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A BIRDWATCHER’S GUIDE TO THE TONLE SAP GREAT LAKE

A BIRDWATCHER’S GUIDE TO THE TONLE SAP GREAT LAKE


INTRODUCTION The Tonle Sap is an impressive sight. As the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, it covers 2500 km² during the dry season, but reaches 10 000-16 000 km² during the annual floods. During this flooding period a vast floodplain around the lake and its vegetation turn into a “flooded forest”. The lake is home to one of the world’s largest freshwater fisheries (annual catches of circa 300 000 tons), and an ecosystem that is incredibly rich in fauna and flora. Three million Cambodian’s rely on the lake’s vast resources, and the largest colony of water birds in Southeast Asia and the nearly extinct Siamese crocodile reside here. Thanks to this amazing biodiversity, the Tonle Sap was listed on UNESCO’s list of Biosphere Reserves in 1997. The Prek Toal flooded forest in particular has been designated a core area of 21 000 hectares of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve because of its botanical biodiversity and threatened water bird colonies. In 2015 it was also included in the list of Ramsar Sites, protecting wetlands of international importance. Within this flooded forest, the Prek Toal Bird Sanctuary boasts incredibly unique colonies of birds and lush vegetation. The sanctuary is a wonderful place for bird watching, and the following document gives a brief overview of the bird species that can be found there. A BIRDWATCHER’S GUIDE TO THE TONLE SAP GREAT LAKE | 1


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Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala / Ronil Poa (KH) National Conservation Status: Near-threatened in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident (dispersve after breeding) Size: 102 cm Wingspan: 145 to 160 cm Weight: 2000 to 3500 g Nutrition: Fish Breeding/Nesting:  From January to May  Nest is a platform of sticks on large trees, large breeding colonies documented at Prek Toal

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Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis / Tung propeh (KH) National Conservation Status: Near-threatened in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident (disperse after breeding) Size: 127 to152 cm Wingspan: 213 to 250 cm Weight: 5100 to 5700 g Nutrition: Fish Breeding/Nesting:  From December to May  Nesting in mixed large water bird colonies, usually with storks and cormorants

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Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans / Changkil Kchang (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident (disperse after breeding) Size: 81 cm Wingspan: 147 to 149 cm Weight: 1300 to 8900 g Nutrition: Snails Breeding/Nesting:  From January to June  On twig-platform on shrubs and trees

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Lesser Adjutant

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Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus / Trodak Toich (KH) National Conservation Status: Near-threatened in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon resident (dispersve after breeding) Size: 110 to 120 cm Wingspan: 200 to 210 cm Weight: 4500 to 8900 g Nutrition: Frogs, reptiles, fish, crustaceans, large insects, as well as young mammals and birds Breeding/Nesting:  From December to June  In mixed large waterbird colonies

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Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius / Trodak Thom (KH) National Conservation Status: Critical in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon resident (dispersve after breeding) Size: 120 to 152 cm Wingspan: 250 cm Weight: 7000 to 11 000 g Nutrition: Frogs, reptiles, fish, crustaceans, large insects, as well as young mammals and birds Breeding/Nesting:  From December to June  In mixed large waterbird colonies

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Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea / Ronil Saw (KH) National Conservation Status: Critical in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon resident (disperse after breeding) Size: 95 to 100 cm Wingspan: - cm Weight: - g Nutrition: Crustaceans, amphibians, fish, reptiles and insects Breeding/Nesting:  From January to June  Nest is a platform of twigs on a tree

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Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus / Kangno kluan saw (KH) National Conservation Status: Near-threatened in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon resident (disperse after breeding) Size: 65 to 76 cm Wingspan: 130 cm Weight: - g Nutrition: Diet includes frogs, tadpoles, snails, adults and larvae of insects, and worms, also fish and crustaceans Breeding/Nesting:  From December to June  Nest in densely packed colonies on low shrubs, but also on trees

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Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis / Kaek teuk mathyum (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident Size: 97 cm Wingspan: 116 to 128 cm Weight: 1058 to 1815 g Nutrition: Diet mainly fish. Feeds primarily by pursuit-diving Breeding/Nesting:  From November to February  Large breeding colonies, nesting mainly on trees with Oriental Darters

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BIRD MAP OF PREK TOAL A BIRDWATCHER’S GUIDE TO THE TONLE SAP GREAT LAKE | 13


Purple Heron Ardea purpurea / Krosar thnong (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident Size: 90 cm Wingspan: 120 to 150 cm Weight: 600 to 1400 g Nutrition: Fish, molluscs, crustaceans, aquatic insects, larvae, reptiles, small rodents and small birds Breeding/Nesting:

Purple Heron

 Between January and June  Nesting at the three or four heronries of the bird sanctuary

Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster / Smaony (KH) National Conservation Status: Nearthreatened in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon resident Size: 63 cm Wingspan: 115 to 130 cm Weight: 600g to 790 g Nutrition: Fish Breeding/Nesting:  From October to February  Small nest of sticks on trees and Oriental Darter

shrubs in flooded areas

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Little Heron Butorides striata / Kra-aich (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common winter visitor Size: 48 cm Wingspan: 52 to 60 cm Weight: 200 to 250 g Nutrition: Fish and insects Breeding/Nesting:  Date: no information  The nest is usually well-hidden in a low bush or in a tree overhanging the water A BIRDWATCHER’S GUIDE TO THE TONLE SAP GREAT LAKE | 15


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Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus / Steng slap sru’ich thom (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon winter visitor Size: 50 cm Wingspan: 95 to 115 cm Weight: 750 to 1300 g Nutrition: Birds, big insects, bats, and sometimes rodents Breeding/Nesting:  Date: no information  Falcons do not build a nest. They lay on the ground on a ledge, in a hole, a niche, or an old nest of crows or another raptor

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Great Egret Ardea alba / Kok-krong thom (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident Size: 104 cm Wingspan: 140 to 170 cm Weight: 1000 to 1500 g Nutrition: Fish Breeding/Nesting:  From April to July

Great Egret

 Nest in colonies most of the time

Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis / Ngiu kok (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon resident Size: 35 to 41 cm Wingspan: - cm Weight: 140 to 225 g Nutrition: Mostly fish (sometimes crabs, insects, amphibians, mice, Stork-billed Kingfisher

lizards)

Breeding/Nesting:  Date: no information  Dig tunnels in quite different places: soft banks of watercourses, termite mounds or arboreal anthills (one of which is more than six meters high), cavity in a rotting trunk 18 | A BIRDWATCHER’S GUIDE TO THE TONLE SAP GREAT LAKE


Grey-headed Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus / Awk trei kbal propeh (KH) National Conservation Status: Near-threatened in Cambodia Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident Size: 61 to 75 cm Wingspan: 155 to 170 cm Weight: 1600 to 2700 g Nutrition: Almost exclusively fish, probably also some terrestrial birds, small mammals Breeding/Nesting:  From November to March  Nests in tall trees, with an open structure, and preferably near permanent water A BIRDWATCHER’S GUIDE TO THE TONLE SAP GREAT LAKE | 19


Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus / Trodei kbal baitong (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common passage migrant & uncommon resident Size: 28 to 30 cm Wingspan: - cm Weight: 29 to 43 g Nutrition: Insects Breeding/Nesting:  From February to June  The nesting tunnel is dug into the smooth, sandy bank of a stream or into a flat, grassy area, into a road embankment, a coastal dune, a clay basin

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Rufous Woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus / Troseh tnaot champuh khmao (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon resident Size: 25 cm Wingspan: 116 to 128 cm Weight: 55g to 84 g Nutrition: Ants, Larvae, Termites, small insects Breeding/Nesting:  From April  Nest in trees

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Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida / Rumpei puh propeh (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common winter visitor /passage migrant Size: 50 cm Wingspan: 95 to 115 cm Weight: 750 to 1300 g Nutrition: Dragonflies, aquatic insect larvae, beetles, tadpoles and tree frogs, as well as small fish Breeding/Nesting:  From April to June  Nest made of grasses and rushes

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Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Common resident Size: 50 cm Wingspan: 90 to 100 cm Weight: - g Nutrition: Mainly herbivorous (stems, leaves, roots, flowers and seeds of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants) Breeding/Nesting:  Date: no information  Nests in reed beds, wetlands and wet banks of lakes and rivers with tall herbaceous vegetation

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Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus / Cheung tian (KH) National Conservation Status: Common Prek Toal Habitation: Uncommon winter visitor Size: 40 cm Wingspan: 67 to 83 cm Weight: 160 to 200 g Nutrition: Aquatic insects, worms, tadpoles and fly larvae, but also crustaceans, molluscs and spiders Breeding/Nesting:  Date: no information  The nest is a shallow depression scraped into the ground. It is located on a pile of vegetation, in the water on aquatic grass, or near the water on the shore

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Birds Sanctuary Booklet  

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