANY 55 YEARS – POWERED BY INNOVATION “GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH” is manufacturing machines for aluminium and steel industry for 55 years. GLAMA has designed and built heavy-duty machines for Open-Die Forging Plants, Ring Mills, Blooming Mills and similar works throughout the world. Following types of machines are available:  Heavy duty Robots & Manipulators  Forging Manipulators – Railbound  Forging Manipulators – Mobile  Charging Machines / Manipulators

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GLAMA is also supplying Equipment for Aluminium

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increase productivity to simplify operation methods. On the base of several well proven assembly groups GLAMA is building special machinery adapted to customers’ demand.

Fax: +49 2043 9738-50 Email: Website: Subsidiary: Industriestraße 1–3, 47495 Rheinberg, Germany (production only)


Steel Times International 1866-2016

AMETEK Land AMETEK Land (Land Instruments International) has supplied the global iron and steel making industry with innovative and reliable infrared temperature measuring equipment for over 65 years, facilitating the improvement of product quality and process control throughout the iron and steel making process. Today, AMETEK Land specialises in the design

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slag detection thermal process imaging

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strip and stove dome probes. With market leading technology, AMETEK Land is also allowing high quality visual thermal images of inside the reheat furnaces ensuring the product is at the correct temperature utilising the most efficient amount of energy.

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quality precision radiation pyrometers and

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designed systems for a range of processes

huge experience of measuring temperature

AMETEK Land is supported by offices and distributors throughout the world offering servicing, commissioning and access to world leading calibration laboratories (UKAS, NIST, NABL), ensuring equipment operates continuously, reliably and accurately and delivers complete customer satisfaction. AMETEK Land is part of the Process & Analytical Instruments Division of AMETEK, Inc., a global leader in electronic instruments and electromechanical devices.

AMETEK Land congratulates Steel Times International on its 150th anniversary.



We serve the steel and general melting industry with customized solutions, innovative product technology as well as high flexibility and cooperative project handling.


Wienerstrasse 25 • 8600 Bruck an der Mur • Austria • Europe Phone: +43 (0) 3862 53 110-0 • Fax: +43 (0) 3862 53844 •

Steel Times International 1866-2016

INTECO GROUP Being a partner to the steel and general melting industry since 1973, INTECO is proud to be the only single source supplier worldwide – until today – who offers and has already put into operation all production processes for the liquid treatment of steel, ferroalloys and super alloys such as…  Melting (EAF, SAF)  Refining (LF, VD/VOD, AOD, RH & Auxiliaries)  Casting (CC, IC, etc.)  Special Melting & Remelting (VIM, ESR, Pressure ESR, ESRR, VAR)  Automation & Level 2 Systems  Consulting Services

In the last decade INTECO has established

a part of the production process or the whole

a network of international companies – the

process line – INTECO will provide you with

INTECO Group - which allows clients and

innovative know how and the best tailor made

business partners to profit from the expertise

technology possible.

and know-how of several competence centers – each one of them a specialist in their field:

The recent order from thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG shows that this strategy and

INTECO Fuchs offers innovative melting

the high quality work of the past years for

& refining as well as scrap preheating

prestigious clients such as voestalpine,

technology; INTECO PTI is one of the world-

Deutsche Edelstahlwerke or Saarstahl AG

class leaders in regard to chemical energy

are paying off. For this largest single order

packages in particular for EAF operation;

in the company’s history INTECO’s experts

INTECO TBR supplies all kinds of casting

design and deliver a twin ladle furnace for

plants; INTECO atec is the competence center

the treatment of 260t liquid steel for the

for electrics & automation and INTECO SPT is

enterprise’s plant in Duisburg Beeckerwerth,

the specialist for ingot casting.


In the end it all adds up to the same name –

Congratulations to 150 years Steel Times

INTECO - which stands for common values

International! Thank you for being such an

and an overall mission statement shared by

innovative, informative and thriving platform

all INTECO Group members: No matter if only

for the steel industry.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Rising to meet every challenge In 2015 Commercial Metals Company (CMC) celebrated its 100th anniversary. Having started in Dallas the company has endured 10 decades of changing conditions and market cycles, rising to meet every challenge successfully.


ommercial Metals Company (CMC), a

exporting scrap iron to markets in Canada, Mexico,

Customers included steel fabricators, steel supply

Fortune 500 steel company founded

Britain, Germany and Japan.

companies, contractors and the Texas Highway

in Dallas, Texas, celebrated its 100th

Once the United States entered World War II in

Department. By 1951, SMI had expanded into steel

anniversay in 2015. Established in 1915 as a single

1941, the collection and processing of scrap metal

fabrication. It was an important “downstream” step

operation by Moses Feldman, CMC has grown from

became a vital component of the war effort. Steel

for a company that would in decades to come be

a local recycling business into a multi-billion dollar

mills and iron and metal producers and foundries

distinguished for its vertical integration.

global metals company with nearly 200 facilities

converted to war production plants making tanks,

in more than 20 countries. The story of CMC’s

guns and ships. Americans were instructed to

its recycling capacity, adding key facilities in

rise to becoming one of the top US domestic steel

take their scrap metal to their local scrap yard for

Florida and Texas, including its longtime Dallas

During the 1950s, CMC continued to expand

competitor Liberty Iron and Metal. Acquired in 1957, the Liberty operation was moved in 1964 to a new site west of downtown Dallas that allowed it to significantly increase the scope of its operations and upgrade its equipment, including a shredder that could pulverise and prepare scrap from 200 cars a day. In 1960, CMC became the first secondary metals company to be listed on a major stock exchange,

CMC Arizona

manufacturers, fabricator and metals recycler

recycling. CMC operated at full capacity and bought

acquired its initial stake in SMI, and entered the

shows how the company survived and thrived

and sold scrap at a rapid pace. The war years

arena of steel manufacturing. SMI had recently

through wars, economic depression, booms, busts

presented the company with an opportunity to both

realised its vision to go from being a rail re-rolling

and cyclical markets.

make a profit and play its part in serving the war

mill to becoming a new type of steel mill – what


would go on to be termed a “minimill,” which

Moses Feldman, an immigrant from Russia, established his first scrap operation in 1915 in

Structural Metals Inc (SMI) was founded in 1947

melted recycled steel in an electric arc furnace to

Dallas, Texas. He gradually established himself in

by Marvin Selig and built from the ground up in

the industry, and by the mid-1920s his company

a cornfield in Seguin, Texas, 35 miles east of San

was one of the leading secondary metals dealers in

Antonio. One day it would form the backbone of

a Fortune 500 company. It continued to grow its


CMC’s domestic steel manufacturing operations.

core operations, adding several recycling and

SMI started as a rolling mill, rolling rail to produce

fabrication plants in the US and expanding its

CMC struggled through difficult times with the rest

rebar. In 1949, the first rebar was rolled and sold.

trading presence to Europe.

of the nation. By the 1930s, CMC had rebounded

In three months the company was profitable and it

and was ready to grow; the company began

produced 2.3kt of rebar in its first year of operation.

The US stock market crash in 1929 hit hard, and


the American Stock Exchange. Three years later it

produce new steel products. In 1970, CMC earned the distinction of becoming

Another manufacturing acquisition was a firedamaged, closed steel mill in Magnolia, Arkansas.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

Bought in 1971 on the courthouse steps for $15,000,

new caster and a new electric arc furnace helped it

the plant needed serious repair and renovation. Its

produce a record 300kt in 1982. In 1968 when CMC

melt shop was not salvageable, but CMC managed

fully acquired the mill, it produced only 70kt.

to reopen its rolling mill and operate it until steel

Throughout the 1980s CMC remained focused on

demand dropped in the mid-1970s. The plant was

vertical integration and steady growth, adding to its

closed for a decade and then re-opened following

operations in recycling, manufacturing, fabrication


and trading. The company also expanded its

The 1970s and 1980s saw both the addition of

downstream presence with the addition of

new manufacturing and fabrication facilities and

construction-related products operations.

the improvement of existing ones. In 1978, CMC

CMC acquired Owen Steel in 1994 with a view

extended its product line with the acquisition of

to increasing its US manufacturing muscle and

a fence post finisher in Houston, and in 1983 the

expand its national reach to the southeast and

company acquired a bankrupt steel minimill in

mid-Atlantic markets. The South Carolina minimill

Birmingham, Alabama. Within six months, the mill

rolled products similar to those at CMC’s other

was up and running, though it would still require

mills. The company’s largest acquisition to date, the

major upgrades in the years ahead. Significant

Owen deal also gave CMC six rebar fab shops, five

capital investment dramatically enhanced the

structural fab shops and two joist plants in South

capacity of CMC’s flagship mill in Seguin, Texas. A

Carolina, North Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, as well as a construction supply company and three scrap-processing facilities. The chair of Owen Steel, Dorothy Owen, took her share of the payment entirely in CMC stock, making her the

processes, saving more than 21kt of CO2 emissions

company’s second-largest shareholder after the

each year.

Feldman family. She served on CMC’s board of

The last 10 years have been turbulent for

directors for 16 years. CMC immediately devoted

CMC. The company retrenched, focusing on core

capital investment and in-house expertise to

businesses, while remaining committed to vertical

upgrade the mill, which was renamed SMI-Owen

integration and a global presence. Though the

Steel (now CMC Steel South Carolina) and achieved

economic climate for the metals industry remained

profitability by fiscal 1997.

extremely challenging, CMC, after the tough fiscal

By the turn of the century, CMC owned four steel

years of 2010 and 2011, returned to profitability

mills, in Seguin, TX; Magnolia, AK; Birmingham,

in 2012 and remained that way for the rest of the

AL; and Columbia, SC. In 2003, CMC purchased

company’s 10th decade. In 2015, CMC announced

a major Polish steel mill in Zawiercie, which is

plans to build a second micro mill which is to be

currently the company’s largest mill, producing

located in Durant, Oklahoma.

rebar, merchants and wire rod. CMC took environmentally responsible

Commercial Metals Company has proven to be a strong company, facing 10 decades of changing

steelmaking to a new level with the 2009 opening

conditions and market cycles, rising to meet every

of the United States’ first micro mill: CMC Steel

challenge successfully.

Arizona. Its continuous casting process uses The USA owns the world’s largest scrap reservoir

90% less energy than traditional steelmaking

* Commercial Metals Company (CMC)


Steel Times International 1866-2016

ExxonMobil: 150 Years of Lubrication Expertise ExxonMobil first moved to the forefront of

Our synthetic and premium lubricants include

lubrication solutions in 1866, as Vacuum Oil

Mobil SHC™ 600 next-generation circulating

Company, with a groundbreaking, patented

and gear oils, offering energy-efficiency

distillation process for petroleum-based

benefits of up to 3.6%,1 Mobil DTE 10 Excel™


series of hydraulic oils, helping to reduce hydraulic system energy consumption by

Our corporate ancestors pioneered lubricants

up to 3.7%,2 and Mobil SHC Polyrex™ high-

that empowered historic achievements; the

performance bearing grease.

first gasoline-powered automobile; Rudolph Diesel’s first diesel engine; Thomas Edison’s

To help optimise lubricant performance,

first electric generating system.

ExxonMobil’s SignumSM used oil analysis program monitors lubricant and equipment

Through trailblazing research, we created major performance improvements for our

in partnerships to help cement our industry

customers. And along the way, we’ve invested

leadership. We have partnered with hundreds

condition to help increase equipment life and reduce maintenance costs.

of leading OEMs, sharing lubrication expertise

From the very start, we focused on quality and

to help builders and users get the most from

product performance, which have driven our

their machinery.

success every year.

Most importantly, the quality of our products

This continuing commitment to innovation

is the foundation of our success.

will keep us at the forefront of lubrication

In the steel industry, demands on productivity

solutions for decades to come.

have never been greater. Lubricants can help improve efficiency and profitability – even under the harshest conditions.


Energy efficiency relates solely to the fluid performance when compared with conventional reference oils of the same viscosity grade in

gear applications. The technology used allows up to 3.6 percent efficiency compared with the reference when tested in circulating and gear applications under controlled conditions. Efficiency improvements will vary based on operating conditions and applications.


Energy efficiency relates solely to fluid performance when compared with conventional reference oils of the same viscosity grade in

hydraulic applications. The technology used is able to achieve up to 3.7 percent efficiency compared with the reference when tested in a hydraulic system under controlled conditions. Efficiency improvements vary based on operating conditions and application.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

MMK strengthens priority markets MMK supplies approximately 20% of metal sold on Russia’s domestic market


JSC Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works

as well as metalware and semi-integrated works. In

(MMK) is the largest company in the

recent years the mill commissioned a number of

Russian iron and steel industry. It

state-of-the-art high-technology production units

supplies approximately 20% of metal sold on

which focus on production of high-quality flat rolled-

the domestic market and is one of the world’s

steel. These facilities include thick-plate Mill 5000

leading steel companies. MMK’s growth is driven

and cold-rolling Mill 2000, which produce metal

by the modernisation of its production facilities,

for the car-making, construction and household

the introduction of innovative technologies,

appliances industry.

implementation of high-potential investment

As part of MMK’s strategy to strengthen its

projects and integration into the global economy.

positions in the Middle East, in May 2007 the

The history of MMK is closely connected to

company decided to construct a new full production

the history of Russia. MMK is often regarded as a

cycle metal mill in Turkey. The mill’s annual capacity

phenomenon, and this is largely a fair thing to say

includes 2.3Mt of hot-rolled steel, 750kt of cold-

since it is a really remarkable part of Russian history.

rolled steel, 900kt of galvanised steel and 400kt of

The company was founded in 1932 on the slopes

polymer-coated steel. MMK-Metalurji is one of the

of the Ural Mountains in the city of Magnitogorsk. A metals giant was built in the middle of the

rolled steel. MMK turns out a broad range of steel

coated-steel producer in the Middle East and

steppes. Thanks to thousands of hard-working

products with a predominant share of high-value-


people who constructed blast furnaces, open-

added products.

hearth furnaces and coking plants.

In 2015, the company shipped 11Mt of

Currently MMK’s headcount in Magnitogorsk exceeds 40,000 employees. Thus, every tenth resident

MMK has always amazed. It amazed engineers

commercial steel products, including 8.4Mt sold

of the city is involved in the company’s activities.

from the US, who could not believe that production

on the domestic market (including CIS countries)

During the last 10-15 years the company has targeted

facilities could be constructed in such a short

and approximately 2.6Mt of exports. Despite the

a reduction of harmful emissions into the air and

period of time. It amazed the whole world when

attractiveness of exports, which grew 25% in

water facilities, recultivation of land plots and

during the hard years of WWII it managed to

2015, the weakening of the ruble and a decline in

improvements in waste management, by including

launch production of armour steel within just a

domestic demand, MMK retains its strategic focus

advanced global technologies into the production

month. It amazed sceptics of all kinds when it

on local customers. The Urals and the Volga regions


reported record after record, increasing production

remain the core markets in Russia. This regional

MMK recognises the necessity of making

of metal still used at the restored Dnieper

structure is driven by concentration of the largest

important changes and large investments in the

Hydroelectric Station, facilities at Baikonur

customers in these regions and has not changed

ecological sphere. The company understands the

Cosmodrome and gas and oil pipelines.

significantly in recent years. Other major sales

effect it has on the environment, and aims to ensure

markets for MMK include the central part of Russia

that its production is sustainable. MMK wants to

and Siberia.

develop its production potential in such a way as

Today, the company’s operations in Russia include a large steel-producing complex encompassing the entire production chain, from processing of iron ore to downstream processing of


largest metal producers in Turkey and is a leading

The largest customers in Russia are pipe makers, machinery producers and construction companies,

to preserve the environment in order to satisfy the needs of current and future generations.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

In 2015, MMK adopted a development strategy for

focus on upgrades to primary processing facilities.

decade. During these years, MMK significantly

the period to 2025. The plan pays particular attention

This will help to further reduce cash costs while

updated its production capacities, moving

to the environmental aspects of the production

increasing the quality of the products.

completely over to continuous casting, developing

process and highlights the company’s aspiration to

The company’s major investment projects for

modern electric arc furnace steelmaking facilities

significantly reduce its impact on the environment

the next 10 years include the construction of a

and implementing a new secondary refining plant.

by using the best available technologies and

blast furnace with a capacity of 2Mt of pig iron per

Between 2005 and 2015, MMK’s sales increased by

implementing a range of environmentally friendly

year (to replace two old furnaces), as well as new

nearly 10% from 10.2Mt to 11.1Mt, but the share of

projects to achieve an Air Quality Index (AQI) rating

sintering plant and coke battery. The company

HVA products in the product mix has significantly

of 5 in 2025. The AQI is an integrated index for

sees these projects as a major project that can help

increased. In 2015, HVA production volume is

air pollution calculated by the Federal Service for

reduce the cash cost of slab production by $10-20

forecasted at 4.3Mt. Facilities commissioned during

Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring

per tonne. During the next 10 years, the cash cost of

these years included the thick-plate Mill 5000 and

(Roshydromet). Level 5 and lower is awarded to a

the company’s production should decrease by 2-3%

cold-rolling Mill 2000, four hot-dip galvanising

‘clean city’. The ‘clean city’ project is key in MMK’s

per year, which should support MMK’s position on

plants, two polymer-coating plants and three Mills

new development strategy for the next 10 years.

the Russian market – an absolute priority for the

170, 370, and 450.

The MMK Group’s free cash flow was $1,008

company. The share of domestic sales for 2005 was

MMK’s mission is to become a reliable supplier

million in 2015. This represents a record for the

only 50%. This year, that number is expected to be

of high quality metal products that fully meet the

company, and brings its free cash flow yield up

76%, and by 2025 it should reach 84%. Moreover,

needs of the Russian customer. This is essential

to 35.2%. MMK believes that this achievement is

the company plans on increasing output of HVA

for the company to develop into a world-leading

due to high operational efficiency and low capital

products in Russia from today’s 3.9Mt to 4.5Mt in 10

producer in terms of efficiency, to create value for

expenditure of $348 million in 2015, down $149

years’ time.

its shareholders and to improve the quality of life

million year-on-year. The company also recorded its

Capex reached a record $2.2 billion in 2010, but

of its employees and of residents in the regions

highest EBITDA margin since 2007, at 28.6% for the

by 2015 stood at $400 million. In the next 10 years,

where it operates. Moreover, MMK has a strategic

12 months of 2015.

the company’s management plans to keep that

goal of becoming the world’s leading iron and steel

indicator between $400-$600 million, including the

company with comparable production levels in

its debt load. Its net debt decreased by 44.8% or

costs of maintaining operational facilities that range

terms of overall shareholder value.

by $914 million, which secured a net debt/EBITDA

between $200-$250 million. Today, in the iron and

“Following a long period of production

ratio of 0.67x (1.27x at the end of 2014). Moreover,

steel industry, both worldwide and in Russia, it is

modernisation and large-scale construction

the company had $723 million in its accounts by the

essential to have a conservative financial approach,

projects, we have decided to focus on increasing

end of 2015, covering the majority of its $893 million

and to invest only those funds that are actually

efficiency and cutting costs,” says Pavel Shilyaev,

short-term debt.

earned by the group itself.

MMK’s CEO. “Amid oversupply on the metals

Also in 2015, the company continued to reduce

The company’s cash costs decreased by 13.8% in

The 2025 development strategy envisages the

market, low-cost companies benefit significantly,

2015, down to $893 million. This decrease was due

reconstruction of the hot-rolling Mill 2500 and

and MMK is one of the global leaders in this

to lower sales volumes, the weakening of the ruble

the launching of a new zinc-coating line with a

segment. It will continue to increase its production

against the dollar, and to cost-optimisation measures

capacity of 450kt/yr. Preparation for the construction

efficiency to maintain its positions. All our new

in all areas of operations, including energy savings.

of the new department has already begun, and

projects are aimed at further reducing the cash

Developing customer relations and increasing

commissioning is planned for 2017. Depending

cost of metal with sustainable improvements of

operational and functional efficiency are priorities

on market conditions, the company may decide to

its quality. We see some attractive areas on the

for MMK during the next 10 years. In the process of

complement this project with a polymer-coating line.

domestic market where we can strengthen our

the investment programme for 2025, investments will be made in fixed assets with a particular

The adoption of a new strategy sums up the company’s development programme over the last

presence, such as the market for polymer-coated metal.”


Rugged Reliable

95 Y


Long Life Uptime Mill-Duty Global

World Leader in Pneumatic Safety

Steel Times International 1866-2016

ROSS CONTROLS The Beginning. In 1921, Charlie Ross adapted

double valves for metal stamping operations

design, build and test capability of the ROSS

a set of engine tappets from a 1919 Chevrolet to

and Safety lockout/tagout (LOTO) valves; all

Panels & Systems Group - a service which

create a lever-operated air valve for a piercing

industry firsts and well before global Safety

includes detailed installation manuals and

application at Detroit Seamless Steel Tube

requirements for such valves. Today, with

complete documentation.

Company, thus setting into motion a rich

over 300 patents, ROSS continues to push the

tradition of designing and manufacturing

technology envelope with innovative designs.

rugged, reliable and innovative products for the

World Leader in Pneumatic Safety. In 2016, ROSS continues global leadership in Safety

Increasing Uptime in Steel Mills. ROSS

with various developments in Control Reliable

products have proven performance in the

Category 4 PLe products. ROSS’ patented

harsh Steel Mill environment and the longest

approach to electro-pneumatic controls and

service life in the industry. Long service life

onboard status monitoring is considered

increases Steel Mill productivity, reduces

the vanguard of modern Safety valve design.

Industry-leading Developments. Over

maintenance and improves Safety by virtue

Heading into the future, ROSS is committed to

the years, ROSS led the way with new

of less man-hours in harm’s way. Our ROSS/

leading the industry in machine safeguarding,

developments in solenoid operated, base-

FLEX® engineering approach allows Steel Mills

worker safety and Steel Mill productivity

mounted, air logic and modular designs, all

and OEMs to use known ROSS technology

through ongoing investments in research &

common place today, but groundbreaking at

and rapid prototyping to solve problems

development. Working together with Steel

the time. In the 1950’s, ROSS began focusing on

and optimize applications quickly. Another

Mills and OEMs, our common goal is zero

worker safety with the introduction of Safety

application expertise offered worldwide is the


Steel Industry. For the next nine decades ROSS Controls (ROSS) has forged a global leadership role at the forefront of pneumatic valve design and technology innovation.




Magnetostrictive Linear Position Sensors

Superior performance The Temposonics® R-Series features the highest performance, accuracy and reliability in magnetostrictive linear position sensors designed for advanced motion control implementations. With a variety of housing styles and electrical interfaces, the R-Series can be integrated into a wide range of applications. They have a modular construction and are extremely robust.

MTS Sensor Technologie GmbH & Co. KG • Tel. +49 (0) 23 51 / 95 87-0 •

Steel Times International 1866-2016

MTS SENSORS MTS Sensors is recognized as an industry leader in sensing technologies and solutions that enable feedback control for automation and safety applications. MTS Sensors, a division of MTS Systems Corporation

momentary radial magnetic field and torsional strain

(NASDAQ:MTSC), serves its global customers with

on the waveguide. The momentary interaction of the

a focus on superior regional support. Today, MTS

magnetic fields releases a torsional strain pulse that

has over 2400 employees worldwide – 400 of whom

propagates the length of the waveguide. When the

are employed by MTS Sensors at its four sites:

ultrasonic wave reaches the end of the waveguide it

USA (Cary, N.C.), Germany (Lüdenscheid), Japan

is converted into an electrical signal. Since the speed

(Tokyo) and China (Shanghai). Through its research,

of the ultrasonic wave in the waveguide is precisely

development and production of advanced sensing

known, the time required to receive the return signal

devices, MTS Sensors creates solutions that serve

can be converted into a linear position measurement

industrial manufacturing, off-highway equipment,

with both high accuracy and repeatability.

liquid level measurement sectors, as well as many other applications and markets. With a diverse and constantly expanding product portfolio, the company is continually working with customers to improve performance and reduce downtime in their operations.

The absolute, linear position sensors provided by MTS Sensors rely on the company’s proprietary Temposonics® magnetostrictive technology, which can determine position with a high level of precision and robustness. Each Temposonics® position sensor consists of a ferromagnetic wave-guide, a position magnet, a strain pulse converter and supporting electronics. The magnet, connected to the object in motion in the application, generates a magnetic field at its location on the waveguide. A short current pulse is applied to the waveguide. This creates a


Steel Times International 1866-2016

NLMK Group – highly efficient production Despite the crisis affecting the global steel industry, Russian steelmaker NLMK has maintained full capacity utilisation and has grown its production volumes


he longest economic downturn in the

Group managed not only to implement all the

annum to become an international business

last 20 years became an ordeal for the

projects it had planned, ensuring the growth of

with a total steel output of about 17Mt and

steelmaking sector. The unparalleled growth

it production volumes and almost full utilisation

production assets in Russia, the USA and in EU

of production capacities, the bulk of which were

of capacities, but also significantly increase its

countries including Denmark, Belgium, France and

accounted for by China, multiplied by a slackening

business profitability. From 11% in early 2013 the


of the global economy, led to a surplus of steel in

Group’s efficiency increased to 25% in Q3 2015,

the market. Many steelmaking concerns had to

which was twice as high as the industry average.

are Russia, the EU and the USA – that is where

announce a reduction in profits and even inform of

The debt burden at NLMK is four times lower than

the rolling facilities of the Group are located. The

dramatic losses – shutting down the least efficient

the industry average.

rolling facilities are provided with high quality

facilities. Under such conditions of systemic crisis within the global steel industry, the international NLMK

Over the last 80 years Lipetsk-based

Conventionally, major sales markets for NLMK

in-house semi-finished products to make value-

NLMK Group made it on from the only blast

added flats for, inter alia, European consumers in

furnace with a capacity of 250kt of iron per

the mechanical engineering, automotive and power industries. In Europe NLMK Group is represented by NLMK Europe Strip Division – NLMK La Louviere (Belgium), NLMK Coating (France), NLMK Strasbourg (France) and those of NLMK Europe Plate Division - DanSteel (Denmark), NLMK Clabecq (Belgium), NLMK Verona (Italy). Using the companies’ geographic location to the full became an exceptional advantage of the Group. The whole raw material base – ore extraction and raw materials production, as well as about 95% of steel production — are concentrated in Russia in the regions with low production costs. The business model of NLMK Group is based on low-cost steel production and the production of finished product close to the final consumers and was first successfully implemented at NLMK DanSteel.


From the time of its foundation in the

product portfolio of NLMK DanSteel was expanded

resistant Quard steel makes it possible to increase

19th century and up to the 1930s, the plant in

and the plant entered the prospective market of

the service life of an article by more than three

Frederiksvaerk was supplying weapons for the

flats for construction of offshore power-generating

times and reduce the weight of a structural element

whole of Denmark’s fleet. Later on Denmark

windmills. In recent years this industry has been

by 40% while high-strength Quend steel plates

became one of the world’s leading shipbuilding

growing rapidly in Germany, the United Kingdom,

allow for a 20% reduction of structural element

countries and the local shipyards required high

France and other European countries. Besides,

weight, reduced production costs and improved

quality steel. An in-house steelmaking plant

currently in Denmark alone about 28% of electric

performance characteristics. Steel products with

– DanSteel – was launched in Frederiksvaerk.

energy is generated by wind turbine generators.

such characteristics are in high demand from the

The products of the plant were used not only for

The Danish government is planning to increase

wind-power engineering sector, producers of oil

shipbuilding but also for building bridges and

the share of renewable generation in the country’s

and gas drilling platforms, construction and mining

apartment blocks. In the 1950s DanSteel was

energy balance up to 50% by 2020 and up to 100%

machinery and wear-resistant parts of mechanisms.

already the biggest producer in Denmark, but in

by 2050.

Innovative products are a key success factor for

the beginning of the new century the steel market

Another example of gradual niche product

collapsed as some of the shipbuilders moved their

range development on international markets is a

expanding its product range, NLMK diversifies its

capacities to South-East Asia. Due to the difference

new technology mastered at NLMK Clabecq, Ittre

supplies in terms of industries and geographical

between high production costs and low prices for

(Belgium) in 2011, that brought about new grades

distribution, which makes it more flexible and

finished product, DanSteel found itself inviable. In

of steel plates - Quard© and Quend©. NLMK

less susceptible to adverse trends in the product

2002 production at the plant ceased.

Group invested over 100 million euros in a new


In 2006 the plant becomes a part of the NLMK

Q&T line to be able to produce such plates with

any present-day iron and steel company. Constantly

Like most steelmaking companies, NLMK took

Group, which was looking for foreign companies

unique properties. Compared to conventional plate,

advantage of a period of high steel prices in order

producing high value-added products and located

tempered and quenched plate is a unique product

to revamp and increase its production facilities.

close to potential clients. In 2012 NLMK invested

allowing for weight reduction and performance

Since 2000, the company’s investments into

EUR 120 million in the Danish plant and changed

improvement characteristics of the articles

production capacity development have been in the

its production chain completely. As a result, the

produced. In particular, the use of abrasion-

region of US$15 billion.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

mill has been built in the NGO Steel Flats Shop. As a result, between 2000 and 2012 the number of steel grades in the product mix increased by 30%, high value added steel products increased by 25 to 30%, including premium class products, and the specific electrical power consumption (consumption per tonne of steel) decreased 20% (down to 514.4 kWh/t). The significant improvement of the company’s environmental performance indicators illustrates the obvious success of NLMK Group’s new technology implementation. Thanks to its systemic approach and its investments into environmental solutions, sometimes unique, NLMK gets excellent results in environmental impact reduction, notwithstanding the significant growth of production output. In 2004 the accumulation of solid technological wastes was completely First, modernisation touched the entire

lines, the company mastered the production of new

stopped and the processing of waste accumulated

production chain of the company’s Lipetsk site,

grades, which are necessary for manufacturing

earlier started; as a result of modern technical

which accounts for 80% of all NLMK Group’s

premium steel products, including those for the

water system modernisation at Lipetsk, NLMK

production volume. The key investment project

automotive industry, machine engineering and

stopped discharging industrial sewage into water

(and the largest one) was the construction of the

large diameter pipe production. In rolling shops,

bodies in 2009. The implementation of innovative

Rossiyanka blast furnace complex – the first blast

three new continuous hot dip galvanising lines and

environmentally friendly technologies resulted

furnace in post-Soviet Russia and one of the most

two colour-coating lines are being commissioned, a

in a two-fold reduction of specific emissions into

productive in the world. In 2013 Rossiyanka became

hot rolling mill has been revamped and a reversive

the atmosphere. The construction of a recovery

number one in the world among blast furnaces with a volume of over 4,000 cubic metres in terms of average daily output (12kt of iron per day) leaving all BFs with the same or larger volume far behind. Commissioning of the new blast furnace along with the revamping of steelmaking facilities made it possible to increase steel output in Lipetsk from 8.2Mt in 2000 to 12.87Mt in 2015. Together with the extension of BOF production facilities, four ladle furnaces, a highly productive RH degasser and a hot metal desulfurisation station have been built. Thus almost all the steel produced by NLMK in Lipetsk can be treated in new up-to-date units. Having reconstructed the secondary metallurgy


Steel Times International 1866-2016

The main component of the new strategy is programmes based on the tools of NLMK’s production system, which integrate actions and approaches to raise the efficiency and optimise the business processes. Today, those programmes cover all NLMK Group companies, and the number of cost-reduction projects steadily goes up: at the start, in 2013, they were 29, and in 2015 they reached 1,800. Among the already implemented and rather effective are projects of technological process optimisation – from the extraction of raw materials to the output of finished rolled steel – which have made possible quality improvements of both raw materials and finished products, logistics refining and many more besides. Due to that, the Group has already received the benefit of about US$ co-generation plant, which uses blast furnace gas

With the new strategy, the active expansion of

600 million in long-term profit from the start of the

as fuel at the industrial site is a good example.

capacities has given way to utilising the potential

2017 Strategy implementation. This indicator for Q3

Another example of the implementation of

of the already created platform to ensure further

2015 exceeds US$D 160 million. As a result, NLMK

environmentally efficient technologies can be

growth. NLMK Group’s priorities today include

maintains one of the lowest cost of production

seen at the company’s Kaluga steel, part of NLMK

production efficiency excellence, strengthening of


Group’s Long Products Division. The plant was

strategic market positions, development of a world-

commissioned in the middle of 2013 and boasts

class resource base and leadership in sustainable

the current result is quite substantial: the Group’s

a minimum level of environmental impact when

development and safety.

key productions closed the past year with record-

compared with other Russian and global steel producers. The challenges that the global steel industry

The 2017 Strategy does not suggest any major

Though the start of strategy was not so long ago,

high output, and the company as a whole became

investments – the planned average annual

one of the most efficient steel-makers despite the

investments of NLMK for 2015-2017 total US$

depressed market.

is facing demand taking the most decisive

550 million and are aimed at product quality

measures to improve business stability. It has

improvement, lowering energy costs and material

and programmes, including those aimed at

become quite obvious now that only those who

expenses, and the development of technologies

reducing the environmental impact of the process

cut their production costs, improve quality and

for niche product manufacture; the most capital-

and improving labour safety up to the best global

enhance competitiveness, taking full advantage of

intensive part is the construction of the pelletising


available resources, can operate successfully in the

plant at the company’s Stoilensky benefication

conditions of overproduction in the global steel

factory, which is now in its final stage. The

and upgrading its available capacities, processes


commissioning of the pelletising plant will ensure

and products, instead of following the path of

100% self-sufficiency of the company where raw

extensive growth. Time proves that proper work

as one of its underlying values. It was efficiency

materials are concerned and will generate annual

with added value production stages and with the

that formed the basis of NLMK’s 2017 Strategy,

savings of US$ 200 million from the in-house

end-users, as well as optimisation and efficient

announced early 2014. Efficiency is the company’s

production of high-quality iron-ore materials to be

utilisation of available capacities, can yield positive

number one priority.

used in blast furnaces.

results even in low market conditions.

NLMK Group has always considered efficiency

This year, NLMK will continue with its projects

NLMK Group has given preference to perfecting


Midrex Technologies, Inc. Congratulates Steel Times International On Its 150-Year Anniversary.

Designed for Today, Engineered for Tomorrowâ&#x201E;˘ Š 2016 Midrex Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The company is guided by three basic principles: designs must be technologically sound without being complicated; innovations and improvements must be responsive to specific market needs; and mutual information flow must be maintained with customers. As a result, the MIDREX® Direct Reduction Process is the world’s most widely used direct reduction technology and MIDREX® Direct Reduction Plants are consistently the most productive and efficient. Plants using the MIDREX® Technology boast more production records and milestones than any other DRI technology.

gies will continue to build upon its position as the world leader in the direct reduction of iron ore. We understand that technology must be dynamic in Steel Times International 1866-2016 order to remain relevant. That’s why we have built our business on a “renewable technology” concept, a self-sustaining cycle that blends science, engineering and real world experience to constantly renew and improve our products and services. In this way, we are committed to expanding the range and efficiency of direct reduction applications and to providing forward-looking process technologies that are environmentally responsible, operationally reliable and designed to last.


ENGINEERED FOR TOMORROW™ A group of enterprising scientists and engineers came IRONMAKING together in TECHNOLOGIES the late 1960s…DESIGNED to pursueFOR anTODAY, idea that ® continues toMIDREX drive MIDREX today. From theCYCLE outset, MIDREX has been dedicated to expanding the technical TECHNOLOGY

and commercial frontiers of direct reduction iron-making. Where others would be content, we strive for more. The company is guided three basic principles: module MIDREX® Plants are capable of producing 2.5 R & by D Technology INNOVATION IRONMAKING TECHNOLOGIES … Proprietary Equipment Development designs must be technologically sound without being million ton/year, yet can be turned down significantly DESIGNED FOR TODAY, ENGINEERED without FOR any TOMORROW™ complicated; innovations and improvements must efficiency loss. DRI can be discharged hot •


be responsive to specific market needs; and mutual

or cold from the same furnace on-demand without


MIDREX® Technology has played a leading role in the rise of the modern disrupting production. Reducing can derived direct reduction industry. Single module MIDREX® gas Plants arebe capable of producing 2.5 million ton/year, yet can be turned down significantly from any hydrocarbon fuel for use in a MIDREX® Shaft TECHNOLOGY without any efficiency loss. DRI can be discharged hot or cold from the same furnace on-demand without disrupting production. Reducing gas can Furnace. be derived from any hydrocarbon fuel for use in a MIDREX® Shaft Furnace.



As globalAs steel industry technology evolves and expands, Midrex Technologlobal steel industry technology evolves and expands, • Plant Sales • Midrex Global Solutions consistently the most productive and efficient. Plants gies will continue to build upon its position as the world leader in the direct • Construction Partners • Process Licensees Technologies willtechnology continue to be build upon The company is guided by three basic principles: designs must be technoreductionMidrex of iron ore. We understand that must dynamic in its using the MIDREX® Technology boast more production logically sound without being complicated; innovations and improvements order to remain relevant. That’s why we have built our business on a “reposition as the world leader in the direct reduction must be responsive to specific market needs; and mutual information records and milestones than any other DRI technology. newable technology” concept, a self-sustaining cycle that blends science, flow must be maintained with customers. As a result, the MIDREX® Direct engineering and real world experience to constantly renew and improve of iron ore. We understand that technology must be Reduction Process is the world’s most widely used direct reduction techour products and services. In this way, we are committed to expanding ® nology and MIDREX Direct Reduction Plants are consistently the in most and efficiency of directto reduction applications and to providing MIDREX® Technology has played a leading role the the rangedynamic in order remain relevant. That’s why we productive and efficient. Plants using the MIDREX® Technology boast more forward-looking process technologies that are environmentally responsible, rise ofrecords the moderndirect reduction industry. Single production and milestones than any other DRI technology. operationally reliable designed to last.on a “renewable technology” have builtand our business


concept, a self-sustaining cycle

MidrexSTIAnniversary.indd 2

USA / CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS: Midrex Technologies, Inc. 2725 Water Ridge Parkway Suite 100 Charlotte, NC 28217 USA Tel: +1 (704) 373 1600 Email:

5/28/16 6:36 PM

that blends science, engineering


and real world experience to Engineering • Proprietary Equipment



& D Technology Development

constantly renew and improve our products and services. In this way, we are committed to expanding the range and efficiency of direct



reduction applications and


to providing forward-looking Marketing Plant Sales • Construction Partners

• Technical

Services Global Solutions • Process Licensees

• Midrex


process technologies that are USA / CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS:

Midrex Technologies, Inc. environmentally responsible, 2725 Water Ridge Parkway Suite 100

operationally reliable and Charlotte, NC 28217 USA Tel: +1 (704) 373 1600

designed to last. Email:

MidrexSTIAnniversary.indd 2

5/28/16 6:36 PM


Paul Wurth congratulates Steel Times International on its 150-year Anniversary.

Leading in Ironmaking Technology PAUL WURTH is one of the world leaders in the design and supply of the full-range of technological solutions in the field of hot metal production, raw material preparation & related environmental technologies: „ Blast furnace technology and the entire equipment range „ Coke oven plants & technology „ Agglomeration plants

„ Direct reduction plants „ Environmental, energy-saving & recycling technologies

Steel Times International 1866-2016

YOUR PARTNER FOR THE PRIMARY STAGE OF INTEGRATED STEELMAKING Headquartered in Luxembourg since its beginnings

In addition to the development and execution of new

back in 1870, the Paul Wurth has developed in

construction projects and modernisations, Paul Wurth

the course of its history into an innovation-driven

also offers a full range of products and services in

Paul Wurth S.A.

engineering company, active worldwide.

engineering, project management, site supervision,

32, rue d’Alsace

commissioning assistance, operator consulting and

L-1122 Luxembourg

after-sales. This full range of products enables us to

Tel. +352 4970-1

support our customers in all the processes involved in

Thanks to our extensive know-how in plant and mechanical engineering and our many years of experience in international project management, Paul Wurth is now a market leader in technologies for the primary stage of integrated steelmaking.

producing hot metal so that they can achieve optimal, economically-viable production. With more than 1,700 employees and entities in around 20 countries,

Subsidiaries: Brazil, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Italy, Japan,

Paul Wurth’s core competence is in the construction

the Paul Wurth Group has a strong presence primarily

Korea, Mexico, P.R. China,

of complete blast furnaces and as part of this we

in those regions of the world where a significant iron

Russia, Taiwan, Ukraine,

can offer, from a single source, a complete range of

and steel industry operates.

U.S.A., Vietnam

products based on our proprietary technologies and customised solutions. With its comprehensive and tailor-made offer in coke making and agglomeration technology, Paul Wurth also masters the processes and aggregates upstream of the blast furnace for preparing the burden material. Finally, environmental and energy-efficient solutions for the iron and steel industry as well as waste treatment and recycling facilities complete Paul Wurth’s portfolio. As a Midrex® construction licence-holder, Paul Wurth has also been able to offer direct reduction plants for the gas-based production of direct reduced iron since 2014. Moreover, from the

Having revolutionised the iron and steel industry – Since the first successful industrial application

start of 2016, a newly established Paul Wurth division

of the BLT® in 1972, Paul Wurth has developed a full spectrum of Bell Less Top Charging Systems

is offering the Oil & Gas industry specialised valve

suited to any blast furnace size. Our experience from more than 650 installations ensures that each

solutions for downstream applications.

system is fully capable of providing excellence in flexible burden distribution.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

MORE EFFICIENT, MORE PRODUCTIVE, MORE RELIABLE. BE MORE WITH KANTHAL® Kanthal APMT™ Furnace rollers last and last… Many mills face similar challenges: the furnace environment causes excessive oxidation on traditional nickel-chromium (NiCr) alloy rollers. Consequently, furnace rollers can only be used for six to twelve months before reconditioning. This means frequent maintenance stoppages as well as costly storage of large numbers of spare rollers. Furthermore, traditional rollers require a fair amount of water for cooling purposes, using higher energy and creating a less than clean environment.

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

The past, present and future of Latin American steel Ternium reviews the history of steel production in the region and examines the current challenges faced by the industry

It may be expected that the steel industry will

episode for a long time. In fact, it took almost

for development. It symbolised the dreams of

play in Latin America the same great role that

half a century for the activity in the region to

progress, sovereignty and technical knowledge

it may play in each and every nation: to be the

really achieve a foundational impulse. By then,

aimed at common welfare. In barely two decades,

the outbreak of the Second World War diverted to

between 1940 and 1960, regional consumption of

fabrication of war machinery a large portion of

steel would double, and production levels would

Latinoamericano del Fierro y el Acero” (currently

the external supply sources that covered the local

increase tenfold, amounting to around 5Mt.

Latin American Steel Association), February 1962.

steel requirements. That new scenario, joined by

When Steel Times International was launched a

the early stages of industrialisation in the region,

Aires province town of San Nicolás, the plant of

century and a half ago, the steel industry in Latin

generated the conditions for the sector to take off.

Sociedad Mixta Siderúrgica Argentina (SOMISA)

foundation and driving force of industrialisation.” Carlos Prieto, former president at “Instituto

America was still an unchartered territory. It was

In 1943, Fundidora de Monterrey, also in

At the beginning of the 1960s, in the Buenos

was already dispatching its first slabs (today,

only 37 years later, in 1903, that Mexico would put

Mexico, inaugurated Latin America’s second blast

expanded and modernised, it is one of Ternium’s

the first blast furnace of the subcontinent into

furnace. And thus, the steel industry in the region

key operational centres in Argentina). In those

action. However, it would remain as an isolated

took its first steps and emerged as a driving force

days, national governments played an active and decisive role in the promotion of basic industries. To reach self-sufficiency in finished products was a distant goal and the need to promote the steel industry was widely recognised. In 1969, the foundation of Propulsora Siderúrgica, a cold-rolled steel plant based in Ensenada, Argentina, represented another milestone on the road of development. The seed was then planted for Siderar, a subsidiary of the Techint Group, that would then absorb SOMISA and, at the dawn of the 21st century, would join other industry benchmarks in the region to create Ternium.

Learning and consolidating The following decades were a time for learning, as well as for taking off and consolidating the Aerial view of a Ternium steel plant


Latin American steel industry. Private business

Steel Times International 1866-2016

initiatives played an increasingly relevant role in

increasingly diversified and expanded its operations

boosting this process and stimulating the sector’s

with production facilities and distribution centres

parts of the continent, Ternium vertically

competitiveness. The political and economic

in different countries in America. It was a period

integrates its industrial system by taking part

fluctuations, the volatility and the upturns and

of progress that also featured setbacks, but

in all stages of the steel-making process from

downturns that affected Latin America through

that allowed the consolidation of an integrated

the extraction of iron ore to the production of

the years set the path for the industry and

and solid network throughout the continent.

a broad range of flat and long steel products,

conditioned its performance. But there were

Between 2007 and 2012, for instance, the company

shaped products, pipes and profiles. In each and

companies such as the Techint Group, which

strengthened its presence in the Americas thanks

every sector, the management aims at reaching

held onto its long-term vision and its industrial

to several acquisitions and partnerships. In 2013

and consolidating world-class standards based

vocation even in the most adverse scenarios. The

one of its most ambitious projects was executed:

on the company’s two strategic values: safety and

history of Ternium, the Group’s flat steel division,

the inauguration of the Pesquería industrial


brings to life those values and culture.

centre, a modern steel-making complex producing

As a result of the merger between Siderar,


With plants and operations located in different

Determined to achieve a balance between local

highly-specialised steel, mostly for the automotive

roots and global outlook, Ternium stands as a

Sidor, and Hylsamex — in Argentina, Venezuela,

industry, which required a US$1.1 billion

multilatina in the “glocalization” era. A decade

and Mexico, respectively — the company has


after its official birth, the company promotes

Steel Times International 1866-2016

continuous improvement in order to achieve and

former president of Alacero (the Latin American

metalworking products, up to 64 jobs are lost

maintain world class standards in safety, quality,

Steel Association). The industry’s main players

in Latin America. The report proposes a series

risk prevention, and environmental efficiency.

agree that, due to its overcapacity and unfair

of reindustrialisation policies, based on the

trade practices, China is the main threat. “The

following pillars: promoting competitiveness and

those features and aspects that have enabled

commercial relationship with China must be

industrial productivity, boosting diversification

the company to bolster its leading position

handled with intelligence and developed jointly

and development of products with higher added

are operational flexibility, an obsession with

by industry and governments. We must seek

value, modernising the industrial network and

continuous improvement, the differentiation in

coherence and promote intra-regional trade across

promoting technological innovation.

products and services and a moderate balance

Latin America,” Berardi suggested.

According to its CEO, Daniel Novegil,

strategy. “The operational flexibility has always

In line with this, an Alacero report entitled

The issue is part of the institutional agenda of Ternium as well as of those associations

been a fundamental factor and it is even more

Metal-mechanics chain: Economic importance,

supporting steel manufacturers worldwide. The

important in such a complex and challenging

investments, and international trade demonstrates

most important ones, including Alacero, have

time for the activity,” he said. Novegil added

that “Latin America is undergoing a process

lately delivered a strong and solid statement

that “having different technologies to produce

of intense de-industrialisation, a process of

on the negative impact of granting China

steel and a more diversified costs structure than

primarisation of its economy”, said Daniel

market economy status (MES), as the World

most traditional steel companies, as well as

Novegil during the presentation of the report at

Trade Organisation (WTO) is planning to do in

being exposed to markets with different demand

an Alacero meeting in Buenos Aires in November

December, despite it clearly being a managed and

dynamics, gives us a great versatility”.

2015. However, according to the company’s CEO,

centrally planned economy.

there are plenty of elements that support an

The other current major risk stands within

Change in cycle

optimistic outlook on the future since “the region

the region: Brazil is going through a strong

Today, Ternium shares the same challenges as

has a high potential for industrial development,

recessive cycle and an institutional crisis with

the rest of the industry. As Paolo Rocca, president

natural resources, critical mass, and qualified

negative consequences for Argentina and other

of the Techint Group, said recently, the region is

professionals and technicians”.

neighbouring countries. Brazil is a growing threat,

“experiencing a change in cycle. The governments

Statistics show that countries like Mexico,

particularly for the Argentine industry, due to a set

are not yet completely aware of its dimensions,

Colombia, Argentina and Brazil have, to various

of factors ranging from the abrupt depreciation of

but it will generate enormous opportunities if we

extents, experienced a fall in their manufacturing

its currency to its declared intention to advance

know how to identify them.” The steel industry is

industries’ shares in GDP and a primarisation

towards a wider scheme of trade openness,

going through a delicate situation, especially after

of their export portfolios. The increasing and

eliminating regulations and tariff barriers.

the structural changes that the Chinese economy

unselective import of steel and metalworking

has experienced recently; and after the first

products, especially from China, and often

regional integration. As Martin Berardi said,

decade of the 21st century when Latin America

in unfair trade conditions, is causing visible

the Latin American iron and steel industry has

adopted a commercial relationship with China

damage to the entire sector reflected in technical

a promising future, regardless of dark, current

based on export of raw materials and import of

shutdowns, closures of steel mills, financial


manufactured goods.

problems, delayed or cancelled investments, and

“The steel industry is facing a global problem. Latin America’s macro economy is going through

workers’ layoffs. According to data released by Alacero, in

In short, the key is to build greater and better

“There are opportunities, indeed; we have countries with low debts in a high-liquidity world, and the level of steel consumption per capita

a change in cycle and the political agenda affects

2015 Latin America imported 9.4Mt of steel from

is still low. The challenge is how to articulate

the situation of several countries. This will be

China, 1% more than the previous year. The

these factors to achieve industry’s growth and

the scenario for the short-term,” said Martin

region represents an 8.6% share in Chinese steel

development, even though the scenario may not

Berardi, director of Ternium Argentina and

exports. For every million dollars in imports of

be the most favorable one.”


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Steel Times International 1866-2016

DYSON TECHNICAL CERAMICS Dyson has been at the forefront of refractory and ceramic manufacture for over 215 years. During this period, Dyson have gained a global reputation within the iron and steelmaking sectors and our brand and products have been regarded as a signature of high performance and consistency of product. Dyson Technical Ceramics remains at the forefront of

excellent erosion resistance even in the most arduous

technology and is today regarded as one of the leading

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Steel Times International 1866-2016

THE ASSOCIATION FOR IRON– The Association for Iron & Steel Technology & STEEL TECHNOLOGY

a global leader in networking, education and sustainability programs for advancing iron and steel technology

– a global leader in networking, education, and sustainability programs for advancing iron and steel technology The Association for Iron & Steel Technology

and strengthen the steel community for

The advancement of steel technology is why

(AIST) is an international member-based

the greater benefit of our members, their

AIST exists. Our mission is sound, and we are

non-profit organization. Our Technology

employers, and our industry.

determined to support steel manufacturing by

Committees and local Members Chapters represent an incomparable network of steel industry knowledge and expertise.

AIST works to fulfill our mission with educational forums such as AISTech— The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition,

consistently providing opportunities to create better products through knowledge sharing, avenues for our members to access global markets, and opportunities to attract young

The AIST Technology Committees represent the

the world’s foremost gathering of global steel

world’s largest network for steel manufacturing,

experts and technology. AIST offers numerous

and are essential to the technological welfare

diverse training programs with curriculums

of our industry. These committees involve the

specific to steel manufacturing, developed

AIST was established in 2004 by the merger of

active participation of AIST members who

by our members based on industry need and

two longstanding societies, The Association

promote the committees’ agendas and the


of Iron and Steel Engineers (AISE), founded

AIST mission through meetings, plant tours, benchmarking, technical reports, training seminars, and major conferences, whose content feeds AIST’s monthly publication, Iron & Steel Technology.

To support the next generation, the AIST Foundation distributes US$700,000 in scholarships and grants each year, with a goal of reaching US$1 million in annually in the near future. The Foundation seeks to attract

At the grassroots level, our network of

technology-oriented young people to the steel

local Member Chapters hosts programs

industry by educating the public about the high-

internationally through technical symposia,

tech, diverse, and rewarding nature of careers

town hall forums, keynote presentations,

in modern steel manufacturing to ensure the

product fairs and plant tours. This

iron and steel industry of tomorrow will have a

programming serves to disseminate knowledge

sufficient number of qualified professionals.

people, all working toward a sustainable future for the steel industry.

in 1907, and The Iron & Steel Society (ISS), founded in 1974. The best practices of both predecessor organizations were incorporated into AIST to create a strong international, member-based technical organization that can sustain itself in an environment of continual change. AIST congratulates Steel Times International on its 150th Jubilee. We are proud of our long, ongoing relationship established through our predecessor organizations.


Steel Times International 1866-2016

THE UK CARBON & GRAPHITE COMPANY LIMITED (UKCG) The UK Carbon & Graphite Company Limited (UKCG) is a UK based company specialising in the controlled manufacture, machining, testing and global distribution of carbon and graphite products utilised in varying applications and industrial sectors with steel being our primary market. UKCG would like to congratulate Steel

part of the awarded

and has many features such as:

Times International for 150 years in

2016 Inc. 5000 European

 Short Electrode Alarms

industry which is truly an excellent

awards, recognising the

 Cave in Detections

accomplishment exhibiting fine resilience

company’s important

 Back Charge Logic

and showing their true value to the steel

growth and development in

 Single Phasing

industry over the years.

international markets.

UKCG specialises in the manufacture

UKCG product quality is

of graphite electrodes, manufactured

backed by a responsive and

using state of the art production equipment

professional service including full technical

and the finest quality raw materials ensuring

assistance to all customers. UKCG go over and

a world class product. UKCG X Range of UHP

above other electrode suppliers to bring greater

Electrodes are renowned for the highest quality

efficiency savings to customers operations.

and consistency of performance.

ArChecker by UKCG is a state-of-the art

UKCG is certified by the British Standards

metering system that can be connected either

Institution to ISO 9001 and is proud to have

on the primary or secondary side along with

received the Queen’s Award for Enterprise

the regulator.

in the International Trade category and is

ArChecker has the ability to record heat logs per heat, day and month enabling “at a glance” or “deep analysis” of performance and furnace variables. This information is invaluable to

ArChecker system is able to record more than

our customers in early problem detection

100 electrical variables and other important

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Combilift, the leading supplier of customised handling solutions congratulates Steel Times International on its 150 year anniversary.

Steel Times International 1866-2016

CUSTOMISED HANDLING SOLUTIONS FROM COMBILIFT Combilift’s wide range of products helps you to ensure safer, space saving and more productive and cost effective materials handling. Since we launched the world’s first IC engine powered, all-wheel drive multidirectional forklift in 1998 we have developed the most extensive range of multidirectional and specialist customised handling solutions on offer from any one single manufacturer. Whether you handle long and awkward loads, pallets, containers, extremely oversized products or a combination of these, there

Free warehouse layout design service ensures optimum use of space

is a Combilift to fit the bill. Continual 7%

capacity pedestrian reach stacker up to the

facility and R&D department in Monaghan,

of revenue investment in R&D keeps us at

Combi-SC Straddle Carrier range which can

Ireland, our 450 strong workforce designs,

the forefront of innovation and cements our

lift 80t loads. In between are dozens of models

develops and manufactures products which

position as a worldwide market leader. Taking

with various load capacities, choices of electric,

are shipped to destinations as far afield

feedback from our extensive customer base on

LP Gas or diesel power, all designed to be no

as Australia, the Arctic Circle and South

board also ensures that our products fulfil the

nonsense, robust workhorses for operation


exact and individual requirements for the very

inside and out and in all weather conditions.

wide range of industry sectors and customers

Our new €40 million, 46,000m2 manufacturing

With over 30,000 units produced so far and

facility and global HQ will be operational

exported to more than 75 countries, Combilift

in 2017, enabling us to achieve our goal to

Products to make your everyday handling

continues to set industry standards that others

significantly increase our yearly output and t o

requirements run smoothly range from a 1,5t

aspire to. From our global HQ, manufacturing

double our current turnover by 2020.

that we supply.

Combilift Ltd Co. Monaghan, Ireland Tel: + 353 (0) 47 80500 • Combilift’s new manufacturing facility will be operational in 2017


Steel Times International 1866-2016

SSAB Americas – committed to sustainability When it comes to sustainability, steel producer SSAB Americas is making a world of difference. From an industry-leading safety record to community giving to a commitment to the environment, SSAB consistently demonstrates ongoing care and commitment to its employees, communities, customers and the environment.


SAB Americas is one of the largest North

Schmitt, president of SSAB Americas. “That

EcoSmart for a smarter tomorrow

American producers of steel plate and

means we have a responsibility not only to

To demonstrate its commitment to the environment,

coil, serving many industrial markets

operate with integrity, but to be good stewards for

on April 22, Earth Day, SSAB Americas announced

including energy, construction, agriculture and

our environment. For SSAB, sustainability isn’t

the launch of EcoSmart, a new awareness

transportation. SSAB has five state-of-the-art

something new; it’s built into who we are and how

programme aiming to let customers know about

facilities strategically located in key regions across

we operate.”

the company’s commitment to environmental

the US and Canada. The company’s steel can be

SSAB Americas operates as a division of SSAB,


found in the infrastructure that builds and moves

a global market leader in

The EcoSmart programme emphasises both the

the world — in heavy machinery, ships, wind towers,

steel production, based in

key product and process attributes of steel produced

rail cars and more — playing a vital role in people’s

Stockholm, Sweden. SSAB

by SSAB Americas. It was developed as a way to

daily lives.

Americas’ more than 1,300

let customers and other external audiences know

employees work together

that SSAB Americas’ steel is, and always has been,

lives, our vision at SSAB is to create a stronger,

to lead the company not

environmentally sustainable.

lighter and more sustainable world,” says Chuck

only in environmental

“With steel playing such a vital role in our daily

To produce its steel, SSAB Americas uses

responsibility, but

recovered scrap metal – 97% recycled materials to be

in all aspects of

exact. This is material that has been diverted from

corporate social

landfills, everything from discarded appliances to

responsibility, from

old car parts. And, SSAB’s steel is 100% recyclable. In

charitable giving

short, the company makes planet-friendly products

and community partnerships to ensuring employee safety.

using a planet-friendly process. That’s what makes it EcoSmart. With SSAB producing, processing and selling highJust some of the millions of scrap tyres recylced by SSAB

Steel Times International 1866-2016

quality steel across North America, the company

five million scrap tyres to date. SSAB also recycles

LEED designation. SSAB Americas won the 2015

is constantly working to improve the way it does

millions of gallons of water each year, diverts nearly

AMM Award for Steel Excellence in the category of

business to ensure it’s making a positive impact to

a million pounds of refuse from landfills every year

Environmental Responsibility and Stewardship, and

benefit its employees, communities, customers and

thanks to its refuse recycling process, and utilises

has received three Return on Environment awards

the environment.

renewable electrical energy in its manufacturing

from GE Power and Water (2003, 2009 and 2015).

process, particularly wind energy. The company’s

Lastly, the company was recognised by the Steel

a stronger, lighter and more sustainable world.

electric arc furnace-based production process also

Manufacturers Association with an Achievement in

We developed the new EcoSmart programme to

results in 66% fewer CO2 emissions compared to the

Environmental Stewardship and Recycling Award in

demonstrate our past and ongoing commitment to

2014 US steel industry average.


“To align with our vision at SSAB is to create

the environment,” says Chuck. “Our customers are

“Customers know they are making a smart choice

learning the ways in which all steel made by SSAB

in buying our EcoSmart steel,” says Schmitt. “This

Americas is superior in its minimised environmental

is high-quality steel that is strong, long-lasting and

Making a world of difference to communities

impact, and why it’s their smart choice.”

helps reduce environmental impact. We’ve won

Beyond its environmental efforts, SSAB Americas strives to make the world a better place through its commitment to the community in which it operates, demonstrated by a number of initiatives in which hundreds of employees participate every year, from fundraising for the United Way to donating to local food drives. In locations where SSAB Americas operates, it plays a significant role in the local and regional community as an employer, tax payer, buyer of regional goods and services, and charitable benefactor. SSAB is also an important partner for local educational institutions and research. The company invests in educating the future workforce,

SSAB steel is made from 97% recovered scrap metal

SSAB’s EcoSmart steel is notable in many

supporting all levels of education from elementary numerous awards for our work in sustainability

schools to universities.

ways. The steel’s durability and strength make

and have woven these ideals into our steelmaking

it long-lasting, adding years to the life-cycle of

process for decades. The new EcoSmart programme

involvement, demonstrated not only in the form of

products made using it. EcoSmart steel is used for

is simply our way of demonstrating our past and

financial contributions, but also through a number

applications such as transportation, where end

ongoing commitment to the environment.”

of initiatives in which hundreds of employees

users can enjoy reduced fuel consumption, and in

SSAB Americas has a long tradition of community

participate every year, from fundraising for the

the energy sector, contributing to cleaner, more

Beyond EcoSmart

United Way to donating to local food drives.

renewable energy resources.

In addition to its sustainable steel products and

SSAB Americas also supports its employees in

production process, SSAB Americas has achieved

their charitable endeavours. Examples include

environmental impact. Aside from using recycled

great success in other aspects of environmental

sponsoring a team of employees from its Lisle,

metals, SSAB also uses more than 600,000 recovered

sustainability. The company designed and built

Illinois, headquarters in an annual Bike MS event

scrap tyres per year as a raw material substitute

a world-class research and development facility

to benefit the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, or

for carbon in the production process – more than

in Iowa, which opened in 2010 and has earned

giving employees time off to volunteer at Feed My

EcoSmart steel is made with the least possible


Steel Times International 1866-2016

Montpelier, Iowa (Quad Cities)

everyone actively participates in the most important

In Iowa, SSAB has a long history of supporting

internal initiative at SSAB Americas: safety.

Junior Achievement (JA) and has embraced the organisation’s mission to inspire and prepare

18001 certification for occupational health and

young people to succeed in a global economy. With

safety. The company has retained the certification

annual donations of $20,000 plus money raised

for many years, with intensive work to maintain

from an annual Bowl-A-Thon event hosted by SSAB

standards and be ready for an audit at any time. The

employees, the company has contributed nearly half

team also runs a safety observation programme,

a million dollars to JA over the last 13 years.

which allows employees to present their ideas

In addition, dozens of SSAB volunteers have

SSAB fills this bus with school supplies

for improvements, as well as a housekeeping

dedicated their time to classroom training and other

programme, which is a chance for employees from

JA events to help teach Iowa children real-world

other departments or worksites to tour the mill and

business and financial skills. SSAB Iowa employees

look for areas of opportunity.

Starving Children, a non-profit that provides food for

also sponsor and support the Make-a-Wish

malnourished children around the world.

Foundation, an organisation that aims to realise

Leading for the future

the dreams of sick children. Support in Montpelier

“I get the opportunity to work with and lead a terrific

surrounding communities,” says Chuck. “Not only do

also goes to The Community Foundation of Greater

team of highly diverse and skilled individuals,” says

we provide monetary support, but also our time. Our

Muscatine, which supports smaller organisations

Chuck. “We all work together to achieve our goal

employees devote countless hours to local charities

and charitable projects in the region, as well as

of operating a world class facility. I am incredibly

and groups.”

Living Lands & Waters, an organisation focused

proud of the work we’ve done and continue to

on the clean-up and conservation of our nation’s

do every day. We strive to make the least possible


negative impact to our environment, while making

“We focus on being a good neighbour to our

Mobile, Alabama In early 2015, SSAB Alabama donated $110,000 to

the greatest positive impact to our employees and

the University of South Alabama (USA) to establish

Safety first

communities. I truly believe we are creating a better

the SSAB Scholarship Endowment Fund. The

While employees appreciate numerous

world for tomorrow.”

scholarships benefit full-time junior and senior

opportunities to get involved in the community,

students in the University’s College of Engineering. SSAB Americas also supports primary education in Alabama through the SSAB Foundation for Education. Every year, 10 local schools each receive donations of $10,000, for a total of $100,000. Funding for the Foundation comes from the money saved by using recycled scrap tyres, nearly $1 million since the programme’s inception. The Foundation also supports ‘Fill the Bus,’ a campaign to collect school supplies that are donated to children in need at more than a dozen local schools. SSAB Alabama is also a major sponsor of the Boys and Girls Club, Junior Achievement and Big Brothers Big Sisters.


SSAB Americas’ mills both have obtained OHSAS

Runners in Montpelier

Index to Advertisers Page


1 Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum


19 Thermo Fisher Scientific


2 ZUMBACH Electronic AG


20 SGL GE GmbH




21 Refratechnik Steel GmbH


4 Redex


22 TII Group (SCHEUERLE Fahrzeugfabrik GmbH &




23 Preet Group


6 CMI Group


24 GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH


7 Guild International Inc


25 Ametek Land


8 Stopinc AG


26 INTECO Melting and Casting Technologies GmbH




27 ExxonMobil


10 Turboden


28 ROSS Controls


11 Fives


29 MTS Sensor Technologie GmbH & Co. KG


12 Russula


30 Midrex Technologies, Inc.


13 OTTO JUNKER GmbH and INDUGA GmbH & Co. KG 52-53



14 NDC Technologies


32 Kanthal, part of the Sandvik Group


15 Presstrade AG


33 Dyson Technical Ceramics Ltd


16 SMS group


34 The Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST)


17 BRAUN Maschinenfabrik GmbH


35 The UK Carbon & Graphite Company Limited (UKCG) 128-129

18 AIC - Automazioni Industriali Capitanio


36 Combilift Ltd

Josef Frรถhling GmbH & Co. KG

KAMAG Transporttechnik GmbH & Co. KG)


Steel Times International would like to thank all of its advertisers for 150 great years.

Steel Times International 150 Years Book  
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