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December/January 2018—Vol.41 No.1



Glass International December/January 2018 GI Cover DEC 18.indd 1

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To make glass better, put us in the mix. Improving combustion can enable you to increase glass production, reduce fuel consumption, enhance glass quality, and reduce emissions, such as NOx, SOx, CO₂, and

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December/January 2018 Vol.41 No.1

2 Editor’s Comment


11 Company profile: Thai Glass Industries Thai Malaya Glass unveils fourth Saraburi furnace


4 International news

December/January 2018—Vol.41 No.1


Glass International December/January 2018


17 Company profile: Asia Pacific Glass: APG opens second furnace. 22 Country overview: Thailand: The container glass sector in Thailand. 29 Forming GPS and Bangkok Glass: GPS secures Bangkok Glass contract.

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Front cover image www.pennine.org

17 32

32 34

Company profile: Siam Glass Industry: Siam Glass plots fourth production plant.


Cullet: Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro (SSV) The assessment of glass cullet quality on the redox state.

Company profile: Parkinson-Spencer Refractories: A new generation at family business.

47 Furnaces: Sorg Methods to reduce installation time. 50 Float Glass: Stewart Engineers Build wealth by investing in float glass GLASSMAN ASIA CATALOGUE Lubrication: VDV Lubricants: A safer swabbing lubricant

71 Condat Anadolu Cam’s Eskisehir plant benefits from swabbing oil Plus find us on Linked-In and Twitter.

75 @Glass_Int



Personality profile: VDMA New chairman focuses on digital glassmaking.

78 History: Polarised views.


53 68

1 Glass International December/January 2018

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Editor’s comment

Greg Morris

www.glass-international.com Editor: Greg Morris Tel: +44 (0)1737 855132 Email: gregmorris@quartzltd.com Designer: Annie Baker Tel: +44 (0)1737 855130 Email: anniebaker@quartzltd.com Sales Director: Ken Clark Tel: +44 (0)1737 855117 Email: kenclark@quartzltd.com

Thai market enjoys unprecedented growth



sk anyone in the sector in what countries the glass industry is developing at the moment and the answer is usually quick and decisive: Thailand and Mexico. Both countries are enjoing an unprecedented boom in glassmaking for varying reasons. Mexico for its beer and tequila markets, Thailand both for its energy drinks, and its flourishing beer market, which has helped propel the domestic glassmaking sector. It’s no coincidence that two major container glass events take place in these countries soon: Glassman Latin America in March and, first, Glassman Asia in Bangkok at the end of January. Both events aim to bring suppliers and manufacturers of the hollow and container glassmaking sectors together in these countries. The events are free to attend and both will include conferences on the industry’s hot topic: digital glassmaking. The Thai event has 13 speakers confirmed so far, and will be launched with a welcome speech by Viwat Supatham, General Manager of Siam Glass and Chairman of two associations in Thailand and the Asean region. I met Khun Viwat and a number of other Thai glassmakers at their production sites during a recent visit to the country. Each of the glassmakers were passionate about their topic and discussed their

trade with warmth and insight. Their energy was enough to clear my befuddled brain of its jetlag. It was an exciting time to be in the country. A number of the container glass manufacturers had either just launched new furnaces or were in the process of constructing or considering new plants. Some of the Thai manufacturers discuss the recent furnace openings in this issue. One of the most eye-catching stories of recent years has been the growth of the Carabao energy drink. The Thai company was only formed in recent years but has overtaken Red Bull to become the second most popular energy drink. Carabao has broken into international markets and has also become associated with English football thanks to two sponsorship agreements. Its glassmaking divison, APG, recently opened its second furnace and Glass International was given a tour of the new facility, just east of Bangkok. Further north, Thai Malaya Glass recently opened its fourth furnace, SB4. The company discusses the facility in these pages. Finally, Khun Viwat talks about Siam Glass’s future plans for a new brownfield plant, due to open in 2019. �

Greg Morris, Editor gregmorris@quartzltd.com

Quartz Glass Portfolio

Monthly journal for the industry worldwide

Directory 2017 Annual international reference source



Sales Executive: Manuel Martin Quereda Tel: +44 (0)1737 855023 Email: manuelm@quartzltd.com Production Executive: Martin Lawrence Managing Director: Steve Diprose Chief Executive Officer: Paul Michael Subscriptions: Elizabeth Barford Tel: +44 (0)1737 855028 Fax: +44 (0)1737 855034 Email: subscriptions@quartzltd.com

Published by Quartz Business Media Ltd, Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road, Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1737 855000. Fax: +44 (0)1737 855034. Email: glass@quartzltd.com Website: www.glass-international.com

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Glass International annual subscription rates including Glass International Directory: For one year: UK £173, all other countries £242. For two years: UK £308, all other countries £432. Airmail prices on request. Single copies £47.

Printed in UK by: Pensord, Tram Road, Pontlanfraith, Blackwood, Gwent NP12 2YA, UK. Glass International Directory 2017 edition: UK £206, all other countries £217. Printed in UK by: Marstan Press Ltd, Kent DA7 4BJ Glass International (ISSN 0143-7838) (USPS No: 020-753) is published 10 times per year by Quartz Business Media Ltd, and distributed in the US by DSW, 75 Aberdeen Road, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville, PA. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Glass International c/o PO Box 437, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437.

Glassman specialist exhibitions rotate between America, Asia and Europe © Quartz Business Media Ltd, 2017 ISSN 0143-7838

Glass International December/January 2018

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International News


Bulgaria forms association

The Bulgarian glass industry is to be represented by the Association of Glass Producers in Bulgaria. The Association of Glass Producers in Bulgaria brings together the members of the glass industry in Bulgaria. Its objective is to represent the interests of the domestic glass industry at home and within the European Union. Lydia Shouleva, President of the Association of Glass Producers, said: “The Bulgarian glass industry has made great progress in the last decade, thanks to the investments of the manufacturers.”

Sisecam in the black

Sisecam Group reported consolidated net sales of TL 8 billion ($2.02 billion) and a net profit of TL 1.2 billion ($303.4 million) in the first nine months of 2017. In the same period, Sisecam, a group with manufacturing activities in 13 countries in three continents and sales in all around the world, produced 3.6 million tons of glass, 1.7 million tons of soda and 2.7 million tons of industrial raw materials.

Heye Inspection system


Self-learning systems are one of the cornerstones of Industry 4.0. Heye’s Ranger 2 camera check detection is a market solution. Heye’s clear product strategy, integrating latest camera solutions, remains unchanged. Ranger 2’s Intelligent Cloud Masking System creates an individual cover area for noncritical reflections, avoiding influences from reference containers while keeping the mask as small as possible. The self-learning system does not require manually selecting/inspecting hundreds of check-free reference containers in order to adjust the system. Ranger 2 is scalable for horizontal, vertical, shoulder or bottom checks. It is fully available in every country without any legal restriction.

Verescence unveils €30 million investment at Mers-Les-Bains

French perfumery and cosmetic glass manufacturer Verescence has unveiled its largest glass melting furnace at its flagship plant. It spent €30 million to renovate its Mers-Les-Bains site in the Somme region of France, of which €11 million was spent for the reconstruction of the furnace.

The investment was part of its Excellence 2018 plan and more specifically the Mers 2018 plan. The new furnace has a reduced energy consumption of 15% and a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. It is the group’s largest with an output capacity of 700,000 bottles a day. The furnace is dedicated

to bottles made with Xtra Flint glass, a glass of an outstanding quality and appreciated by high-end perfumery players for its brightness and transparency. The rebuilding of the furnace was an opportunity to renovate the entire manufacturing area through improvements in work efficiency and working conditions.

Orda Glass closer to completion Stewart Engineers, an investor, EPC contractor, and technical advisor for the Orda Glass facility in Kazakhstan has completed the process steel installation for the project. The 600 tonnes/day facility will be Kazakhstan’s first float production line and is due to be completed in 2018. China Triumph engineering group has recently been added to the project, taking over civil construction from a domestic builder. On completion, the site will manufacture products including pyrolytic nanotechnology

coated glass (low-e pro, solar control, reflective, TCO) with glass thickness ranging from 2-12mm, as well as architectural and automotive glass.

Orda Glass will also have laminating capabilities with future expansion to other value added products.

Horn Glass Industries buys Zippe Vibrotube batch chargers Zippe has sold two Vibrotube batch charger’s to fellow German company Horn. The batch chargers will be used by Slovakian end customer and glass container manu-

facturer Vetropack Nemsova. Zippe said its Vibrotube batch charger stands out due to its fully sealed dog house inlet in comparison to conventional chargers on the market,

with less wear, an improved batch dispersion in the melting bath, better adjustment possibilities as well as energy savings.

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4 Glass International December/January 2018

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International News

Sisecam to build new furnace

RHI completes merger

Refractories supplier RHI has completed its merger with Magnesita Refractories. The deal was subject to buyer approval by the European Commission, which has now been obtained. A total of €40.0 million is payable upon completion and €2.6m will be paid on the second anniversary of the closing date. The new company is called RHI Magnesita.

tons by launching a new furnace. It will be equipped with new technology in accordance with Industry 4.0 and have a production capacity of 150 thousand tons per year.

Sisecam to install Xpar technology Sisecam is to install Xpar Vision hot end technology at its plants in Yenisehir, Eskisehir and Mersin, Turkey. The installation of Xpar Vision’s InfraRed Gobweight Control (IGC) systems at its blow-blow production lines means the Turkish glass pack-

aging company can extend the control of the forming process by automatic closed loop control of the weight of the gobs, performed by IGC. Mr. Cengizhan Göçer, Production Manager of the Eskisehir plant said: “We have installed the IGC systems in

several blow-blow production lines and we appreciate their performance. “For our most important customers we decided to install more automatic control systems to increase the stability and repeatability of the bottle forming process.”

Iris strengthens in SE Asia Iris Inspection machines has strengthened its engineering support and spare parts to hollow glass industry customers throughout South East Asia. In collaboration with Upper House Engineering of Bangkok, support is available 24 hours/day, seven days/week via a team of three engineers who speak Thai and English.

This includes all remote services for Evolution inspection machines connected to a network and in particular, diagnostics and remote adjustments. Iris has more than 200 machines operating in Thailand alone.Domestic customers include Bangkok Glass Industry, L Lighting Glass, Siam Glass

Industry, Thai Glass Industries and Wellgrow Glass Industry. Further orders have been received in recent weeks from Bangkok Glass Industry for installation during 2018. Iris Inspection machines will participate at the Glassman Asia exhibition at BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand on 24-25 January 2018.

SGT President optimistic Society of Glass Technology President, Bill Brookes, set an optimistic tone at its annual Christmas dinner dance, writes Sally Roberts. The event, organised by the Yorkshire section of the SGT, was the 83rd of its kind and was well attended by UK glass manufacturers, suppliers and industry veterans. During the event, the socie-

ty’s recently elected President Bill Brookes called on the glass industry as a whole to support the SGT and its efforts, as well as underlining that he is eager to better understand how the SGT can help the industry. “I’d like to say thank you, it is an honour and a privilege to be asked to do this. “It would appear that the British glass industry, despite

everything, its demise has been sadly and greatly over exaggerated. It is great to see you all here tonight. “I would like to go and visit as many clients and companies in the UK as possible, during the time that I am President. When I come to see you, I will want to talk about what the industry wants, and what we can do for you.”

Fresno marks 50 years

Vitro Architectural Glass’s Fresno, California, float glass manufacturing plant is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The milestone comes as the facility implements new technology to enhance the environmental performance of the glass-manufacturing process for Starphire UltraClear glass and other residential and commercial flat glass products. The plant was acquired by Vitro Glass in 2016 when the company purchased PPG’s flat glass manufacturing and glass coatings operations in the US and Canada. The Fresno plant employs 150 people and produces 600 tons of glass per day, ranging in thickness from 2.5 to 12mm.

Ottawa plant to reopen

NSG Group/Pilkington’s Ottawa, Illinois float glass plant is scheduled to reopen in December 2017, according to company officials. The plant was damaged by a tornado in February, and the plant’s furnace started cold repair in May. Richard Altman, NSG regional director, said: “Because of the extended downtime, the decision was made to move forward on a full furnace rebuild. “Once all repairs are finished, it is still projected the plant will restore production in December. “A real positive is that we have been able to keep our employees working throughout the process.”


Sisecam is to build a 410t/d furnace at its Eskisehir glass packaging factory in Turkey. Sisecam will increase the annual production capacity of glass packaging in Turkey to approximately 1.2 million


5 Glass International December/January 2018

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13/12/2017 14:35:38

Encirc opens rail terminal for glass cullet at Elton

Introducing the Cleanfire® ThruPorte™ burner A prescription for aging regenerators Undergoing regenerator repairs or having difficulty maintaining full production in an aging furnace? Turn to Air Products’ new Cleanfire® ThruPorte Oxy-fuel burner for an onthe-fly heating solution to avoid downtime or extend your furnace campaign. This patented and commercially-proven technology, installed from the underside of your port, allows you to add heat where and when its needed. Key features: • Tandem water-cooled oxy-fuel burner and oxygen staging lance • Proven durable design that can be easily installed in an existing port, while the furnace is running • Adjustable flame length and angle for optimal heat distribution and surface coverage • Remote, wireless and continuous online monitoring of burner performance • Available for rapid deployment To make glass better, put Air Products in the mix.

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UK glass container manufacturer and bottler, Encirc, has received its first shipment of recycled cullet to its new purpose-built railhead in Elton, UK. The delivery marks the opening of the new terminal, which is expected to reduce Encirc’s operational carbon emissions by more than 2400 tonnes every year. The new railhead also will allow the manufacturer to receive 78% of the sand it needs by rail. By

connecting to the British rail network, Encirc is considerably reducing its reliance on roads by around 6600 HGV journeys every year. The site the manufacturer occupies in Elton was once a power station that operated its own railhead. Since opening its Cheshire plant in 2005, Encirc has invested in redeveloping the trainline. Andrew Morris, Head of Logistics, Encirc said: “The reopening of the railhead

has been a ground-breaking development for us. We know that our customers – much like ourselves – place sustainability high on their list of priorities.”

Bangkok Float Glass plans second furnace and factory Bangkok Float Glass (BGF) plans to invest Bt7.5 billion ($229.7 million) in another furnace and factory in the next five years, reports The Nation. The expansion is line with the company’s business plan to boost sale revenue from Bt500 million ($15.3 million) this year to approximately Bt4 billion

($122.5 million) over the period, driven by exports. The company’s goal is to be a leading glass manufacturer and distributor in Asean. BGF is a manufacturer and distributor of float glass panels under the Bangkok Glass (BG) company. BGF recently launched its first glass factory with

a production capacity of 219,000 tonnes per year. BGF Float Glass is located in Srimahaphote, Prachinburi, Thailand covering an area of 150 rais. The factory’s construction budget of Bt5 billion has taken into accounts an expansion in capacity to meet demand in domestic and other Asean markets.

ilis delivers 100th StrainScope Polarimeter to Spanish group ilis has installed its 100th StrainScope real time polarimeter. The 100th installed instrument is a StrainScope S4/20 cord tester for Vidrieras Canarias, in Las Palmas, Spain (part of the Verallia group) and is used to perform fast and easy measurement of cord stresses close to production.

A steadily growing worldwide customer base appreciates the reliable and operator-independent instruments of the StrainScope series, which are optimised for various stress measurement tasks. The robust housing and user-friendly software interface make the StrainScope a versatile and reliable tool for industrial

quality assurance and process optimisation. Henning Katte, Managing Director of ilis: “The whole team at ilis is proud of the StrainScope’s technical and commercial success. We thank all customers and partners for the excellent business relationships and we are looking forward to expand this in the following years.”

6 Glass International December/January 2018 3/10/17 11:12 AM

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International News


Xinyi Glass Holdings to open Canadian plant

China’s Xinyi Glass Holdings has selected Ontario, Canada as the location for its first North American manufacturing facility, a float glass plant. Xinyi’s planned CAD450 million investment, outlined in an agreement in principle signed between Xinyi and the province, would create 400 jobs in Ontario.

Press Glass to build Polish facility

Poland’s Press Glass is to build another production facility. The 20,000m2 facility will be constructed in the West Pomeranian Province of Poland. The site will be Press Glass’s 12th manufacturing facility and production will start in the second half of 2018. The facility will increase its production capacity and employment in several stage. The facility will expand the potential to service manufacturers of window and door joinery in Poland and other countries in Northern and Western Europe.

Verallia graduation


In Chalon-sur-Saône, France, nine students from the second promotion of Verallia’s glass school were awarded their diploma, together with an employment contract. Over two years, they followed a demanding training course to become experts in the hot end: the section of glass factories where molten material is transformed into bottles. Founded in 2013, the Verallia glass school in France trains the future technical managers and supervisors of Verallia France’s seven glass plants. The two-year course accelerates the transfer of knowledge for expert positions, to which employees gain access traditionally after ten years of internal training.

Top 10 stories in the news Our most popular news over the past month, as determined by our website traffic All full stories can be found on our website, www.glass-international.com/news � 1. Heinz-Glas unveils digital flacon � 2. Sisecam to build furnace at Eskisehir factory � 3. Verescence unveils €30 million glass investment � 4. AGC Glass orders Zippe equipment � 5. Uzbek glass container plant to invest $178 million � 6. Encirc opens rail terminal for glass cullet � 7. Ardagh Group wins Packaging Company of the Year � 8. PepsiCo India to use non-returnable glass bottles � 9. Speakers confirmed for Bangkok glass conference � 10. Iris offers support for glass customers in South-East Asia

Uzbek glass container plant plans to invest $178 million Uzbekistan glass container manufacturer Asl Ojna plans to implement eight investment projects by 2021 with a total cost of $178 million. The company will triple

the production of glassware from 200 million to 600 million conventional units a year thanks to the construction and commissioning of numbers 3, 4 and 5 glass melting

furnaces and a raw materials enrichment plant for glass production worth approximately $130 million. It has also appointed Farid Safargariev as Acting Director.

SAGCO orders SIL system Saudi Arabian Glass Company (SAGCO), has completed the installation of Vertech’s SIL solutiuon with several modules in its Jeddah plant. The plant has already relied on SIL for production line

monitoring on 13 lines, was first equipped with SILC ten years ago. SAGCO produces containers with high quality standards from glass composition to finished containers.

The SIL solution on site is now a complete solution including SILMould for the management of mould sets and repairs on moulds, SILC on printing line and Pallet Audit to track defected pallets.

Court rules in favour of Tiama In a decision dated September 19, 2017 (file No. X ZR 114 /15) the German Federal Supreme Court (BGH) ruled in favour of Tiama. It was declared that the German part of the Tiama’s European Patent 1 147 405 is valid and can be opposed to infringes. The Düsseldorf’s civil court had earlier taken a final and binding decision on infringement. The validity of the pat-

ent had been questioned by Heye International but Germany’s highest patent court found the patent fulfilled the requirements of a novelty and inventive step; and, the challenges brought against the patent were unfounded. The judgment is the latest episode in Tiama’s efforts to defend its intellectual property. Tiama said: “With the validity of this key patent con-

firmed, Tiama will keep on seeking damage claims against users of this technology. “Tiama will continue to defend its intellectual property portfolio. “We will protect the company’s R&D efforts and hope that continued enforcement will eventually discourage further competitors from infringing our proprietary patented technologies.”

VISIT: www.glass-international.com – For daily news updates and regular features

8 Glass International December/January 2018

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13/12/2017 14:35:42

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Company profile: Thai Glass Industries (TGI)

Thai Malaya Glass unveils fourth Saraburi furnace Thai Malaya Glass recently unveiled its fourth furnace at its Saraburi plant in Thailand. The 300t/day furnace has five production lines and will make small and medium sized bottles, mainly in flint. Greg Morris visited Thailand to talk to Boonsak Stitmannaithum, Executive Vice President of Operations of Thai Malaya Glass and Thai Glass Industries.

� Khun Boonsak with Greg Morris.




hai Malaya Glass’s (TMG) furnace number 4 project at its Saraburi plant is one of the most modern and efficient in the world. The furnace and production line, named by the company as SB4, was supplied by some of the world’s leading glass manufacturing technology providers. Within a few weeks of start-up, the line had reached an efficiency of 90%, something which Khun Boonsak Stitmannaithum, Executive Vice President of Operations at TMG and parent company, Thai Glass Industries, is understandably proud. “We reached 91% yesterday so we are extremely pleased,” he states. “SB4 reached 90% after the first few weeks of operation and that is a new benchmark for us. We have a very good team and we had very good preparation as well. “We are very pleased so far. The production line is modern, more efficient and has a well-planned layout. We worked as a team on this and listened to the workers on what they wanted from a new production line.”

11 Glass International December/January 2018

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Company profile: Thai Glass Industries (TGI)

SB4 will produce 300t/day of mostly flint glass and supply five production lines. The majority of bottles made on the line will be for soya milk, which is a growing market in Thailand. The batch plant, regenerative furnace and forehearths were supplied by German partner companies EME and Sorg. The forming equipment was from Bucher Emhart Glass, the annealing lehr from Antonini, inspection equipment from O-I, sensor equipment from Xpar Vision and the packing system from Italy’s Zecchetti. Furnace heat-up took place on October 6 and the first glass came out on October 20. Most of the glass made from the site will be supplied to the north of Thailand. The Saraburi site is located 120 north east of the capital Bangkok. Mr Alexander Sorg, Managing Partner of Sorg attended the warm up ceremony – his company also supplied all the other furnaces to the plant. “We want energy efficiency when it comes to a new furnace and Sorg provides that. We were pleased with the performance of SB3 and we are familiar and comfortable using Sorg furnaces.” Construction of SB4 took 13 months and was a straightforward operation, states Khun Boonsak. “We all feel a sense of pride about it. Normally when we do a new project like a new furnace, the delays come from the main construction rather than the equipment, but this time we had a really good contractor construction company and everything was perfect. Just like SB3 it is a very modern furnace and production line. “The MPX 2 inspection machines from O-I are more modern. We are using Emhart AIS forming machines in NNPB for the first time. It is still early days but we are happy.”

Largest container manufacturer Thai Malaya Glass became part of Thai Glass Industries (TGI), Thailand’s largest glass container manufacturer, when TGI acquired it seven years

� Work has already begun on a fifth furnace at Saraburi.

ago. At the time the plant only had one furnace. Since then there has been plenty of investment in the Saraburi plant culminating in SB4. The site was chosen as a strategic location because of its proximity to a gas pipe, as well as to the key north and north east of Thailand, where the company sells a lot of bottles. Construction has continued at the site with a fifth furnace, SB5, due to open in August. SB5 will have a capacity of 400t/day, have five production lines and manufacture mostly amber bottles. There are two reasons for the company’s recent expansion. One is the increased demand for glass containers, both in Thailand and in neighbouring countries abroad. The other has been the closing of TGI’s Rajburana plant in central Bangkok, which has been substituted by Saraburi’s output. The remaining glass container manufacturing plant owned by TGI is based at Bangplee, south of Bangkok and close to the city’s airport. The Bangplee site has five furnaces and mainly serves the Bangkok urban market and a number of food processors to the west of the city. Its largest furnace is BP5 with a capacity of 435t/day. All bar one of the group’s furnaces are equipped with electric boosters. A company suggestion to build a 215t/day furnace in neighbouring Myanmar has been put on hold for the time being. “The electricity supply is not stable enough there. But maybe in two or three years time we will re-consider.”

Flexibility Thai Malaya Glass and Thai Glass Industries supply 50% of their output to sister company, ThaiBev. The brewer makes Thai drinks such as Chang beer, Mangkorn Thong rum and Chang Soda Water. The remaining half of TMG and TGI’s output are supplied to outside customers and includes beverage bottles and food jars. It means the company is used to making job changes on its production lines and is a factor that makes TMG and TGI stand out from other container glassmakers in Thailand.


12 Glass International December/January 2018

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Company profile: Thai Glass Industries (TGI)

Khun Boonsak states: “We had 600 job changes this year and with the introduction of SB4 that figure will rise to 680 job changes next year. We regularly have two job changes a day at our plants and that can sometimes rise to three or four a day, which is a credit to our staff. “We want to be as flexible as possible to our customers and that means more job changes and smaller lots of production. Next year we will start two jobs on the same machine. The software is already installed on the forming machines, but in order to do that we have to have the cold end area prepared as well. “We are different to other glass manufacturers in Thailand, because compared to us they have very few job changes while and some have none at all because they supply the majority of their production to their own in-house customer.” The company is also the only container manufacturer in Thailand to make green glass.

people trained and experienced in glass.” Among its new technology are a swabbing robot from Heye and a Socabelec lubricant at TGI’s Bangplee site. “The forming operator can do a lot more on defect correction and there are also benefits in terms of the amount of liquid we use now.”

Training To encourage more people to join the industry the company has run its own school for the past three years. Students study both in college and in a plant, where they gain practical experience of glassmaking. It also has its own institute, the Thai Glass Technology centre, which provides training in all aspects of hot end glassmaking. Khun Boonsak has been involved in the glass industry for 44 years. His father started a family cullet supply business – the first in Thailand – providing glass to Thailand’s glassmakers. He started working for TGI five years ago working for TGI’s parent company Berli Jucker (BJC) for eight years. “I’ve gone from breaking glass to making glass,” he states. He still derives plenty of enjoyment and interest from the glass industry. “Time flies very quickly in the glass industry. There is always something to think about. One year here feels like three months, because everything moves so quickly. Compared to other industries, we might not have many issues, but the ones we have are big and challenging and make you think. “The process of making glass is becoming more sophisticated and you really have to follow that to be able to compete in the market.” �

Digital technology

� SB4 is one of the most modern and efficient production lines.

Thai Glass Industries, Bangplee, Samutprakarn, Bangkok, Thailand www.thaiglass.co.th


The Saraburi site employs 1150 staff, which will rise by 200 when SB5 starts next year. “Compared to Europe, that is a lot,” admits Khun Boonsak. “But previously our labour costs were cheap. So when we try to implement robotics or industry 4.0 it’s difficult to find a break even point because the labour costs had been so cheap. “We know that the future is automation but the price of these systems are still very high compared to people. But we have moved to automation because even if you want people you cannot always find them because the glass industry does not appeal to new job seekers. “We believe in technology. We think the future is a combination of new technology and new engineers who bring fresh ideas to the industry. We need automation not for the replacement of existing people, but because we don’t have enough

14 Glass International December/January 2018

Company profile TGI.indd 3

13/12/2017 14:37:10

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Company profile: Asia Pacific Glass (APG)

APG opens second furnace Thailand’s Asia Pacific Glass (APG) was only formed in 2013 but it has already invested in a new furnace to cope with extra demand. The container glass manufacturer makes bottles for the Carabao beverage, which aims to become Thailand’s largest energy drink. Greg Morris visited the site.

� Top: Khun Komson Worapattrakul (left) and Khun Natiwat Nookua of APG. Inset: the Carabao bottle is the second most popular Thai energy drink.

from Fives. Bucher Emhart Glass provided the forming machines and the annealing lehr came from Italy’s Antonini. Inspection equipment came from Tiama while the production line conveyor and palletiser was provided by Italy’s Emmeti and Sipac. AGR International’s Bangkok office also supplied quality control machinery. The Carabao Dang company was formed in August 2001 and launched its first energy drink in October 2002. The name Carabao comes from the company’s association with the Thai country music band Carabao and translates as The Fighting Spirit, which was adopted as the company’s slogan. The major shareholders include company chairman Khun Sathien Setthasit ,and the Carabao band’s founder and lead singer Aed Carabao. The drink can be found in major stores overseas such as Tesco and Sainsbury and, in the 2017 season, it became a principal sponsor of Chelsea Football Club in the UK.

APG formation APG was formed when the company’s Chairman approached three experienced glassmakers at Siam Glass. The men, Khun Nikom Ariyakulnimit, Khun Komson Worapattrakul and Khun Sunk, were asked if they were interested in starting a new glass packaging company, to which they said yes. The three men glassmakers secured contractors to build the facility and then used their experience Continued>>



he story of Asia Pacific Glass’s (APG) rise is an inspirational one. The parent company of Thailand’s newest container glass manufacturer was only formed 15 years ago. Yet, today, it sells a global energy drink throughout the world, found in some of the globe’s largest stores and has even sponsored globally renowned football teams. The Carabao energy drink has already overtaken the Red Bull beverage as the second most consumed sports beverage in the Thai market. Now it has its sights on the top place currently occupied by the M150 brand. Key to Carabao’s rise in popularity in recent years has been its glass offering. The drink is available in 150ml amber bottles all of which are produced by APG at its location in Chachoengsao, approximately an hour’s drive east of Bangkok. It currently produces 60 million bottles a month, or 720 million bottles a year. Despite only starting up in 2013, with one 310t/ day furnace, it unveiled its second furnace at the end of November 2017, which has more than doubled its production capacity. Furnace number 2 also has a capacity of 310t/d but, unlike furnace 1, has been installed with electric boosters, which will increase its output to 330t/day. The Thai glassmaker has used the same technology partners for the furnace 2 investment project as for furnace 1. The batch plant and furnace was supplied by Japan’s Asahi Glass Company (AGC) while the working end and forehearth came

17 Glass International December/January 2018

Company profile APG.indd 1

13/12/2017 14:37:43


and industry contacts to hire staff who had retired from other glass plants, such as furnace, forming and maintenance personnel. They also hired a number of young and inexperienced workers who were all keen and wanted to learn about glassmaking. The number of staff has gorwn at the site to 210, which is expected to rise to 400 in the coming months. The three former Siam Glass employees are still with APG and play an active role in its day-today activity. Khun Nikom is Assistant Managing Director, Khun Komson is Deputy Director while Khun Sunk is a Director. On the day of my visit both Khun Nikom and Khun Komson gave me a warm welcome. They were joined by Khun Natiwat Nookua, a Production Manager, who joined the company in 2013. It is clear the three men have a passion for glass and take pride in the company. Khun Nikom has worked in the sector for more than 40 years and is a former chairman of the Thai Glass Manufacturers Industry Club at the Federation of Thai Industries (GMFTI). Khun Komson has worked in the glass industry for 37 years and said: “There are many things to learn about glassmaking, it is not like other materials because not only do you need the skill and experience, you need the knowledge too. For example, there are so many causes to just one defect. So not only do you have to know things by the book but you have to learn how to solve things

� Furnace number 2 will more than double APG’s production capacity.

on the production line too.” Khun Natiwat said that working for a company linked to the Carabao drink was an exciting prospect. “We have only been around for a few years yet we have taken over from Red Bull. I think this drive and ambition comes from our Chairman who started the business. “He started from nothing, he had to work hard to build it and make the dream a reality. He showed the fighting spirit of our slogan.” Carabao was the first energy drink to contain the vitamin B12. Khun Nikom said: “The people who drink this not only have energy there are health benefits too. Since we have done this the other energy drinks have copied us. But we were the first.” It ran a successful and creative marketing campaign which saw its Bao Dang Girls travel throughout Thailand to promote its activities and sell the brand direct from local shops. 2016 marked the group’s best year in the domestic market with an all-time highest energy drink market share of 24%.

Strategic location The Chachoengsao site was chosen as a strategic location for glassmaking site due to its proximity to a natural gas pipe. It is also close to Bangkok’s port and the main motorway to the city. Construction of the $46 million furnace one project started in June 2013 and production began in July 2014. Also on the 320,000m2 site is a 5400m2 warehouse that can store up to 32 million bottles, a bottle filling plant and can filling plant. The three staff are excited by the prospects that Furnace 2 offers. Construction began in January 2017 and took 10 months to complete. The benefits of the furnace mean the company no longer has to source some of its glass from elsewhere because Continued>>

18 Glass International December/January 2018

Company profile APG.indd 2

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Company profile: Asia Pacific Glass (APG)

it did not have enough capacity of its own. Like furnace one, the oven will have three production lines. Unlike furnace one, the lines on furnace 2 will not just be only triple gob. The company is expanding its product range so the line will have a double gob conversion attached to it, meaning the operator can change the gob and the bottle size as well. Khun Komson said: “We are very proud of this moment. It’s our furnace two, we’ve made it from scratch. There are a lot of proud people in the plant at the moment. It is like our baby. It has grown and grown and now it has been delivered. Now we want to look after it, develop it and ensure it has a long life.” None of the glass workers were phased by the construction period and the challenges it brought. Khun Natiwat said: “It has been a new experience for all of us. Before we only took care of production in furnace one. Then, since January we had to take care of production in furnace one and construction in furnace 2. We worked harder together. It helped we had people with experience who had built furnace 1 in 2013 and who could guide us. We started on the second furnace only three years after the first, so we knew the problems and where we went wrong before, what went right and what we knew had to change. We learnt from our past experience and that is why we coped.” As well as the electric boosters in the furnace, new technology on the furnace two production line includes a vacuum system on the forming machine, which reduces the weight of the bottle. It is also considering using an Xpar Vision inspection machine to check for defects as well as a swabbing robot from Socabelec. The ambition of the APG staff matches that of the company’s owners. “Our company name is Asia Pacific Glass and we want to be the number one in Asia Pacific,” added Khun Nikom. �

� The site uses modern manufaturing equipment supplied by several European technology providers.

Asia Pacific Glass, Chachoengsao, Bang Pakong district, Thailand, www.carabao.co.th

20 Glass International December/January 2018

Company profile APG.indd 3

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Country overview: Thailand

� Construction at Bangkok Float Glass’s Ratchaburi site.

Unquenched thirst in the Thai container glass industry Regular capacity additions, investments in modern technology and healthy demand from the three main consuming sub-segments has enabled Thailand’s container glass industry to achieve the tag of super-achiever in the South East Asian container glass sector, reports Seema Gahault.

W www.glass-international.com

ith a total installed capacity of about 7500 tons per day, Thailand is the largest container glass producer in South East

Asia. The total value of Thailand’s glass container industry is estimated at more than Bt30 billion ($901 million). After two years of modest growth, the industry grew by 4-5% year on year in the first six months. Growth in the years 2015 and 2016 was subdued due to slow economic growth. The current rise in the container glass industry is far below the above 10% growth for a number of years in the 2010 - 2014 period. The lower growth rate now is due to a decrease in the volume of glass packaging production and distribution, as there is a tendency for more use of PET bottles for certain types of beverages.

However, fuelled by an expanding middle class income, the short and medium term prospects of Thailand’s container glass industry are bright. The country is a tourist and shopping paradise, visited by 30 million tourists a year. The country’s rapid urbanisation, which has increased to 50.4% in 2015 – up from 38.8% in 2006 has provided container glass producers a large market to cater to. The above-mentioned factors and a sustained improvement in household incomes, which support the growth of consumer spending on discretionary items, such as lifestyle products and services will provide sizable opportunities for container glass producers for a number of years.


22 Glass International December/January 2018

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Country overview:Thailand

Beer industry The two large brewers (Boon Rawd Brewery and Thai Beverage) account for the lion’s share of total beer production in the country. While the former claims a 59% share of the Thai beer market (the low-priced Leo beer alone counts for 32% of all beer sold in Thailand), ThaiBev with a market share of 32% is the second largest producer. Thai Asia Pacific, the producer of Heineken, has a 4% share, while, small and niche producers account for the remaining 5%.

Overall manufacturing capacity in the second half of 2017 will be higher than the demand for glass bottles, while competition will remain intense in the non-alcoholic beverages and food sector. All container glass producers are pursuing varied marketing strategies to maintain existing customers and looking to acquire new customers.

Demand drivers Thailand’s container glass market is driven by the beverage industry. The country’s tropical climate, rapid urbanisation and huge number of tourists have driven beverage consumption to record highs. Importance of beverages (alcoholic and non alcoholic) can be understood from the fact that four of the main container glass producers are subsidiaries of beverage producers. Their parent companies have either acquired the container glass producers or set up their own dedicated container glass-producing units to minimise the cost of glass containers for their captive usage. Bangkok Glass (parent company Boon Rawd Brewery), Thai Glass Industry (parent company Berli Jucker Corporation), Siam Glass Industry (parent company Osotspa Group) and Asia Pacific Glass (parent company Carabao Deng) all serve most of the container glass requirements of their parent companies.



Energy drinks No country in the world is even close to Thailand in the use of energy drinks on a per capita basis. The average adult inhabitant in the country drinks about 15 litres of energy drinks. Thailand is credited with giving the world the Red Bull energy drink. But the long time market leader is not Red Bull but Osotspa’s M150. Red Bull was invented in 1975 in Thailand as a drink made with caffeine, sugar, and the amino acid, taurine. The drink was named Krating Daeng, or red bull in Thai. It was sold as an inexpensive energy drink in Asia until 1987, when Thai businessman teamed up with the Austrian Dietrich Mateschitz. In the intervening years, Red Bull has helped create a booming industry, with global energy drinks sales of $43 billion in 2015 (Source: Euromonitor). In the past decade another local rival has stolen a march on Red Bull to become No. 2: Carabao Dang, named after a music band led by popular folk singer Aed Carabao. Sold in glass bottles imprinted with its buffalo skull logo, Carabao is also sold in a number of nearby countries. However the glass industry benefited only by the domestic consumption of energy drinks. To increase its export capabilities, Carabao has partnered with a unit of Japan’s Showa Denko for aluminium can production. It looks to raise its overseas sales to 50% of all sales by the end of this year, from the current 30%. Most of the export sales come through aluminium cans instead of glass bottles.

23 Glass International December/January 2018

Country overview Seema Thai.indd 2

13/12/2017 15:58:52

Container Glass Producers in Thailand Pic courtesy of Asia Pacific

Asia Pacific Glass (APG)


An interview with Asia Pacific Glass appears on page 17 of this issue. The exclusive manufacturer of the the Carabao energy drink bottle is based to the east of Bangkok. It opened its second furnace at the end of 2017 which has increased its total capacity to approximately 640t/day.

Thai Glass Industries

Bangkok Glass Company The largest container glass producer in Thailand, Bangkok Glass Company operates five glasscontainer plants in Thailand with a combined production capacity of 3,735 tons per day. Its annual output is about 1.2 million tons (equivalent to 4.5 billion glass containers). Bangkok Glass’s production facilities are located at Pathum Thani, Ayutthaya, Khon Kaen, Rayong and Prachin Buri. The company currently controls 39% of the Bt30 billion ($899.3 million) worth Container Glass Plant

Installed Capacity

� Table 1. Bangkok Glass Company’s manufacturing capacity.

Number of Furnaces

Production Lines

Pathum Thani

560 TPD




240 TPD



Khon Kaen

735 TPD




180 TPD



1,620 TPD



Ayudhya Ratchaburi (To commence operations in 2018)


Total (Current)







Thailand’s glass container market. In June, Bangkok Glass said it would build a 400 tonnes a day furnace in Ratchaburi, Thailand at a cost of Bt 2 billion ($58.8 million). The factory would support greater domestic demand for glass. It will also help Bangkok Glass to overcome an energy shortage in the company’s factory in Rayong, which is facing an inadequate supply of natural gas. The Ratchaburi plant will be completed and ready to start operations in the third quarter of 2018. According to Supasin Leelarit, Bangkok Glass Group’s executive vice president: “As we want to supply our glass container products and services to our customers, we have to locate our factories in various areas where our customers’ plants are located. For example in Khon Kaen and Prachin Buri, our factories are located next to our

customers’, such as Boon Rawd and Kratingdaeng.” “BGC aims to grow its sales by 10% to 920,000 tonnes this year. We increased our sales by about 4% year on year basis in the first six months of this year,” according to Supasin. The company exports almost 10% of its production to countries including Myanmar, Malaysia, Australia, Spain and South Africa. The company’s exports to Spain have increased in the last few years. “Our exports are aimed at coping with the problem of economic fluctuations in Thailand. However, the internal demand for glass containers in Thailand is still high and we are able to sustain our growth every year. So we need to respond to domestic demand as our priority. That is why we keep the export proportion at only 10% of our production,” according to Leelarit. Technology Suppliers include Bucher Emhart Glass, Horn Glass, Fuse Tech, Vertech International and Pneumofore.

An interview with Boonsak Stitmannaithum, Executice Vice President of Operations of Thai Glass Industries and Thai Malaya Glass was pubished on page 11 of this issue. The second largest container glass producer in Thailand, Thai Glass Industries (TGI) has been operating in the sector since 1951. It was established as a joint venture between the company and Australian Consolidated Industries — which later became O-I — which supported the company with technology. TGI states it was the first glass packaging manufacturer in Thailand that used automatic machines. With an installed capacity of 2445 tons per day, which will reach 2775 by the end of the current year, TGI is a major supplier for the parent company, Berli Jucker Corporation’s container glass requirements. The company has made an investment of 2,000 million baht for the construction of new furnace at Saraburi plant. With a production capacity of 300 tons per day, the new furnace would be the 9th for the company. This furnace is likely to commence commercial production in the last quarter of 2017. In 2016, Thai Glass Industries reported sales of THB 10,876 million, an increase of 10.6% over the same period last year. This sales growth was mainly driven by higher glass packaging demand from the alcoholic and non-alcoholic segments. Despite operating at full production capacity, the company was still compelled to import some of its bottle parts from overseas factories and affiliated companies to compensate for insufficient production capacity. According to the company management: “Due to the economic situation and the depletion of furnaces in the major glass factories in Thailand, the competition during the Continued>>

24 Glass International December/January 2018

Country overview Seema Thai.indd 3

13/12/2017 15:58:53

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Country overview: Thailand

� Carabao bottles at the Asia Pacific Glass site near Bangkok.

� A palletiser at Wellgrow Glass Industry.

latter half of 2016 has become intense, especially in the non-alcohol beverage sector.”

Siam Glass has had a long standing technical agreement with the Japanese company, Nihon Yamamura Glass. Bottero, Zippe, Iris Inspection machines and Tiama are other technology suppliers to the company.

Technology suppliers include Emhart Glass and Xpar Vision.


Siam Glass Industry An interview with Siam Glass General Manager, Viwat Supatham, is published in this issue on page 32. With an installed capacity of 1500 tons per day, Siam Glass Industry is the third largest container glass producer in Thailand. The company produces flint, amber and green bottles from its Rojana, Samutprakarn and Ayutthaya-based production facilities for the parent company Ostospa Group, which is one of the main beverage producing companies in Thailand. Siam Glass Industry commenced commercial production in 1978 at its Samutprakarn plant, which currently operates four furnaces. The second Siam Glass plant at Rojana commenced operations in 2005 with two furnaces. The last one at Ayutthaya was started in 2013 with a single furnace. In January 2017 the company signed a contract with Horn Glass for the rebuild of the 250 tpd (tonnes per day) end-fired furnace in the Ayutthaya factory. The main focus of the design for the new end port furnace is low energy consumption, glass quality and low environmental emissions. Furthermore, the glass conditioning will be specially designed and equipped for modern NNPB lightweight production. The furnace will produce amber bottles for energy drinks. About 80% of Siam Glass’s total output is sold to the Ostospa Group. The rest is meant for domestic external customers and exports. Osotspa manufactures and distributes energy and functional beverages, health care, pharmaceutical products and personal care & cosmetics products. The company was established in 1891 as a pharmacy named Tech Heng Yoo. The company’s name was later changed to Osotspa. The company has expanded its business to become a manufacturer and distributor of beverages and consumer products.

“There has been intense competition in Thailand’s container industry. Alternate packaging materials are also posing stiff competition to the sector. In order to beat this challenge, most of the container glass producers are going for lightweight glass


Wellgrow Glass Industry Wellgrow Glass Industry (WGI) is an independent Thai glass manufacturer, which focuses on producing high quality glass bottles with valueadded service. The company has an installed capacity to produce 260 tons per day of container glass from three furnaces (120 TPD, 100 TPD and 40 TPD) on 40 acres of land in Chacheongsao province (about 50km east of Bangkok). Udomsak Tangsaksathit, General Manager of Wellgrow Glass Industry said: “There has been intense competition in Thailand’s container glass industry. “Alternate packaging materials also pose stiff competition to the sector. Most container glass producers are going for lightweight glass bottles in order to beat this challenge.” He added: “We are using best in technology at our manufacturing plants. Our melting furnaces are from AGC Ceramics and Horn. The batch plant is from EME, forming machines from Bottero and Emhart. Our inspection machines are from Heye, Tiama and Iris. Other technology suppliers are Antonini (lehr), Zecchetti (cold end palletiser), MSK (shrinking machine) and Revimac (ware handling).” Wellgrow Glass will undertake a capacity expansion in 2019, when it will replace the 40 tons per day furnace with a new 70 tons per day furnace. The company supplies glass containers to food and beverages, pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies such as Unilever, Beierdorf and British Dispensary. �

Glassman Asia takes place January 24 and 25, 2017 in the Grand Hall, BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand. More information visit www.glassmanevents.com/asia/

26 Glass International December/January 2018

Country overview Seema Thai.indd 4

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� TG 4 .1/4” under glass ready to produce in double gob and triple gob.

GPS secures major contract with Bangkok Glass Containers BG

Container Glass Company Limited (BGC), a subsidiary of Bangkok Glass Public Company Limited, is planning to manufacture around 144,000 additional tons of container glass in 2018. To achieve this objective, the Asian container glass manufacturer is building a new factory, Ratchaburi Glass Industry Company Limited, in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. BGC is also making a commitment to innovation by entrusting Germany’s GPS (Glassproduktions-Service) with the installation of IS machines and technology at its new Ratchaburi factory. IS machine specialist GPS was awarded the contract for this large-scale project with its tailor-made solutions and comprehensive service portfolio. It will supply and commission five new hot-end IS machine lines and provide extended post-installation support. This new, ultra-modern and efficiently equipped factory will enable BGC to

continue building its leadership in Thailand and in the Asian market. GPS offers both module adaptations and all-inclusive solutions to customers. In this project for its longstanding international customer BGC, it is again demonstrating its commitment to being a full-service provider. Five new IS machine lines at the Ratchaburi Glass Industry factory will commence the heating up for its starting from July 2018. The double and triple gob IS machines at the new facility are entirely GPS-made – from servo feeder up to cross conveyor and stacker, including the control and drive system. Supplying all the equipment for the new factory is one of the biggest projects that GPS has ever undertaken, and it confirms the robustness of the German IS machine specialist. However, in a project of this size, the IS machines themselves and the implementation phase aren’t the only important aspects. GPS has to effectively

collaborate with the customer, which involves in-depth discussions and idea sharing before the project kicks off, as well as comprehensive employee training, start-up support and long-term support. This overall concept, which is also being applied in the large-scale BGC project, reflects the GPS ‘everything under one roof’ philosophy. It was this quality that enabled GPS to secure the contract. The core project phase will be completed by August 2018. It’s an ambitious target considering that the project only commenced in May 2017, but GPS isn’t concerned. “We’re confident that we can close out the project on time and within budget,” said GPS CEO Rolf Themann.

Latest IS machines GPS’s innovative strength and technical excellence have developed strongly since the management buyout almost two Continued>>


Bangkok Glass subsidiary BG Container Glass Company is in the process of building a new plant in Ratchaburi, Thailand. It has entrusted German IS machine specialist GPS to supply five new hot-end IS machine lines and provide extended post-installation support.

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� Servo parallel Shear with CD 3” for triple gob convertible to double gob.

� Perfect Gob loading into the Blank Moulds with new TT Delivery system.


� Rolf Themann.

years ago. Very soon after becoming an independent company the IS machine expert had a genuine innovation push and registered numerous new patents. Now GPS is exploiting these strengths in the BGC project. The majority of the IS machines have modern servo technology. They also incorporate new mechanisms and processes such as the Proko gob weight control system. All modules are configured for a plant’s specific requirement situation. “We want to help BGC to move forward in its market with our IS machines. We always source the optimum technical solution for the customer, whether it’s standard or custom-made,” said Mr Themann. The additional production capacity provided by the new factory, plus the use of ultra-modern and efficient GPS technology, will continue BGC as being the market leader. The very latest technology facilitates growth, improves efficiency and ensures the profitable future of the container glass sector. However, for this to happen, the factory personnel need the necessary technical know-how. That’s where GPS’s full-service support comes in. To provide the machine operators with the best possible training before the IS machines are commissioned, GPS set up a training station that is used both for training and testing purposes. BGC additionally will benefit from the long-term support that GPS provides. “We continue working with our partners after the installation of our IS machines to ensure that the customer doesn’t

experience any initial problems with GPS technology. So we’ll be supporting BGC for another 12 months after the IS machines are put into operation there,” explained Mr Themann.

Innovation and stability In a complex project such as the equipment of a new production facility, innovation and technical excellence aren’t the only things that count. “This kind of a large-scale project involves a lot of coordination. There are fundamental decisions to be made, such as the choice of machine and the level of technology. Our customers trust us to draw on our vast experience and help them make those decisions,” said Mr Themann, describing the project framework. GPS has been in business for almost 100 years, so it profits from profound sector expertise, coupled with innovativeness, fast responses and exceptionally close customer relationships. Those are important decision factors for container glass manufacturers and one of the key factor in persuading BGC to choose GPS as its partner in this project. “Our customers know that GPS is a stronger and more dependable partner than ever before, that it is committed to technical and operational excellence, provides innovative solutions and delivers German-made quality products, technology and service,” said Mr Themann, adding: “This understanding of quality and partnership, paired with our flexibility and engaging approach, earned us the trust of BGC and secured us the contract”.

About BGC BGC is one of the largest manufacturers of container glass in Asia. Established in 1974, the company today operates five glass container factories with a combined production capacity of 3,335 tons per day. That corresponds to around 12-17 million glass bottles. BGC isn’t just the largest container glass manufacturer in Thailand, but also in the entire ASEAN region. It manufactures glass packaging products for the domestic and international food & beverages markets and also offers other packaging materials. Bangkok Glass Public Company, the parent company of BGC, recently expanded its business in the float glass industry under the BGF brand for the construction and automotive industry. GPS is a German-based developer and supplier of IS machines catering to the needs of the international container glass manufacturing industry. The full-service provider’s product portfolio includes IS machines and components, servo mechanisms, feeders and conveyors as well as control and drive systems for various applications. It also provides consultancy and training services to customers in the container glass manufacturing industry. GPS develops customised and standard solutions for individual projects, regular customers and companies of all sizes, including financing if required, because all-inclusive solutions don’t always meet the container glass manufacturers’ requirements. �

GPS (Glasproduktions-Service), Essen, Germany www.gps-essen.com

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Losing sleep about your glass plant?

Christoph Jatzwauk Business Director R&D Technology

Don't. Setting up and running a glass plant is not for the faint-hearted. I know the pressure that the glassmaker is under: time, productivity, quality, just to name a few. But the one thing glassmakers can be assured of, is HORN’s service and support. An important element of our mission is to relieve the pressure on glassmakers in every way possible. From cutting-edge technologies helping boost productivity, to innovative concepts like ecofurbish®: the affordable, ecological and economical optimization of glass plants. So, whether you need a complete turn-key glass plant or a single burner or even a spare part, visit www.hornglass.com or contact me – I’d be delighted to hear from you.


Company profile: Siam Glass Industry

Siam Glass plots future success with opening of fourth plant Khun Viwat Supatham is General Manager at Siam Glass Industry Co Ltd and also Chairman of both the Asian Federation of Glass Manufacturers (AFGM) and the Glass Manufacturers Industry Club at the Federation of Thai Industries (GMFTI). He will provide the welcome speech at the forthcoming Glassman Asia event in Bangkok.



iam Glass Industry Co Ltd is the main glass bottle provider for Thailand’s largest energy drink, M150. The company employs approximately 1000 people and produces about 1500 tonnes/day of glass from three production sites in Thailand: two in Ayutthaya and one in Samutprakarn. It plans to open a new brownfield plant at Rojana Industrial Park next to its Ayutthaya site in 2019 with a 310t/day capacity. Approximately 80% of Siam Glass’s output is for its mother company – Osotspa, the owner of M150. The remaining 20% is for outside customers with a variety of bottle sizes from 60ml to 750ml with around 100 items. Khun Viwat states: “Our brand of M150 energy drink is the no.1 in Thailand. We supply 100% of this bottle with the same high standard from all our lines from every plant.” Thanks to the extra demand for this drink the company plans to open the new site in 2019. The site will be high-tech and equipped with the latest technology. Khun Viwat says: “Our strategy is to build the most modern plant with high efficiency. We plan to have Industry 4.0 throughout our new plant in Rojana Industrial Park.” Its three glass container-making plants have a total of 19 glass container lines with double/triple/ quart gob operation. For more than 30 years Siam Glass has had a Glass Technology Agreement with Nippon Yamamura Glass (NYG) from Japan. Other suppliers to the company’s three sites include German batch plant provider Zippe, Japan’s Ihara for refractories, French inspection companies Tiama and Iris Inspection machines, Italian forming company Bottero and Italian lehr group Antonini. In addition, the group also owns a cullet treatment plant in Saraburi. All the group’s cullet is provided from the plant, with a volume of 200,000 tonnes a year.

� Viwat Supatham. Khun Viwat confirms: “We have our own cullet treatment plant to ensure a good quality of main material. Our technical support from Japan and European machinery are among the first in its class.”

Background Khun Viwat Supatham has worked in the glass industry for more than 25 years in a variety of segments. These include tableware, glass block, flat glass and container glass. He graduated from Chulalongkorn University with a chemical engineering degree before a masters degree in marketing at Thammasart University and another Continued>>

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Company profile: Siam Glass Industry

“Three or four of the plants I have worked have been greenfield projects where I have enjoyed to see the success after they started up for a few years.” The future plans of Siam Glass will of course revolve around the formation of the new plant and the capacity expansion it will bring, while also keeping an eye on the day-to-day running of its current plants. “We need to serve our mother company demand with a capacity expansion and the lowest cost bottle to compete in the energy drink market. The new plant must run at a lower cost than the best one in our group.”


masters degree from the University of Southwestern Louisiana. His previous roles in the glass industry include production manager at Guardian Glass industries, Finance and Administration Director at Bangkok Crystal and his current role as General Manager at Siam Glass. He states he has had an enormously diverse and interesting career.

� Siam Glass currently has three production sites, with a fourth planned for 2019.

� Siam Glass manufactures the M150 energy drink

As well as his role at Siam Glass Khun Viwat is also Chairman of both the Asian Federation of Glass Manufacturers (AFGM) and the Glass Manufacturers Industry Club at the Federation of Thai Industries (GMFTI). The GMFTI provides support to members and covers everything from raw materials and legislative support. The first AFGM conference took place 41 years ago. Khun Viwat provided a keynote speech at the most recent conference, held in Da Nang, Vietnam. “Being Chairman of AFGM, it creates a lot of opportunity to meet friends in the international glass industry. I hope the glass industry in the Asean Countries will continue to grow. My position comes and goes but the strength of our friendship among member countries will remain.” �

Siam Glass, Huamak, Bangkapi, Bangkok www.siamglass.com



� The Siam Glass offices.

*Khun Viwat’s welcome speech will take place on January 24 at the Glassman Asia exhibition, which takes place at the Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre (BITEC).

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Company profile: PSR

A new generation to conditioning

Parkinson-Spencer Refractories has been serving industry for 217 years. Simon and Joanne Parkinson were appointed Directors in 2015 and are the 8th generation of the family to run the business. Simon, alongside his father David, discussed the company with Greg Morris.



ucked away at the bottom of a windswept hill and at the end of a quiet lane is a business that has served the global glass industry for decades. Its refractories and equipment can be found in container glass plants around the world - from Europe, to Asia to North and South America – all produced in a location off the beaten track in the north of England. Parkinson-Spencer Refractories (PSR) has a rich heritage. It was formed in 1800 thanks to a partnership between the Spencer and Parkinson families, originally to mine stone and fireclay. The refractoriness of the local fireclay led to the manufacture of firebricks and its purity found particular application in the early glass melting industry. In 1921 the business was incorporated as a limited liability company, establishing the framework for investment in the kilns, plant and machinery required for the industrial manufacture of refractories. All this took place on the same 100-acre site where the company stands today, where it employs 85 people. While half of the company’s business is dedicated to the manufacturer of refractories and

expendables, the remaining 50% is focused on manufacturing production equipment for glass conditioning. Simon states: “Our focus is on the glass conditioning process. We manufacturer and supply essentially everything between the throat of the furnace and the feeder, so we supply all the refractories for the forehearth and the distributor, all the engineering equipment for forehearth cooling, control and and combustion systems and also the feeder expendables.”

Refractories PSR has a 2000 tonnes a year capacity to produce refractories. They have to be cast, dried and put into a kiln and take between four to 12 weeks to produce, depending on the product. “The time and quantity of pieces that we’re regularly manufacturing, there’s thousands constantly going through the manufacturing cycle,” states Simon. “Refractories make up more than half the business, it’s the base of the business, it’s our heritage,” he adds. Since its formation in 1800 the company has had several significant milestones. One of these

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develop the glass business

� The PSR company site and, inset, an ariel view of the 100-acre facility.

occurred in 1970 when it was awarded the licence from Emhart Glass to manufacture feeder expendable refractories to Emhart design. The license remains to this day and was only recently re-affirmed between the two companies. Managing Director David Parkinson takes up the story: “There’s an affinity between us and the Emhart refractory plant, we’ve a similar background and the way we do things is the same. Until a couple of years ago they had another three worldwide licenses, but all these agreements have now been finished and we’re left as the only other licensee. “We’re a small company and about the same size as their refractory operation, whereas the others were multi-nationals, which I don’t think fitted with their philosophy. “We exchange ideas, discuss problems and arrange exchange visits between the two sites. It’s a win-win situation for both companies. “A benefit for us is the access to the original designs. Emhart feeder mechanisms are market

leaders and the fact we have access to the refractory drawings gives us an advantage. “Our customers know when they buy parts from us they are manufactured to the original drawing, it is not something that’s been copied with the inaccuracies that inevitably come from copying.”

� Joanne, David and Simon Parkinson.

Technical department Another company milestone occurred in 1990 when the company introduced its technical services department. It supplied its first complete forehearth in 1992 and since then that side of the business has grown to contribute to about half of the business. David continues: “In 1990 we could see that the traditional products we were manufacturing were




Company profile: PSR

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Company profile: PSR

going to decline over the years and we wanted to take control of our own destiny. Rather than just be supplying refractories to other engineering companies we decided to take control and design and develop our own systems.” The technical services department covers the design and manufacture of complete forehearth and distributor systems, as well as auxiliary products and services. The company has a strong focus on research and development, in both its refractory and engineering sides. Simon states: “On the refractory side you have to continuously develop to keep up with the changing market, to develop and improve existing materials. On the engineering side we have continuously developed since the technical services department was introduced. “We’ve developed forehearth systems, introduced new products such as cord dispersal systems where we identified the cat scratch cord problem occurring in the glass container business and developed a solution. It has been one of our most successful products since its development. R&D is important for us to keep on top of the industry and solve the problems our customers are encountering.” He adds: “Many people talk about the way for a company to evolve is by growth but for a company like us, the way to develop and evolve is by staying ahead of the market. “Continuous development will keep us at the forefront of the market rather than trying to exponentially grow the company. “We’re a family business and we don’t see our future as a multi-national corporation. But we won’t stay still, we have to develop, maintain and increase the profitability of the company. Our development comes from R&D. The glass industry will change over the next 30 years and we have to stay ahead of that.” The company has had a long relationship with Leeds University’s School of Chemical and Process Engineering in the UK and has carried out a number of joint projects with them. It is a means of gaining

� PSR technology can be found in container glass plants throughout the world.

� One of four small intermittent kilns for the manufacture of feeder expandables.

outside ideas and different thought processes. The company also employs undergraduates in its technical services department during a student’s placement year. The scheme has been running for 15 years and many of the undergraduates have returned to work with the company on completion of their degree. PSR also sponsors a PHD student, who has been working in the refractory department. “The students gain from us because they get access to a manufacturing plant. They get to work with us, it is hands on, while we can feed off their different knowledge base as well,” Simon states.

Flexibility The company’s two manufacturing departments make it unique, states Simon. “It gives us great deal of flexibility in the design and engineering of our forehearth and distributor systems, we’re in complete control of the supply chain, we don’t have to go to outside suppliers for our refractories, so we can supply the complete package for the distributor and forehearths for the entire glass conditioning system. Simon is also clear on the company’s focus. Continued>>

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2 wind turbines helped us improve our green credentials. With a potential 50% energy saving a System 500 forehearth conversion could improve yours.

WE HAVE THE BETTER SOLUTION www.parkinson-spencer.co.uk


Company profile: PSR

“Although we have a good understanding of furnace design and how it works, we focus on the glass conditioning process, we specialise in that rather than getting distracted by the melting or energy consumption in the furnace.” The company’s thinking has also extended to its manufacturing site itself. Situated underneath the appropriately named Windy Bank Lane, the company installed two wind turbines in 2015 and

� The company has a 2000

2016, which meet 25% of the company’s energy requirements. Now the company is looking to the future with the appointment of Simon and his sister to the Board of Directors. Joanne has been with the company 10 years. She started out in the export department and is now company secretary. Simon has worked for the company full-time for six years, and joined after graduation from Nottingham University in the UK. He started in the technical services division and spent time with the engineering team working on new designs, the development of engineering equipment and also time on site, supervising the installation of

� PSR’s technical services

t/year refractory capacity.

department was formed in 1990.

company equipment. He is now focused on sales. “I enjoy the job. PSR is a great company to be a part of. When people join the company they tend to stay for a long time, we have people who have been here for 40 years and more and there’s a reason for that. It’s a good industry to be a part of as well. “I’ve been trying to visit as many places as possible and see as many different markets as possible to get myself known in the industry. Face to face is more useful than an email. You can’t know someone until you meet them face-to-face.” While his father, David, tries to maintain a hands-off approach and let Simon find his own way in running the business, Simon knows he can turn to him for advice. “He has been in the industry for a huge amount of time and has run the business successfully so I would be foolish not to take some of his advice. If I can carry on and continue the success of the business for another 43 years, I would consider that an achievement.” “We have a good team to take us forward. Both sides of the business are important and can be developed in their own way. On the engineering side there’s huge scope for development. “On the manufacturing side there’s a lot of modernisation and development to be done to drive the company forward. We’ve already started some of these developments such as new management systems for the production cycle, investing in new technology and equipment for new manufacturing processes. “There is plenty of competition out there. They are always improving what they do so we have to do better to stay ahead. “The competition may generalise on the glass industry as a whole, whereas we focus on our sector of the market. “By doing that we can continue to be at the forefront of the sector.” �

Parkinson-Spencer Refractories, Holmfield, Halifax, UK http://www.parkinson-spencer.co.uk/

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“see us at Glassman Bangkok and Glassman Mexico”



The assessment of glass cullet quality on the redox state Stefano Ceola*, Nicola Favaro** and Antonio Daneo*** highlight an analytical tool for the control and evaluation of cullet effects on the glass final redox state.


his paper describes some common problems in the use of cullet as a secondary raw material for the glass industry. First an overview of the use of cullet at EU level will be presented, along with its advantages and disadvantages. After an overview of the most common issues derived from the use of cullet, special attention is drawn to cullet contributions to possible instabilities in the final redox ratio of the produced

glass. A new analytical methodology is described, the Inorganic Redox (I-Redox), to check the quality and stability of the produced cullet. The determination of the redox ratio is described theoretically and experimentally as it is usually performed in glass industry as a quality check tool, then the I-Redox is described and discussed as a new tool for the determination of the redox contribution

Scope One of the main parameters of study and concern in the glass industry is the redox state of the glass. It drives the sulphur/sulphate solubility and the colour of the glass[1], and its stability is of key importance in the frame of quality control of the produced glass. Continued>>


ďż˝ Fig 1. Collection rates for container glass recycling in Europe 2014.

of cullet in the batch and as a parameter for monitoring cullet redox variability.

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Advantages Disadvantages Less raw materials use.

Energy consumption (cullet processing).

Less CO2 and thus lower melting energy

Indirect CO2 emission (cullet collection).

for processing raw materials. Less direct CO2 emission from raw materials

Glass quality issues (redox, metals etc.).

provides lower transportation costs. Less energy for melting.

Higher abrasive wear on some systems.

Less CO2 emissions from melting. Less indirect energy consumption and CO2 emissions. (extractions).

� Table 1. Pros and cons of cullet recycling.


�Fig 2. One possible process designed to make clean cullet. In current practice, cullet represents a large part of a batch charge, reaching up to 90% of the batch in some European glass processes. Its use gives many energy and environmental advantages, and it has become an irreplaceable component in the majority of large-scale glass production. The glass industry has extensive cumulative experience in the use of cullet, overcoming several difficulties occurred since its first use in the eighties[2], by finding suitable technological solutions or working with cullet suppliers for a cleaner and more stable product. This paper describes a new analytical tool for the control and evaluation of cullet effects on the glass final redox state. A new method developed by SSV to determine the Inorganic Redox is described and its application to some real cases illustrated.

Research context Cullet is one of the main raw materials for the glass industry in Europe. More than 60% of glass cullet is recycled to produce new glass packaging, with some furnaces producing green colour glasses having more than a 90% recycling rate (Fig 1). Cullet use is advantageous for the glass industry. The main pros and cons are listed in Table 1.

Treatment process The treatment process consists of cleaning of the waste from any contaminants such as plastic, ceramic, stones and metals in order to obtain almost clean cullet. This is not only required for the recycling of the cullet in the glass furnace, but also to abide by the End of Waste European regulation. This regulation establishes the criteria that define how a material ceases to be a waste, in order to be stored, shipped and used as the secondary raw material. The treatment process consists of a

series of steps, conceived to efficiently clean and remove any non-glassy material from the recyclables. The details of the process may vary between different companies: the schematic in Fig 2 is a general description of one possible process designed to make clean cullet. For some companies the order of the operation can vary, depending on the type of incoming material. The input material comes from the municipal waste dry recyclables, and the output can either be mixed cullet, or flint cullet produced by colour separation plus the remaining cullet. If managed correctly, such treatment results in a final mixed cullet product that is virtually clean from ceramic, stone, plastic and metallic contaminants. The introduction of colour sorting machines had a positive impact on the amount of cullet recycled, however some unexpected contraindications have been registered. The redox of the cullet fed depends on the relative amounts of the different colours. Usually mixed cullet containing flint glass is no longer widely available in the market, and the coloured cullet obtained after flint cullet separation is a mixture of green and amber cullet. This change in colour composition leads to a different product. For example, when used in the production of coloured glass, small variation can modify the redox of the batch, introducing instability on the glass colour, especially in case of reduced glasses (amber and UVAG).

Inorganic Redox Description of the methodology The following paragraph describes the procedure employed to determine the cullet redox ratio, that is the Inorganic Redox, starting from the material properly sampled in the glass plant. A sample of at least 50kg of cullet is ground to a size below 3mm. The ground materials then evenly divided by a sampler divider, to obtain a sample of 1kg and submitted for melting. The melting is performed by first keeping the material in a ceramic crucible for three hours at 550°C, in order to burn out the remaining organic materials (i.e. wood, paper or plastic). After organic removal, the cullet is further heated and melted at 1350°C, until a bubble-free glass is obtained, then Continued>>

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MULTIPOINT THICKNESS SENSOR MTS10/05 STAND-ALONE OR INTEGRATED IN HEYE SMARTLINE Covers all critical areas of a container Flexible combination with single point sensor Superior chromatic confocal method Independent of measuring range and angle Suitable for round and non-round containers


RZ_HEY_AZ_MTS10_A4_Kanch.indd 1

03.02.16 11:52

The SSV building in Murano, Venice, Italy.

Inorganic Redox: taking into account that about two-thirds of the furnace charge is composed of mixed cullet, in this case a variability of about 4% of the variation in the Redox of the final glass will be introduced.


1 2 3 4 media dev

0.006 Fe2O3 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.31 0.30 FeO 0.092 0.089 0.094 0.10 0.093 0.004 REDOX % 34 33.2 35.9 36.2 34.8 1.3

� Table 2. Results of calculated standard deviation for each measurement and for the calculated redox. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 std dev FeO 0.22 0.2 0.23 0.22 0.23 0.18 0.17 0.022 Fe2O3 0.37 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.38 0.36 0.36 0.010 redox 66.1% 57.0% 67.3% 66.1% 67.3% 55.6% 52.5% 5.9%

� Table 3. Results of text of the variability of the Inorganic Redox. cast and finally annealed at 530°C. The sample thus obtained is cut and polished to obtain suitable samples for XRF analysis and UV-Visible spectrophotometric analysis.

Experimental determination of the redox ratio

The following formula gives the expression for the analytical uncertainty in the case of the redox value, where A is the concentration of FeO (Vis-NIR) and B is for the concentration of Fe2O3 (XRF). 1 B


� uA2

+ A2 u 2 B B

Redox ratio is a composite value, which is expressed by the following formula:


% Redox = Fe(II) / Fe2O3(tot) The value of the reduced iron, Fe(II), is expressed as FeO and determined by Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) spectrophotometry. A glass sample of suitable dimension is placed in a spectrophotometer and its Vis-NIR spectra are registered. The signal at 1050nm is elaborated by a procedure described elsewhere[1], by which the concentration of FeO in the glass is calculated. The Total Iron is measured by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDS-XRF), and expressed as Fe2O3. The results are calculated after a comparison with a calibration curve for each chemical species pertinent to the analysis.

Calculation The calculation of the analytical uncertainty for the I-Redox takes into account the analytical uncertainty of the XRF value for the total iron, expressed as Fe2O3, and the uncertainty of FeO value determined via UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

From the evaluation of the experimental errors for each test, XRF and UV-NIR spectroscopy, each estimated respectively at 50ppm, the analytical uncertainty of the Inorganic Redox, for reduced glass, is 1.2% – 1.8% of redox unity.

In this paper, the authors propose a new approach for monitoring and control of glass cullet. This methodology applies to cullet cleaned from contaminants, such as plastic, metals and CSP stones, also called Ready-to-Furnace Cullet. Even the cleanest cullet may still contribute significant instability to the glass process, as the LOI variation, that is the content of organic contaminants carried by the cullet. The sole knowledge of the LOI often does not prevent the arising of issue related to colour and redox instabilities, especially for reduced glass. Mixed cullet could come from a further step of colour separation during the cullet treatment process, with variable quantity of flint glass present in it. A different approach is proposed for the control and correction of the redox variability of cullet. A standard methodology is proposed for the determination of the redox ratio of cullet, called Inorganic Redox. This parameter can characterise the effect of cullet on the final redox state of the produced container, especially in the evaluation of its instability in the quality parameter of the final glass container. �



[1] “Diffusion and Redox Reactions of Sulfur in silicate Melts”, H. Beherens, J. Stelling, Review in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 73, pg 79-103, (2011) [2] “Problems related to the use of Cullet and to the reuse of dust from Fumes Treatment Plants”, B. M. Scalet, International Glass Journal, No. 87, pg 65-69, (1996) [3] “Fast Spectrophotometric Determination of Fe3+ and Fe2+ in commercial glass”, A. Daneo, P. Polato, M. L. Scandellari, M. Verità, Proceedings of XVII International Congress of Glass, vol. 3, pg 83-88, Chinese Ceramic Society Beijing (1995).

To test the variability of the Inorganic Redox, the methodology was applied to a series of cullet samples coming from the cullet used in an operating, one sample for each day of use. The results are in Table 3. In Table 3 it is possible to observe the unexpectedly large variability of the

*Author. Researcher, **Co-author: Laboratory Director, ***Co-author: Researcher Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro (SSV), Murano, Venezia, Italy www.spevetro.it

Validation of the Methodology– Repeatability The methodology described above has been applied to the same pile of cullet by measuring redox of a series of samples, with each sample gathered using the same procedure. The results in Table 2 show the calculated standard deviation for each measurement and for the calculated redox.

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GLASSWORKS HOUNSELL We make new, we make spares, we refurbish and we advise. We have a tradition that dates back to our foundation in 1877 and we adhere to core values that have stood the test of time. How well our products work and how long they last drive our commitment to quality, allowing us to remain a leading manufacturer.

Please visit us at Glastec, Hall 13 A85 to discover what we can do for you.

Tel: +44 (0)1384 560666


Masters in manufacturing

Park Lane, Halesowen, West Midlands, B63 2QS, UK PRECISION BRITISH ENGINEERING



Reducing installation time and the hurdles working against it Fred Aker* and Torsten Neudeck** of Nikolaus Sorg discuss how glass manufacturers can optimise the furnace installation process. Adopted from the November 9th GMIC Symposium in Columbus, Ohio; ‘Reducing Construction, Rebuild, and Hot Repair Times for Glass Manufacturing Furnaces.’


this offers a form of protectionism for local contractors. While construction productivity is falling, it is our job as furnace contractors to install equipment as quickly as possible to reduce downtime at a price that cost sensitive customers are willing and able to pay. We do this by working smarter. Working smarter means embracing digitialisation.

First approach digitialisation � Fig 1 Construction productivity has fallen in some major western enonomies (Source The Economist)

common. EU members require you to have local representation or at least a lawyer in the country where you want to send supervisors and construction workers. It is not uncommon to have to send police background checks and payroll records of all site employees. A recent job site in France limited shift times to eight hours per day. In addition to the increased mobilisation costs through registrations, the job sites last longer and lead to more travel related expenses. We even need to take into account different retirement systems when sending German employees to neighbouring countries. This would be like having different pension plans in Ohio and Indiana. We have made social security contributions as low as 12 cents. While that may not sound expensive, there is the cost of translating invoices from languages such as Danish into German and then the process costs associated with making any international payment. And all of the above needs to be submitted in the local language of the member country. English is not an option. Compliance checks at the job site are prevalent. For a job site that lasts 60 days,

Quoting from a February 2017 McKinsey Global Institute report, ‘Reinventing construction through a productivity revolution’; “Take one example: construction is among the least digitized sectors in the world, according to MGI’s digitization index. In the US, construction comes second to last, and in Europe it is on last position on the index”. This provides opportunities that Sorg and others are taking advantage of depending on the furnace rebuild scenario. For the curious, only agriculture and hunting is less digitized in the United States.

Scenarios When talking about mechanical and electrical installations on a furnace, there are different types of jobs with different solutions. 1. Greenfield. The easiest type of job. Represents less than 5% of our work. 2. As-is rebuild. Assuming there is clean documentation and records from the past rebuild, this is the next easiest type of project. 3. Increase in tonnage or changes in emissions requirements. This can involve the addition of boosting or additional boosting plus upscaled equipment. 4. Change in technology. The most Continued>>


hile glass manufacturers are under tremendous pressure to make productivity gains which include output/employee, output per capital utilised, more glass pulled and packed over a furnace campaign, they are subject to extreme market inefficiencies every time a furnace is down for a repair. While new methods are being employed to reduce rebuild times including in mechanical and electrical installation, we are fighting an uphill battle. A few statistics from the August 17th, 2017 Economist highlight the challenges. While global manufacturing productivity measured as output per worker across all industries has doubled since 1995, the following has happened in the construction fields as highlighted in some quotes from ‘Can we fix it? The construction industry’s productivity problem.’ “In France and Italy productivity per hour has fallen by about a sixth.” “Germany and Japan have seen almost no growth.” “America is even worse: there, productivity in construction has plunged by half since the late 1960s.” (emphasis added) (Fig 1 – Economist) While better safety plays a role in this development, there are other barriers to faster and cheaper construction. The Economist notes that most construction companies are small without economies of scale. They tend to avoid capital investments as they can fire workers during the next economic downturn but tend to get stuck with expensive assets. Over regulation plays a part as well. One area where over regulation impacts Sorg daily is protectionism. Even within the EU, it is onerous to send workers from one member country to another. Expensive worker and company registrations are

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� Fig 3 Laser scan and a 2D cut to determine gob point positions.

� Fig 2 a and b 3D Model with features 2b

turned off to see piping and cable trays.

� Fig 4 Combining laser scan and new 3D geometry.

� Fig 5 Technology conversion. Temporary support


for day bin.

� Fig 6. There is a density of glass plants in Germany. Pic source

common example is converting a side port furnace into a modern end port design with as little downtime as possible. This is the most challenging job type and requires the most planning. For greenfield sites, we are developing highly parametric 3D models to give us the basis for generating bid documents quickly (Fig 2). End port container furnaces form the bulk of Sorg’s business so this model was developed first. Oxyfuel and side port models are being developed as well. For an as-is rebuild, we try to collect as much documentation as possible from the past rebuild. If the owner was satisfied, we will try to hire the mechanical and electrical contractors from the last rebuild. They have local knowledge and experience. In this scenario, it is possible to execute the job quickly without generating extensive 3D data. For an increase in tonnage or technology conversion, generation of 3D data is essential. For this, we start with a 3D laser scan (Figs 3/4/5). Sorg has this capability in-house and we strongly prefer to mobilise our glass experienced staff and equipment before hiring local surveyors. Our personnel know what is important to capture and our equipment is built to withstand the high ambient temperatures of a glass environment. Quite often once our people are on site, we are asked to scan additional factory areas as well. The laser scan sometimes leads to surprises. In one example, where we used laser scanning to verify gob point locations, it turned out the existing CAD drawings were off by 500mm on one drop point! When doing a 3D scan, Sorg does not place a high value in converting the entire point cloud into a 3D CAD model. If the steel is bent, we want to see this and not have an algorithm identify a beam and to model it the way it originally was. Knowing how the steel is helps us prepare our mechanical and electrical



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installation. In another instance, we scanned a 200-year-old facility where only hand drawings existed which nobody trusted. With an emphasis on engineering, we avoid questions and delays on site. Our highest priority to save money and time is to avoid field changes.

Experienced glass contractors The density of glass plants in Germany has produced a network of electrical and mechanical contractors who work exclusively on glass installations (Fig 6). Besides using these contractors in Germany, we find it cost effective to use them throughout the EU and in under developed countries as well. Where German standards and labour are not accepted such as in the United States, we utilise a different approach. In the United States, we work together with local engineering partners such as JHI, SSOE and Borton Lawson. We have them generate engineering to local codes in formats that local bidders are familiar with. We then let them generate bid documents and field initial questions. Sorg then makes the final determination based on the entirety of the impression and never on price alone. Ideal installation: We start mechanical and electrical installation at the same time as refractory construction. This means that the steel-including platforms are finished. We use small teams of experienced glass contractors. One team will work on the furnace. Another one on the forehearths. If all platforms are finished timely, installation time is three to threeand-a-half weeks. The goal being to finish two days before light off to cold check everything. Less than ideal conditions: Platforms are finished late. We start the mechanical and electrical installation piecemeal where possible. We are forced to use ladders and scissor lifts in place of missing platforms. We are supervising inexperienced contractors that the customer has chosen. And then the customer throws more inexperienced bodies at the problem as milestones slip. Under these conditions, work is most certainly not finished before light off. When Sorg is unable to finish mechanical and electrical installation before light off, we have the following minimum requirements: � The customer assumes responsibility in writing for proceeding. � Reversal on a regenerative furnace needs to be in place and functioning. � Skids need to be tested. � Water cooling in place and tested.






� Additional engineering with an emphasis on digitalisation is less expensive than field changes. � Sorg strongly prefers specialised glass contractors over locally available. � Mobilisation costs including international travel can be compensated through higher productivity. � Sorg typically only needs half the installation hours when working with speciality glass contractors. �




Should it not be possible to complete works in parallel with heatup, a hot hold condition will result to allow us to catch up.



* Sales Director, ** Services and Installation Department Manager Sorg, Lohr-Am-Main, Germany www.sorg.de

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Float glass

ďż˝ The Orda float glass project in Kazakhstan.

Building wealth by investing in the float glass sector Ron Hunt* discusses what potential investors to the float glass industry need to consider in order to make the most of their investment.



loat glass manufacturing is a wealth generating industry. Float glass was invented in the 1950s and the industry has grown steadily since then. Float glass offers a promising opportunity for investors that are aware of a populous area with unmet glass demand and have available capital to deploy. A large part of considering whether to invest in a float glass facility is one’s investment goal. If the investment goal is to maintain wealth then financial instruments like stocks and bonds are a better option since they are more liquid and easier to diversify. If the investment goal is wealth creation then building an enterprise is a necessity. Manufacturing businesses are attractive because banks can easily evaluate the value of the enterprise (since it consists primarily of physical assets), and therefore the majority of

the initial investment can be financed. Financing is almost always used for float glass facilities, as the costs range from US$150 to 250 million. By financing the project the Return On Investment (ROI) for investors is multiplied. After the float glass facility is in operation an investor can either collect a regular dividend or sell their interest (or a portion of their interest) in the facility (at a large multiple of the initial investment). Maintaining a large interest in the company offers the advantage of assigning board members and facility managers; a founding member of a company has much more control than is otherwise possible.

Profit and risk Investing in manufacturing can be profitable, but has risks. One cautionary tale is the countless ethanol

manufacturing facilities that sprang up when oil prices were over $100 per barrel. Now oil prices are stable at $50 per barrel most of the ethanol facilities are out of business, causing losses for the initial investors. Float glass is a slow moving industry in terms of core technology. Float facilities operate continuously for 10 to 15 years, meaning the feedback loop for new technologies is generally long. This slow feedback loop makes the industry attractive for new entrants since there is little risk of a new technology in the industry having a major impact in any 10-year period. The four major float glass expenses are fuel (usually natural gas), soda ash (the most expensive raw material), taxes and loan payback. Natural gas prices are stabilising globally as more Continued>>

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pipelines are built; so it is less common to have a market advantage or disadvantage due to fuel costs. Soda ash is a global commodity used in glass, soap and paper manufacturing. Taxes are the expense that has the most variability. The US corporate tax rate is 39% while some developing countries like Bulgaria and Kyrgyzstan have a 10% tax rate (but a less advanced regulatory environment). If local taxes are high, border taxes and tariffs on glass imports can give manufactures pricing power and the ability to maintain profitability. Loan payback will be an expense for most new entrants to float glass manufacturing. A favourable loan interest rate can be captured by securing the loan with a down payment, the

have greatly benefited float glass manufacturing. Strict energy regulations have led to the use of double and triple pane windows. Triple pane windows use three times the amount of glass as a single pane window. As concern about climate change grows float glass manufacturers will profit. An initial assessment of the feasibility of a float glass factory can be done by considering the following questions: � Is there demand for glass in the area being considered? � Is glass demand being met in the area? � Is financing for a major project available?

� The float glass industry has plenty of possibilities for investors.

production equipment and government guarantees.

Growth Float glass growth has been outpacing global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and that is expected to continue over the next few decades. Globally the float glass market is growing at 5% per year. Areas that are under-developed can be expected to grow more rapidly to reach the glass demand of developed nations as they modernise. There is no product currently that can replace float glass. Plastics are more expensive and are damaged by Ultra Violet (UV) rays when used outdoors. Plastics are also less scratch resistant than glass and susceptible to damage from common cleaners. Buildings are using more glass than ever, it is common to have glass as the only exposed cladding on a building. Regulations over the past few decades

Demand Demand for float glass exists in every area of the world, but to justify the expense of a float plant there must be large demand that is concentrated in a reasonable geographic area. Ideally 50% of the plant production capacity is consumed within 200km of the plant. Calculating demand is most easily done per capita. Developed areas like Japan, USA and Europe consume 7 to 14kg of float glass annually per person. Less developed areas like ASEAN, Africa, South America and Central Asia consume 1.5 to 5kg annually per person. For example if a 200km radius area has a population of 80 million people and annual glass demand is 3kg per person then the area can support a 600 Metric Ton per Day (MTPD) float glass factory. Float plants generally operate profitably within 600km of their location unless other factors come into play, such as water transport (which extends the range) or border taxes (which shorten the

range). In the previous example if the area is land locked and no other float factories are within 600km then it is safe to assume the new factory can capture 90% of the market. The final question concerns financing. As stated above glass factories cost from $150 to 250 million, typically 70% to 80% of the project is financed so at minimum an investor group should have $30 million to invest in the project. Often in developing markets local governments either invest directly in float plants or give special incentives to attract investors for float projects. After an initial assessment of the viability of a float glass factory the next step is to do a more formal assessment. Companies such as Deloitte Touche, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) and Stewart Engineers can conduct a thorough feasibility study that quantifies the feasibility of an area for float glass production. A feasibility study should include an analysis of the market, competition, civil engineering, process engineering and business financials. Some feasibility studies can also include a business plan. A feasibility study by a third party is useful for attracting investors and justifying bank loans. A business plan should either precede or be completed in conjunction with the feasibility study. For example, a facility that produces only 6mm clear architectural glass will rarely be profitable, but a facility that produces multiple thicknesses, tinted glass and CVD coatings can be profitable even in competitive markets. Companies with experience in the glass industry have an advantage when conducting a feasibility study because they leverage industry knowledge like glass prices, construction schedule and equipment selection to give a more accurate and informed study. When a country is growing there are three key materials that are needed to fuel construction growth - steel, concrete and glass. Glass manufacturing is experiencing stable growth and is expected to continue growing. Investors that are looking for an enterprise that will grow their wealth should consider float glass. An initial assessment can be done simply by the investor himself, the next step is to get a more formal assessment and business plan, with the final step being to secure project financing and select a general contractor to build the facility. �

*Process Engineer, Stewart Engineers, Wake Forest, NC, USA www.stewartengineers.com


Float glass

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WHERE THE HOLLOW GLASS INDUSTRY MEETS TO DO BUSINESS Glassman Asia will be the ideal opportunity to network with industry professionals from around the world whilst learning about the latest products and services on the market. Glassman Conference - Technology in Glass

Future Glass Forum

As well as the Future Glass Forum, Glassman Asia will also feature its traditional conference, Technology in Glass, which will focus on the latest technologies and trends in the glass industry. Conference papers aim to discuss innovations and practices which bring real benefit to the container glassmaking process.

The Future Glass Forum is a live discussion of the issues surrounding Industry 4.0, ‘smart manufacturing’ and creating a ‘smart factory’, including perspectives on Glass Manufacturing and Digitalisation. This conference is free-to-attend and is applicable to both flat glass and hollow glass production as well as business consultants interested in the considerations of business models, IT infrastructure, energy efficiencies and plant safety and security.

Confirmed papers so far include AGR International, Pneumofore and PaneraTech.


This conference will be held within the Glassman exhibition in the seminar theatre on both mornings of the event.


Organised by:

Join the Glassman Group

Supported by:

Official media partner:


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LATIN AMERICA 2018 21-22 March 2018, Guadalajara, Mexico


REGISTER FOR YOUR FREE PASS Following on from the previous successful event in Mexico, Glassman Latin America returns to Guadalajara in 2018! The combined exhibition and conference will include the world’s leading technology suppliers and manufacturers of the hollow and container glass industry. The latest innovations will be unveiled and discussed into how to make a glassmaking plant as efficient as possible. Previous manufacturers who attended the event included O-I Mexico, Grupo Modelo, Crown and Fevisa. Global technology partners who exhibited included Sorg, Iris Inspection and FIC UK. Glassman Latin America takes place on March 21 and 22, 2018 in Guadalajara, Mexico. Register for your free pass.


REASONS TO ATTEND  Arrange meetings and do real business within this intimate networking event designed specifically for the hollow and container industry  Attend the conference sessions focused on the major issues in glassmaking, such as Industry 4.0  View the latest innovations and solutions on offer from a range of international product and service providers  Build relationships and network with industry personnel from all over the world  Update your knowledge on issues facing the industry including how Industry 4.0 will impact the glass industry  Find new business opportunities in Mexico, Latin America and beyond  Network with friends, new and old, in one place at one time Organised by:

Join the Glassman Events Group









12/12/2017 11:41:07

Wednesday 24 January 2018 FUTURE GLASS FORUM 11.00

Welcome and Opening Keynote Address Viwat Supatham, Chairman, Glass Manufacturers Industry Club, The Federation of Thai Industries (GMFTI), General Manager, Siam Glass


Keynote Address - The advantages of digitalization in the glass industry Philippe Mary, Head of Siemens Belgium Glass branch and Global Account Manager


Presentation Title TBC Dr Daniel Schippan, Founder & Managing Partner, cm.project.ing GmbH


Heye Smart Plant Gregory Lecat, Sales Director Asia and Middle East, Heye International


How the Industrial Revolution 4.0 will impact the glass industry Erik Muijsenburg, Vice President, Glass Service (CZ)


Title TBC Daniel Hilfiker, President, Pneumofore


Improved Process Control through precise sampling measurements with Agr’s Omnilab Martin Küstner, Managing Director, AGR Bangkok


Co2-free glassmaking Eurotherm

Thursday 25 January 2018 FUTURE GLASS FORUM 11.00

Container Glass Forming in 2020/2025: Dark Factory Paul JC Schreuders, CEO, Xpar Vision


Increasing productivity and quality in a 4.0 Glassplant Jean Luc Logel, CEO, Iris Inspection Machines


The ‘Eco-Lead’ Furnace: the energy efficient furnace with a security system Xuqing Xie, Glass Engineering Group, AGC Ceramics Co


SmartMelter: New Industry Standard in Furnace Inspection and Maintenance Yakup Bayram, CEO, Paneratech

Information correct at time of going to press and subject to change.



Glassman Asia Catalogue

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Welcome to Thailand! The country’s container and hollow glass sector has enjoyed remarkable growth in recent years. Its domestic beverage sector has expanded dramatically and its drinks can now be found throughout the globe. Its beverage brands are becoming household names and are available to buy in supermarkets internationally.


The success of a beverage propels the glassmaking sector of course, and Thailand’s container manufacturers have responded accordingly. There have been a number of capacity expansions in recent months, with more planned in the near future. This issue has already featured interviews with Asia Pacific Glass and Thai Glass Industries abut their recent furnace openings at their plants. Bangkok Glass is also on course to deliver a 320 tonnes per day furnace at its Ratchaburi site in late 2018. Other glassmakers including Siam Glass and Wellgrow Glass have announced plans to invest in new sites which they hope to have in operation by 2019. This, by the way, is only in the glass packaging sector. The flat glass sector is a another story with plenty of investment and growth reported in Thailand, with Bangkok Glass again leading the way in this. This catalogue features the details of a number of key technology partners to the container glass sector, which are exhibiting at this event. It outlines the role of the company in the glass sector, what it does, its contact details, and the stand number of where to find them on the show floor. It also includes a floor plan, exhibitor list and a products and services guide. This Glassman event also includes a free conference dedicated to Industry 4.0 in glassmaking. We launched this conference, titled the Future Glass Forum, at the Glassman

Europe event in Lyon, France in September and feedback was good. Delegates said they liked the theme of the conference and stated that the topic was current and relevant. The conference will be on the show floor at Glassman Asia and will include speakers who are at the forefront of this technology. A number of companies have started to use this technology and reaped the rewards. We hope all attendees to this conference find it useful and are able to implement some of the suggestions put forward by our speakers within their own glass plants. I would like to take this opportunity to say thank you to Viwat Supatham, General manager at Siam Glass Industry and Chairman of the Asian Federation of Glass Manufacturers (AFGM). He will provide the welcome speech to the Future Glass Forum. It is a pleasure to welcome him and all the other glassmakers who have taken the time out to attend. I bid you all a successful and rewarding show and hope this event provides a bridge between the suppliers and manufacturers of the container glassmaking industry.

Greg Morris, Editor, Glass International

Venue: Wednesday Opening times: 10.00-17.00 Thursday Opening times: 10.00-16.00

ORGANISER: Quartz Business Media Ltd Glass International December/January 2018

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Exhibitor information correct at time of going to press.

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Stand A04 Kelvin Teo 460 Alexandra Road #32-01 PSA Building (119962) Singapore Phone: +65 9750 5477 Email: kelvin.teo@agc.com Website: http://www.agcc.jp For almost a century, AGC Ceramics has cultivated technologies including production/development of ceramics products for glass melting furnaces, evaluation, quality guarantee and a range of technologies in relation to glass melting furnaces. By integrating these technologies to offer a range of solutions, we aim to minimise the life-cycle cost of glass melting furnaces and increase customers’ satisfaction. Our refractory business began when AGC Ceramics started producing refractories for the glass production in 1916. Since then, we have been engaged in development and manufacturing of high quality refractories, including fused cast, bonded and monolithic. We are well know worldwide as a leading supplier of fused cast refractories, which have high resistance against corrosion by molten glass and excellent minimal contamination character AGC Ceramics also has its very own Engineering Technologies and Research Development Centre that not only provides Furnace Design solutions, our activities also extends to Furnace Construction and Commissioning, Operation Support and Cold Repair Planning that also us to fully support our customers throughout their

furnace life. Engineering Technologies of AGC Ceramics are focused on realisation of the best system in terms of Glass Quality, Environment Protection and Reliability. In this sense, AGC Ceramics offers the unique technologies and solutions.

AGR INTERNATIONAL INC Stand G04 Tatjana Schnetz 615 Whitestown Road Butler, PA 16001 United States Phone: +1 6627315144 Email: tschnetz@agrintl.com Website: http://www.agrintl.com Process Control and Quality Testing Systems Need a way to ensure you are producing and filling the best package you can? Agr provides the solution to do just that! Agr International is a world-class, innovative supplier of quality assurance and process automation equipment to the global packaging markets. Agr offers a variety of quality and process control equipment specifically designed to meet the needs of container manufacturers, fillers and beverage companies

ALL GLASS S.R.L. Stand F05 Costantino Pecciarelli Phone: +39 335 7387601 Email: c.pecciarelli@allglass.it Website: http://www.allglass.it All Glass Italy leadership in cold-end conveyors and palletizers. All Glass is recognised as a leading supplier of conveying lines and palletizers in the coldend area of the glassworks industry. The numerous references in such installations for the most important international glassworks allowed All Glass to make a name for himself as reference partner in this sector. In last years all the most important glassworks chose All Glass gaining a full satisfaction in terms of excellent performance, efficiency and service. Considering that the production of glass furnace never stops, in its machinery All Glass uses first-class components and long-term tested elements only. All Glass technical structure is organised to guarantee a constant assistance during all the steps of design, assembling and start-up and to assure a prompt after-sales support during the maintenance periods. Making use of consolidate synergies, All Glass is the ideal partner to entrust the service of complete engineering for turnkey new solutions and for retrofits or

relocations of existing installations. The keys of All Glass team’s success are the constant research in direct symbiosis with Clients to develop taylor-made customized solutions, and the natural bent to aftersales assistance and support, which makes All Glass be the ideal partner in terms of performance and reliability.

ANTONINI S.R.L Stand D03 Via Medaglied’oro Della Resistenza Empoli (FI) 50053 Italy Phone: +39 0571 93221 Email: com@antoninisrl.com Website: www.antoninisrl.com Antonini srl is an Italian Company working since 1946 in the branch of hollow glass. Antonini supplies annealing and decorating lehrs, tempering lines, mould prehating kilns, thermal shock lehrs, cold end coating spray and dosing unit. The company is also active in upgrading and reparation of second hand lehrs of all brands. Low consumption and zero maintenance are the strong qualities of Antonini’s equipment, together with the post sales service, made by high specialised technicians. All equipment is made in Italy and all materials are high quality, to keep the standard in a top level. Up to today more than 1600 new lehrs have been installed.

BDF INDUSTRIE SPA Stand F12 Via Dell’Industria 40 Italy Phone: +39 0444 286 100 Email: bdf@bdf.it Website: http://www.BDF.it BDF Industries is an Italian Company with headquarter based in Vicenza, Italy and has 111 years of history and tradition of mechanical and automation competence. Serving Glass Manufacturers all over the world for more than 60 years lead us to a deep knowledge of glass processing equipment (both forming and melting ). Our experience in design, manufacture, installation and start-up of turn-key projects, together with our dedication to fulfil customer requirements, represent our core skills.





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DURA TEMP Stand E01 949 S. McCord Road Holland Ohio 43528 United States Phone: +1-419-866-4348 Email: sales@duratemp.com Website: http://duratemp.com/ Dura Temp Corporation is an industryleading supplier of Hot Ware Handling Solutions for glassmakers worldwide. From the gob forming area through the lehr loader, Dura Temp offers superior materials for standard parts and assemblies, as well as custom solutions. Dura Temp’s exceptional service enables glass manufacturers to achieve optimum results in the hot-end, supported by high-quality ware handling components, including: Sweepout Pockets and Assemblies, Ware Guides, Transfer Paddles, Lehr Stacker Bars, Lehr Bar Pockets and Insulators, Contact Pads and Fingers for container handling, and Vacuum Pads, Platens and Guides for tableware handling.

EME GmbH Stand E03

Wockerather Weg 45 41812 Erkelenz Germany Phone: +49 2431 9618-0 Email: contact@eme.de Website: http://eme.de ​EME is a leading global supplier of batch preparation plants, cullet handling equipment and batch charging technology to the glass industry. Customised solutions ranging from single component supply to complex turnkey batch plants.


EMMETI S.p.A. Stand D01 Fabrizio Boschi Via G. Galilei, 29 42027 Montecchio Emilia (RE) Italy Phone: +39 0522 861911 Email: emmeti@emmeti-spa.it Website: http://www.emmeti-spa.it Established in 1982, Emmeti is one of the leading suppliers of palletizers and depalletizers to the global glass market. The synergy between Emmeti and its associated company SIPAC allows to offer a

complete range of palletizing, depalletizing and conveying lines – either semi or fully automatic, sweeping or gripping, high or low level solutions. EMMETI can also design, in conjunction with SIPAC, complete cold end and packaging lines manufactured, assembled and tested entirely at its own plant. Customers deal with one supplier only for the integration of all the equipments.

EUROTHERM BY SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC Stand E08 Seetharaman Jayaraman & Andy Wong APAC HO: Tamarai Tech Park, Ground Floor, Plot 16-20 & 20A, TVK Industrial Estate, Inner Ring Road, Guindy, Chennai - 600032 Sales Office @Singapore: 50 Kallang Ave Level 1 Singapore 339505 India Phone: +91 94449 77850 Email: seetharaman.j@schneider-electric.com Website: https://www.eurotherm.sg/industries/ glass Eurotherm is a global manufacturer of Instrumentation, systems and services designed for the efficient operation of industrial processes. Since 1965 the Eurotherm brand has provided specialized solution for Energy Intensive and regulated industries, and today, continues to design and manufacture configurable precision machine, process and power controllers, and associated data recorders that enable its customers to get the most from their process. Eurotherm Now part of Schneider Electric, we are able to offer you a full “one-stop-shop” covering power, process control and more, based on the combination of a huge Schneider Electric and Eurotherm portfolio along with our glass industry process, engineering and installation expertise. We welcome you to visit our booth and meet our team of glass experts who can help you move your business into a new era of energy and operational efficiency. They will show you how we’re redefining the way power and process control are applied in your glass industry, to help you meet future sustainability demands. We promise that it will be time well spent.

EXCELSIUS GLOBAL SERVICES GmbH Stand Sponsor Bgm.-Dr.-Nebel-Straße 14 97816 Lohr a. Main Germany Phone: +49 (0)9352 6044-0 Fax: +49 (0)9352 6044-19 Mail: info@excelsius-global.com Web: http://www.excelsius-global.com

FIC UK LTD Stand F01

Mr S C Hakes Longrock Industrial Estate, Penzance Cornwall TR20 8HX United Kingdom Phone: +44 (0) 1736366962 Email: general@fic-uk.com Website: http://www.fic-uk.com F.I.C. (UK) Limited design and supply allelectric furnaces as well as electrical boosting systems for a wide range of glass types and manufacturing processes including float, fibre, container, and borosilicate. In addition we offer a number of glass conditioning options such as our Isothermal unit for glass conditioning in the forehearth or distributor to eliminate topto-bottom and side-to-middle temperature differences. This system will significantly improve thermal homogeneity in coloured glasses and high productivity forehearths in flint glass. We also offer heat extraction systems to extract heat out of the glass to aid glass conditioning and reduce gas consumption by the use of removable water-cooled tubes. These tubes can be placed anywhere from the throat through to the back of the forehearth. Within the range of electrode holders manufactured by FIC is our unique High ‘Q’ holder in which the cooling circuit is replaceable in under 10 minutes. Our Maxi ‘Q’ holder is a weld-free type with no critical welds within the furnace refractory structure. We can supply all-electric forehearths offering major energy savings as well as other glass conditioning options.

FIVES STEIN LTD Stand G03 Mr Stephen Sherlock, Sales Director. Mr Alan Hendry, Asia Pacific Sales Director. 4A Churchward Southmead Park Oxon OX11 7HB UK Phone: +44 (0)1235 811 111 Email: stephen.sherlock@fivesgroup.com Email: alan.hendry@fivesgroup.com Website: http://www.glass.fivesgroup.com Fives Stein Ltd, part of the Fives Glass Division, is a leading equipment supplier for high-quality glass melting and conditioning of all types of glass. With over 100 years proven expertise worldwide in the supply of gas, electric and mixed-fuel furnace, boost systems, ancillary plant, working ends and

forehearths. The company is able to tailor its equipment to best match the production requirements and provide glass producers with a comprehensive range of furnace and foreheath related services. Fives Stein Ltd is the glassmakers’ partner offering a dedicated range of services in automotive, architectural, ultra-thin, container, perfume, fibre, crystal and special glass processes.

FLAMMATEC Stand F01 Petr Vojtech Rokytnice 60, 755 01 Vsetin Czech Republic Phone: +420 571 498 566 Email: info@flammatec.com Website: http://www.flammatec.com FlammaTec (Czech Republic) and its daughter company FlammaTec GmbH (Germany) have become leading suppliers of advanced burner technology for glass furnaces. FlammaTec was founded by two partner companies (STG Combustion Control GmbH & Co KG, and Glass Service) as a joint venture. The long term know how of how to supply optimal and flexible heat into the glass can be found back in the advanced burner concepts. After 10 years since its start in 2008, FlammaTec has already supplied well over 3000 burners to over 140 projects on float, container, tableware and special glass furnaces. Such a strong reference clearly shows the benefit of this innovative combustion technology that offers high performance solutions to the FlammaTec customers. FlammateTec burners improve heat transfer from combustion to the glass melt and thus also improve furnace efficiency and lower emission when replacing conventional burners. FlammaTec offers the following advanced LoNOx burner types: • Underport Gas Injector, Flex or Freejet • Underport Gas/Oil Dual Injector, Flex of Freejet • Underport Heavy Oil Injector (also can be used for backup solutions) • Sideport Gas Injector, Flex • New Oxy/Gas Burner.


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Stand C08

combustion and control equipment for the forehearths and working end.


Andreas Pirchegger Salzburgerstraße 5145 Neukirchen an der Enknach Austria Phone: +43 7729 20299 Email: info@formaglass.com Website: http://www.info@formaglass.com Forma Glas is an innovative manufacturer of glass production machines for stemware, tumblers and press articles from Austria. With more than 120 years of experience, we build individually machines and complete production plants. Production lines for Stemware production, Tumbler production, Vases and bowles, Ophthalmic lenses, Car headlights, Thermos flasks, Laboratory glass articles, Lamp bulbs, Press glass lines, Glass processing machines Blowing machines IBS with 8 up to 32 stations for stemware bowls, tumblers, laboratory articles, lamp bulbs, thermos flasks, vases and bolwes etc. up to 70/pc. /min. Presses type ISP with 8 up to 20 stations hydraulic or servo for the production of stems for stemware (with bottom), ophthalmic lenses and smaller pressed glass articles. Double stations presses up to 14 double stations (ISP 14/2) Presses type RPH, hydraulic or servo, with 6 up to 16 stations for the production of pressed table glassware. Presses for the production of technical glass (car headlights) Servo Gob Feeder Cold processing machines Automatic crackingoff, grinding and polishing machine type ASA with 13, 26 or 39 stations for the finishing in standard cut-off process or laser cutting. Washing and drying belt, Fire polishing machine, Tableware inspection.

FUSIONTEC SRL Stand D12 Pietro Agnetti Via Mario Carraro, 9/11 Montecchio Maggiore, Vicenza 36075 Italy Phone: +39 344 0468762 Email: g.volpato@fusiontec.eu Website: http://www.fusiontec.eu Fusiontec is a Revimac company (Bottero group) that has been founded with the purpose to integrate under one roof all activities related to the industrial manufacturing of refractories as a strategic component of the forehearth system. Fusiontec’s product range includes structural refractory materials for the forehearths, feeder expendables,

Quartz House 20 Clarendon Road Redhill Surrey RH1 1QX United Kingdom Phone: +44 (0)1737 855000 Email: glass@quartzltd.com Website: http://www.glass-international.com ​Glass International offers readers the latest news from across the hollow, container, flat, and speciality glassmaking industry and is the official media partner for the global Glassman events.​The magazine focuses on industrial, economic and environmental issues affecting the industry and includes articles discussing the latest developments and challenges in glass manufacturing. Regular features comprise of global news and events, company and country profiles, and previews and reviews of important industry conferences and exhibitions.​

GLASS MACHINERY PLANTS & ACCESSORIES Stand G01 Luciano Molina Via Antonio Gramsci 57 20032 Cormano (MI) Italy Phone: +39-02-66306866 Email: luciano.molina@glassonline.com Website: http://www.glassonline.com Glass Machinery Plants & Accessories is one of the leading international magazines for glass manufacturing, and is targeted at glassworks involved in the production and processing of hollowware and special glass (bottles, containers, household, lighting, technical, scientific, industrial and medical glassware). GMP&A is a bi-monthly periodical with about 100 pages of product news, current world news, focus on..., technical articles and dossiers, worldwide exhibitions, glassworks in the world, Yellow Pages, etc.​GMP&A is supported by​ GlassOnLine​​, the most visited international website for the glass industry.​​

GLASS SERVICE AS Stand F01 Erik Muijsenberg Rokytnice 60, 755 01 Vsetin Czech Republic Phone: +420 571 498 511 Email: info@gsl.cz Website: http://www.gsl.cz Glass Service (GS), headquartered in the Czech Republic with offices in the Netherlands, USA, China and Slovakia, is a leading consultant in the field of glass melting, furnace control, operation, troubleshooting, and optimising furnace designs. GS programmers have developed in-house mathematical modeling software enabling the optimisation of glass melting and combustion processes in glass furnaces and forehearths. More than 700 different projects have been completed using GS software. Presently a new version of furnace modeling software (GFM 5.0) is being developed. GFM 5.0 uses a new generation of non-orthogonal mesh which enables proper representation of all geometric features and local refinement. GS has its own laboratory for glass defect analysis and analyzes more than 2,000 defects yearly. Additional testing capabilities utilise basic and applied research in the field of glass melting, GS has invested considerable effort into developing a new technology called a “Supervisory Advanced Control System” using our proprietary software known as the Expert System - ESIIITM. More than 160 installations have been successfully deployed worldwide. GS supplies high quality selected raw materials to the glass industry.

GLASSWORKS HOUNSELL Stand A03 William Brinkman Park Lane Halesowen West Midlands. B63 2QS. United Kingdom Phone: +441384560666 Email: wbrinkman@glassworkshounsell.co.uk Website: http://www.glassworkshounsell.co.uk ​Glassworks Hounsell are long established (1887) engineers for all areas of the modern glass factory. Glassworks is renowned for batch charging and feeding equipment. We manufacture all types of batch chargers (for all glasses) as well as aqua-sprays, vibratory feeders and other ancillary feeding equipment. Today much of our equipment is customised to suit our end users requirements - technically or financially or both! Glassworks is also a leading global supplier of Tin Oxide (Sn02) Glass melting

electrodes for varying melting and refining applications across a number of glasses. As precision engineers we also find ourselves supplying bespoke and customised engineering works to a number of the world glass makers as well as a associated equipment number of Tier 1 Glass suppliers.


Rolf Themann MBA Managing Director Ruhrglasstraße 50 45329 Essen Germany Phone: +49 172 1955 135 Email: r.themann@gps-essen.de Website: http://www.gps-essen.com GPS is a leading German-based developer and supplier of IS machines catering to the needs of the international container glass manufacturing industry. The specialist company’s product portfolio includes IS machines and components, servo mechanisms, feeders and conveyors as well as control and drive systems for various applications. It also provides consultancy and training services to customers in the container glass manufacturing industry. GPS offers both all-inclusive and modular concepts, because all-inclusive solutions don’t always meet the container glass manufacturers’ requirements. Sometimes all an IS machine needs is a professional upgrade or the replacement of individual components to achieve improvements in efficiency and product quality. Based on this knowledge and its self-imposed standards of excellence, GPS develops optimum solutions in perfect quality for customers around the globe. At unbeatable value for money.

HEAT APPLICATIONS INDIA PVT LTD Stand F15 Mr. Tony Kirkham 801, Iscon Atria - 1, Opp. GEB Training Centre, Gotri Road, Vadodara-390021, Gujarat India Phone: +91-9825505750 Email: hal@heatapplicationsindia.com Website: http://www.heatapplicationsindia.com Established in 1996 to render professional services to worldwide under the leadership of Mr. Tony Kirkham, a UK citizen with an Continued>>



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internationally reputed in the field for more than four decades. Supported by a team of highly trained personnel. The following is its services for glass melting furnace • Controlled furnace heat up & supervision of adjustments for refractory expansion • Rapid cullet specialised equipments • Controlled furnace cooldown & supervision of adjustments for refractory contraction and repaid cooldown by using specialised equipments • Thermal decongestion of choked regenerators • High speed glass draining using high pressure pump and specialised equipment • Drilling hot/cold condition for installation of thermocouple/ bubler/electrodes • Supply and commissioning of combustion equipments for various glass furnaces • Glass to glass - turnkey project including drain, cooldown, demolition, rebuild, heat-up, cullet fill



Stand B03

Samuel Leaper 3009 Washington Road McMurray PA, 15317 United States Phone: +1 724 941 9550 Email: sleaper@hft.com Website: http://www.HFT.com Henry F. Teichmann, Inc. is celebrating its 70th year of services to the glass industry. Since 1947, our engineering, technical service, purchasing, construction and project management teams have been committed to providing turnkey services for batch plants, complete glass plants, electric furnaces, container glass furnaces, float glass furnaces, fibre glass furnaces, foam glass furnaces, sodium silicate furnaces, pressed glass melting services, hand glass processes, tableware & lighting products. In our 70 years we have serviced over 1,000 projects worldwide. Our engineering staff has provided furnace designs utilizing regenerative package furnace, cross-fire furnace, end-fire furnace, electric furnace and oxy-fuel melting technologies. HFT’s vast construction experience has led to them gaining a formidable reputation throughout the world for their outstanding record of on-time and under budget performance for the construction of glass manufacturing plants and furnaces. HFT’s

highly trained and experienced project managers and supervisors, having a diverse range of experience and skills are among the most respected in the industry. World famous lehr supplier E.W. Bowman is now part of HFT. EWB specialise in the supply of container glass annealing lehrs, decorating lehrs, mould pre-heating ovens, belt cleaning brushes annealing, lehr process consultation & lehr overhauls.

HEYE INTERNATIONAL GmbH Stand B05 Grégory Lecat Lohplatz 1 31683 Obernkirchen Germany Phone: +33 676 175 083 Email: sales@heye-international.com Website: http://www.heye-international.com Heye International – Being the One – for project management, production optimising and high performance equipment. Being the One stands for market leadership and complete solutions. We are Glass People – with experience and passion heading for highest results. Our mission stands for customers’ satisfaction, our experience in glass and for the glass experts at Heye International.

HORN GLASS INDUSTRIES AG Stand B01 Yvonne Walker Bergstrasse 2 95703 Ploessberg Germany Phone: +49 96369204142 Email: y.walker@hornglas.de Website: http://www.hornglass.com Horn Glass Industries AG, a German specialist in the design and supply of complete glass melting technology is a solution partner for the worldwide glass industry. With its subsidiary companies in Czech Republic, India, Malaysia and China, Horn matches the glass industry’s requirements for local and fast activities. With its more than 130 years of experience in glass melting, Horn has a wide range of experience in the design, manufacture and supply of different furnace types for production of lighting ware, tableware, containers, cast glass, float glass, solar glass and technical glassware. The range of products and service not only includes utility equipment such as combustion systems, electric control equipment as well as modern process controlling with SCADA systems of the highest standard, to name but a few, but also the design engineering and site service. Moreover, with

its service people, Horn can cover the full requirements of the glass industry. A wide range of experts is available to install and commission all melting tanks worldwide. Service people can react quickly in order to provide assistance in case of any trouble during the glass production.


Website: http://www.isimat.com Isimat excels in designing and manufacturing advanced printing machines for direct printing onto packaging containers. Print quality, reliability and productivity make Isimat’s printing machines the preferred choice in the global market of direct container printing.


Stand E06

Jean-Luc Logel Z.I. du Chêne 14 rue du 35ème Régiment d’Aviation 69500 Bron France Phone: +33 (0)4 72 78 35 27 Email: contact@iris-im.com Website: http://www.iris-im.com Iris Inspection Machines is a leading provider of turnkey sorting solutions for glass containers of any shape or colour, including wine, beer, jars, liquor and Champagne bottles, pharmaceuticals, perfumes and food containers. A team of dedicated Research and Development engineers has evolved a performing range of equipment to match the industry’s demanding requirements and satisfy the quality needs of key international brands. Iris Inspection Machines is known for its Evolution 12 sidewall and sidewall stress inspection equipment, for its Evolution 5 base, base stress, finish and mould reader machine. But Iris has recently introduced two new equipments dedicated to the perfume, high value liquors and flaconnage industry, Evolution Ultimate for transparent defects and Evolution Dim for precise dimensional on line. The company has based its development on a long-term partnership with glassmakers in the field of glass defects detection, as well as on an exceptional know-how in the most innovative vision technologies. Iris was the first to develop and propose a 12 camera inspection machine. The success of Iris is due not only to the exceptional efficiency of its Evolution machines range but also to the excellent support provided by engineers worldwide.

ISIMAT GmbH SIEBDRUCKMASCHINEN Stand E07 Torsten Hirschnitz Rindelbacherstrasse 36-40 73479 Ellwangen (Jagst) Germany Phone: +49 7961 886 0 Email: info@isimat.de

Stand G05 Bharat Jamanu R-78 TTC MIDC Industrial area, Rabale, PO Ghansoli, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Phone: +91 9664403007 Email: bharat.projects@lenpl.com Website: http://www.logiconengineers.net.in •Design, Fabrication, supply, erection & commission of machines, equipments & systems catering to the following sectors: –Glass Industry. –Beverage Industry. –Insulation Industry. Our product range Annealing / Decorating Lehrs both electric & gas fired. Cold end conveyors & its automation. Automatic on line Shrink Wrapping machines / Palletiser / De-palletizers / Pallet Shrink Wrapping machines. Cold end coating and hot end coating systems. F.O. Handling & Storage system.

MARPOSS (THAILAND) CO LTD Stand F04 Roy Penwarden 14th Fl.,Sorachai Bldg, 23/28-29, Soi Sukhumvit 63, Sukhumvit Rod., North Klongton, Wattana, Bangkok 10110 Thailand Phone: 02 7143020 Email: roy.penwarden@th.marposs.com Website: http://www.marposs.com Marposs is a worldwide company specialized in development and production of precision equipment for measurement and control in the manufacturing environment. Marposs was founded in 1952 and is present in 34 countries, including Thailand, with 3100 employees. Production is based at its headquarters in Bentivoglio, Italy and also in other countries such as China, France, Germany, Japan, Korea and USA. Marposs began working in the glass industry more than 20 years ago. The company provides solutions for glass industry segments such as flat and automotive glass, and glass containers for food & beverage, cosmetics & perfumery and pharmaceutical purpose. Marposs solutions for glass containers Continued>>

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MOTIM FUSED CAST REFRACTORIES LTD Stand D08 Mónika Orosz H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Timföldgyári u. 9-13 Hungary Phone: +36 96 574 100 Email: orosz.monika@motim.hu Website: http://www.motim.hu Motim Fused Cast Refractories Ltd. is recognised as one of the world’s leading producer of fused cast refractories. Our products are mainly used in the glass and ceramic industry as well as in the reheating furnaces of the steel industry.


Dr. Hartmut Hegeler Stoltestrasse 23 97816 Lohr am Main Germany Phone: +49 (0)9352 507-0 Email: hegeler@sorg.de Website: http://www.sorg.de Sorg has been serving the glass industry continuously since 1872. Together with our group of companies, we offer total solutions from raw material delivery through glass conditioning with the services to keep our equipment running long and reliably. Sorg solutions provide our customers the lowest total cost of ownership over the life of their investment. Sorg is the leading worldwide supplier of glass melting and conditioning technology, engineering, equipment and services for float, containers, flat glass,

fibers, tableware, solar glass, etc. We serve customers in over 70 countries. Innovations include a new burner mount to make burner adjustments simple. This eases optimal combustion setup with the minimum amount of NOx emissions. The integrated angle adjustment setting allows easy adjustment of the burner angle via hand spindles or optionally with a motor from the furnaces contol room. Come to our booth E03 to learn more.

OMCO INTERNATIONAL NV Stand C01 Ivan Teoh Industriepark, Venecolaan 10, B-9880 Aalter Belgium Phone: +32 9 374 2005 Email: sales@omcomould.com Website: http://www.omcomould.com OMCO International Group is the world leading’s commercial glass mould manufacturer and supplying to meet customer’s satisfaction and requirement with highest quality moulds, timely deliveries at competitive price. With 5 mould manufacturing plants located in Belgium, UK, Croatia, Romania and Turkey strategically positioned in line with our customer demands, supported by own 2 modern automated foundries in Belgium and Slovenia and a competence centre at our headquarters in Belgium. OMCO Group continues to master the art of mould making for more than 50 years. OMCO Group will behave as global leader in glass mould manufacturing through continuous improvement in manufacturing with latest technology, advance automation, latest mould material research and development and full technical support and services on mould and product design. OMCO Group will continue expanding and develop manufacturing capacity to serve the market needs geographically with state of the art technology and experienced work force. Please visit us at Booth no: C01. See you all soon!

PARKINSON-SPENCER REFRACTORIES LTD Stand E01A Simon Parkinson Holmfield Halifax West Yorkshire HX3 6SX United Kingdom Phone: +44 (0)1422254472 Email: simon.parkinson@parkinson-spencer.co.uk Website: http://www.parkinson-spencer.co.uk Parkinson-Spencer Refractories Ltd

is a leading supplier of refractories and engineered products for the glass manufacturing industry and are specialists in glass conditioning. As a licensee of Emhart Glass we are one of the world’s leading suppliers of feeder expendable refractories for the glass industry. Feeder expendables are refractory parts used in the glass gob-forming system, a system that is essential to the manufacture of many different types of glassware such as glass containers and glass tableware. We are also one of the foremost suppliers of forehearth and distributor systems to the glass industry worldwide and our ability to design and manufacture both the refractories and the engineered systems is unique. The PSR System 5oo is a unique design of forehearth and distributor that has established a worldwide reputation for achieving the best in glass thermal homogeneity, temperature stability and fuel efficiency. We design, manufacture and supply the complete refractory assembly for our System 5oo forehearths including channel blocks, distributor glass contact blocks and forehearth superstructure refractories. PSR’s Cord Dispersal System is also the only proven solution to the common problem of ‘cat-scratch’ cord an each one is supplied with a money-back guarantee.

PENNINE INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT LTD Stand A01 Chris Smith Manor Croft Works Commercial Road Skelmanthorpe Huddersfield Hd8 9DT United Kingdom Phone: +44(0)1484864733 Email: cs@pennine.org Website: http://www.pennine.org Pennine Industrial are a market leader in the manufacture of Silent Conveyor Chain and Sprockets. Having in excess of 30 years experience, we are focused on assisting our customers with every aspect of Hot End Glass Conveying.

PGM-PARTNER Stand C01 Klaus Wolff 31/9 Moo.1 T.Tasao Krathumbaen Samutsakhon 74110 Thailand Phone: +66922827587 Email: info@pgm-partner.com Website: http://www.pgm-partner.com PGM & Partner is a Thai - German business

association by Jitchai Engineering Products Co.Ltd. and PGM-Technic Co.Ltd., a joint venture for your benefits. The focus is on the production of high-quality equipment and spare parts for the glass container industry, but other sectors also rely to the precision and quality of our various products and services. With an experience of more than 30 years in related fields of business, we provide a number of solutions to the glass industry, including spare parts and variables for glass forming machines, Mould Holder Inserts, Take Out Assemblies, and replacement parts for mechanisms. We also provide customised parts of our own development or initiated by our customers. We are pleased to welcome you on our booth C01


Via N. Bruno 34 10098 Rivoli Italy Phone: +39 011.950.40.30 Email: info@pneumofore.com Website: http://www.pneumofore.com Founded in 1923, Pneumofore manufactures vacuum pumps and air compressors for industrial applications worldwide and supplies the hollow glass industry with centralised vacuum and compressed air systems, designed for the pneumatic requirements of the IS machines. With references such as Ardagh, O-I, Verallia, Gallo, Gerresheimer, HNGI, Changyu, Bangkok Glass, Siam Glass and many more, Pneumofore compressors and vacuum pumps are found worldwide, whenever customers require extraordinary reliability and constant performance. Leader in Rotary Vane technology, Pneumofore solutions focus on efficiency, durability, minimal Life Cycle Cost, and high environmental respect. At Glassman Asia 2018, the company presents the UV Series vacuum pumps, ranging in capacity from 250 to 6480 m3/h with 0.5 mbar(a) residual pressure, and the A Series single-stage, air-cooled compressors, which range from 67 to 2560 m3/h with pressures from 2.5 to 10 bar(g). Several options are available, like the VS drive, remote control or connection to any PLC system. Each option facilitates heat recovery and air cooling even in harsh environment up to 50°C. Continued>>


inspection include manual and semiautomatic retoolable solutions, using tactile sensors (Quick Set), and flexible, camera-based, automatic machines for sample inspection (Visi Quick). Quick Set is a reconfigurable bench for the measurement of external diameters and straightness of the labeling area Visi Quick is a highly flexible measuring machine, using a high-resolution camera, suitable for dimensional and geometric inspection of a large variety of glass containers having different sizes, shapes and colours. Weight, push-up and wall-thickness measurements are also available as standard options. Visi Quick is available either in stand-alone configuration, or for integration in the production line for sample checking.

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300 Old Greenwood Road Decatur, Texas 76234 United States Europe: Poco Graphite, SARL 1 rue des Vergers 69760 Limonest France Phone: USA +1 940 627 2121 Europe: +33 (0) Email: pocoeu_sales@entegris.com Website: www.poco.com At Glassman, Poco Graphite will display precision ware handling solutions and unique GLASSMATE® graphite materials that improve performance in container glass production, reduce machine downtime and increase yields. Poco is known for its designs, particularly precision holders and inserts that allow fast accurate machine setup and insert replacement. Standard steel holders are available in several types and sizes. Inserts are available as semi-finished blanks, or can be precision machined to a specific finish. Application specialists can assist in the selection of the optimum graphite grade based on pickup, application, and length of the production run. Featured products will be Poco’s new Interior Locking Spring System (ILS) 18 and 22mm holders, which significantly reduces foreign object debris and targets smaller bottle manufacturing.


RAMSEY PRODUCTS Stand E01 135 Performance Drive, Belmont, North Carolina, 28012 USA Phone: +1 704-394-0322 Email: sales@ramseychain.com Website: http://www.ramseychain.com Ramsey Silent Chain. Ramsey is a worldwide leading manufacturer of silent chains (inverted tooth chains) for conveying and power transmission applications. Ramsey offers the world’s widest range of top quality silent chain products, the highest level of service, and competitive prices. Ramsey works with glass manufacturers in every part of the world, providing conveyor chains that can run at faster speeds, operate more smoothly, and deliver longer life than ever before. New Products: Sentry chains combine the best features of Ramsey’s established wear protected

chains with features developed for high speed power transmission chain. Ramsey’s RKO tool provides for easy connection and disconnection of Wear Protected chains and holds a US and a European patent. Other Unique Products: Wear Protected Chains: Lifeguard - with three US patents and a European patent, and Allguard FX feature recessed pin heads for maximum wear protection. R-Select, with highly wear resistant chromium alloy links only in the parts of the chain that wear the most, holds a US patent. Other industry favourites: Ultralife and RPV silent chain exemplify Ramsey’s focus on developing conveying chain products that serve the exacting requirements of glass production. Visit Stand #EO1 to learn more about our chains

RECKMANN GmbH Stand C06 Werkzeugstrasse 19-23, Hagen North Rhine-Westphalia, 58093 Germany Phone: +49 2331-3501-0 Email: info@reckmann.de Website: www.reckmanngmbh.com Platinum Thermocouples Quality “Made in Germany”. With more than 45 years of experience and with 185 employees we are one of the leading manufacturers of temperature sensors. We are specialised in the production of high quality thermocouples for the glass industry: + Thermocouples PtRh-Pt type S/R and B + Various designs (customized) for all applications (Forehearths/Feeder/Stack/ Crown) + From single up to triple elements also with platinum thimble made of alloy (PT10%Rh) or specifically stabilized platinum DPH + Recycling of waste (old platinum) + Buying of old platinum + Best prices. Test us!


Uwe Gillert Zur Dessel 14 D-31028 Gronau (Leine) Germany Phone: +49 5182 587-24 Email: Uwe.Gillert@renold.com Website: http://www.renoldtoothchain.com Renold GmbH is a subsidiary of Renold plc, a leading international manufacturer and supplier of industrial chains and related power transmission products with more

than 140 years of experience, 23 locations and more than 2000 employees. The brand Renold Tooth Chain stands for over 100 years of experience in the field of tooth chains, worldwide distribution and innovation, expertise in drive and transport technology particularly in the field of glass production and processing. The 2-pin rolling pivot joint and the laser welded axle pivot in plates is an unique selling point with many customer benefits. Our technological leadership in the field of drive and conveyor tooth chains makes us the chain manufacturer of choice.

REVIMAC S.R.L. Stand D12 Stand D12 Pietro Agnetti Via Mario Carraro, 9/11 Montecchio Maggiore, Vicenza 36075 Italy Phone: +39 344 0468762 Email: g.volpato@fusiontec.eu Website: http://www.fusiontec.eu

SIMTECH SPRL Stand G06 Laela Ziabat Rue de la Grande Couture, 14 Froyennes Belgium Phone: +32 495537851 Email: laela.ziabat@simtech.be Website: http://www.simtech.be Simtech provides (de)palletising solutions for all bottles and jars products thanks to a wide range of gripper tubes flexgrip® which has been developed for several years. We also provide complete solutions for jars & wide mouth bottles, gripping bars designed on demand and accessories for inspection machines.

SIPAC S.p.A. Stand D01 Fabrizio Boschi Via Berettinazza, 25 43010 Fontevivo (Parma) Italy Phone: +39 0521 611811 Email: sipac@sipac.pr.it Website: http://www.sipac.pr.it SIPAC designs and produces bottle and package conveying systems, accumulating solutions, elevators, lowerators, lane dividers, optical detection system for noround or special container orientation and other package transportation systems. Sipac and Emmeti, together, can provide full service engineering, manufacturing and commissioning of production lines, as well as any type of revamping lines, in order to

best suit the customers’ demands. Along with the systems designed and produced by EMMETI , SIPAC can incorporate equipments from sub-suppliers for turnkey projects.

SOCIETY OF GLASS TECHNOLOGY Stand F20 Christine Brown 9 Churchill Way Sheffield S35 2PY United Kingdom Phone: 44 (0)114 263 4455 Email: christine@sgt.org Website: http://www.sgt.org The Society of Glass Technology is a non-profit making organisation serving a worldwide membership. We publish journals and text books; organise meetings and conferences on glass related topics; coordinate the activities of special interest groups and technical committees; and provide a communication framework geared to the needs of the glass community.

SVA INDUSTRIE FERNSEH GmbH Stand A05 Axel Juergens Marie-Curie-Str. 11 D 40721 Hilden Germany Phone: +49 2103 335500 Email: info@sva-hilden.de Website: http://www.sva-hilden.de For more than 40 years SVA Industrie Fernseh GmbH is working at the field of firing chamber monitoring systems. Our cameras are needed for different operative ranges worldwide glass industry, float glass industry, steel industry, cement industry, garbage incinerating plants, and utility industry. By permanent monitoring of the hot area, progresses can be carried out better and with less environment load. Spoilage production can be reduced to a minimum. In addition to the chamber monitoring SVA is engaged in the field of professional Video monitoring technology. Digital visual recording and image processing can be used as well as matrix control for the complete monitoring of the plant. Main products: Furnace cameras, top roll cameras, tin bath camera, width measurement for exit end, thermo graphical service, water cooled cameras, cameras for batch, network camera systems, top roll detection software.


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Stand B02

THE TECO GROUP Stand A08 60 Savile Street East Sheffield S4 7UQ United Kingdom Phone: +44 (0)114 275 9020 Email: sales@tecoglas.com Website: http://www.teco.com As part of the TECO Group, Toledo Engineering, Tecoglas and KTG Systems can offer complete capabilities in glass furnaces of all types, with KTG Engineering supporting this facility as glass plant equipment manufacturers. Zedtec are the TECO Group specialists in forehearths and working end technology. EAE Tech are the latest addition to the TECO Group providing high quality industrial automation engineering services and custom control systems. The TECO Group has been serving the world’s primary glass manufacturing industry since 1927.

Stand C03

Stand C04 Mr. Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Ulrich Zirfas Kronacher Str. 2a 96352 Wilhelmsthal Germany Phone: +49 9260 9901-0 Email: info@waltec.de Website: http://www.waltec.de We design, construct, manufacture and supply machines for the glass industry. Production programme: Fully automatic production lines with PLC/CNC electronic control for tableware, spinning articles, stemware, press-blow articles, blowblow articles, toughening/tempering, microwave and technical articles, washing machine glasses, cold light reflectors, glass insulators, glass blocks Quadruple Gob lines Triple Gob lines Double Gob lines Single Gob lines Spinning lines Stemware lines Press-Blow lines Blow-Blow lines Toughening/Tempering lines

XPAR VISION Stand F11 Paul Schreuders Laan Corpus den Hoorn 300 9728 JT Groningen Netherlands Phone: +31-50-3162888 Email: contact@xparvision.com Website: http://www.xparvision.com Xpar Vision develops, installs, implements, services and maintains innovative technology for hot end inspection, process monitoring and quality control. Our products and services help to improve the quality selection, quality control and automated process control for the global container glass industry. Xpar Vision is committed to assist container glass manufacturers in meeting the increasing customer demands and improving their product quality, whilst increasing efficiency levels and also reducing energy levels and carbon emission.

Miriam Garimberti Via Galileo Galilei, 1-1/A 42027 Montecchio Emilia (RE) Italy Phone: +39 0522 867411 Email: m.garimberti@zecchetti.it Website: http://www.zecchetti.it Zecchetti proposes conveying/palletising turnkey lines for empty glass containers, from Lehr discharge up to finised pallet warehousing. The lines can cope with almost all kinds of articles and with a very wide range of speeds. The long experience and the cooperation with the biggest glass factories has located Zecchetti among the worldwide leader manufacturers. The ability to propose, manufacture and supply the AS/RS Warehouse system as well, allows Zecchetti to act as unique supplier for the complete empty container cold end section. Peculiar feature of Zecchetti is to aim at making Customer’s life easier, namely by studying with them and then realizing solutions “Made to Order”.

ZHENGZHOU XINGUANGSE REFRACTORY Stand F07 Maggie Ma Songzhai Industrial zone,liuzhai town, xinmi China Phone: +86 37186122276 Email: info@chinasgs.cn Website: http://www.xinguangse.com Zhengzhou Xinguangse Refractory Co., Ltd. (SGS) is a Chinese company founded in 2002 with foreign investment from P.T. SIBALEC., Ltd (Indonesia). SGS is today the largest completely independent AZS Supplier. With high flexibility and efficiency we’ve cooperated with each type of glass makers(hollow glass/flat glass/ decorative glass/foam glass/fiber glass/ lignting glass) all over the world in the past 15 years. Looking into the future, we truely believe with our high quality, customised service, reliability and precision, we’ll be a good choice of yours for partnership.

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Günther Mlynar, Managing Director Alfred-Zippe-Str. 11, 97877 Wertheim Germany Phone: +49 9342 8040 Email: zippe@zippe.de Website: http://www.zippe.de Zippe has dedicated all activities to the international glass industry. Acting as a partner in the area of melting material preparation, the design, manufacturing, installation and commissioning of plants, on turnkey basis if required, Zippe offers: - Batch Plants - Cullet Plants - Automation - Modernization - Engineering - Factory Cullet Recycling - Glass Recycling - Batch Charging - Glass Level Controlling Preheating - Maintenance & Service. Zippe is a competent and reliable partner not offering only delivery of equipment but as well consulting and engineering. In-house educated engineers and supervisors install and commission the plants. Comprehensive documentation informs the customer about all plant functions and gives technological details, allowing easy problem solving by telecommunication dialogue.


Stand E01 Mr. Teerapong Kajonkiatlerd 192 Serithai Road, Kannayao, Kannayao, Bangkok 10230 Thailand Phone: +66 29060187 Email: tr@trirex.co.th Website: http://www.trirex.co.th Trirex International Company Limited. Established in 1979, Trirex International Co., Ltd. has been an importer of industrial products from many worldwide well-known manufacturers in the USA, Germany, England, Italy, Holland, France, Japan and China. Our product range covers various quality products for the Steel, Cement, Glass, Foundry, Ceramic, Canned Food and Soft Drink industries. We strongly intend to provide our customers with high quality products and best service. Equipped with efficient sales team including engineers and specialists from abroad, we are also prepared to work closely with our customers to satisfy your need and assist you to meet your expectations.

65 Glass International December/January 2018


13/12/2017 14:33:51



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66 Glass International December/January 2018


13/12/2017 14:33:53

Glassman Asia Catalogue

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67 Glass International December/January 2018


13/12/2017 14:33:55


A safer swabbing lubricant Swabbing lubricants are a combination of different chemicals. But when combined with high temperatures, they create harmful corrosive chemicals. Francois Breye* suggests a new lubricant offers a compromise.


he first time I visited a container glass plant three years ago, facing the IS machine, I thought I was in a nightmare. Facing me was a high tech machine, dealing with molten glass falling down at high speed and, being in the year 2015, lubricated by a human hand with brush full of heavy black lubricants! From then on, based on my technical background and my people network, I made it my mission to modernise this prehistoric and dangerous lubricating process and make it efficient, safe and clean. In this article, I discuss two aspects where VDV Lubricants has achieved considerable progress: corrosion and smoke quality as a result of manual swabbing.

Mould corrosion


Swabbing lubricants contain sulphur. This chemical is necessary as it plays a role as a lubricating improver when extreme pressure (EP) is present. EP conditions are present when the gob is formed to a glass bottle through the different processes (blow/blow, press/blow or NNPB). Unfortunately, sulphur (and an excess of sulphur) has a metal corrosive impact, especially on bronze and bronze/nickel moulds. This negative effect will directly impact the quality and lifetime of mould

equipment. Indirectly, glass bottles defects can occur. In 2016, VDV Lubricants, in partnership with a specialised Belgian research institute (the BIL), decided to identify and quantify the corrosion effect of swabbing lubricants during their application on heated metal surfaces. The objective was to come out with at least one solution. Without going into details, below are some basic data from this study: � Swabbing lubricants tested: � Reference = typical swabbing formulation containing standard base oil, a package of additives (including sulphur based products) and graphite. � Reference containing five different anti-corrosive agents � Test conditions: � Copper plated heated at 500°C. Copper was selected as it is the most sensitive material to observe corrosion. � For 20 minutes each day for 10 days, the application of swabbing lubricant droplets were placed on the heated metal surface. The results can be summarised as follows: � Surface damaged = metal losses and unregular surface, � Without an anti-corrosive agent the average damage was:

� 120 to 212µm metal losses or 13 to 23% of original surface depth. � With anti-corrosive agents the average damage is: � 28 to 166µm metal losses or 3 to 18% of original surface depth. The best result is only an average of 3% metal loss/depth damage (Figs 1 and 2). The main technical conclusions from this study are the impact of corrosion damage of the metal surface during the swabbing operation and the option to considerably limit this negative effect. Putting this within the glass manufacturing activity, mould metal losses and surface damage are potential risks to create glass inclusions, metal contaminations of the inner content of the bottle and so leading to quality claims. Additionally, the lifetime of the moulds is reduced and will generate cost in maintenance and purchasing levels. The good news is that solutions exist and VDV Lubricants is able to update on request its Glassline swabbing lubricants to offer glass plants controlled and limited corrosion impact on its moulds equipment.

Swabbing smoke Swabbing smoke is the most important Continued>>

� Fig 1. Metal depth before

� Fig 2. Metal


depth after swabbing.

68 Glass International December/January 2018

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challenge as it directly concerns the health of production operators. Air contamination in the production area influences the inner content of produced bottles as well. Swabbing lubricants are a combination of a liquid phase composed of a base oil with lubricant additives, and a solid phase composed of graphite. As soon as the swabbing lubricants are in contact with the heated mould surface, the main part of the liquid phase - the base oil - will almost instantly convert to a gaseous phase, this phenomena is unavoidable. The only option to limit the generated swabbing smoke is to reduce the use of lubricant; this can be achieved by a manual ‘dry’ swabbing or even better, by automatic swabbing. As soon as the quantity of smoke is controlled it is a priority to look closer at the content of it as you cannot always see or smell what is in there. VDV Lubricants, as a responsible chemical manufacturer, has taken the initiative to have a complete and representative study (performed by Vito Research Center, Mol, Belgium) about the smoke quality generated during the swabbing operation. The conditions of this study were: � Heated metal surface – avg. 450°C � Weight-controlled lubricant dosage system � Closed atmosphere to collect the entire gaseous components � Gas-analysis equipment We selected for this project one swabbing lubricant from a competitor, one standard Glassline swabbing lubricant and our latest product, Glassline SwabPharma. This latest product has been developed by VDV Lubricants and patented for its properties towards a high level of safe and clean swabbing. The details and results are not shared in this article as the project is subject to confidentiality and related to patented products. Nevertheless, I would like to share following conclusions: � Swabbing lubricants are chemicals. When in contact with a heated mould surface, they will burn off and always create smoke that contains chemical components. � Swabbing smoke (also called oil mist) usually contains components that are the subject of healthy high concerns, as inhaled by production operators all day long. � Glassline SwabPharma is the first product on the market that offers a reduced risk of air contamination. (Fig 3) The two main topics of this article, mould corrosion & swabbing smoke, must been taken seriously as they impact the safety of people and the quality of bottles, but also indirectly influence the efficiency of the glass forming process. The mission of VDV Lubricants, through its Glassline lubricants, is to serve glass people with the safest and most efficient technology of today and tomorrow. Finally, remember a basic rule when using chemicals that can impact your life or your job: use the right ones and use them as less as possible. �

*Managing Director, VDV Lubricants, Baasrode, Belgium www.glassline.be Glass International December/January 2018




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07/09/2017 12:12


� Anadolu Cam’s Eskisehir plant.

Anadolu Cam Eskisehir benefits from swabbing robot oil s

Condat’s custom made oil for Turkish container glass manufacturer Anadolu Cam’s Eskisehir plant has been deemed a success. It has improved the glassmaker’s productivity as well as the safety of its IS machine operators.

The start of a partnership Anadolu Cam Eskisehir contacted Condat in 2015 after having difficulties in the proper technical support for its lubricants procurement. The main problem was the amount of residues it had on its IS machines. Condat, through its technical assistance was able to help it on this point. With a visit every week, Condat personnel checked and adjusted the concentration of the shear spray lubricant (Bioglass DLS 67F) to optimise the production process. The quality of the product along with the low quantity of residues and its high lubricating properties made a great difference in productivity. And the plant emphasised that having just one supplier for all lubricating

applications enables it to rationalise its orders. And with its products always being in stock, it appreciates Condat’s capacity to deliver quickly.

Robot oil development Condat also has an ability to listen to its customers and to answer to their problems with the appropriate solution, even if this needs a specific development. Focusing on the safety of its staff, the Sisecam Group invested in robots in all its IS machines for swabbing operations. Swabbing moulds, running at a temperature of around 500°C, and glass at even higher temperature, is risky for operators’ health and safety. Another reason for the investment Continued>>



urkish container glassmaker Anadolu Cam Eskisehir has made its international reputation making glassware ranging from small containers - 15 grams pharmaceutical bottles - up to the 3900 gram demijohn for liquid fountains, using the single, double and triple gob processes. After a recent investment in swabbing robots, it asked its lubricating partner, the French company Condat, to develop an optimised oil for this type of application. The benefits of the project will be increased safety and productivity. Anadolu Cam Eskisehir manufacturers 900 tons of glass a day. This is forecast to rise to 1400 tons next year. It belongs to the Sisecam Group, the world’s third largest glass manufacturer.

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� Anadolu Cam Eskisehir manufacturers 900 tons of glass a day.

� When Anadolu Cam installed its first swabbing robots, it turned to Condat


for a solution.

was to standardise the manufacturing process, robots enable the same uniform application with an equal quantity of lubricants. When Anadolu Cam installed its first swabbing robots, it turned to Condat for a solution. “Developing a good uniform sprayed grease was not easy, explained Jérôme Charvet, Condat’s Glass Market Manager. “We worked closely with Anadolu Cam to set up specifications and develop a lower viscosity product that would give the required glass release properties. We had to also solve a residue and sedimentation issue.” Because the robots work in close proximity to the moulds, in an atmosphere close to 70°C, this will affect the temperature in the tank of the robot thus creating drastic sedimentation in the bottom of the tank. Thanks to the involved team of experts and the efficiency of its Research & Development department, Condat was able to offer the right product to Anadolu Cam within three months. Mr T. Emrah Özler, Condat’s glass sales representative for Turkey, said: “To perfectly fit the request of our customer, we accompanied the Anadolu Cam team to implement the solution. “We supplied several samples of swabbing robot oils, made several online tests, checked the application and quantity applied and verified the results with one main objective: always improve the final solution.” Condat supplies the Turkish container glass manufacturer with two types of swabbing robot oils: Condaglass 364 & 365 (each with a different graphite

content and viscosity depending on glass articles and robots). The results have been significant for the company as it can now limit the interference of operators on high temperature moulds. The standardisation of the process has also had a huge effect on the quantity of lubricants used, as consumption has decreased by nearly 60%. This success has encouraged Sisecam to implement swabbing robots on all its IS machines worldwide. Condat was formed in 1854 and specialises in the conception and production of industrial lubricants with a specific know-how in greases formulation. It has headquarters and manufacturing

facilities in France and three other productions sites in USA, China and Brazil. It offers a range of lubricants and coatings meeting the requirements of the packaging glass process, including Soluble lubricants for shear spray, neat oils and dual-component coating for delivery system and synthetic oils for central lubrication of IS Machines as well as oils and grease suitable for the maintenance of glass machines. It recently launched solutions for glass release dedicated to the tableware industry. �

Condat, Chasse-sur-Rhone, France www.condat.fr

� Condat offers a range of lubricants for the glass packaging industry.

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VIDEO TUTORIALS & NEWS Check out our new website to see video tutorials, the latest news, case studies and much more. 12/10/2017 2:22 pm

� � Egbert Weninger (left) takes over as chairman of the VDMA’s glass technology forum from Dr Bernd-Holger Zippe.

VDMA Chairman to focus on digital glassmaking E

gbert Wenninger was unanimously elected Chairman of Germany’s VDMA Glass Technology Forum at the group’s recent General Assembly. Mr Wenninger, 51, is Senior Vice President Business Unit Glass at Grenzebach Maschinenbau in Asbach-Bäumenheim, Germany. Wenninger will focus on the acquisition of new members and strengthen the role of the Glass Technology Forum as a platform for all German mechanical and plant engineers in the field. It is important to him to ‘introduce further important players into the Glass Technology Forum and to strengthen the position of German glass machine manufacturers on the global market.’

Mr Wenninger will serve for three years as Chairman. His deputy will be Siegfried Glaser, Managing Director of Glaser FMB in Beverungen. Mr Wenninger has been active in the VDMA Forum Glastechnik since 2009. He started on the advisory board of the glasstec event, a role he continues today. He became a Board Member in 2012 and, between 2010 and 2012, was also on the board of the VDMA’s subdivision devoted to Photovoltaic Production Equipment. He succeeds Dr. Bernd Holger Zippe, Executive Director of Zippe Industrieanlagen, who advocated a change after serving as Chairman of the Board for eight years and did not stand for re-election. Continued>>


Egbert Wenninger was recently appointed Chairman of the German VDMA Glass Technology Forum (Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau). He spoke to Greg Morris about the forum and his plans for his three-year term.

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Dr Zippe’s long-serving deputy Dr. Harald Jodeit, Managing Director of JSJ Jodeit, also stepped down.

with a revenue of more than €1 Billion Euros. We do have an annual member convention and the board meets 1-2 times per year. There are no specific committees, however we picking the latest technologies and organise work groups and technical presentations.

What do you like about the VDMA? “In general the VDMA is an excellent platform for German Machine Manufacturers to promote their products in the global market. The VDMA also offers a lot of extra services, such as market studies, legal advisory services and many more. On a European level the VDMA also plays an important role as far as international standards are concerned. “The VDMA is important today because a community is much stronger than a single company. It is the combination of all things I mentioned before and the huge number of members who show that they value the services of the VDMA.”

What topics and challenges do you anticipate to be focused on during your time as chairman? My main focus will be on acquiring new member companies. There are still many important glass machine manufacturers that are not yet in the Forum Glastechnik. The other thing is to provide added value to our members and support them in their efforts to drive technology and be successful in the global market.

What skills personally will you bring to the role? I think I know the Forum Glastechnik very well after so many years. Over two decades I have gained a good understanding of glass production as well as glass processing for many different glass types. So I hope that I am able to appropriately represent all our members in Forum Glastechnik.

What do you enjoy about the industry? I have spent more than 20 years now in the glass industry. I was active in cold end technology for float glass lines for a large amount of that time. For several years I have also gained additional knowledge in the raw material and melting portion of flat and container glass, as well as other special glass such as fibre glass, tableware and others.


Since your time as a member of the VDMA, are there any projects that have made you proud to be a member? In the global world of today it is hard imagine, but we had times where the VDMA was organising symposiums and enabled its members to participate in exhibitions that so far were out of reach for smaller member companies. Today the VDMA is driving the topic of digitalisation and supports its members to be ahead of their competitors.

What is the structure of the glass section within the VDMA. How often does the Board of Directors meet? Are there different technical committees relating to the different glass sectors, for example? The Forum Glasstechnik is a subdivision of the division Bau- und Baustoffmaschinen. In total we have approximately 60 member companies

� Digital glassmaking will be an important topic during Mr Wenninger’s three-year term.

You’ve stated it is important to ‘introduce further important players into the Glass Technology Forum and to strengthen the position of German glass machine manufacturers on the global market.’ How do you hope to achieve this? We are planning to invite all potential candidates to participate in an annual convention. In addition we would also like to introduce the additional services the VDMA itself can offer.

Can you learn from the other sectors within the VDMA? Is there an opportunity to swap ideas? Absolutely. Only because the VDMA is a huge organisation it is able to provide so many services to its members. One thing that is definitely in the focus throughout all industry sectors is digitalisation and Industry 4.0. Some are further ahead and some are just starting their activities in this field. �

Chairman, VDMA Glass Technology Forum, Düsseldorf, Germany www.vdma.org/glass

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Prof. John Parker

Glassy eyed Prof Parker discusses vitrification and the act of making glass.



y dictionary defines vitrification as a) the act or process of vitrifying or b) the state of being vitrified while vitreous is: pertaining to, resembling or having the nature of glass. These terms originate from the latin, vitrum, for glass and first reached England in 1594 via the French. A recent trade fair in Milan was titled Vitrum. Interestingly vitrification also appears in archaeology, ceramics, and even biology. So what is vitrification about? Most liquids solidify suddenly on cooling to an opaque/translucent polycrystalline mass, often lacking transparency because their many internal crystal interfaces scatter light. Every melt has a temperature (liquidus) at which crystallisation will commence under ideal conditions and given sufficient time – 0°C for water; some initial undercooling is not unusual though. But good glass forming materials bypass this opportunity to achieve equilibrium altogether and simply become more viscosity as they cool until flow is too slow to be observed in any reasonable time. Terence Maloney puts it succinctly: “A glass is a liquid that has become too cold to freeze.” Crystallisation is a two-step process. At higher temperatures pre-existing crystals grow. Nucleation – the formation of minute seeds needed to initiate crystal growth – occurs predominantly at lower temperatures; high temperature melting will normally have removed pre-existing nuclei. So good glass formers pass through the crystal growth zone before any nuclei exist and do not crystallise. Scientists have quantified how easily a material is vitrified by measuring the slowest cooling rate that gives a ‘crystalfree’ glass. Molten silica (sand) can be cooled to a glass at just 2°C/day. Not surprisingly lightning strikes on deserts and the splatter from meteoritic impact give naturally occurring forms of vitreous silica.

Commercial compositions have higher critical cooling rates but nevertheless do not easily crystallise. Historically crystallisation was problematic during an extended (Christmas) shut-down. Even though limited firing was maintained to keep tanks warm, bottom temperatures often fell below the liquidus, because of poor insulation and/or coloured glasses with poor heat transfer characteristics. Once crystallised, remelting was difficult because of the lack of convection in the solid mass. One crystalline product formed was devitrite, a sodium calcium silicate not found geologically. Other phases e.g. cristabolite (SiO2) could grow depending on the glass composition and temperature. Furnace temperatures even in the forehearth are too high for devitrification for modern commercial compositions while forming rates are too fast, even though taking place in the temperature range where crystal growth is possible. This is not necessarily true though for more exotic glasses or for solution sacs formed around dissolving impurities such as AZS defects, where zirconia dendrites can form and are useful diagnostically. ‘Vitrification’ is also used in the pottery industry because of the glassy phase formed in the body during firing, which has consequences for strength and porosity. It is also applied by archaeologists to certain ancient forts in Northern Europe whose walls have at some time experienced high temperatures, so producing glassy layers over the original stones. At one time this was thought to be a deliberate process to add strength. More modern interpretations though suggest that it may have arisen during a ceremonial burning of the fort at the end of useful life, either following a defeat in battle or migration of the inhabitants. There is a more surprising situation where the vitreous state is important and that involves winter and the survival of

plant-life. Being rich in water the likely consequence of freezing temperatures is crystallisation; the formation of ice crystals will usually destroy the plant’s cell walls and kill it. Often more critical than freezing is springtime warming which is more likely to initiate crystallisation from the nuclei that formed during the long cold nights. So how do evergreens survive? Well, frost resistant plants often generate antifreeze agents such as alcohols, akin to the alumina and magnesia used by glassmakers to lower the crystallisation temperature, and reduce crystal growth and nucleation rates. There is another more extreme example. Sometimes biological tissues need to be kept over extended periods, for example the long- term storage of human eggs, where a patient requiring chemo- or radiotherapy wishes to preserve her eggs from damage for subsequent fertilisation and growth. The process involves rapid cooling by immersion in liquid nitrogen and is appropriately termed vitrification. One of the winners of the 2017 Nobel Chemistry Prize had studied how to achieve this safely. The cooling rate must exceed the critical cooling rate required for glass formation. Reheating is a critical stage in this process too. Another use for the term vitreous is for the contents of the eyeball, known as vitreous humour or just vitreous. This is strictly a liquid, or perhaps more correctly a gel, but is certainly not a glass. It helps to maintain the spherical shape of the eyeball and is optically transparent so that an image can be transferred from the cornea to the retina. So transparency, rather than glassiness, explains the name, making it the odd one out. �

* Curator of the Turner Museum of Glass, The University of Sheffield, UK www.turnermuseum.group.shef.ac.uk j.m.parker@sheffield.ac.uk

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We Don’t Make the Glass, We Make it Possible Glassman Asia Stand - FO1 Glassman Latin America - Stand BO3 Glassman Asia - Stand EO3 Glassman Latin America - Stand C19 Nikolaus Sorg GmbH & Co. KG Stoltestrasse 23, 97816 Lohr am Main Germany www.sorg.de

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• Oxygen & oxygen flow control equipment • Global oxygen enrichment applications • Cleanfire® oxy-fuel burners • Start-up services

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• Hydrogen, nitrogen & other gases • Enabling flow control equipment 800-654-4567 (code 344) gigmrktg@airproducts.com airproducts.com/glass

Electrical melting in perfection - Engineering and modelling

Global Combustion Systems

for boosting systems

- Water-cooling Systems

Total Support

for electrode holder

Unit 43, Evans Business Centre, Easter Inch, Bathgate EH48 2EH, Scotland, UK

- Electrode holder

for bottom / side / top

- Power regulation / Transformers

Tel+44 (0) 1506 657310 Fax +44 (0) 8704 799975 Email Sales@globalcombustion.com Web www.globalcombustion.com

Special services - Hot drilling - Change of electrode holder Bock Energietechnik GmbH Gösen 15 92685 Floss Germany

Tel: 0049 9603/1295 Fax: 0049 9603/2995 info@bock-energietec.de www.bock-energietec.de

HOTSheppee ENDClassified WARE advert.pdf HANDLING



Ware Handling Made Easy Complete intergrated Ware Handling package 2 & 3 Axis Servo Stacker Advanced Lehr Cross Conveyor Ware Transfer units for ALL types of production Adjustable pocket Pushbars Worldwide service and support team Dedicated to resolving your Ware Handling problems







LUBRICATING Classified Ad1.pdfAND 1 03/02/2016 COATING SOLUTIONS

1 04/02/2016 10:34:15



Airfield Business Park, Elvington, York, YO42 4AU, UK Tel: 0044 1904 608999 Email: sales@sheppee.com Web: www.sheppee.com


TIAMA ZA des Plattes, 1 Chemin des Plattes, 69390 Vourles, France




Tel +33 (0) 4 37 20 15 00, Fax +33 (0) 4 78 07 94 50 Email: marketing@tiama.com Website:www.tiama.com


Lubricating and Coating Solutions for the Glass Container Industry Graphoidal Developments Ltd, Broombank Road, Chesterfield, S41 9QJ, England


Tel: +44 (0) 1246 266000 Fax: +44 (0) 1246 269269 Email: sales@graphoidal.com Website: www.graphoidal.com

Contact Esme Horn T+44 (0) 1737 855136 to book your space



Rio Tinto Minerals 2 Eastbourne Terrace London W2 6LG, UK Tel +44 (0) 207 781 1450 Fax +44 (0) 207 781 1851 Email: simon.cook@riotinto.com Web: www.riotintominerals.com






KBA-KAMMANN GmbH Bergkirchener Str. 228 D-32549 Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

Glassman events visit: www.glassmanevents.com/asia

Fon +49 (0) 5734 5140-0 Fax: +49 (0) 5734 5140-5130 mail@kba-kammann.com www.kba-kammann.com

Flexible. Precise. Innovative.

12/12/2017 12:25:16

53035 MONTERIGGIONI (SI) ITALY - Strada di Gabbricce, 6 Tel +39 0577 304730 ifv@fonderievaldelsane.com


Defects no longer know where to hide

Intelligent engraving inspection The Evolution 12 engraving identification and inspection module is a software innovation that allows the machine to identify engravings in a container’s body or base. Because it is very difficult to predict how an engraving will look, this module dramatically improves inspection in these areas. By calculating the position of the engraving, the machine identifies the pixels related to the engraving, as well as those that relate to a defect. This algorithm has been improved and tested over recent months on several production lines, including those devoted to beers, carbonated beverages, wine and high value spirits.

VISIT US AT GLASSTEC 2016 DĂźsseldorf, Germany

20 - 23 Sept. 2016 - Hall 14 Booth C22

Profile for Quartz Business Media

Glass International December January 2018  

Glass International December January 2018