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ONLINE EDITION September 2017

BLEACHING EARTHS Salt of the earth

PROCESSING Activated carbon

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We team up with the most demanding Oils & Fats processors in the world COMPLETE PREPARATION PLANTS Innovative proprietary Technologies based on the experience of • 220+ Preparation Plants • 3,000+ Rosedowns Presses

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COMPLETE REFINING PLANTS State-of-the-Art refining Technologies based on the experience of • 700+ Oil pretreatment Processes • 900+ Bleaching Processes • 1,400 + Deodorizing Processes

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Science behind Technology



CONTENTS ONLINE EDITION SEPTEMBER 2017 EDITORIAL: Editor: Serena Lim Tel: +44 (0)1737 855066 E-mail: Assistant Editor: Ilari Kauppila Tel: +44 (0)1737 855157 E-mail: SALES:



Salt of the earth

Sales Manager: Mark Winthrop-Wallace Tel: +44 (0)1737 855 114 E-mail:


Sales Consultant: Anita Revis Tel: +44 (0)1737 855068 E-mail: PRODUCTION: Production Editor: Carol Baird E-mail: CORPORATE: Managing Director: Steve Diprose Tel: +44 (0)1737 855164 E-mail: SUBSCRIPTIONS: Elizabeth Barford Tel: +44 (0)1737 855028 E-mail: Address: Subscriptions, Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road, Redhill, Surrey, RH1 1QX, UK Annual Subscription: UK £149, Overseas £173. Two years: UK £268, Overseas £311. Single copy £37



Making use of the used 15



Plant & equipment round-up

Activated carbon

© 2017 Quartz Business Media ISSN 0267-8853 Website:

A member of FOSFA Oils & Fats International (USPS No: 020-747) is published eight times/year by Quartz Business Media Ltd and distributed in the USA by DSW, 75 Aberdeen Road, Emigsville PA 17318-0437. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville, PA. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Oils & Fats c/o PO Box 437, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437 Published by Quartz Business Media Ltd Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK Tel: +44 (0)1737 855000 Fax: +44 (0)1737 855034 E-mail:


Oils & Fats International


Annual company directory 2017



Delivering process efficiencies




Diary of events




Explosive material


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3-5 OCTOBER 2017 PALMEX Indonesia VENUE: Santika Premiere Dyandra Hotel & Convention, North Sumatra, Indonesia CONTACT: PT Fireworks Indonesia Tel: +62 21 26051028 or +62 21 26051029 E-mail: Website:

4 OCTOBER 2017 Global Oils and Fats Forum (GOFF) 2017 VENUE: Washington DC, USA CONTACT: Haznita Husin or Mohd Izham Hassan, Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) E-mail: Website: Fair_and_Seminar_(POTS)_2017.aspx

4-5 OCTOBER 2017 Biofuels International Conference & Expo VENUE: Sheraton Grand Hotel & Spa Edinburgh, UK CONTACT: Woodcote Media, UK Tel: +44 20 8687 4138 E-mail: Website:

8-11 OCTOBER 2017 Lipids & Brain IV, Lipids in Alzheimer Disease VENUE: Nancy, France CONTACT: Laboratory of Biomolecular Engineering (LIBio), France Tel: +33 3 835958 77 E-mail: Website: www.lipidsandbrain.event.

12-13 OCTOBER 2017 57th European Commodities Exchange 2017 VENUE: Tour & Taxis, Brussels, Belgium CONTACT: Brussels Commodity Exchange Commission, Belgium Tel: +32 25 121 550 E-mail: Website:

17-19 OCTOBER 2017 Argus Biofuels Conference 2017 VENUE: Jumeirah Carlton Tower, London, UK CONTACT: Argus Media, UK Tel: +44 20 7780 4341 E-mail: Website:

23-27 OCTOBER 2017 National Renderers Association (NRA) 84th Annual Convention VENUE: Ritz-Carlton, San Juan, Puerto Rico CONTACT: Marty Covert, NRA, USA Tel: +1 703 683 0155 E-mail: Website: calendar

24-25 OCTOBER 2017 11th ICIS World Oleochemicals Conference VENUE: Novotel Barcelona City, Spain CONTACT: ICIS, UK Tel: +44 20 8652 3887 E-mail: Website: worldoleochemicals17

25-26 OCTOBER 2017 Bulk Liquid Storage 2017 VENUE: Dubrovnik, Croatia CONTACT: Cheryl Williams, Active Communications International, UK Tel: +44 203 141 0623 E-mail: Website: european-bulk-liquid-storage

30-31 OCTOBER 2017 9th International Symposium on Deep-Fat Frying VENUE: Shanghai, China CONTACT: Chinese Cereals and Oils Association (CCOA) Tel: +86 106 835 7511 E-mail: Website: shanghai2017

31 OCT - 1 NOV 2017 Bulk Terminals 2017 VENUE: London, UK CONTACT: Association of Bulk Terminal Operators Tel: +33 321 477219 E-mail: Website:

1-3 NOVEMBER 2017 13th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference (IPOC) and 2017 Price Outlook VENUE: Bali Nusa Dua Convention Center, Indonesia CONTACT: IPOC Secretatiat, Indonesia Tel: +62 21 57943852 E-mail: Website:

For a full listing of oils and fats industry events, visit our website at:

9-10 NOVEMBER 2017 7th ICIS Asian Surfactants Conference VENUE: Parkroyal on Pickering, Singapore CONTACT: ICIS, UK Tel: +44 20 8652 4659 E-mail: Website: asiansurfactants17

14-16 NOVEMBER 2017 PIPOC 2017 VENUE: Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia CONTACT: Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) E-mail: Website:

15 NOVEMBER 2017 12th China International Oil and Oilseeds Conference VENUE: Guangzhou Shangri-La Hotel, China CONTACT: Dalian Commodity Exchange, China Tel: + 86 411 84808698 E-mail: Website:

17-18 NOVEMBER 2017 PORAM Annual Forum, Dinner, Golf Challenge VENUE: One World Hotel, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia CONTACT: The Palm Oil Refiners Association of Malaysia (PORAM) Tel: +603 7492 0006 E-mail: Website:

27-30 NOVEMBER 2017 15th Annual Roundtable Meeting on Sustainable Palm Oil VENUE: Grand Hyatt Bali, Indonesia CONTACT: Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, Indonesia. Tel: +603 7727 8458; E-mail: Website:

7-8 DECEMBER 2017 Fats & Oils Istanbul/Feeds & Grains Istanbul 2017 VENUE: InterContinental Istanbul Hotel, Turkey CONTACT: Agripro, Turkey Tel: +90 212 236 0345 E-mail: Website:

22-23 JANUARY 2018 Fuels of the Future 2018 VENUE: Berlin, Germany CONTACT: Markus Hartmann, German Bioenergy Association (BBE) Tel: +49 228 81002-22 E-mail: Website:


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Salt of the earth Bleaching earths, used as part of the process that removes impurities from edible oils prior to final application, are a fast growing market that is estimated to be worth US$3.59bn by 2022. Rose Hales writes


efore vegetable oils can be safely consumed, they have to be processed in order to remove impurities, both for commercial and health purposes. A process known as bleaching involves the use of bleaching earths or clays. The term itself is misleading as colour removal is not the most important purpose of the bleaching process. Vegetable oils contain contaminates that adversely affect the performance, appearance and taste of the oil. In order for it to be used in edible applications, the oil must meet high quality standards that require the removal of various impurities. The bleaching process essentially removes some colour from the oil; reduces how much chlorophyll and carotinoids the oil contains; removes soap, gums and trace metals; and decomposes oxidation products. Bleaching is performed prior to other processing steps such as hydrogenation, refining or deodorisation. Suppliers of the clays say that bleaching earth will accounts for 4-10% of overall refining costs, depending on a variety of factors including oil type, dosage, oil contaminent levels, specification and disposal cost.

What are bleaching earths? Oils are bleached using a powdered surfactant material. Simply put, the powder is mixed with


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2022, which is further expected to increase demand for activated bleaching earths. Market demand for activated bleaching earth was 5.98M tonnes in 2014 and was predicted to rise to 8.65M tonnes between 2015 and 2022. According to the report, the leading application segment, accounting for more than 80% of the total activated bleaching earth market, was edible oils and fats. In addition to findings relating to the value of the market, the research also found that the activated bleaching earth industry is highly fragmented, and there are a large number of small players scattered worldwide.

Spent bleaching earth (SBE)


water, and then added to the oil where they absorb unwanted impurities before they are removed from the oil again, taking the impurities with them. Bleaching earths are generally composed of up to three types of clay minerals: bentonite, attapulgite and sepiolite. The minerals act as absorbers with capacity being dependent on mineralogical structure and properties, such as surface area, particle size distribution, porosity and surface activity. Bentonites are a soft stone with the capacity to absorb substances dissolved in water and other liquids. The minerals have been formed over time due to the natural adaptation of volcanic ash. Bleaching earths are found in mines around the world, including North America, South America, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

Dry bleaching vs wet bleaching The two different methods utilising bleaching clays in the refining process are dry bleaching and wet bleaching. According to Alfa Laval, dry bleaching is the traditional method used for bleaching oils and fats. It is most common in Europe and Asia, but is used worldwide. The process first involves heating the oil, then mixing it with bleaching earths or activated carbon (or a mix of both). This process takes place under vacuum – which prevents oxidation – and with a sparging steam (the direct injection of steam in order to heat the oil with very high energy levels). Because the bleaching takes place under vacuum of about 70 torr, the humidity of the oil is greatly reduced. Following the bleaching process, the powder is removed using pressure leaf filters and is collected in a buffer tank, which also operates under a vacuum. Dry bleaching requires a much lower initial investment than wet bleaching. The operating costs are also significantly less due to the use of plate heat exchangers, which require lower consumption of utilities. The process is also relatively easy and straightforward and requires only minimum space for set-up. Wet bleaching, on the other hand, involves the addition of water in the process. Water makes

bleaching earths work more efficiently, which means that less can be used, and oil losses are also reduced. Wet bleaching is attractive due to the lower costs of the process itself, even though startup costs are higher. Water is added in the form of a citric acid solution, after the oil has been heated and before the bleaching earths are mixed in. The citric acid helps to bind trace metals and decompose residual soaps.

Activated and natural Natural bleaching earth is a type of bentonite or attapulgite clay, which is absorptive in its natural state. It is processed, but in a physical rather than a chemical way. Activated bleaching earth also comes from bentonite clay, but contains a higher proportion of montmorillonite. Activated bleaching earth is given a chemical treatment to alter the clay and give it properties that increase its bleaching potential. According to Louis L Richardson in the paper Use of Bleaching, Clays, in Processing Edible Oils, activated clays are much higher in bleaching efficiency, in particular when used on very dark oils and those with a very high cholorphyll content. However, natural or physically activated bleaching earths do have their own uses due to their lower acid levels.

Activated bleaching earth market In a report on the activated bleaching earth market published in April 2016, research carried out by Grand View Research Inc concludes that the market is expected to be worth US$3.59bn by 2022. The increased production of edible oils in the Asia Pacific region is cited as the key factor that will drive the market. In particular Malaysia, Indonesia, China and India are the main countries driving demand in the region, due to an increase in edible oil production on account of growing populations. In addition, the report found that Central and South America will also see a significant growth in the market, predicted to rise to a value of US$350M by 2022. Argentina’s production of edible oils and fats is expected to increase in the period between now and

A waste material is produced through the edible oil bleaching process, which is called spent v bleaching earth (SBE). Because of the nature of the bleaching process, SBE contains a percentage of oil. According to the report, The Effect of Spent Bleaching Earth Ageing Process on its Physicochemical and Microbial Composition and its Potential Use as a Source of Fatty Acids and Triterpenes, despite many years of research, this waste material is still a “serious and unsolved, economic and ecological problem”. The report says that in 2014, 1-2M tonnes of SBE was produced by the industry worldwide, and the SBE contained between 25% and 40% oil, as well as various contaminants that it removes in the process. The SBEs have a diverse composition, which makes them difficult to manage and dispose of. They contain water-insoluble substances such as fatty acids, macro- and micro-elements, plant pigments and heavy metals. Decomposition in the environment is slow and inhibited and ecological reasons usually prevent this type of disposal. The report also dissuades against open-air storage, saying it could cause spontaneous combustion. In the EU, SBE is classified as a hazardous waste. Bleaching earth companies try to reduce the amount of SBEs produced in the process, as well as how much oil the earth contains. In addition, finding a use for SBEs or SBE oil can help to reduce waste. For example, Neste Oil has been using SBE oil as a raw material in its NEXBTL renewable diesel base since 2013. A report in 2013 written by Soh Kheang Loh et al demonstrates how SBE could be used as a bioorganic fertiliser. The SBE was co-composted with some agricultural and palm oil milling byproducts in order to produce a fertiliser. The report says that due to adequate amounts of “beneficial mineral elements; improved organic carbon; cation exchange capacity (CEC); water-holding capacity and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio”, the SBE fertiliser had a positive impact on soil physical attributes.

Advancements & developments Recent developments in the bleaching earths industry include the introduction of speciality bleaching earths to be used to lower the amount of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in edible oils and fats. 3-MCPD is a chemical compound that can be created in some margarines, vegetable oils and animal fats when heated. It is suspected of being


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carcinogenic and genotoxic, and tests are carried out to ensure foods do not contain dangerous amounts. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has acknowledged the health risks associated with 3-MCPD, and other research institutes are assessing its presence in refined edible oils and fats. According to bleaching earth supplier Clariant, specific bleaching earths can be utilised to reduce the production of 3-MCPD during the heating and refining process. In the book, Processing Contaminants in Edible Oils, B Matthäus and F Pudel recommend the “use of natural bleaching earths and acid-activated bleaching earths with more neutral pH values”, in order to significantly decrease the content of 3-MCPD in edible oils. A study conducted on behalf of AOCS in 2014 researched the effects of degumming and bleaching on 3-MCPD esters formation during the physical refining process of palm and rapeseed oils. Results showed that the lowest levels of 3-MCPD were detected when the oil was degummed with water and bleached using natural bleaching clays. Levels were at their highest when the oil was phosphoric acid degummed and bleached with acid activated bleaching clays. “The findings revealed the contribution of acidic conditions on the higher formation of 3-MCPD esters,” the report concluded.


Clariant introduced four new grades of bleaching earth in 2013, which were designed to improve the reduction of 3-MCPD of up to 30%. Greek company Geohellas specialises in physically activated, attapulgite bleaching earth most suitable for a mild contaminant removal

Clariant expands bleaching earths production


lobal speciality chemicals producer Clariant is expanding the production capacity of its Tonsil brand bleaching earth products, while introducing five new product types into its portfolio. The company intended to add new Tonsil production capacity at its Le Tréport site in the Normandy region of France in the fourth quarter 2017, Clariant said in an 11 September statement. The Le Tréport expansion was the latest in Clariant’s multimillion dollar investment programme to increase its global capacity and technical services, which recently saw the company finish a capacity, reliability and service extension at its Moosburg, Germany plant. In addition, in the second quarter of 2017, the firm brought online a state-of-the-art laboratory in Turkey, alongside a new production site in Indonesia. Clariant has also introduced five new Tonsil products, specifically targeting the reduction of the carcinogenic 3-MCPD compounds in palm and seed oils. Anil Sönmez, head of the purification business group for EMEA at Clariant, said market and consumer demand for high quality edible oils and biofuels was putting growing requirements on producers.

New applications for physically activated MAK


eohellas produces the MAK series physically activated bleaching earths, designed specifically for oxidation-sensitive oils. These products are made from attapulgitic clay, selectively mined in northern Greece. In the production of MAK, Geohellas employs mechanical and thermal methods to physically

activate the clay’s high natural porosity and surface area. Because the activation process does not employ acids or chemical additives, MAK is ideal for the production of speciality, as well as high spec commodity oils, the company says. Although MAK was initially designed for a niche markets (such as speciality oils, omega fish, olive and organic oils), Geohellas says the product has now proven itself very effective in a wider range of oil types. These include oils where acid-induced 3-MCPD cannot be tolerated. “Thus, with physically activated MAK, the company’s clients have found that they do not need to sacrifice decolorisation for oil quality, and can have both – reducing the tendency for unwanted by-product formation,” Geohellas says.

process and for companies trying to avoid acid, it says. In particular, the company says its product is used by those wishing to create an organic edible oil, and for the reduction of 3-MCPD (due to low acidic levels). w Rose Hales is OFI’s previous editorial assistant

Oil-Dri’s Select line helps to save water


ater conservation is a critical issue worldwide, says Oil-Dri. “Countries across the globe are keenly aware of current water usage levels and the need to manage this resource for the future. One country in particular, India, is facing an acute water shortage. Groundwater levels have dropped drastically resulting in drought conditions, electrical shortages are common from lack of water to generate steam, and very little water is left in many reservoirs. Companies are increasingly aware of the benefits of conservation to drive down escalating costs of water,” the company says. Oil-Dri’s Select line of adsorbent technology products offer refineries an opportunity to save on water usage costs. “Using Select allows for the elimination of water wash centrifuge units. Select achieves similar results to water washing, but cuts down on overall water use and eliminates oil loss in waste water streams off the centrifuge. The adsorbent is best added in a dedicated slurry tank before the addition of bleaching clay,” Oil-Dri says. Recently, Oil-Dri has promoted Select as a water wash centrifuge replacement to water-starved markets as a conservation tool. “Customers are producing high quality oil while seeing a reduction in water usage, achieving significant savings in water related costs, and doing their part to help with the water crisis.”


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Making use of the used Bleaching earths are essential for certain oil processing applications, but they have traditionally posed problems, including a fire risk, after use. Patrick Howes explores possible uses for spent bleaching earths


leaching earths are the most important processing aid utilised in the refining of edible oils. The handling, disposal, and use of the spent bleaching earth has historically been considered problematic. The main issues are the potential for spontaneous combustion of the spent bleaching earth (SBE), and the leaking of entrained oily materials from the SBE into ground water at landfill sites. According to the Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC), global edible oil production in 2014 was 199.75M tonnes. For an average bleaching earth consumption of 0.5% of the weight of the oil, this would equate to at least one million tonnes per annum of spent bleaching earth. There are three main factors driving an increasing supply of spent bleaching earth, two of which are population-related and the third is related to refining technology. The annual consumption of edible oil is increasing with the growing global population and increasing per capita consumption of edible oils in developing countries. There is also increasing utilisation of physical refining technology to reduce the volume of liquid effluents, as compared with the traditional chemical refining technology. In

physical refining, the bleaching earth has a larger role to play and a greater quantity of bleaching earth is therefore required. Over the next few years, global production of spent bleaching earth is forecast to increase by about 3% annually. It is therefore important that spent bleaching earth is utilised in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way.

What are bleaching earths? Bleaching earths are mainly alumino-silicate minerals, such as attapulgites, bentonites and sepiolites, in their natural or acid-leached forms. They have absorption, adsorption, catalytic and ionexchange properties that enable this single material to effectively remove undesirable impurities such as soaps, gums, pigments, oxidised materials and metals from the oils being refined. Bleaching earths are normally supplied in a powdered form. At the refinery, the bleaching earth is mixed with the pre-treated oil to form a slurry, which is typically maintained at temperatures of about 100˚C for approximately 30 minutes under partial vacuum with mechanical or steam-sparging

agitation. The SBE is then separated from the “bleached oil”, usually with pressure leaf filters. The SBE formed on the filters is blown with air and/or steam to remove part of the entrained oil, leaving a mostly dry spent earth filter cake that is discharged from the filters into a dumpster. At this stage, the SBE is a loose powder, possibly with some oily lumps (especially if the filters are not operated correctly).

Spontaneous combustion The risk of fire from spontaneous combustion is associated with residual oil content and particularly the level of easily oxidised unsaturated oils remaining in the SBE. The bleaching earth type, temperature and the age of the SBE are also important factors. Higher levels of unsaturated, particularly polyunsaturated oils, higher SBE temperatures and higher acidity bleaching earths and acidic-activated carbons, due to their catalytic activity and high surface area, increase the risks of spontaneous combustion. Blowing with steam alone is the preferred method for reducing the amount of oil in the SBE


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while the filter cake is still in the pressure leaf filter as steam is free of oxygen. Blowing with air is normally the cheaper option as compared to steam, but air-blowing should be avoided as it introduces oxygen to the SBE, increasing the potential risk of fire within the filters, in the dumpster, and whilst transporting the SBE for disposal or future treatment. Reducing the risk of spontaneous combustion can be achieved by lowering the temperature of the SBE, by adding retardants such as water, lime and salt, and by reducing exposure to air. To reduce the risk of spontaneous combustion, water may be sprayed onto the SBE in the dumpster after each press batch is discharged. However, water adds weight to the SBE, resulting in higher transportation costs. Fire-proof dumpsters are recommended and closing the lid on the dumpster will help reduce the contact of air with the SBE. The SBE should be transported or further processed within 24 hours of generation.

Classification of SBEs Before we can proceed to consider appropriate uses of SBEs, it is important to classify and separate the different types of SBEs that are generated at refineries. The types of SBEs are broadly classified as natural materials, acid-leached materials, SBE with activated carbons, and SBE from posthydrogenation bleaching (which may contain substances such as nickel). The classification and separation of different SBEs is important to ensure that any harmful levels of impurities that have been removed from the oil by the bleaching earth – such as dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and transition metals – do not enter the food chain. The EU vegetable oil and protein meal industry association (FEDIOL)’s declaration on safety of used bleaching earth and used filter aid in meal feed and expellers (see 13SAF195 for details) notes that SBEs which have been used for refining vegetable fats subject to hydrogenation or containing activated carbon are not allowed to be added to oilseed meals.

Uses of oily SBEs SBEs can be utilised either in the oily form as generated or after de-oiling has occurred. SBEs typically contain between 20-40% of oily matter, depending on the type of bleaching earth used, the type of oil being processed, the filtration conditions and the period of steam blowing at the pressure leaf filter. After de-oiling, the residual oil content is about 2%. Historically, SBE that is not utilised at the refinery would most likely be transported for disposal at a landfill site. SBE has also historically been utilised beneficially for soil enrichment at farmlands. It has been reported that in warm climates, 60-90% of the oil can be decomposed by soil bacteria within six months, improving plant growth. The calorific value of SBE is similar to that of lignite coals and it can thus be used as a fuel, particularly when mixed with other solid fuels. Cement producers can utilise all classes of SBE as a fuel, and the SBE ash acts as a pozzolant, which provides beneficial properties to the cement. Oil-containing SBEs conforming to FEDIOL


requirements can be used as an extrusion aid for oilseed extraction or for direct addition to meal, where the entrained oil adds value to the meal. This usage of SBE is limited by the allowable ash content of the meal, as the mineral component of the SBE contributes to the ash content. There are patented processes in use where SBE is blended with fire retardant materials and binders to provide feed additives for poultry and livestock. One patent on “salt lick” products uses about 45% salt and 10% binder blended with SBE before forming it into granules, pellets or blocks. This formulation and forming process may be carried out at the refinery, thereby utilising the properties of salt to eliminate the risk of spontaneous combustion. The formed products are reported to be beneficial for the health of the animals that consume them with respect to muscle mass and a glistening coat for cattle. Another patented formulation uses fine particles of hydrated lime or limestone at a dosage of about 5% of the SBE, where they act both as the combustion suppressant and binder. The product finds use as a poultry and livestock feed additive.

De-oiled SBE There are a number of processes, such as hexane extraction, for recovering oil from SBE. The

extracted oil may be further purified by using activated carbons and/or bleaching earths. Depending on the quality of the extracted oil, it may be profitably used in the manufacture of soap, biodiesel, lubricants and other products. Annually, about 250,000 tonnes of oil can be recovered from 1M tonnes of SBE. Once the oil has been extracted, the residual oil content is only about 2%. The de-oiled SBE, being an alumino silicate, acts as a pozzolant and can be beneficially utilised in the formulation of cementaceous products, including grouts, cement bricks, and soilcement-polymer road systems, where it reduces the need for Portland cement.

Conclusions It has been shown that with correct processing and handling procedures, the risk of spontaneous combustion of SBEs can be eliminated. There are beneficial uses for all classes of SBE, which eliminate the need for disposal at landfill sites. With the forecast continued growth of SBE production, refiners must select the most appropriate, safe and environmentally friendly options for handling and utilisation of the SBE generated in their refineries. w Dr Patrick Howes is the technical director at Natural Bleach Sdn Bhd, Malaysia


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Activated carbon Activated carbon is used in edible oil bleaching to remove contaminants prior to consumption. Rose Hales looks at how the product is made and activated, who is producing it, and how it works


ctivated carbon or activated charcoal is used during the deodorising and bleaching process of edible oil preparation. It employs physical adsorption as a method to purify vegetable oils and make them suitable for consumption. Edible oils can be contaminated with natural and anthropogenic compounds, some of which are carcinogenic, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), heavy poly neleic aromatics (HPNA), pesticides and herbicides. Oils can become contaminated through environmental pollution, drying with combustion gases, associated smoke

drying or contamination of transport containers. Activated carbon is employed alongside bleaching earths (see ‘Salt of the earth’, page 3) for refining and decolourisation of oil. According to activated carbon producer Cabot Norit Activated Carbon, activated bleaching earths have improved in quality and are now capable of most of the bleaching, but activated carbon is useful for high concentrations of pigments – such as chlorophylls, xanthophylls and carotene – to improve the bleaching effect or support the thermal decomposition of pigments during deodorisation. Activated carbon is produced from carbonaceous sources, which can include coal, coconuts, nutshells, peat, wood and lignite. The source can be any organic material with a high carbon content. The organic raw material is physically modified and thermally decomposed in a furnace to produce the activated carbon. The final product is highly porous. One gramme of activated carbon has a surface area of at least 500-1,500m2, according to activated carbon solutions provider Haycarb. The company says that a single spoon of activated carbon could easily equate to the surface area of a football field. Contaminants adhere to the carbon’s large surface area, removing them from the end product.

Properties Activated carbon products are characterised by their activity and physical properties. Pore size distribution is an important activity property that indicates the carbon’s performance for removing contaminants from a liquid. According to TIGG – a supplier of activated carbon adsorption systems, equipment and media – there are three pore size regions: t Micropore region – less than 100 angstroms (a unit of length equal to one ten-billionth of a metre) t Mesopore region – between 100 and 1,000 angstroms t Macropore region – more than 1,000 angstroms In addition to this, activated carbons produced from different raw materials have distinctive properties and characteristics that make each suitable for specific types of purification. These characteristics include pore diameter, hardness, density, iodine content and ash content. Table 1 (following page) provides examples of the varying properties achieved through using different raw materials. Pore diameter determines whether a certain kind of activated carbon can be used for general dechlorination and a wide variety of organic contaminants. Such variants include bituminous coal activated carbon. If the carbon has greater microporosity, such as that made from coconut, it may be better suited for removing low concentrations of contaminants. Pore diameter is deduced from the iodine number, ,with a higher number correlating with a larger surface area.


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A large surface area is more suitable for weakly absorbed organic contaminants. This is the most fundamental consideration when choosing an activated carbon for any application. Hard carbon may be necessary if the purification process is more vigorous, such as backwashing. Density affects how much carbon can fit into a container or processor, and incorrect use will affect performance. Ash content is mainly important for water treatment, as a high ash content may not be suitable for certain water purification processes where liberated ash will cloud the water. Finally, the molasses efficiency rate measures an activated carbon’s aptitude to absorb large molecules. According to activated carbon producer Haycarb, activated carbon with optimum iodine, methylene blue and molasses figures – with demonstrated colour and smell removal capabilities and consistency – should be used for edible oil applications. The company recommends these properties for oils including coconut, olive, fish, sunflower, rapeseed, palm/palm kernel and soyabean.

How is it activated? When something has been ‘activated’, this means it has been processed to increase the internal microporosity of the original material. This is done by removing individual carbon atoms and creating tiny holes in the material, which adsorb unwanted molecules. According to Hugh McLauglin in Biofuels Digest, “the key to activated carbon is that it is optimised for a specific adsorption application and the adsorption capacity is packed into as dense a material as possible to minimise the volume of adsorbent necessary.” Carbonaceous raw materials are activated either using chemical activation or high temperature steam activated (HTSA)/physical mechanisms. CHEMICAL According to B. Viswanathan, P. Indra Neel and T. K. Varadarajan in their book ‘Methods of Activation and Specific Applications of Carbon Materials’, chemical activation is a single step process where chemical agents are used to activate organic carbon. The method utilises a solid activating agent (such as an alkali), substances that contain alkaline earth metals, or some acids. The agents used dehydrate the carbon and cause pyrolytic decomposition, which inhibits the formation of tar and enhances the carbon yield. Chemical activation takes place at a lower temperature than physical activation, which results in a better developed porous structure. However, drawbacks of the method include the need to wash the final product of residual inorganic materials, which can cause pollution problems.

PHYSICAL In the same book, ‘Methods of Activation and Specific Applications of Carbon Materials’, the authors describe how physical activation is a twostep process. This involves carbonising the raw material in an inert atmosphere and then activating the resulting char with a carbon gasification reactant, such as CO2, steam or air. The physical activation reaction happens between the carbon atom and the oxidising gas, which causes the creation of pores as different parts of the char structure react faster than others. The process uses gaseous activation agents and therefore does not produce wastewater. For this reason, it is considered to be environmentally friendly. However, due to the length of time and energy needed, the method is not ideal. In addition, a large quantity of the internal carbon mass is destroyed to obtain the pore structure, so the yields are limited, especially in comparison to chemical activation. Physically and chemically activated carbons are available in three forms: granular (GAC), powdered (PAC) and extruded carbon. t GAC: irregularly shaped, formed through milling and sieving. Sizes range in diameter between 0.2mm to 5mm. They are hard and longlasting, clean to handle and purify large quantities of oil or gas to a consistent quality. GAC can be reactivated and reused. t PAC: have a particle size distribution between 5-150 angstroms. PAC have relatively low processing costs and can be used flexibly as the dosage can easily be increased or decreased. Edible oils are mainly purified using PAC and always alongside bleaching earths (apart from fish oils). PAC cannot be reactivated. t Extruded: cylindrical pellets used in heavy-duty applications.

How does it work? Activated carbon removes contaminants from liquid oil through the process of physical adsorption. According to John Sherbondy and John Mickler at TIGG, activated carbon’s large surface area works through several forces to attract other molecules inside it. Sherbondy and Mickler compare this to the gravitational force: “Contaminants … are adsorbed to the surface of the carbon from a solution as a result of differences in adsorbate concentration in the solution and in the carbon pores”. All molecules apply attraction forces, and these forces are even greater on the surface of a solid – which the internal porousness of activated carbon utilises to its advantage. Contaminants in the solution being purified adhere to the carbon because the attraction forces on the surface of the carbon are stronger than those that keep them suspended within the solution.






Abrasion number




Bulk density as packed in column ibs/ft3




Ash %




Iodine number SOURCE: TRIGG


Companies Cabot Norit Activated Carbon says it is the world’s largest and most experienced producer of activated carbon. It purchased Norit NV (previously the largest producer) in July 2012 and formed Cabot Norit Activated Carbon, based in Amersfoort in the Netherlands (although Carb Corp is headquartered in the USA). An article in Chemie Magazine in February 2016 quoted Cabot Norit Activated Carbon’s director of global technology and marketing, Jim Makuc, as saying: “On the one hand we are conducting research into new resources, to convert them into activated carbon. On the other hand we are developing products for customers with exactly the right pore structure and we supply the usage data.” The future is looking bright for the company as it extends its range of activated carbon products. Jacobi Carbons says it is one of the world’s three largest activated carbon companies and ships over 100,000 tonnes of activated carbon per year. It is also the largest manufacturer of coconut shell-based activated carbon. It has 20 carbon manufacturing facilities and five carbon reactivation plants worldwide. Haycarb PLC is a leading player in coconut-shell activated carbon and global industry. It has six manufacturing plants acorss three countries, and an annul production capacity of 40,000 tonnes. It had an annual turnover of US$80M in 2015/16. Haycarb markets activated carbon directly to European consumers through its subsidiary Eurocarb. The Activated Carbon Producers Association (ACPA) represents the European activated carbon industry and in June 2016 it was composed of 10 members. These are CarboTech AC, CECA, Chemviron Carbon, Desotect, Donau Carbon, Eurocarb, Cabot Norit Activated Carbon, Jacobi, SICAV and Silcarbon. Chemviron Carbon purchased CECA at the end of 2016, bringing the member companies down to nine.

Overview of the market The activated carbon market is mature and around 1M tonnes is produced annually, according to Hugh McLaughlin, writing for Biofuels Digest in October last year. It has been growing steadily for the past 50 years, as specific purification processes have been developed in some industries. Most production of the material takes place in tropical and Asian countries. The majority of the product is then exported to Europe and North America. According to McLaughlin, the market is dominated by a relatively small number of international companies with both production and marketing capabilities. A report published by Ceskaa, titled ‘Global Activated Carbon Market: 2016-2021’, projects that the global value market will grow from US$2.7bn in 2015 to US$2.9bn in 2016. The market’s growth is expected to continue, and in 2021 it will be worth approximately US$5.1bn. This estimate covers the whole activated carbon market, of which activated carbon for the removal of impurities from edible w oil is one part. Rose Hales is OFI’s former editorial assistant


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08/09/2017 12:31


Delivering process efficiencies Oils and fats producers rely on pumps to keep their both their operations and products flowing smoothly. Tony Fandetti explores the challenges pumps face in these applications and how pump manufacturers are using the latest technology and materials to overcome them


ith life cycle costs (LCC) now at the forefront of considerations when making a pump selection, decisions are based on designs with high pumping efficiency as well as low operational and maintenance costs, says Swiss engineering and manufacturing firm Sulzer. “In a globally competitive industry, the selection of every pump is more vital than ever before and a one pump-system can now be used without the extra cost of stand-by pumps.” Sulzer says pumps are required in the food and beverage industry to keep materials moving through the production process and face a wide range of challenges, including abrasive materials, high viscosities, temperature, corrosion and entrained air. “From the processing of tough raw materials, like sugarcane, to hygienic transport of finished products, pumps of all shapes and sizes play a crucial role in delivering food to the table.” Sugar production, for example, starts with either sugarcane or sugar beet, each presenting its own challenges. “Washing processes create a muddy, sand-laden, abrasive water mixture that needs to be transferred away from the washing area to a treatment system that can recycle the water. Such an abrasive suspension will need pumps designed with excellent wear resistance properties and seals that perform reliably in this hostile environment. “At each stage of the production process, a new challenge awaits; dealing with fibrous materials, entrained gases, cavitation, chemical attack, increased temperature and high viscosity materials. In each case, the application must be carefully analysed to assess the challenges. In this way, the process engineer will be able to specify the most appropriate pump for each task.” Such a process becomes even more prevalent, according to Sulzer, if process designers want to minimise costs and rely only on duty pumps, disregarding stand-by units as an unnecessary cost. “In situations where this is possible, it is essential that the correct specification of pump is installed so that unnecessary downtime is avoided and routine maintenance can be completed during planned shutdown periods,” says Sulzer. “Pump manufacturers are working closely with producers to understand the challenges they face.”


Sulzer says the latest pump design can deliver improvements in performance and reliability. In one wet corn milling operation in the USA, two conventional centrifugal pumps were used to transfer a slurry mixture of starch, gluten and fibre from a storage vessel to the fibre separation screens. The liquid contained between 20-30% air so the processor had to use large amounts of defoamer in order to reach the required production rate. “Analysis of the application showed that both of the original pumps could be replaced with a single, duplex stainless steel, self-priming, gas removal process pump, capable of producing a head of 230ft at 1,800-2,000 USGPM. As soon as the new pump

was installed, the amount of expensive defoamer could be reduced by 90%.” Sulzer says the introduction of modern materials, coating systems, sealing components and impeller designs has enabled process engineers to finely tune a pump specification to a particular application. Pump manufacturers also work very closely with process engineers from a wide range of industries to better understand the issues and challenges that beset pumps of all sizes. This leads to improved designs of complete pumps and individual components. w Tony Fandetti is the vice president of sales at Sulzer Pump Solutions Inc


08/09/2017 12:23



Explosive material

Kevin Spiess of BS&B Safety Systems looks at the risk of dust explosions during oilseed processing, and the need for explosion protection during organic materials handling and storage in the vegetable oil production process


he processing of vegetable oils is punctuated with dangers at every step. If not properly addressed, these dangers can lead to the destruction of process equipment, structural facilities and in the worst case, loss of life. The combustibility of vegetable oils is usually perceived as the primary cause of fire hazards and explosions. However, the handling of oilseeds prior to their pressing is also the origin of one of the highest risks of explosion. Seeds generate dust during the first part of the vegetable oil production process, usually due to their potential for self-heating and ignition during conveyance and storage. In 2008, a combustible dust explosion occurred at a canola processing plant in Sainte Agathe, Canada. At the time, this was reported to be the largest expeller-pressed oilseed crushing plant in the world. Similarly in 2014 in Saskatchewan, an explosion halted production in a canola crushing plant, luckily without any fatalities. The suspected culprit was dust. Organic dusts, whether they are from seeds, grains, or wood have caused devastating explosions, destroying process facilities and injuring personnel worldwide. In 2011, a study carried out by HFL Risk Services found that 2,000 dust explosions occurred in factories and refineries in Europe, of which 50 were attributed to the UK. The explosive danger

exists wherever there is a plant handling, processing and grinding organic materials.

Why is organic dust a danger? Dust explosions originate from various causes: abrasion on ill-maintained machinery, a spark, grinding and milling friction or even an electrical fault. The fuelling and propagation of such a primary explosion is usually caused by suspended or accumulated dust in the immediate surroundings and atmosphere. It is a voluminous and efficient fuel that can turn initial combustion into an explosive inferno. These often fatal secondary explosions are caused by three elements: ignition, fuel and oxygen. When they come together in an enclosed area, with rising pressure and rapid increases in temperature, combustion occurs. The primary explosion is carried on a pressure wave that disturbs accumulated dust and causes a deflagration. This is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer, as hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it. At this point in events, nearby personnel and property are put at imminent risk of damage and injury. Now in suspension, the agitated dust becomes the origin for the extremely dangerous secondary explosion risk, which has the ability to spread to other parts of processing equipment risking its

complete destruction. It travels through pipes, ductwork or silos until the entire processing facility is in peril from this mobile explosion risk.

Good housekeeping & regulations Control and removal of dust as potential ignition sources are vital for eliminating explosion hazards in any process industry handing organic materials. Apart from good housekeeping – removing dust and keeping facilities clean, employers are subject to guidelines and regulations, which set out other methods by which this can be achieved. For example, in the UK, employers are subject to certain basic requirements according to DSEAR (Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002), which focus on assessing, identifying and controlling explosion risks. Europe-wide, the ATEX directive is made up of two EU directives specifying what equipment and work environment is allowed in a location with an explosive atmosphere. ATEX (Appareils destinés à être utilisés en ATmosphères EXplosibles) classifies such combustible environments into danger ‘zones’, according to substance, length of exposure and operating conditions. In theory when one element of the incendiary trio is either interrupted or controlled, an explosion can be prevented. This necessitates different methods of protection to counteract fire risks: n Chemical suppression solutions detect the start of an explosion in process equipment and deliver dry chemical extinguishing agents into a developing internal deflagration. It suppresses further flame propagation and protects interconnecting process equipment from any spreading explosion damage. n Spark detection devices detect sparks, hot particles and flame that could primarily ignite a fire or explosion if allowed to travel on through pneumatic ducting and conveyors towards other materials handling equipment. n The most advanced flameless vents intercept, extinguish and retain all burning materials, preventing them from hazardous release into the surrounding environment.

Why protect against dust explosions? The legal obligation to comply with regulations for the purposes of safety highlights the paramount obligation to prevent endangerment of personnel. Recently in the media we have seen how dust explosions around the world have claimed lives, not to mention decimated businesses. Economic loss due to halted production because of destruction of property and equipment is an unprofitable and regressive position. Safeguarding process facilities against dust explosion brings other advantages; possible insurance benefits in terms of reduced premiums if an employer demonstrates compliance and diligence by installing correct explosion prevention controls. Even though accidents may happen, why take the risk of life, limb and property for want of precaution? The quality of reputation and brand is not only reflected in the final product, but how it got from one end of the process chain to the other. w It pays to protect the process. Kevin Spiess is from BS&B Safety Systems, USA


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29/09/2017 09:17


Oils & Fats International reports on some of the latest projects, technology and process news and developments around the world IN BRIEF DENMARK: Danish engineering firm Gerstenberg Services has launched a scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE) for direct CO2 cooling to improve cooling capacity in margarine production. The Polaron brand SSHE, which used CO2 at a higher temperature than ammonia or Freon, could reduce energy costs and power consumption, Bakery and Snacks reported on 5 May. According to Gerstenberg managing director Jesper Andersen, using CO2 instead of other chemicals resulted in a 40% increase in the capacity of the cooling area. The higher temperatures could also result in a higher product quality, especially for puff pastry margarine, Andersen added. The Polaron SSHE also included an in-built scraper system for removing product from the inner surface of the process cylinder, which would need to be replaced after each use in traditional SSHE machines. SWEDEN: Finnish energy company St1 is planning to add hydrogen production capacity to its Gothenburg, Sweden, oil refinery, the company said on 17 July. The investment marks the first phase of St1’s plan to start producing biodiesel at the Gothenburg plant by 2020. The firm said the construction of the new hydrogen unit would begin immediately and it was projected to be completed by late 2018. Total investment in the hydrogen production unit was €40M (~US$47M) and St1 aimed to bring production capacity up to 20M tonnes/year. St1 also produces ethanol at its Kajaani, Finland facility


Plant and equipment round-up

Montana Specialty Mills to complete US$20M seed crush facility by 2018 M ontana Specialty Mills LLC, a US oilseed and grain processor, has broken ground on a new processing centre for non-GMO products and organic oilseeds. Situated at the Great Falls Montana Development Authority’s (GFMDA) AgriTech Park in Great Falls, Montana, the US$20M facility was projected to be completed by late 2018, wrote Feedstuffs on 25 July. The plant would feature state-of-the-art grain processing equipment dedicated to specialty seeds and grains, according to the report. Montana Specialty Mills had operated an oilseed crushing and mustard processing plant in Great Falls for the past 70 years, but due to the company’s growth, it began negotiations with the GFMDA to find a new location with rail access. According to the company, the new plant would allow it to expand to markets such as non-GMOs, organic vegetable oils and protein meals, in addition to nearly doubling its current

workforce of 15. “We chose our location in the AgriTech Park because it has the infrastructure, subdivision and zoning already in place for us,” Montana Specialty Mills president and CEO Steve Chambers told Feedstuffs. “Being able to build immediately and not worry about anything else has saved us a lot of time and money.” Brett Doney, president of the GFMDA, said creating the heavy industrial plant had been the authority’s plan for years. “We see many opportunities not just in agricultual processing but in energy-related manufacturing, distribution and logistics. We are happy to see companies like Montana Specialty Mills realising the potential of the space,” said Doney. Montana Specialty Mills processes canola, sunflower, safflower and flax seeds (pictured) into oils, in addition to handling mustard seeds and grains such as wheat, barley and oats.

Cepsa brings Abengoa biodiesel plant back online


panish energy company Cepsa Bioenergia has resumed production at the former Abengoa biodiesel plant in San Roque, Spain, after 18 months without activity. After purchasing the plant last February for €8M (US$9.5M), Cepsa had been working on upgrading the plant to bring it back up to production capacity, El Estrecho Digital wrote on 29 August. In June, the facility – with a capacity of 200,000 tonnes of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 25,000 tonnes of glycerine – received its first vegetable oil delivery since its original closure by Abengoa. Carlos Olivares, head of biofuels at Cepsa, praised “the great effort made, both by various areas of the company and by the local auxiliary companies involved in the whole process and,

fundamentally, by the staff of the plant that has worked intensely in these months to bring the plant back online”. “This has allowed us to achieve the fast integration of this new unit into the production chain of San Roque and its start-up in the shortest possible time,” he added. Restarting production had proceeded on time, as Cepsa estimated back in March that it would have the plant up and running during 2017. The San Roque plant was originally established by Spanish biofuels giant Abengoa, but production was stopped in 2015 due to the company’s financial issues and bankruptcy. The plant was among the last European biofuel assets Abengoa was forced to sell as part of its bankruptcy settlement.


08/09/2017 12:34


Chinese investors pull out from Finnish biofuel

Algae for feed from wastewater

everal Finnish biofuel projects were left with a gaping chasm in their budgets as a major Chinese investor pulled out of the projects. In early July, Chinese financing company Shenzhen Capital Group cancelled its planned €200M (US$235M) investment in two biofuels plants in Myllykoski and Savonlinna, the Finnish Helsingin Sanomat newspaper reported on 17 July. According to bioethanol producer Suomen Bioetanoli Oy’s (SBE) CEO Atte Laukkanen, Shenzhen retreated from the investment deal due to difficulties with its own funding and alleged issues with feedstock availability. Ethanol production in Myllykoski and biodiesel production in Savonlinna – both towns located in southeastern Finland – was projected to begin in 2019. The Myllykoski unit had already received a €30M (US$35M) energy grant from the European Union, but whether the company could now keep the money was uncertain. According to Laukkanen, SBE intended to apply for continuation of the EU support, which remained valid until the end of June, but the future of the Myllykoski project remained hanging by a thread. The future of the Savonlinna project, however, looked slightly brighter, the Finnish Minister of Justice and Labor’s special aid Leena Riekkonen, who participated in negotiations with Shenzhen, told Helsingin Sanomat on 19 July. “Myllykoski is the only project for which the decision to pull away has been confirmed,” Riekkonen said, adding that Shenzhen was still considering investing in Savonlinna and another biodiesel unit in Nurmes. According to Riekkonen, Shenzen had become reluctant to support Myllykoski due to the perceived risks in securing and transporting feedstock to the plant, consisting mostly of straw and wood. The Savonlinna and Nurmes plants, however, were designed to use forestry residues as feedstock and would be built adjacent to sawmills, which made raw material acquisition easier. Shenzhen invested mostly in domestic Chinese markets, with only 1% of its projects being outside China, Helsingin Sanomat wrote.




ontana, USA-based biotechnology firm Clearas Water Recovery is planning to construct a large-scale wastewater purification facility that will also produce algae for the feed, food and fuel markets. First announced in June, Clearas’ first large-scale advanced biological nutrient recovery (ABNR) system would be attached to the South Davis Sewer Distric wastewater plant in Utah, Feed Navigator reported on 14 July. The site was expected to start production within 12 months and process approximately 18.1M litres of water each day, according to Clearas marketing development manager Andrew Gordon. “It is a challenge to scale and the way we have our system set up, there is flexilibility in design and design footprint,” he told Feed Navigator. The facility was expected to produce around 3,600kg/day of dry weight algae biomass and Clearas was exploring different markets for the recovered algae. “It’s a market we’re still learning,” said Clearas bioresources team leader Kyle Marshall. “We’re definitely interested in exploring the animal feed market and putting the relative products forward. “Animal feed strock, human food applications, bioplastics with different components and fuels are on the table. There are a lot of market segments,”

Marshall said. The company was also assessing the value of offering the produced algae whole cell and reduced to components such as proteins or carbohydrates. According to Gordon, the new large-scale systems were designed for varying amounts of water and nutrients, to remove phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater and they could be added to new or existing plants. Phosphorus and nitrogen had been linked with algal blooms and dead zones in freshwater bodies. In Clearas’ filtering system, wastewater was mixed with CO2 and an algae blend, which were then fed to a photobioreactor. The reactor would use biological activity to consume the CO2, phosphorus, nitrogen and other nutrients, leaving behind the algae content, which would finally be separated from the cleaned water and harvested as a byproduct. A certain amount of the algae would be fed back to refeed the remaining population, which would be processed further. During the filtering process, levels of phosphorus and nitrogen were reduded to “nearly undetectable levels” and clean water could have up to 40% higher oxygen content. “Long story short, we found that we have an amazing platform for growing algae and reducing the nutrient levels in wastewater,” Gordon said.

Plastics manufacturing innovations improve edible oil packaging materials


uxembourg-headquartered caps and closure solutions producer United Caps has introduced a new carbon emission-reducing manufacturing method to produce caps for edible oil products. Used to produce the new DoubleFlow cap, which allowed for better control over pouring, the new manufacturing method could be implemented without modifications to any product lines, said United Caps CE Benoît Henckes in a statement on 8 May. According to Henckes, the resulting DoubleFlow cap – designed specifically for edible oils and vinegars – provided reliable

resealing to protect container contents, while featuring a unique droplet shape for increased pour control and security. Additionally, the cap was lightweight and provided an option for drizzling or pouring the oil or vinegar. Hencke also told Packaging News in a 10 May interview that the firm was exploring the use of biopolymers to produce more environmentally friendly caps and closures. t Sidel, a French manufacturer of stretchblow moulding machinery, has together with Brazilian Algar Agro developed the “world’s lightest” 900ml PET bottle for edible oils,

reported Plastics Technology on 24 August 2016. The project succeeded in reducing bottle weight from 18g to 14g, meaning a total reduction of 22%. Sidel tested the method on its Matrix stretch-blow machines at the company’s Packaging & Tooling Centre in Guadalajara, Mexico, after which Algar Agro acquired two of them to integrate into both of its factories. Algar Agro believed it was the first Brazilian edible oil producer to integrate PET preform injection and bottle blowing into its 25,000 bottles/hour production lines.


08/09/2017 12:34


Annual company directory 2017 Oils & Fats International’s updated global selection of plant and equipment suppliers to the oils and fats industry, accompanied by a chart of company activities


*Process SRL (Proglobal) Av. Juan Pablo II 6750 S2010AMP - Rosario Santa Fe Tel: +54 341 454 4544 E-mail: Website:


*BDI - BioEnergy International AG Parkring 18 Raaba-Grambach Styria 8074 Tel: +43 316 4009 100 E-mail: Website: GIG Karasek GmbH Neusiedlerstrasse 15-19 Gloggnitz 2640 Tel: +43 266 242780 E-mail: Website: Other: Evaporators, dryers, columns, heat exchangers, turnkey plants, engineering


*Desmet Ballestra Group, Oils, Fats and Oleochemicals Division Belgicastraat 3 - B-1930 Zaventem Tel: +32 2 716 11 11 Fax: +32 2 716 11 09 E-mail: Website: De Smet SA Engineers & Contractors Waterloo Office Park, Building O Box 32 Drève Richelle 161 Waterloo 1410 Tel: +32 2 634 25 00 Fax: +32 2 634 25 25 E-mail: Website: Other: EPC/ECM contractor SEA–Tank Terminal NV Skaldenstraat 1 Gent 9042 Tel: +32 92 555666 E-mail: Website:


*Famsun Oils & Fats Engineering Co Ltd No 1 Huasheng Road Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127 Tel: +86 514 8777 0799 E-mail: Website: Other: Pre-treatment Myande Group Co Ltd No. 199, South Ji’an Road Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province 225127 Tel: +86 514 87849111 Fax: +86 514 87848883 E-mail: Website: *Scikoon Industry Co Ltd Building C, Runcheng Industry Zone, No 68, Huagang Avenue, Huadu District, Guangzhou Guangdong 510800 Tel: +86 20 3938 8895 Fax: +86 20 3686 2630 E-mail: Website: Xiamen Bentonite International Corporation 1st Floor, Xiangyu BuildingXiangyu Free Trade Zone, Xiamen, Fujian 361006 Tel: +86 592 6037769 Fax: +86 592 6038969 E-mail: Website:


*Alfa Laval Copenhagen A/S Maskinvej 5 Soborg DK-2860 Tel: +45 3953 6000 E-mail: Website: Other: Lecithing drying, soap stock splitting, hydrogenation, biodiesel plant, heat exchanger *GEA Process Engineering A/S Gladsxvej 305, Soeborg DK-2860 Tel: +45 3954 5454 E-mail: Website: *Gerstenberg Services A/S Vibeholmsvej 21, PO Box 196, Brøndby Copenhagen 2605 Tel: +45 4343 2026; Fax: +45 4343 2028 E-mail: Website:


*Air Liquide Global E&C Solutions GmbH Olof-Palme-Strasse 35, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main Tel: +49 695 8080 E-mail: Website:

*B+B Engineering GmbH Otto-von-Guericke-Str 50, Magdeburg D-39104 Tel: +49 391 505 499 50 Fax: +49 391 505 499 59 E-mail: Website: Buss-SMS-Canzler GmbH Kaiserstrasse 13-15 Butzbach 35510 Tel: +49 6033 85 0 Fax: +49 6033 85 249 E-mail: Website: Other: Thin film evaporation systems, molecular distillation Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH Ostenrieder Str 15 Moosburg 85368 Tel: +49 8761 82 120 Fax: +49 8761 82 662 E-mail: Website: *CPM SKET GmbH Schilfbreite 2, Magdeburg 39120 Tel: +49 3916 82249 Fax: +49 3916 84233 E-mail: Website: *GEA Aktiengesellchaft, Product Group Separation Werner-Habig-Str 1, Oelde 59302 Tel: +49 2522 77 0 E-mail: Website: *GEA Wiegand GmbH Am Hartwaldt 1, Ettlingen 76275 Tel: +49 7243 7050 Fax: +49 7243 705 330 E-mail: Website: Other: Evaporators GekaKonus GmbH Siemensstr. 10 Eggenstein-Leop 76344 Tel: +49 721 943740 Fax: +49 721 9437444 E-mail: Website: *HF Press+LipidTech Seevestrasse 1, Hamburg 21079 Tel: +49 40 771 79 488 E-mail: Website: *Hoch-Temperatur Industrieanlagen GmbH Sauerbruchstraße 9-11, Ellerau, D-25479 Tel: +49 410 670 090 E-mail: Website:


P&E listing 2017.indd 1

08/09/2017 12:36


INTEC Engineering GmbH John-Deere-Str 43 Bruschsal D-76646 Tel: +49 7251 9324 312 E-mail: Website: Other: Biomass- and coal-fired power plants, sludge drying and incineration systems, ORCbased power generation modules KĂśrting Hannover AG Badenstedter Str 56, Hannover 30453 Tel: +49 511 2129 253 Fax: +49 511 2129 223 E-mail: Website: Other: Tank mixing systems *Machinenfabrik Reinartz GmbH & Co KG Industriestrasse 14, Neuss, 41460 Tel: +49 213 197 6124 Fax: +49 213 197 6112 E-mail: Website: Other: Screw presses

Tel: +91 98 840 17551 E-mail: Website: *Chempro Technovation Pvt Ltd 802 Astron Tech Park Satellite Road, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380015 Tel: +91 982 500 5649 E-mail: Website: Other: Dry fractionation, hydrogenation autoclaves Cotecna Inspection India Pvt Ltd The Summit - Business Bay, Office No 213, 214 & 215, behind Guru Nanak Petrol Pump opposite Cinemax, off Andheri-Kurla Road Prakashwadi, Andheri (East), Maharashtra Mumbai Tel: +91 42 188 000 Fax: +91 42 188 001 E-mail: Website: Other: Surveyors, weighing and quality checking

*Siemens AG Lina-Ammon-Str 3, 90471, Nuremberg Tel: +49 911 895 4123 Fax: +49 9119 1127 87 E-mail: Website:

Dynamic Equipments No D-69 Sriranga Nagar, Sriranga Nagar Road Neelambur Post, Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore Tel: +91 42 226 27615 Fax: +91 42 226 27615 E-mail: Website:

Schneider Engineering GmbH Hildburghauser Str 79, Berlin, Berlin 12249 Tel: +49 30 7544 93990 Fax: +49 30 7544 9339 21 E-mail: Website: Other: Biomass- and coal-fired power plants, sludge drying and incineration plants, ORCbased power generation modules

*Fenix Process Technologies Pvt Ltd K 6/1, Malini, Erandwane Co-op Housing Society, Erandwane, Pune 411004 Tel: +91 20 6650 8772 Fax: +91 20 2545 8454 E-mail: Website: Other: Evaporation, used oil re-refining, static mixers, methanol recovery, glycerine purification

*Siwaco GmbH Huettenweg 5, Netphen 57250 Tel: +49 2737 21606 0 Fax: +49 2737 21606 511 E-mail: Website: Other: Cracker and flaker rolls

*Filteration Engineers India Pvt Ltd Plot No W 62B, TTC Industrial Area MIDC Rabale, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 400701 Tel: +91 22 2760 8501 Fax: +91 22 2760 8510 E-mail: Website:

*VetterTec GmbH Laipziger Strasse 104-108, Kassel 34123 Tel: +49 561 5001 90 Fax: +49 561 5001 940 E-mail: Website: Other: Dissolventising, animal feed, soya meal

*Flosys Pumps Pvt Ltd No 90 SIDCO Industrial Estate Malumichapatti Post Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 641050 Tel: +91 422 2655 030 Fax: +91 422 2655 230 E-mail: Website:


Advanced Enzyme Technologies Ltd 5th Floor, Sun Magnetica, LIC Service Road Louiswadi Thane Maharashtra 400610 Tel:+91 22 417 03200 Fax: +91 22 258 35159 E-mail: Website: AkashaViha Foods Pvt Ltd 19, Srinivasa Perumal Sannidhi 2nd Street Royapettah, Chennai Tamil Nadu 600014

HRS Process Systems Ltd 201/202, Karan Selene, 851 Bhandarkard Rd Pune, Maharashtra 411004 Tel: +91 20 660 47894 E-mail: Website: Other: Heat exchangers, heat exchanger-based systems *Kevin Enterprises Pvt Ltd Plot No 11, Street No 10, MIDC, Andheri (E) Mumbai, Maharashtra 400093 Tel: +91 2261 4780 00

Fax: +91 2261 4780 01 E-mail: Website: Other: Structured packing, random packing, tower internals, mist eliminators, tower trays Kirloskar Pneumatic Co Ltd 1002, Vikas Centre 10th Floor, Dr C G Road Nr Basant Cinema Chembur (East), Mumbai Maharashtra 400074 Tel: +91 22 252 19152 E-mail: Website: Other: Chilling plant chillers *Kumar Metal Industries Pvt Ltd 101 Kakad Bhavan 30th Road, Bandra (West) Mumbai 400050 Tel: +91 22 26441673, 28458200, 28458300 E-mail: Website: *Mazda Limited Mazda House, 650/1, Panchvati Second Lane Ambawadi, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380006 Tel: +91 79 4000 7000 Fax: +91 2656 5605 E-mail: Website: Mectech Process Engineers Pvt Ltd 366 Udyog Vihar, Phase 2 Gurgaon, Haryana 122016 Tel: +91 124 4700800 Fax: +91 124 4700801 E-mail: Website: Other: Turnkey projects for edible oil refineries and hydrogenation plants, filters including PLF, VPLF, HPLF, candle filters and polishing filters *Muez-Hest India Pvt Ltd 230 & 231, Blue Rose Industrial Estate WE Highway, Borivali (East), Mumbai Maharashtra 400066 Tel: +91 22 2870 1752 Fax: +91 22 2854 1758 E-mail: Website: Other: Meal desolventisation, condensate recovery management systems *Sharplex Filters (India) Pvt Ltd R-664, TTC Industrial Area MIDC Rabale Maharashtra, Navi Mumbai Tel: +91 22 6940 9850 Fax: +91 22 2769 6325 E-mail: Website: Spec Engineers & Consultants Pvt Ltd 2/86 WHS Kirti Nagar Near Saraswati Garden Bus Stop New Delhi, Delhi 110015 Tel: +91 11 414 20206 Fax: +91 11 251 93715 E-mail: Website: Other: Biodiesel esterification, static phase separators, LT HT power, DG sets


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*Tintometer India Pvt Ltd B-91, Sanathnagar, Hyderabad Telangana 500018 Tel: +91 9322 4434 33 E-mail: Website: Other: Tintometers, colour matching equipment United Oil Mill Machinery and Spares Pvt Ltd D-58, 2nd Floor Okhla Industrial Area Phase 1 New Delhi, Delhi 110020 Tel: +91 11 26 371201 E-mail: Website: *Veendeep Oiltek Exports Pvt Ltd N-16/17/18, Additional Midc Patalganga District Raigad 410207 Tel: +91 291 2250 532 Fax: +91 291 2250 534 E-mail: Website:


*Andreotti Impianti SpA Via Di Le Prata, 148 50041 Calenzano (FI) Tel: +39 055044870 Fax: +39 055 44917 35 E-mail: Website: *C.M. Bernardini International SpA Via Appia Km 55, 900 04012 Cisterna di Latina (LT) Tel: +39 06 9687 1082 Fax: +39 06 9294 2564 E-mail: Website: Other: Meal processing, glycerine treatment refining, biodiesel distillation, fractionation, esterification *CMB Italy Technoilogy Via Domenico Frederici 12 Cisterna di Latini LT 04012 Tel: +39 03 353 69384 Fax: +39 06 969 6181 E-mail: Website: *Desmet Ballestra SpA, Detergents, Surfactants and Chemicals Division Via Piero Portaluppi 17 20138 Milano Tel: +39 02 50831 Fax: +39 02 5801 8449 E-mail: Website: *Servizi Industriali srl Marie Curie n 19 Ozzano dell’Emilia Bologna Emilia Romagna 40064 Tel: +39 051 795 080 Fax: +39 051 799 337 E-mail: Website: Other: Dynamic centrifugal mixers


*Mawlawi Group PO Box 426074, Yarmook Amman 11140 Tel: +62 795 954 142 E-mail: Website: Other: Distributor of oil and raw materials


Fax: +31 75 65 12 600 E-mail: Website: Other: Flaking, cracking, preparation *Dinnissen Process Technology Horsterweg 66, Sevenum 5975 NB Tel: +31 77 467 3555 Fax: +31 77 467 3785 E-mail: Website:

*Mitchells Europe 11 Rue des Trois Cantons Windhof Koerich L-8399 Tel: +324 7694 4491 E-mail: Website: Other: Chain conveyors, screw conveyors, vapour tight conveyors

*Filtration Group BV Hanzeweg 21, 7241 CS Lochem Tel: +31 573 29 77 81 E-mail: Website: Other: Filtration systems, fine filtration, solidliquid filtration



*Felda IFFCO Sdn Bhd Lot 596, Lebuh Raja Lumu, Pandamaran Industrial Estate, Port Klang Selangor Darul Ehsan 42009 Tel: +603 3165 3313 Fax: +603 3167 1980 E-mail: Website:


*ExcelVite Sdn Bhd Lot 56442, 7.5 Mile, Jalan Ipoh/Chemor Chemor Perak 31200 Tel: +605 2014 192 E-mail: Website:

Intec Energy Systems Sdn Bhd 6F-21, IOI Business Park, Bandar Puchong Jaya Puchong, Selangor 47170 Tel: +603 589 16642 Fax: +603 589 99824 E-mail: Website: *JCT Packaging Solutions No 5429-A, Jalan Kenari 18, Bandar Putra Kulai, Johon 81000 Tel: +601 6722 1217 E-mail: Website: Other: Plastic packaging materials *JJ-Lurgi Engineering Sdn Bhd 16, Jalan 51A/225, Petaling Jaya Selangor 46100 Tel: +603 7861 6188 E-mail: Website: *Oiltek Sdn Bhd Lot 6, Jalan Pasaran 23/5, Kawasan Miel Phase 10, Shah Alam, Selangor 40300 Tel: +603 5542 8288 Fax: +603 5541 8288 E-mail: Website:


*CPM Europe BV Rijder 2, Zaandam 1507 DN Tel: +31 75 65 12 611

Nel Hydrogen Electrolyser Heddalsvegen 11 Notodden 3671 Tel: +47 350 93838 E-mail: Website:

*Beaver Contromatic Pte Ltd 30 Shaw Road, Unit 02-02 to 06 Singapore 367957 Tel: +65 9069 7671; Fax: +65 6743 1194 E-mail: Website: Other: Ball and butterfly valves, illumination and observation equipment, in-line filters, valves for critical processes *Boerger Pumps Asia Pte Ltd 17 Boon Lay Way, #01-48 Tradehub 21 Singapore 609965 Tel: +65 629 540; Fax: +65 629 542 E-mail: Website: Other: Pumps, macerators *Lipico Technologies Pte Ltd 61 Bukit Batok Crescent Unit 06-03/06 Heng Loong Building Singapore 658078 Tel: +65 6316 7800; Fax: +65 6316 7830 E-mail: Website: Other: Biodiesel and oleochemical refining *Lipotech Project Engineering Pte Ltd 21, Bukit Batok Crescent, #27-75 WCEGA Tower, Singapore 658065 Tel: +65 6515 0027; Fax: +65 6515 0037 E-mail: *Technithon International Pte Ltd 24 Sin Ming Lane #06-98, Midview City Singapore 573970 Tel: +65 6659 2641 E-mail: Website:


Equirepsa Colombia 64, Madrid 28016


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Tel: +34 91 3455444 E-mail: Website: Other: Static mixers, oil coolers, tank mixers (eductors) *Fundiciones Balaguer SA Polig Ind Los Vasalos Parc 104 Onil, Alicante 03430 Tel: +34 96 556 4850 E-mail: Website: *Sepiolsa Pol Ind Miralcampo Avda Del Acero 14-16 Azuqueca De Henares Guadalajara 19200 Tel: +34 9490 10 000 E-mail: Website:


*Perten Instruments PO Box 9006 Hägersten 126 09 Tel: +46 8 505 80 900 E-mail: Website: Tapflo Fileregatan 4 Kungälv S-442 34 Tel: +46 303 63390 Fax: +46 303 19916 E-mail: Website:


*Bühler AG Gupfenstrasse 5 Uzwil 9240 Tel: +41 71 955 11 11 Fax: +41 71 655 33 79 E-mail: Website:

United Arab Emirates

*Ecore LOB 16, Office 313, Jebel Ali Free Zone Dubai 18453 Tel: +971 4887 3071 Fax: +971 4887 3072 E-mail: Website: *Metan FZCO 2293, Jafza View 18 Jebel Ali, Dubai 61389 Tel: +971 4889 5647 Fax: +971 4889 5657 E-mail: Website: Other: Plant oil solvent extraction


Chemtech International Ltd Crownhouse 1 A, High Street Theale Reading RG7 5AH Tel: +44 118 9861222 E-mail: Website: Other: Block wrappers, bag-in-box fillers De Smet Rosedowns Ltd Cannon Street Hull HU2 0AD Tel: +44 1482 329864 Fax: +44 1482 325887 E-mail: Website: *Europa Crown Limited Waterside Business Park, Livingstone Road Hessle, East Yorkshire HU13 0EG Tel: +44 1482 640099 Fax: +44 1482 649194 E-mail: Website: Other: Soya protein concentrates, speciality extraction

*Buss ChemTech AG Hohenrainstrasse 12A Pratteln 4133 Tel: +41 61 825 64 62 E-mail: Website:

*Oxford Instruments Tubney Woods Abingdon OX13 5QX Tel: +44 1865 393 200 Fax: +44 1865 393 333 E-mail: Website:



*Entil AS OSB 15 Cad No: 2 Eskisehir 26110 Tel: +90 222 237 57 46 Fax: +90 222 237 26 75 E-mail: Website: Other: Rolls for oilseed, chocolate, flour and feed industries, cracking, flaking Keller & Vardarci Lrd Sti Cinar Sok No 12 Ege Serbest Bölgesi Gaziemir Izmir 35410 Tel: +90 2324 784814 Fax: +90 2324 784827 E-mail: Website:

OEP Gradoil LLC 37-G, Murmanska Street smt Nove Kropyvnytskyi 25491 Tel: +380 522 27 15 00 E-mail: Website:


*Anderson International Corp 4545 Boyce Parkway Stow Ohio 44224 Tel: +1 216 641 1112 Fax: +1 330 688 0117 E-mail: Website: Other: Pet food, animal feed

Arisdyne Systems Inc 17909 Cleveland Parkway Cleveland, Ohio 44135 Tel: +1 216 458 1991 E-mail: Website: Other: Hydrodynamic cavitation devices *Crown Iron Works 2500 W Country Road C Roseville, Minnesota 55113 Tel: +1 651 639 8900 Fax: +1 651 639 8051 E-mail: Website: *Dupps Company PO Box 95, Germantown, Ohio 45327 Tel: +1 937 855 6555 Fax: +1 937 855 6554 E-mail: Website: *French Oil Mill Machinery Company 1035 W. Greene Street, PO Box 920 Piqua, Ohio 45356 Tel: +1 937 773 3420 Fax: +1 937773 3424 E-mail: Website: Other: Screw presses, lab presses, cookers/ conditioners, flaking mills Oil Dri Corporation of America 410 N Michigan Ave #400, Chicago, Illinois Tel: +1 312 321 1515 E-mail: Website: Other: Bleaching earths Pope Scientific Inc PO Box 80018, Saukville, Wisconsin 53080 Tel: +1 262 268 9300 Fax: +1 262 268 9400 E-mail: Website: Other: Distillation, essential oils and flavours, molecular short path stills *PQ Corporation 300 Lindenwood Dr Malvern, Pennsylvania 19087 Tel: +1 610 651 4200 E-mail: Website: *Westway Terminals 9325 East Avenue S, Houston, Texas 77012 Tel: +1 713 514 1015 Fax: +1 713 924 5032 E-mail: Website: These companies are plant, equipment and technology suppliers to the oils and fats industry who have replied to an OFI questionnaire. Please refer to the chart on the following pages for their areas of operation. *Denotes entries from previous questionnaires ‘Other’ refers to other activities selected in the accompanying chart


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Crude Palm







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Average price















Palm oil Palm oil prices have risen 4% from the beginning of August due to forecasts of lower than expected production from August to December, alongside lower global stocks. Palm oil production is forecast to be lower than expected for the remainder of the year, as 80% of prospective production increases for Malaysia and Indonesia have already taken place. As a result, y-o-y increases in palm oil production between August and December will be small, causing prices to rise. Global palm oil production rose 5% y-o-y in 2016/17 to 62M tonnes. However, high global consumption of the oil, up 4% y-o-y at 63M tonnes, has kept stocks low, down 6% y-o-y at 7.5M tonnes, pushing prices up further. Soyabean oil Soyabean oil prices rose 2% m-o-m in August due to new US legislation, imposing duties on US imports of soyabean oil from Argentina, alongside falling global soyabean production. In March, the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) of America asked the US government to impose duties on imports which were undercutting US soyabean producers. As a result, the US Department of Commerce made the preliminary decision to implement high countervailing duties of between 41% and 68% on Argentinian soyabean oil, driving prices up. Prices came under further upward pressure as a result of reduced forecasts of global soyabean production during 2017/18, down 3% y-o-y at 442M tonnes. There is uncertainty over the condition of the US soyabean crop, which suffered as a result of adverse hot and dry weather during June and July. Additionally, in Argentina, soyabean planted area is forecast to decline and expansion in Brazil is also likely to slow down.

Mintec works in partnership with sales, purchasing and supply chain professionals to deliver valuable insight into worldwide commodity and raw materials markets using innovative technology and a knowledgeable team of specialists. We provide independent insight and trusted data to help the world’s most prestigious brands to make informed commercial decisions. Tel: +44 (0) 1628 851313 E-mail: Website:

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OFI September 2017 Online Edition