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REPORT TITLE: Environmental Impact Assessment of Proposed 50-MW Solar PV Plant Project at Manchok Ranch in Kaura Local Government, Kaduna. AUTHORS: Carbon & C Integrated Services Nig. Ltd. and Quaint Solutions (USA) REPORT PREPARED BY: Engr. Ishaka King and Seun Solesi REPORT REVIEWERS: James Ola and Fadekunayo Adeniyi SUBMITTED TO: The Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria

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EIA REPORT PREPARERS Project Team Engr. Ishaka King

Project Director

Engr. Seun Solesi

Co-Project Director

Ayi Roland

Project Manager

James Ola

Environmental Scientist

Ibrahim Jakada

Environmental Scientist

Dr. Chris Anyanwu

Health Assessment Consultant

Dr. Ijitola

Hydro-biologist

Dr. Kelvin

Failure Mode Analysis Consultant

Kingsley Oke

Air Quality and Surface Water Analyst

Henry West

Water Chemist

Majek Henry

Socio-economist

Gabo Samuel

Hydro-geologist

Love Orumeh

Biodiversity Expert

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The success of this work is through the help of God Almighty and total dedication and commitment of the government of Nigeria and Kaduna State to the protection of her Environment. We use this medium to acknowledge the remarkable contributions of (Engr. Ishaka King, the Chief Executive of Carbon & C Integrated Services Nigeria Limited), Federal Ministry of Environment, Kaduna State Ministry of Environment, Kaura Local Government Authorities and Youth of the Study Communities. Thank you.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction This Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report is the final draft of the Quaint Global Energy Solutions Nigeria Limited’s ABIBA Solar Power Project, a 50MW on-grid Solar PV plant to be situated on Manchok cattle ranch in Kaura Local Govt. Kaduna State, Nigeria. Nigeria aims to develop its indigenous energy resources which play a vital role in the socio-economic development of the country. The Government has declared its vision for the power sector as load shedding-free beyond 2020 and to make electricity available for all. To fulfil this vision, an additional 10,000 MW should be generated within the next 5 years under the short-, medium-, and long-term plan. And by 2020, the Government plans to increase power generation to about 20,000 MW. Another strategic element in realizing its vision is the use of alternative energy sources. At present, there is no reliable public information on the capacity availability of renewable energy (excluding hydro) generation at the national level. But it is generally believed that the amount is negligible when compared to the total power generation capacity in the country. Based on the approved renewable energy policy, 5 per cent of the total generation would be added by 2015 and 10 per cent by 2020. Recognizing the need, Quaint USA and its local subsidiary, Quaint Global Energy Solutions Nigeria Ltd., (collectively known as “Quaint”) together with its technical and financial partners and based on Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed with the Nigerian Federal Government (FG) through the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) decided to invest in a 50MW solar photovoltaic on-grid power plant in Kaduna State. Project Overview Quaint plans to develop a 50MW on-grid Solar Power Plant in Manchok, Kaura Local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State. This strategic decision to invest in Nigeria’s renewable power sector was made in 2009 by the board of Quaint USA due to the huge difference in demand and supply for electricity as well as lack of gas availability for thermal power generation. To achieve this feat, Quaint’s representatives presented its vision, for a first solar park in Nigeria, to then Honourable Minister of Environment, John Odey, in August 2010. The approval of our proposal led to the signing of a Letter of Intent (LOI) and subsequently Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on November 19, 2010. As part of the requirements, a technical certification tour was arranged by Quaint for the Inter-ministerial Committee on Power (which includes Federal Ministry of Power, Federal Ministry of Environment, and Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission) to the United States and Spain. The tours took place on July 21-23, 2011 and October 7-9, 2011 respectively.

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An official due diligence partnership was formulated and signed, after the technical certification, with the Federal Ministry of Environment through the office of the Renewable Energy Coordinator, which led to the clearance for submitting application to a renewable power generation license with NERC. The application for a power generation license was officially submitted on May 31, 2012. Prior to submission of license application, the company had secure the land with the Kaduna State Government, completed its transmission report, energy yield report, and a draft EIA report. A provisional generation license approval was issued by NERC on March 8, 2013. Currently, Quaint is awaiting an EIA certification from FMEnv after completion and approval of this Final EIA report in order to commence negotiations with the Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading Company (NBET) for signing of a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). Legal and Regulatory Framework Some of the regulatory, legislation, guidelines, and standards that were reviewed in this EIA include:  Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria.  National Electric Power Policy and Electric Power Sector Reform Acts.  S.I.15- National Environmental protection Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes Regulation (1991)  FEPA (Now FMENV) Nigeria’s National Agenda 21 (1999)  FEPA (Now FMENV) National Policy on the Environment (1999)  Forestry Law CAP 51, 1994 & land use Acts of (1978)  Kaduna state Environment and Development planning Edicts of 1999  World Bank Guidelines on Environment Assessment {EA} (1991)  International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Guidelines  Convention on the conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention)  Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites  Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-bound Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) Need for the project The gap in Nigeria's power sector has far reaching implications for sustained economic growth and social well-being of Nigerians. According to a study conducted by the African Development Bank, approximately 45% of the population has access to electricity with only about 30% of their demand for power being met. The Nigerian power sector is plagued with

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recurrent outages to the extent that some 90% of industrial customers and a significant number of residential and other non-residential customers provide their own power at a huge cost to themselves and the Nigerian economy. For businesses, the use of diesel generator has increased electricity cost to approximately 60 percent of overall production costs, which are ultimately passed on to the final consumers. The total capacity of selfgeneration units in Nigeria is estimated at about 4000MW. This major gap in power supply seriously impedes the growth of the non-oil sector and, as a result, job creation and poverty reduction. Empirical findings on Nigeria suggest that investing in infrastructure is compatible with both the non-oil private sector development and the attainment of MDGs. However, high growth rate in the non-oil sector is seriously constrained by weaknesses in power infrastructure. This result was confirmed by the Investment Climate Assessment of Nigeria completed in 2008 with the joint support of the World Bank and the United Nations. Electricity was found to be by far the most binding constraint to doing business in Nigeria for more than 80% of companies surveyed. Therefore, the implementation of the ABIBA Solar Project would go a long way towards addressing and rectifying the issues highlighted above. In addition, since the project is renewable, it would also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere compared to gas-powered plants. Project Activities Activities that would be considered and undertaken during the different phases of the project are explained in detail in the subsequent sub-sections. Detailed engineering design of actual project is included in the appendix. Site-Preparation Phase: Prior to site preparation, utmost importance was placed on acquiring Federal, State, or Local Government owned-land rather than displacing private owners from their land. The Manchok Ranch belongs to the Kaduna State government and was donated for the purpose of the project through the State Ministries of Agriculture and Land. Although there are very few farmers currently farming illegally on the area apportioned, agreement have been reach with the local government representatives, with the farmers awareness, to move them to a different location on the ranch while also providing full compensation and assistance. Some of the site preparation activities to be considered include:  Proper Documentation – Once site is selected, it is necessary that all the documentation necessary to legally utilized the land as well as commence the implementation of the project are in place. Some of these critical documents include Certificate of Occupancy (CoO), energy yield report, environmental, and construction permits.

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 Stakeholder’s Buy-in – It is also important that there is support and buy-in from the State Government, Local Government, local chiefs, as well as the habitants of the community in which the project will be situated.  Site Clearing – The earliest on-site physical activity to be undertaken prior to preconstruction and construction phases is the clearing of the vegetation on the site. For this purpose, individuals from the local community shall be employed and trained to use grass-cutting equipment such as tractors, mowers, and other necessary tools required for clearing the site. The vegetation shall be reduced to a level that is comfortable for pre-construction activities to take place. Vegetation removed during these activities shall be disposed in accordance with Federal Ministry of Environment and Kaduna State Ministry of Environment’s guidelines. Pre-Construction Phase: The following activities shall be undertaken during the preconstruction phase:  Employment & Training – Employment and training programs of both skilled and unskilled labour shall be completed prior to pre-construction phase activity. Most unskilled and some skilled employment will be reserved for the residents of the surrounding communities as part of the agreement made with the local government and chiefs.  Access Road – In order to make movement of equipment, materials, and people easy to and from the site. The 0.5km access road and all other roads with soft surface soil shall be reinforced to withstand the weights of heavy trucks that will be used during the process. Basic gravel shall be used for reinforcement. The gravel roads shall be constructed by digging a trench of a width of approximately 5 meters and a depth of 0.4 to 0.5 meters (see Figure 3.15). The trench is filled with two layers of gravel. A bottom layer of 25 cm of 0-63 ballast and a top layer of 20 cm of 0-25 crushed stone.  Pre-Construction Works – Some of the pre-construction works that will be implemented would include 3-layer fencing, a warehouse, and guard house. The warehouse and guard house shall be used for housing construction materials and equipment, as well as site-security personnel, respectively. For security reasons, it is necessary to avoid unauthorized people on the grounds of the solar power plant. A 3-layer fencing system is been proposed but may change based on the requirement of the insurance company contracted for the power plant. The inner and outermost layer of the fence can be a see-through barb wire fence while the midfence should a translucent metal-sheet. The distance between the fences will be approximately 1 meter. Standard metal fences topped with barbed wires are the most common fences for solar power plants. Whether the poles are rammed approximately 1.5 meters into the ground or they are fixed with concrete foundations

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as in Figure 3.16. Cameras, infrared sensors and/or electric fences along the boundary may be necessary in addition to a fence or wall, if necessary.  Logistics Arrangement – In consideration of the massive movement of equipment, materials, and other resources needed during the construction phase, a proper logistics plan need to be in place. The logistics plan and support will be provided through various outlets – sea, air and road transport. The bulk of the equipment will be supplied via Lagos port. Some smaller and highly sensitive equipment may be air freighted to Abuja before transportation through land. Within Nigeria the logistic support for the project shall be provided mainly by road transport through which all materials and equipment including personnel shall be taken to site. To be included in the logistics plan is also mitigation plan to reduce anticipated numbers of traffic incidents that may arise due to the increase in road activities and overall noise levels etc. Emergency and safety plans will also be in place to protect employees, facility, and the community. Construction Phase: The construction phase will be executed in accordance with a standard planning framework that will be continuously reviewed as it becomes expedient by project team to ensure:  Maximum efficiency in construction.  Minimum adverse environmental and health impacts.  Earliest completion time.  Compliance with the laws of the land and all regulatory requirements. Construction phase activities would include further activities undertaken during the preconstruction phase such as employment & training, logistics arrangement, emergency and safety measures as well as the following:  Construction Works – All administrative buildings and staff quarters would be built before panel installations to house employees within the construction complex. This measure would be taken to protect expatriates and other workers from different regions of Nigeria who may not be familiar with or have a home in the community. The main objectives of the construction phase would be mounting solar panels and sub-structure, electrical installations, and grid connection. The solar modules of the power plant will be mounted on a substructure made of galvanized steel and aluminium. The structure has the shape of large tables (Figure 3.19). The inclination of the tables depends on the geographic region and its sun light conditions. In Nigeria the module tables will be facing South with a tilt angel of approximately 10°. For the fixation of the module tables in the ground, no concrete foundations are needed. GPS directed machines will be used to ram galvanized steel poles approximately 1.5 meters deep into the ground (Figure 3.18). Some

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advantages of these methods are: time efficient mounting and environmentally friendly dismantling after the end of the power plant life time without any rests of concrete in the ground. During electrical installation, string inverters and combiner boxes are attached to the metal sub-structure underneath the modules. The shaded position protects them from UV light and heat so that no buildings are needed. Trenches for cables will be excavated along the edge of the rows of module tables in an angle of 90°. The trenches are 60-80 cm wide, 80-100 cm deep and are filled with a layer of sand to protect the cables (picture 10). Once all module tables are interconnected, the cables are covered with a layer of sand (for protection). Finally the trenches are completely filled with the soil previously excavated. Step-up transformers (Figure 3.22) will be delivered “ready to use” in small preconfigured buildings/boxes. Their electrical configurations are tailor made to the local grid operators’ requirements. The transformer buildings are positioned on a gravel bed (composition similar to the gravel roads) in order to avoid them from sinking into the ground over time. At the end of the construction period the power plant will be connected to the nearest medium voltage substation via an overhead line or via an underground cable. Operations Phase: During the operations phase, effort will be made to make sure that the surface area is re-vegetated. Since a large majority of the surface area is not sealed, the open space between the module tables will allow rain water to drop down between the modules and allow grass to grow almost on the entire surface as well as limit the risk of erosion. In addition, the grass will be periodically trimmed as part of the maintenance schedule. The operations and maintenance (O&M) of the power plant during operations shall be contracted to reputable O&M contractor (a sample O&M schedule is attached in the appendix). Quaint, through its EPC Partner (REC Solar), is currently in talks with BELECTRIC to help provide and install real-time operations monitoring system for the plant. The process monitoring system helps to identify any malfunctions at an early thus reducing downtimes resulting from repair works. The device also allows to check the performance data of the power plant via internet connection any time and to at act in good time. The process data can be accessed in the control room or anywhere in the world (via internet) by authorized personnel. A great deal of importance shall also be placed on safety & emergency procedures. All employees shall be made to wear proper personal protection equipment while on-site. They will also be fully trained and certified on the necessary safety and emergency measures. Besides the revenue provided to Federal, State, and Local Governments from power generation proceed, additional corporate social responsibility related programs will be in place to support and help develop the local community. 9|Page

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Decommissioning and Abandonment Phase: At the end of the solar power plant’s useful life, all equipment and materials shall be decommissioning safely and with due regard to the environment, and relevant legislation available at the time of decommissioning. Since Quaint EPC’s partner, REC Solar is a founding and board member of PV Cycle, effort will be made to work with REC to identify recycling centres where all equipment and material can be safely recycled. (PV cycle is a voluntary take-back and recycling programme for end-of-life modules). Further effort will be made to reuse the facility for a similar or different project. In the case that the facility is not reused by Quaint, adequate commitment shall also be maintained with stakeholders to mutually ascertain alternative needs and possible use of the facilities, by other parties. Description of Baseline Conditions In this study, the environmental characteristics of the project area were established through extensive literature search, field sampling/measurements, laboratory analysis, stakeholder consultation, and data interpretation. Environmental data were acquired by carrying out fieldwork activities that involves collection of ecological samples (soil, vegetation, water, air quality, sediment etc.), socio-economic, and health data on the communities in the study area. Generally, the sampling and laboratory analysis procedures were in line with FMEnv guidelines and standards and American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) and American Public Health Association (APHA) sampling protocols. Meteorology and Climatic Conditions The project area is within the savannah zone and its climate is determined by the movement of two air masses, a moist rather cool southerly mass known as south-westerlies and a hot/dry northern air called the north-easterlies. The rainfall distribution trend is highly variable but principally classified wet season (April-October) and the dry season (November- March). The average monthly air temperature of the area measured ranged from 23oC and 27oC. Air Quality Air quality is a major environmental health problem affecting developed and developing countries around the world. Increasing amounts of potentially harmful gases and particles are being emitted into the atmosphere on a global scale resulting to adverse human health and the environment conditions. It is therefore important to establish the ambient atmospheric condition of the project area prior to development in order to monitor any changes. The following air pollutant (SOx, NOx, Cox, NH3, H2S, CH4, and suspended particulate matter (SPM)) as well as noise measurements were carried out at different outdoor

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locations within the study area. The data is presented in Table 4.2 were within the acceptable limits in all cases. Soil Baseline Condition Soil samples were collected at five (A – E) points within the project area with the aid of Spade, Hand Trowel and Hand Auger. Five samples (top: 0-15cm & bottom: 15-30cm) were collected each from the designated sampling stations. The top soil appear to be light reddish-brown in colour and characterized as Silty-Clay while the bottom soil is mostly reddish-brown and characterized as Clay loam. The project area is also underlain by the Precambrian-Crystalline rocks of which are the Migmatite gneiss, the Metasediments (consisting of quartzites and schists) and the older granites (consisting of coarse grained porphyritic granites & medium grained granites). The soil pH ranges from 8.09 – 8.13. A comprehensive summary and details of the physical and chemical characteristics of these soil samples are presented in Table 4.3. Hydrology of the Area & Groundwater Characteristics Due to the presence of mountains in the surrounding areas, ground water is the most reliable source of water for the site and community. Currently portable water is available on the Manchok Ranch via strong borehole, some of which have been sealed off because of the huge volume of water coming out. Samples from the borehole as well as surface water from nearby river Kaduna were analysed and presented in Table 4.4. The average temperature and pH of ground and surface water are (27.8 degC / 7.76) and (28.6 degC / 8.06) respectively. Fecal Coliform was detected in the surface water which is an indication that people in the surrounding communities pass feces in the river. Vegetation The study area is typical Guinea Savannah vegetation with scattered trees and patches of grasses especially during the dry-season. The physiognomy of the area is parkland with scattered individual trees, some at various stages of exploitation. There are some water catchments plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Casea seamea and Azadirachta Indica. The Acacia genus is the most abundant in the area followed by the exotic species which were either planted or whose seeds were carried to the area by birds and animals. Most of the sample plots have evidence of human interference either in the form of padama irrigation plots, lopping of tree branches for feeding of animals or outright deforestation for firewood. Most of the trees have started shedding their leaves as an adaptation to survive the dry season except Acacia nilotica which has a reversed phenology.

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Wildlife The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) revealed the presence of a variety of wildlife population in the study area. However, the variety of wildlife population were classified into following; mammals (10 species), Aves (4 species), Reptiles (4 species) and insect (3 species). See Table 4.5. Socio-Economic Baseline Studies The socio-economic data of the EIA report was gathered in collaboration with delegates recommended by the Kaura LGA officials. The data is certified as accurate by the Kaura Local Government and a copy of the certification letter is included in the Appendix. The town of Manchok is located in Kaura Local Government Area in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The headquarters of the local government is the town of Kaura. It has an area 485km2 and a population of 222,579 according to the 2006 census. Kaura Local Government Area consists of the Moro’a Chiefdom (with Manchok as headquarter), Kagoro Chiefdom, Attakar Chiefdom, and Atyap Community. The distribution of households by main source of household income in the Kaura area is as follows: Agriculture 34.89%, agricultural labour 5.82%, wage labour 3.12%, commerce 7.62%, service 26.08%, forestry 2.4%, industry 6.24% and others 13.83%. The family’s in the communities of Kaura local government area consists of a man (male) as the head leader follow by his wife/wives and then his children. According to research, Christians in the communities of Kaura Local Government Area constitute about 90% while others such as the Moslem believers, idol worshippers, etc., constitutes about 10%. The communities socialize in many ways — they organize recreational / games, dances, etc. The villages also gather socially during festivals, which are always peaceful; and periodic celebrations, which come up once a year to enable the people, both within and outside, to come together and discuss vital issues concerning the community. They meet together for burial rites, marriage ceremonies, naming ceremonies, etc. Visiting friends to exchange news is a form of social interaction in the communities. The sources of income of these communities are through agriculture, trade and commerce, taxation, and tourism, etc. Survey report showed that a greater percentage of heads of households earn incomes within the low (N10,000 – N15,000) and middle income brackets (N30,000 – N50,000) per month. In term of the general infrastructure of the area, there are two major road networks around the project location; the Jos-Kafanchan Road and the Manchok Road which goes into Kaduna city. The roads are in relatively good condition. The Manchok Road is newly construction while some re-construction was carried out on the Jos-Kafanchan Road in early 2013. There is also a 133kV high-tension transmission line that runs through the area which supplies electricity to almost all the communities. Portable water is available in the surrounding communities. Major telecommunication companies also have infrastructure for clear services in the communities. The major network providers with presence in the area

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include MTN, GLO, AIRTEL, and ETISALAT. Television and radio signals such as DSTV, etc., are also provided in the communities. Essential social infrastructures such as schools, hospitals, religious institutions, etc., are also present in the community. Associated and potential impacts The following steps were employed to identify and assess the effect of the project on environment and social-economic issues: - Establishment of Basis - Identification of Impacts - Prediction of Impacts - Evaluation of Impacts - Communication of Impact Principal sources of impacts from the project activities during normal operations also referred to as environmental aspects are:  Mobilization and Site preparation  Installation activities  Physical presence of the installation of panel  Air emissions from welding operations  Wastes generation and management (domestic, maintenance, etc.)  Noise and vibration  Decommissioning The various aspects of the project development will involve vegetation clearing, soil excavation, assemblage of heavy equipment, civil and mechanical works among others. These activities will impact air, water, soil sediment, vegetation, fauna, fisheries, socioeconomic and health. Clearing of vegetation could result in the destruction of indigenous plant communities along the propose project. This could lead to the death and permanent loss of the plants which have economic importance. Some local air quality impacts are anticipated during site preparation excavation, surface and underground installations, construction of power substation and electrification. Noise and vibrations from machinery used for operation could constitute nuisance to fauna (wildlife) leading to loss of habitat. The anticipated noise levels would be generally low (within tolerable limits) of short-term duration and not expected to elicit a significant adverse impact. Most of the anticipated impacts on soil and land use would occur during site clearing, excavation, sweeping/spoil disposal, accidents, waste disposal, cable laying and electrification activities. During and immediately after construction, there could be a decrease in soil pH, which could be attributed to the generated spoils. Excavation and laying of cables could further altar the soil texture and subsequently lead to depletion of soil nutrients. This, however, could be localized being restricted to the vicinity of the trenches where the dredged spoils are deposited. The impact could be of significance. Some of the 13 | P a g e

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project activities have also been identified as potential sources of impact on water quality. Some of these project activities could increase turbidity and pollute the surface-water in the surrounding areas. Fast moving aquatic organisms such as fishes may temporarily migrate into other habitats. Sessile and slow moving organisms may be tainted while high mortality may occur among for organisms that inhabit shallow crevices and burrows. This may lead to a decline in fishing activities around the area. Due to the number of personnel that will be operating on the project site daily, a significant amount of domestic wastes as well as others could be generated. Any improper disposal of the generated wastes could adversely affect the surrounding water bodies. Hence, a lot of care shall be taken to ensure that no organic matter is introduced into surface water around the project site in all aspects of project development. The socio-economic impact of the project on the community is expected to be significant. The sudden physical injection of large workforce into such small communities is likely to have dramatic social impact, both positive and negative. Mitigation Mitigation measures were provided for only those impacts considered of magnitude and significance. Emissions from machinery shall be reduced by use of standard equipment for the operation and fume catalyzes shall be provided where necessary. Power substation shall be provided with surface controlled sub-surface safety values to ensure optimum safety as well as surface shut down values. The cable lines shall be coated, buried and earthed. Automatic shutdown systems, emergency shutdown system, fire and gas detection/protection and deluge systems shall be provided. The site preparation work shall be carried out during dry season to reduce electrocution through contact with water. Standard waste pits and soak-aways that meet regulatory requirements shall be constructed to serve as containment for domestic/sanitary waste and ensure all sand stones waste and other domestic wastes are handled in line with FMP site waste management plan. No effluent shall be discharged on site. Quaint Global Energy Nig. Ltd. shall ensure that effluents from process plants are monitored and treated to comply with statutory standards before they are disposed. Quaint Global Energy Nig. Ltd. shall maintain good housekeeping standards throughout the life of the project. In this respect, contamination of surface and ground water shall be avoided by implementing the waste management plan for the project. During construction, cabling and installation of solar panels shall be engaged to qualified and trained workers. Accommodation shall also be provided for project workers.

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Environmental Management Plan For the purpose of sound environment management during the course of the project, appropriate interaction is essential between environmental and engineering design teams at all stages of the project from conceptualization through to design and construction. Project construction, installation, and operation shall be subject to appropriate environmental audit/monitoring to ensure that environment standards are met at each stage of project implementation. Two types of monitoring would be undertaken. These are impact monitoring and compliance monitoring. Variables for monitoring will include soil status, quality status, air quality status and emissions, wastewater characteristics, groundwater and local meteorological conditions. Environmental auditing will be carried out to ensure that applicable environmental standards are being maintained, company policies and procedures followed, and that enforcement of company policy, procedures and standards in line with management responsibility and compliance with environment legislation are implemented. As part of Quaint’s Community affairs-Safety-Healthy-Environment-Security (CASGES) policy, general information on environmental protection and specialized training courses for dealing with environmental aspects of operations shall be offered to staff and contractor to enhance environmental awareness and expertise. Quaint shall initiate the relevant technical and managerial procedures to ensure that environmental management becomes integrated with engineering project management. Environmental performance shall be reviewed at regular intervals and appropriate lines of communication / responsibility put in place to ensure corrective action is taken as necessary. Decommissioning/Abandonment Decommissioning/Abandonment shall in general be in safe and environmentally responsible manner. The project is designed for 25 years life span. The demolition exercise shall be carried out with skill and diligence to avoid any injuries and/or damage to the environment. At the end of demolition, various solid wastes shall be sorted according to their types and them disposed of according to FMEnv and FMP waste disposal guidelines and existing regulatory requirements. After decommissioning, the site shall be re-instated as much as possible to its original condition.

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Conclusion This EIA report, for the proposed 50MW on-grid ABIBA Solar Power Project, was conducted in accordance with the required local, national, and international standards. In undertaking the EIA study, a holistic approach was used whereby Quaint, the host communities, and the Governments of Kaduna State (the primary stakeholders) as well as the regulatory bodies (the secondary stakeholders) were widely consulted. General consensus on key environmental sensitivities of the solar project on the project area in terms of natural environment, socio-economic/cultural, and health characteristics were identified and quantified. The significance of the impacts was duly assessed through standard field and laboratory methodologies, predictive modelling as well as desk reviews. The EIA has demonstrated that the overall impacts associated with the project can be managed within reasonable and acceptable limits by applying all identified mitigation measures contained in this report. In consideration of the above therefore, there is no major environmental issue to impede the development of the proposed ABIBA Solar Power Project, which is designed to supply constant electricity to the national grid for consumption. All the identified potential adverse impacts of the proposed project shall be eliminated or reduced through the implementation of the recommended mitigation measures. The benefits that will be derived from the proposed solar project are therefore much greater than the short-term environmental effect.

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CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................................... 4 ARCRONYMS .................................................................................................................... 22 TABLE OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................... 25 TABLE OF TABLES............................................................................................................ 28 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 30 1.1 General Introduction......................................................................................... 30 1.2 1.3

Our Company................................................................................................... 30 EIA Objectives ................................................................................................. 31

1.4

Administrative and Legal Framework ............................................................... 31 1.4.1 Environmental Impact Assessment Act (1992) .......................................... 32 1.4.2 1.4.3

National Regulatory Bodies & Policies ...................................................... 32 Relevant Environmental Legislation & Standards ...................................... 34

1.4.4 International Laws and Regulations........................................................... 37 1.5 Terms of Reference ......................................................................................... 38 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.6

EIA Scope of Work .................................................................................... 38 Baseline Data Acquisition .......................................................................... 39

Assessment Methodology ................................................................................ 40

1.7 Reporting Sequence ........................................................................................ 41 2 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION ......................................................................................... 43 2.1 2.2

Project Background .......................................................................................... 43 Need for the Project ......................................................................................... 44

2.3 2.4

Value of the Project .......................................................................................... 44 Envisaged Sustainability .................................................................................. 45

2.5

2.4.1 2.4.2

Technical ................................................................................................... 45 Economical................................................................................................ 46

2.4.3 2.4.4

Environment .............................................................................................. 46 Social ........................................................................................................ 46

Project Options / Alternatives ........................................................................... 46 2.5.1 Option 1 – No Project ................................................................................ 46

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2.5.2 2.5.3

Option 2 – Power from non-renewable sources of energy ......................... 46 Option 3 – Power from other renewable sources of energy ....................... 47

2.5.4 Option 4 – Implementation of ABIBA Solar Project at Manchok ................ 47 3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................... 49 3.1 3.2

General ............................................................................................................ 49 Project Type ..................................................................................................... 49

3.3 3.4

Site Selection and Location .............................................................................. 49 Technical Layout & Scope................................................................................ 53

3.5

Process Technology......................................................................................... 55 3.5.1 General Technology Overview .................................................................. 55

3.5.2 ABIBA Solar Plant Modules ....................................................................... 57 3.6 Project Phases ................................................................................................. 60 3.6.1

Site-Preparation Phase ............................................................................. 60

3.6.2 3.6.3

Pre-Construction Phase ............................................................................ 62 Construction Phase ................................................................................... 64

3.6.4 3.6.5

Operations Phase...................................................................................... 69 Decommissioning and Abandonment Phase ............................................. 70

3.7 Project Schedule .............................................................................................. 71 4 DESCRIPTION OF BASELINE CONDITIONS ............................................................. 73 4.1 4.2

General ............................................................................................................ 73 Data Acquisition Methods................................................................................. 73

4.3

Baseline Conditions ......................................................................................... 75 4.3.1 Meteorology and Climate Conditions ......................................................... 75

4.3.2 Air Quality and Noise Measurement .......................................................... 78 4.4 Soil Baseline Condition .................................................................................... 80 4.4.1 4.4.2

Soil Physio-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics ......................... 80 Soil Geology .............................................................................................. 82

4.5

Water Resources ............................................................................................. 82

4.6 4.7

Vegetation ........................................................................................................ 84 Wildlife ............................................................................................................. 86

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4.8

Socio-Economics Study ................................................................................... 86 4.8.1 Histrical Background ................................................................................. 88 4.8.2 4.8.3

Demographic Studies ................................................................................ 90 Local Chiefs .............................................................................................. 93

4.8.4 4.8.5

General Infrastructure ............................................................................... 96 Social Infrastructure .................................................................................. 99

4.8.6 Education ................................................................................................ 103 5 ASSOCIATED AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS .............................................................. 109 5.1 5.2

5.3

Introduction .................................................................................................... 109 Assessment Methodology .............................................................................. 109 5.2.1 5.2.2

Established of Basis ................................................................................ 109 Scoping ................................................................................................... 109

5.2.3

Associated and Potential Impacts............................................................ 110

Environmental Screening ............................................................................... 112 5.3.1 Basis of Screening .................................................................................. 112

5.3.2 Screening Approach ................................................................................ 112 5.4 Impact Quantification and Determination of Significant Impacts ..................... 112 5.5

Environment Assessment............................................................................... 117 5.5.1 Site Preparation....................................................................................... 117 5.5.2 5.5.3

Construction ............................................................................................ 117 Operations............................................................................................... 118

5.5.4 Decommissioning .................................................................................... 118 5.6 Social Impact Assessment ............................................................................. 118 5.6.1 5.6.2

Demographic Impacts ............................................................................. 118 Socio-Economic Impacts ......................................................................... 118

5.6.3 5.6.4

Impacts on Lifestyle................................................................................. 119 Impacts on Social Infrastructure .............................................................. 119

5.7

Perception of Impacts .................................................................................... 119

5.8 5.9

Health Impact Assessment............................................................................. 121 Disease Risks Associated with the Project ..................................................... 122

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5.10 5.11

Project Specific Risk and Hazard Assessment ............................................... 123 Hazards and Effects Management Process (HEMP) ...................................... 123

5.12 Methodologies ................................................................................................ 124 5.12.1 Evaluation of Hazards ............................................................................. 124 6 MITIGATION MEASURES.......................................................................................... 129 6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 129 6.2

6.3 6.4

Biophysical Environment Impact Mitigation Measures.................................... 129 6.2.1 Planning Phase ....................................................................................... 129 6.2.2 6.2.3

Site Preparation....................................................................................... 129 Construction Phase ................................................................................. 130

6.2.4 6.2.5

Pre-commissioning Phase ....................................................................... 130 Operation Phase ..................................................................................... 130

6.2.6

Decommissioning and Abandonment Phase ........................................... 130

Socio-Economic Impact Mitigation Measures ................................................. 132 Health Impact Mitigation Measures ................................................................ 133

7 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ................................................................ 135 7.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 135 7.2

Waste Management ....................................................................................... 135 7.2.1 Waste Management Strategies ............................................................... 136

7.2.2 Sources and Inventory of Wastes ............................................................ 136 7.3 Environmental Audit ....................................................................................... 136 7.4

Social Management Plan ............................................................................... 137 7.4.1 Mitigation ................................................................................................. 137

7.5 7.6

Health Management Plan ............................................................................... 137 Resourcing ..................................................................................................... 137

7.7 7.8

Contingency/Emergency Plans ...................................................................... 138 Consultation ................................................................................................... 138

7.9

Monitoring: Measurements and Procedures ................................................... 138

7.10 Decommissioning, Abandonment, and Restoration Plans .............................. 139 8 CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................... 145

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9 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 146 10 APPENDIX 1: International Environmental Conventions signed by Nigeria ................ 149 11 APPENDIX 2: Nigerian Environmental Laws and Regulations.................................... 150 12 APPENDIX 3: International Codes, Standards, and Guidelines .................................. 152 13 APPENDIX 4: SIA & HIA QUESTION ......................................................................... 153 14 APPENDIX 5: LETTER FROM KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT ABOUT THE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA .................................................................................................... 167

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ARCRONYMS AC ACDA a-Si AYDA CDM CdTe CIGS CITIES CO CO2 CoO c-Si CSR DC DisCos DSC ECN EIA EMP EPC EPSR FDI FEPA FG FMEnv FMoE FMP GPS H2S HAZID HAZOP HEMP IEC IPP

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Direct Current Attakar Community Development Association Amorphous – Silicon Attacker Youth Development Association Carbon Development Cadium telluride Copper Indium Gallium Deselenide Convention on International Trade of Wild Fauna and Flora Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Certificate of Occupancy Crystalline Silicon Corporate Social Responsibility Alternating Current Distribution Companies Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Energy Commission of Nigeria Environmental Impact Assessment Emergency Management Plan Engineering Procurement and Construction Electric Power Sector Reform Foreign Direct Investment Federal Environmental Protection Agency Federal Government Federal Ministry of Environment Federal Ministry of Environment Federal Ministry of Power Global Positioning System Hydrogen Sulphide Hazard Identification Hazard Operability Hazards and Effects Management Process International Electrotechnical Commission Independent Power Producer

ABIBA SOLAR POWER PROJECT


ITCZ ITDZ KDA KEPA KETC Km kWh kWp LGA m2 M3 MDA MDG Mg MOU MW MWA MWp MYTO N NBET NEPA NEPP NERC NESREA NH3 NOx O&M OEM PHC PHCN PHE PPE PV RAM

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Inter-Tropical Discontinuity Zone Inter-Tropical Discontinuity Zone Kagoro Development Association Kaduna State Environmental Protection Agency Kagoro ECWA Theological College Kilometres Kilowatt-Hour a Kilowatt from a photovoltaic source Local Government Area Metre Squared Mater squared Moro’a Development Association Millennium Development Goals Milligrams Memorandum of Understanding Megawatt Market Women Association a Megawatt from a photovoltaic source Multi-Year-tariff-Order Naira Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading Company National Electric Power Authority National Electric Power Policy Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency Ammonia Oxides of Nitrogen Operation and maintenance Original Equipment Manufacturer Primary Health Care Power Holding Company of Nigeria Primary Health Centre Personal Protective Equipment Photovoltaic Random Access Matrix

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RI SAP SOx SPM TCN TF-Si UL UN UNFCCC USA Wp

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Routine Immunization Social Action Plan Oxides of Sulphurs Suspended Particulate Matter Transmission Company of Nigeria Thin-Film Silicon Underwriter Laboratories United Nations United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United States of America a Watt from a Photovoltaic source

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TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.1: CRITICAL NATIONAL REGULATORY BODIES ...................................... 31 FIGURE 2.1: PHOTOS FROM THE TECHNICAL CERTIFICATION TOUR .................. 43 FIGURE 2.2: BENEFITS OF PROJECT ........................................................................ 45 FIGURE 3.1: MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING MANCHOK (CIRCLED IN BLUE) ............. 50 FIGURE 3.2: GOOGLE MAPS SHOWING PROPOSED SITE (IN RED) RELATIVE TO THE TOWN OF MANCHOK .................................................................................................. 51 FIGURE 3.3: PICTURE OF THE PROJECT SITE DURING DRY & WET SEASONS ... 51 FIGURE 3.4: ABANDONED BUILDINGS FROM RANCHING PROJECT AT THE SITE 52 FIGURE 3.5: LAND COORDINATES FROM SURVEY (SEE APPENDIX FOR FURTHER DETAILS) ...................................................................................................................... 52 FIGURE 3.6: SOLAR PV GENERATION PROCESS..................................................... 53 FIGURE 3.7: SITE SIMULATION RESULT FOR PLANT USING RE-250PE MODULES (PER 5MW) ................................................................................................................... 54 FIGURE 3.8: A CRYSTALLINE SILICON CELL ............................................................ 55 FIGURE 3.9: A THIN FILM CELLS ................................................................................ 56 FIGURE 3.10: PANEL’S FIELD DATA GATHERING METHODOLOGY ........................ 59 FIGURE 3.11: PANEL WARRANTY VS. STANDARD ................................................... 59 FIGURE 3.12: SITE ILLUSTRATION DURING PREPARATION PHASE ...................... 60 FIGURE 3.13: ILLUSTRATION OF ACCESS ROAD CONSTRUCTION ....................... 63 FIGURE 3.14: ILLUSTRATION OF SITE FENCING ...................................................... 64 FIGURE 3.15: SITE ILLUSTRATION DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE ................... 65 FIGURE 3.16: GPS DIRECTED MACHINE FOR RAMMING GALVANIZED STEEL ..... 66 FIGURE 3.17: SOLAR PANELS MOUNTED ON GALVANIZED STEEL ....................... 66 FIGURE 3.18: INVERTERS AND COMBINER BOXES UNDERNEATH THE SUBSTRUCTURE ................................................................................................................ 67 FIGURE 3.19: CABLE TRENCHES ............................................................................... 67 FIGURE 3.20: STEP-UP TRANSFORMER ................................................................... 68 FIGURE 3.21: COMPLETION OF SOLAR POWER PLANT (ILLUSTRATION) ............. 68

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FIGURE 4.1: PICTURES FROM SITE VISIT FOR COLLECTION OF ECOLOGICAL SAMPLES...................................................................................................................... 74 FIGURE 4.2: AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE OF THE PROJECT AREA ........ 75 FIGURE 4.3: AVG. SOLAR INSOLATION OF THE PROJECT AREA ........................... 76 FIGURE 4.4: AVG. MONTHLY PRECIPITATION OF THE PROJECT AREA ................ 76 FIGURE 4.5: AVG. MONTHLY WIND SPEED OF THE PROJECT AREA ..................... 77 FIGURE 4.6: AVG. CLEARNESS OF THE PROJECT AREA ........................................ 77 FIGURE 4.7: AVG. WET DAYS PER MONTH OF THE PROJECT AREA ..................... 78 FIGURE 4.8: MAP OF KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA..................................... 87 FIGURE 4.9: MAP OF KADUNA STATE WITH LOCAL GOVERNMENTS .................... 87 FIGURE 4.10: POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY ......................... 89 FIGURE 4.11: ANNUAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN NAIRA ....................................... 91 FIGURE 4.12: HOUSING PATTERN IN MANCHOK AREA ........................................... 92 FIGURE 4.13: ATTACKAR CHIEFDOM PALACE ......................................................... 93 FIGURE 4.14: MORO’A CHIEFDOM PALACE .............................................................. 95 FIGURE 4.15: KAGORO CHIEF PALACE ..................................................................... 96 FIGURE 4.16: MAJOR ROAD NETWORK .................................................................... 96 FIGURE 4.17: 33KV TRANSMISSION LINE ALONG JOS-KAFANCHAN ROAD FOR ELECTRICITY ............................................................................................................... 97 FIGURE 4.18: MAIN WATER TREATMENT PLANT IN MANCHOK .............................. 98 FIGURE 4.19: OVERHEAD TANK IN MANCHOK ......................................................... 98 FIGURE 4.20: TELEPHONE MASK IN MANCHOK ....................................................... 99 FIGURE 4.21: CATHOLIC CHURCH IN THE COMMUNITY ......................................... 99 FIGURE 4.22: ST ANTHONY CHURCH ...................................................................... 100 FIGURE 4.23: KAGORO MULTIPURPOSE HALL ....................................................... 100 FIGURE 4.24: MORO’A MARKET DAY ....................................................................... 101 FIGURE 4.25: KAGORO MARKET DAY ..................................................................... 101 FIGURE 4.26: KAURA RURAL HOSPITAL ................................................................. 102 FIGURE 4.27: ECWA THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE IN KAGORO ................................. 103 FIGURE 4.28: ECWA COLLEGE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY IN KAGORO ............. 104

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FIGURE 4.29: FEDERAL SCHOOL OF STATISTICS IN MANCHOK .......................... 104 FIGURE 4.30: GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOL, FADAN ATTAKAR ............. 105 FIGURE 4.31: GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOL, MANCHOK ........................ 106 FIGURE 4.32: ANTHURUNG PRIMARY SCHOOL, ATTAKAR ................................... 107

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TABLE OF TABLES TABLE 3.1: REC INTERNAL QUALITY STANDARD VS. INTERNATIONAL................. 58 TABLE 3.2: PANEL QUALITY COMPARISON WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS 58 TABLE 4.1: LIST OF EQUIPMENT ................................................................................ 73 TABLE 4.2: AIR QUALITY AND NOISE DATA .............................................................. 80 TABLE 4.3: SOIL PHYSIO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS81 TABLE 4.4: ANALYSIS OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER ................................... 83 TABLE 4.5: TREE POPULATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE ................ 85 TABLE 4.6: CATEGORIES WILDLIFE IN THE PROJECT AREA .................................. 86 TABLE 5.1: CHECKLIST OF ASSOCIATED AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS .................. 111 TABLE 5.2: RISK ASSESSMENT ................................................................................ 114 TABLE 5.3: SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS ON THE PROPOSED PROJECT ..................... 115 TABLE 5.4: INDICATOR PARAMETER OF EACH IDENTIFIED ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT ............................................................................................................. 116 TABLE 5.5: POSSIBLE BENEFITS OF THE ABIBA SOLAR POWER DEVELOPMENT120 TABLE 5.6: POSSIBLE ADVERSE OF THE ABIBA SOLAR POWER DEVELOPMENT120 TABLE 5.7: POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS .............................................................. 121 TABLE 5.8: EXTERNAL / ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS ........................................... 125 TABLE 5.9: FACILITY HAZARDS ................................................................................ 126 TABLE 5.10: HEALTH HAZARDS ............................................................................... 127 TABLE 6.1: SUMMARY OF IDENTIFIED IMPACTS AND PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES ................................................................................................................ 131 TABLE 6.2: KEY MITIGATION MEASURES................................................................ 132 TABLE 7.1: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN .............................................. 140 TABLE 7.2: PROPOSED SOCIAL ACTION PLAN....................................................... 141 TABLE 7.3: RECOMMENDED HEALTH INTERVENTION ACTIVITIES AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS .................................................................................. 142 TABLE 7.4: MONITORING PROGRAMME.................................................................. 143

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

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1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Introduction This Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report is the final draft of the Quaint Global Energy Solutions Nigeria Limited’s ABIBA Solar Power Project, a 50MW on-grid Solar PV plant to be situated on Manchok cattle ranch in Kaura Local Govt. Kaduna State, Nigeria. Nigeria aims to develop its indigenous energy resources which play a vital role in the socio-economic development of the country. The Government has declared its vision for the power sector as load shedding-free beyond 2020 and to make electricity available for all. To fulfil this vision, an additional 10,000 MW should be generated within the next 5 years under the short-, medium-, and long-term plan. And by 2020, the Government plans to increase power generation to about 20,000 MW. Another strategic element in realizing its vision is the use of alternative energy sources. At present, there is no reliable public information on the capacity availability of renewable energy (excluding hydro) generation at the national level. But it is generally believed that the amount is negligible when compared to the total power generation capacity in the country. Based on the approved renewable energy policy, 5 per cent of the total generation would be added by 2015 and 10 per cent by 2020. Recognizing the need, Quaint USA and its local subsidiary, Quaint Global Energy Solutions Nigeria Ltd., (collectively known as “Quaint”) together with its technical and financial partners and based on Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed with the Nigerian Federal Government (FG) through the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) decided to invest in a 50MW solar photovoltaic on-grid power plant in Kaduna State. As part of the licensing requirement to generate power in Nigeria, the National Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC), Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading Company (NBET) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted on the site and the vicinity in which the solar plant will be constructed. Similarly, the African Development Bank, Multilateral Aid Agencies, and the World Bank require EIA as part of their conditions for project funding. The EIA shall be reviewed and approved by the Federal Ministry of Environment. 1.2 Our Company The Quaint Solutions and Trading Company or simply known as “Quaint” is a USA-based limited liability company incorporated in May 2004 in Houston, Texas. Quaint started as a consulting company mainly focused on Power and Energy sector. Currently, our three core business units:  Asset Development – developing strategic power and energy related assets.  Oil and Gas Trading – buying and selling of refined oil and petrochemical products.

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 Solution Services – includes six-sigma training, project management, and other related consulting services. Quaint Global Energy Solutions Limited was set-up as a Nigerian subsidiary of “QuaintUSA” in July 2010 aligned with the vision of the parent company. Quaint-Nigeria was strategically instituted to take advantage of the enormous opportunities currently available in Sub-Saharan Africa started with the Nigerian power sector. 1.3 EIA Objectives In demonstration of Quaint’s commitment to environmental sustainability and in compliance to statutory requirements, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the Proposed 50MW Solar PV in Manchok was conducted. The EIA was governed by national guidelines, FMP’s general Environmental Specification as well as relevant international guidelines. The EIA was aimed at the following:  Description of the initial state of the site in dry and wet seasons through environmental baseline surveys and bibliographic studies;  Detailed description of project aims and technical aspects;  Identification and quantification of the potential impact of the project on the environment;  Description of mitigation measures to reduce and if possible eliminate impact during all phases of the project up to decommissioning;  Environmental Management Plan including monitoring and auditing programs and contingency planning. 1.4 Administrative and Legal Framework The regulatory legislation, guidelines, and standards that govern the assessment of environmental impacts of the project are classified as follows:

Figure 1.1: Critical National Regulatory Bodies 31 | P a g e

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1.4.1 Environmental Impact Assessment Act (1992) The Act No. 86 of 1992 makes EIA mandatory for all development projects in Nigeria likely to have adverse impact on the environment prior to implementation. The EIA Acts sets out to:  Consider the likely impacts and the extent of these impacts on the environment before embarking on any project or activity.  Promote the implementation of appropriate policy in all Federal Lands consistent with all laws and decision making processes through which the goal of this Act may be realized.  Encourage the development of procedures for information exchange, notification, and consultation between organizations and persons when the proposed activities are likely to have significant environmental effects on boundary or trans-state or on the environment of bordering towns and villages. 1.4.2 National Regulatory Bodies & Policies 1.4.2.1 Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) The Federal Ministry of Environment was enactment with the advent of democratic rule in May 1999 to replace FEPA. FMEnv is charged with the responsibility of protecting and conserving the Nigerian environment. The ministry enforces the EIA Act No. 86 of 1992, which also gives specific powers to FMEnv to facilitate Environmental Impact Assessment of projects on a mandatory list that require an EIA to be conducted. 1.4.2.2 Federal Ministry of Power The Federal Ministry of Power is the policy making arm of the Federal Government with the responsibility for the provision of power in the country. The Ministry in discharging this mandate is guided by the provisions of the National Electric Power Policy (NEPP) of 2001, the Electric Power Sector Reform (EPSR) Act of 2005, and the Roadmap for Power Sector Reform of August 2010. Some specific functions of the Ministry include:  proposing policy options and recommendations to the Federal Government concerning legislation, policy and investment on renewable electricity;  monitoring and evaluation of implementation and performance of the policy within governmental agencies and in the electricity market;  establishing, monitoring and evaluating the performance of renewable electricity policy on increasing the access to electricity in rural areas;  facilitating the close coordination of renewable electricity activities among agencies of the Federal Government;

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 Ensure that Nigeria's renewable electricity policy is consistent with national obligations in regional and international organizations and liaising with the National Assembly on matters relating to renewable electricity. 1.4.2.3 Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission The promotion of a growing market for renewable electricity requires an effective and independent regulatory agency. The Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) is established by the EPSR Act 2005 to:  create, promote, and preserve efficient industry and market structures, and to ensure the optimal utilization of resource for the provision of electricity services as well as issue licenses;  ensure that the prices charged by licensees are fair to consumers and are sufficient to allow the licensees to finance their activities and to allow for reasonable earnings for efficient operation;  ensure the safety, security, reliability, and quality of service in the production and delivery of electricity to consumers;  ensure that regulation is fair and balanced for licensees, consumers, investors, and other stakeholders. 1.4.2.4 Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading Company The Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading Company (NBET) or simply “Bulk Trader” will be responsible for buying power from IPPs and reselling to the distribution companies (DisCos) and Eligible Customers during the transitional stage of the Power Reform Act. NBET's role in the current reform is to use its legal backing to drive private sector investment into the industry by executing bankable power purchase agreements with power developers and winning bidders in the privatization program. 1.4.2.5 Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN) Energy Commission of Nigeria was established by Act 62 of 1979 as amended by Acts 32 of 1988 and 19 of 1989 and is charged with the responsibility of conducting strategic planning and coordination of national policies in the field of energy in all its ramifications. The major objectives of the Commission are to:  guarantee increased contribution of the energy sector to national income and the economy;  guarantee adequate, sustainable and optimal supply of energy at appropriate cost and in an environmentally responsible manner to the various sector of the economy by utilizing all viable energy resources in an optimal mix;

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 promote an efficient consumption pattern of energy resources;  promote indigenous acquisition of energy technology and managerial expertise as well as indigenous;  participation in the energy sector industries; and  Promote increased investment and the development of energy sector industries with private sector participation. 1.4.2.6 Electric Power Sector Reform Act (2005) The Electric Power Sector Reform Act of 2005 (EPSR) was set-up create a new legal and regulatory framework for the power sector, including the elimination of NEPA and provisions to ensure privatization of successor companies; establishment of the Nigeria Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC); establishment of the Rural Electrification Agency; and a Consumer assistance fund to bridge the funding gaps for low income earners. Others include:  The Federal Executive Council.  Rural Electrification Agency & Policy.  National Energy Policy.  Electricity Amendment Act No. 28 of (1998). 1.4.3 Relevant Environmental Legislation & Standards 1.4.3.1 National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes Regulations) 8.1.9 (1991) This stipulates that:  No industry shall release toxic substance into the air, water, and land of the Nigerian environment, beyond permissible limits.  It is mandatory for all industries to have industrial pollution monitoring capabilities within their own set up. Preferably they should have on-site pollution control unit or assign it to a consultant/contractor approved by the federal ministry of environment.  All manufacturers should draw up a contingency plan against accidental releases of pollutants.  For the present point and non-point sources of industrial pollution, all industries with potential for the release of gaseous, particulate, liquid or solid untreated discharge is mandated to install into their system an appropriate pollution abatement equipment in accordance with prescribed guideline.  All discharges of effluent with constituents beyond permissible limits into public drains, streams, rivers, lakes, sea or underground infection are unacceptable and

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 

 

are prohibited unless a permit is obtained in writing from federal ministry of environment (FMEnv) or any organization so designated by FMEnv. Solid waste generated by industry including sludge and all byproducts resulting from the operation of pollution abatement equipment should be dispose of in an environmentally safe manner. The general aesthetic sanitary conditions of factories and surroundings shall be adequately maintained within limits of the provisions by the national policy on environment, the safety of workers from exposure to hazardous conditions in the work place shall be guaranteed. The collection, transport, and final disposal of waste should be the responsibility/capability of the company generating the waste which shall be liable for clean-up, remediation, restoration and where necessary, compensation to all affected parties. The general aesthetic sanitary conditions of surrounding shall be adequately maintained. Environmental Auditing (EA) of existing industries and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of new industries and major developmental projects shall be mandatory.

1.4.3.2 National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) Act 2007 NESREA Act 2007 replaced the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act. It is the embodiment of laws and regulations focused on the protection and sustainable development of the environment and its natural resources. The following sections are worth noting:  requires industry facilities to have anti-pollution equipment for the treatment of effluent;  requires a submission to the agency of a composition of the industry’s treated effluents;  provides authority to ensure compliance with environmental laws, local and international, on environmental sanitation and pollution prevention and control through monitory and regulatory measures;  empowers the Agency to make and review regulations on air and water quality, effluent limitations, control of harmful substances and other forms of environmental pollution and sanitation;  prohibits, without lawful authority, the discharge of hazardous substances into the environment. This offence is punishable under this section, with a fine not exceeding,

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N1,000,000 (One Million Naira) and an imprisonment term of 5 years. In the case of a company, there is an additional fine of N50,000, for every day the offence. 1.4.3.3 Kaduna State Environment and Development Planning Edict of 1999 In accordance with the provisions of Section 24 of FEPA Decree 58 of 1988 and Chapter 131 of the laws of the Federation of Nigeria, Edict No 2 of January 1994, the state’s Environmental Protection Agencies were established. The States Environment and Development Planning Edict of 1999 assigned the responsibility for the protection of the environment, biodiversity, conservation and sustainable development in the state to Kaduna State Ministry of Environment. 1.4.3.4 S.I. 15. National Environmental Protection Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes Regulation (1991) This provides that the objective of solid and hazardous waste management shall be to:  Identify solid, toxic and extremely hazardous wastes dangerous to public health and environment.  Provide for surveillance and monitoring of dangerous and extremely hazardous wastes and substances until they are detoxified and safely disposed.  Provide guidelines necessary to establish a system of proper record keeping, sampling and labeling of dangerous and extremely hazardous wastes. Establish suitable and provide necessary requirements to facilitate the disposal of hazardous wastes. Research into possible re-use and recycling of hazardous wastes. 1.4.3.5 Land Use Act of 1978 The land-use Act of 1978 states that"... it is also in the public interest that the rights of all Nigerians to use and enjoy land in Nigeria in sufficient quality... to enable them to provide for the sustenance of themselves and their families should be assured, protected and preserved". 1.4.3.6 Endangered Species Act 11. 1985 In pursuance of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITIES), the Federal Government of Nigeria enacted endangered species (control of international Trade and Traffic) Act 11, 1985 which makes among others, provisions for the conservation, ,management, and protection of some of the country's endangered species. Section 1 of the Act absolutely prohibits the hunting or capture or trading of the threatened animal species. The list of endangered species includes reptiles, bird (Aves) and mammals (insectivores, primates, rodents, carnivores).

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1.4.3.7 Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria S.1 and S.2 of the General Guidelines for Pollution Abatement in Industries (FMoE, 1991) stipulates that no industry shall release toxic substances to air, water and land of the Nigerian environment, beyond permissible limits and that it is mandatory for all industries to have industrial pollution monitoring capabilities within their own set up. The EIA will enable FMP to document the present condition of land, air and water at the site prior to its operation and monitor the impact of its activities continually upon completion and operation. Other related legislation includes:  FMoE EIA Sectoral Guidelines for Infrastructures (1995);  S.I.8 National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation) Regulations (1991);  Nigeria Conservation Foundation. 1.4.4 International Laws and Regulations Nigeria is signatory to several laws, treaties and regulations that govern the environment. Among these are:  World Bank Guidelines on Environmental Assessment {EA} (1991).  Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992). 1.4.4.1 World Bank and African Development Bank Guidelines on Environmental Assessment (EA) The World Bank and African Development Bank require the execution of an EIA on a proposed industrial activity by a borrower as a prerequisite for granting any financial assistance in form of loans. Details of World Bank's EIA procedures and guidelines are published in the Bank's EA Source Book vols. I-III of 1991. 1.4.4.2 Basel Convention on the Control of Trans. boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal The overarching objective of the Basel Convention is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes. The provisions of the Convention center around the following principal aims:  the reduction of hazardous waste generation and the promotion of environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, wherever the place of disposal;

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 the restriction of trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes except where it is perceived to be in accordance with the principles of environmentally sound management; and  a regulatory system applying to cases where trans-boundary movements are permissible. 1.4.4.3 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) The UNFCCC, as it is often referred to, sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to address climate change. The ultimate objective of the Convention is “to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system”. Under the Convention, membership governments commit to:  gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies, and best practices;  launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to expected impacts including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries; and  cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. 1.4.4.4 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1997) Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on 16 September 1987, and entered into force on 1 January 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then, it has undergone seven revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing). It is believed that if the international agreement is adhered to, the ozone layer is expected to recover by 2050. 1.5 Terms of Reference 1.5.1 EIA Scope of Work The scope of work includes:  A comprehensive literature review from different sources to generate background information on the environmental characteristics of the study area.  Review of national and international regulations on renewable solar power plant construction and operation.

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 Identification of all communities within the project location and stakeholders for effective consultation.  A wet and dry season detailed site investigation of existing baseline data and laboratory analysis.  Identification of potential and associated impacts.  Qualification of potential impacts prediction and evaluation of their significance using appropriate models.  Identification of effective mitigation/enhancement measures and monitoring programmes using best up to date technology for the project activities.  Development of a comprehensive environmental management plan, including monitoring, decommissioning/abandonment and remediation plans.  Writing of EIA reports (field, draft, final draft and final) that conform to standards and guidelines set by the regulators, international bodies (including World Bank and African Development Bank) 1.5.2 Baseline Data Acquisition The detailed scope of the baseline data acquisition to cover the following areas: Biophysical  Topography and Land use pattern  Climate and meteorology  Geology and hydrogeology  Air quality, noise and vibration  Aquatic studies  Surface water quality and sediments  Groundwater quality  Soil quality  Vegetation  Hydrobiology and fisheries  Wildlife  Biodiversity Social  Population distribution  Demographic composition  Social characteristics  Socio-economic conditions of the communities.  Social structure/ trends and social groups

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 Social facilities  Archeological and historical data Health  Socio-demographic characteristics of the population  Communicable disease patterns  Non-communicable disease pattern  Health facilities and services  The living environment (housing, sanitation, waste management, water sources) 1.6 Assessment Methodology This Environmental Impact Assessment was conducted in accordance with the Federal Ministry of Environment, Kaduna State Ministry of Environment, and Kaduna Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Literature Review Review of existing literature particularly, from reports of previous EIA studies and other relevant studies on the environmental characteristics of the project area. Materials reviewed include textbooks, reports, survey maps, aerial photographs, articles and other international journals and internet. Reconnaissance Survey A reconnaissance survey of the study area was carried out and it helped in the concept design of field investigation execution. Consultation In line with FMEnv 1995 Procedural and Sectoral Guidelines for EIA in Nigeria, Consultations with the host communities (neighbours), and other Stakeholders were undertaken. Some of these Stakeholders consulted include:  Federal Ministry of Environment  Kaduna State Ministry of Environment  Kaduna State Ministry of Agriculture  Kaduna State Government  Kaura Local Government  Host Community and Community Based Organizations

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1.7 Reporting Sequence The EIA Report conforms to the report writing format as contained in the FMEnv Environmental Impact Assessment Procedural Guidelines (1995). The content includes the following:  Chapter 1 provides the project background information, administrative and legal framework and terms of reference.  Chapter 2 provides the justification for the project that includes the need, value and sustainability of the project.  Chapter 3 describes the project and process; it provides a detailed explanation and description of the project actions and present brief information on the associate inbuilt impact control measures in the project.  Chapter 4 gives the description of the environmental and social setting of the project area and consultation process.  Chapter 5 gives the environmental changes (negative and positive) that might result from installation and accompanying processes of the project development.  Chapter 6 provides the mitigation measures that will protect the environment from adverse effect of the project actions.  Chapter 7 gives the environmental monitoring programme and management plan for environmental protection during project operation and also decommissioning plan.  Chapter 8 provides an overall conclusion based on assessment of information from previous chapters. Associated appendices and references are also included in this report.

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CHAPTER 2 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION

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2

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION

2.1 Project Background Quaint plans to develop a 50MW on-grid Solar Power Plant in Manchok, Kaura Local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State. This strategic decision to invest in Nigeria’s renewable power sector was made in 2009 by the board of Quaint USA due to the huge difference in demand and supply for electricity as well as lack of gas availability for thermal power generation. To achieve this feat, Quaint’s representatives presented its vision, for a first solar park in Nigeria, to then Honourable Minister of Environment, John Odey, in August 2010. The approval of our proposal led to the signing of a Letter of Intent (LOI) and subsequently Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on November 19, 2010. As part of the requirements, a technical certification tour was arranged by Quaint for the Inter-ministerial Committee on Power (which includes Federal Ministry of Power, Federal Ministry of Environment, and Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission) to the United States and Spain. The tours took place on July 21-23, 2011 and October 7-9, 2011 respectively. An official due diligence partnership was formulated and signed, after the technical certification, with the Federal Ministry of Environment through the office of the Renewable Energy Coordinator which led to the clearance for submitting application to a renewable power generation license with NERC. The application for a power generation license was officially submitted on May 31, 2012.

Figure 2.1: Photos from the technical certification tour 43 | P a g e

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Prior to submission of license application, the company had secure the land with the Kaduna State Government, completed its transmission report, energy yield report, and a draft EIA report. A provisional generation license approval was issued by NERC on March 8, 2013. Currently Quaint is awaiting an EIA certification from FMEnv after completion and approval of this Final EIA report in order to commence negotiations with the Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading Company (NBET) for signing of a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). 2.2 Need for the Project The gap in Nigeria's power sector has far reaching implications for sustained economic growth and social well-being of Nigerians. According to a study conducted by the African Development Bank, approximately 45% of the population has access to electricity with only about 30% of their demand for power being met. The Nigerian power sector is plagued with recurrent outages to the extent that some 90% of industrial customers and a significant number of residential and other non-residential customers provide their own power at a huge cost to themselves and the Nigerian economy. For businesses, the use of diesel generator has increased electricity cost to approximately 60 per cent of overall production costs which are ultimately passed on to the final consumers. The total capacity of selfgeneration units in Nigeria is estimated at about 4000MW. This major gap in power supply seriously impedes the growth of the non-oil sector and, as a result, job creation and poverty reduction. Empirical findings on Nigeria suggest that investing in infrastructure is compatible with both the non-oil private sector development and the attainment of MDGs. However, high growth rate in the non-oil sector is seriously constrained by weaknesses in power infrastructure. This result was confirmed by the Investment Climate Assessment of Nigeria completed in 2008 with the joint support of the World Bank and the UN. Electricity was found to be by far the most binding constraint to doing business in Nigeria for more than 80% of firms surveyed. Therefore, the implementation of the ABIBA Solar Project would go a long way towards addressing and rectifying the issues highlighted above. In addition, since the project is renewable, it would also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere compared to gas-powered plants. 2.3 Value of the Project As depicted in Fig 2.2, the ABIBA Solar Power Project, when implemented, would bring about economic, environmental, and social benefits to the surroundings in which it operates and the country at large. First all, the project is going to result in over $195 million foreign direct investment (FDI) into the country and Kaduna State. The implementation would also lead to over 300 employment of skilled and unskilled high-wage labour mostly from the local community. Since solar power is environmentally friendly, it would reduce the global

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emission of greenhouse gases which otherwise would contribute to global warming i.e. environmental catastrophe and other adverse health-related issues. The project would also act as an additional source of revenue for the federal, state, and local community in which it operates. When completed, the ABIBA solar power project would be the first of its kind in Nigeria and West Africa. This would help generate publicity for the surrounding area and can also act as a renewable energy technology tourism destination in West Africa. In turn, economic activities of the local area will increase which will help spur the re-industrialization of Kaduna State. Besides the highlighted economic and environmental benefits, the developers and operators of the plant plan to allocate a percentage of the assets revenue for Corporate Social Responsibility programs which would be mainly focused on educating/training of women and youth as well as alleviating poverty through investment programs into agro-business related activities etc.

Figure 2.2: Benefits of Project 2.4 Envisaged Sustainability 2.4.1 Technical The technical sustainability of the project depends on the technology, EPC contractor responsible for turn-key installation, and the operations/maintenance contractor required for managing plant operations. In reference to the technology, commercial scale solar technology has been around for over 30 years. Furthermore, the technology has been proven to be sustainable due to its increase in global acceptance and utilization since its discovery in 1950s. The cost and efficiency of solar have also improved exponentially in the past 10 years. To further ensure sustainability of the project, a reputable EPC partner and maintenance contractor have been selected to provided turnkey installation and other related services during operation period.

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2.4.2 Economical Economically, the project is expected to be sustainable due to the attractiveness of the tariff instituted by the Nigerian government through NERC in the recently released MultiYear-Tariff-Order (MYTO). The gap in the demand and supply of electricity in Nigeria is also a reason to believe the project is economically sustainable. It is estimated that about 40,000MW of electricity need to be generated to satisfy current demand and growth potentially but only approximately 4000MW is being generated. Judging by current trend, it will take at least 10 to 15 years to reach power capacity required. 2.4.3 Environment Since solar is renewable, the project is not expected to emit any dangerous by-products into the atmosphere; therefore, it is environmentally sustainable. Plan is also in-place to make sure that all used and obsolete equipment e.g. batteries, panels, metal rods etc. are recycled in partnership with the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM). 2.4.4 Social Due to Quaint’s commitment to its Corporate Social Responsibly (CSR), a great importance will be placed on all social activities associated with the implementation of the project e.g. tourism, community-related programs etc. It will be ensured that these social programs are sustained throughout the 25-year life of the project. Further effort will be made to make sure that some of the programs are kept after decommissioning of the project. 2.5 Project Options / Alternatives 2.5.1 Option 1 – No Project This scenario mimics the current situation in which no solar power plant is constructed. This option was rejected due to the following:  Inadequate electricity supply to meet current demand which will continue to hamper overall economic activities thus growth.  Loss of the economic opportunities created through employment, tourism, additional revenues, and other community-related social programs.  Lack of electricity availability to the local community.  Low industrial activities in the state due to lack of power. 2.5.2 Option 2 – Power from non-renewable sources of energy This option considers using alternative sources non-renewable energy such as gas, coal etc. This option was rejected due to the following:

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 Inadequate gas supply to meet overall energy demand as a result of the incomplete gas master plan project for the nation.  Lack of an adequate comprehensive study for coal as a source of power generation in Nigeria.  Cost of transportation of gas for power generation (operational inefficiency due to lack of a nationwide gas master plan).  Increase in emission of greenhouse gases which would have adverse effect on the environment. 2.5.3 Option 3 – Power from other renewable sources of energy This option involves using alternative sources of renewable energy such as hydro, biomass, wind etc. This option was less recommended due to the following:  Lack of a major water body in the location of interest for hydro-electric power.  Lack of adequate feed, in the case of biomass, to generate the same capacity of renewable energy.  Lack of adequate study for wind and other potential renewable source in the location of interest. 2.5.4 Option 4 – Implementation of ABIBA Solar Project at Manchok This option involves construction and installation of the 50MW on-grid solar power plant at Manchok cattle ranch. This project was selected due to the following:  Issues of huge demand and low supply of electricity in Nigeria.  Shortage of gas supply for gas-power plant to meet the high demand.  Importance of renewable power in the overall energy mix.  Abundance of solar irradiation in the region.  Opportunity for technology tourism in the area.  Reduction in CO2 emissions which helps to reduce global warming.

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CHAPTER THREE PROJECT DESCRIPTION

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3

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1 General This section provides a detailed description of the project and phases to be undertaken which would include site selection, process technology, mobilization, construction, operations, and decommissioning activities. 3.2 Project Type The proposed project is the construction of a 50MW Solar Power Plant on Manchok Cattle Ranch in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The renewable power produced will be metered into the nation’s high-tension transmission grid located approximately 0.1km from the site. The Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) and local distribution agency would then be respectively responsible for the transmission and distribution of power generated to the final consumers. 3.3 Site Selection and Location Several sites were recommended and visited to determine the most suitable location for the 50MW solar power station taking into consideration factors such as technical, environmental and social and possible resettlement issues. The final site selected is located approximately at 9.6728 Latitude and 8.4917 Longitude, on the Manchok Cattle Ranch. The site was selected for the following reasons:  Relative high solar insolation (6.72 kWh/m2/day at highest in March; and 5.03 kWh/m2/day at lowest in August).  Relative calmness compare with the rest of the northern region, in terms of security issues.  Flatness of the land.  Proximity to high tension transmission line (0.1 km).  Proximity to a major road (0.5 km to Jos-Kafanchan Road and Kaduna Road).  Avoidance resettlement issues by taking land belonging to the government.  Strong support from the local community.  Savannah vegetation in the dry season which requires less capital for clearance. Approximately 150 hectares of the 8000 hectares Manchok ranch have been allocated for the project. Manchok Cattle Ranch was established in 1964 by the Kaduna State Ministry of Animal and Forest Resources with a grant from the United States of America. The ranch was set-up with the purpose increasing milk output as raw material for local dairy companies. The ranch was stocked in 1980 with 156 imported cattle after the introduction of 49 | P a g e

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basic supporting infrastructure such as borehole, electricity, staff quarters etc. The imported cattle breed were replaced with 765 local breed in 1984 after the outbreak of dermatophiliasis but another disease outbreak led to the slaughter of the herds and closure of the ranch in the early 1970s. Unfortunately since then, no significant activities have been undertaken on the ranch while most infrastructures have been abandoned. It is believed that the implementation of the ABIBA Solar Project could help re-energize industrial projects in the community as well as bring back the ranching scheme. Site photos are included below.

Figure 3.1: Map of Nigeria showing Manchok (circled in blue)

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Figure 3.2: Google Maps showing Proposed Site (in red) relative to the town of Manchok

Figure 3.3: Picture of the Project Site during Dry & Wet Seasons

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Figure 3.4: Abandoned Buildings from Ranching Project at the Site

Figure 3.5: Land Coordinates from Survey (See appendix for further details)

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3.4 Technical Layout & Scope In concept, photovoltaic solar power generation involves a solar or photovoltaic cell which converts sunlight into electric current using the photoelectric effect. These solar cells produce direct current (DC) power which fluctuates with the sunlight's intensity. For practical use, the DC requires conversion to certain desired voltages or alternating current (AC), through the use of inverters. Multiple solar cells are connected inside modules. Modules are wired together to form arrays, then tied to an inverter, which produces power at the desired voltage, and for AC, the desired frequency/phase. The alternating current is transformed into higher-voltage via a step-up transformer before it’s transmitted through the grid network for consumption or stored in batteries as back-up for night-time consumption and during periods of limited sunlight.

Figure 3.6: Solar PV Generation Process The ABIBA solar power plant will utilized approximately 217,890 REC-250PE solar modules rated 250Wp. The modules connected in series will be tilted 10 deg facing south for optimal performance. The direct current generated with the poly-crystalline modules will be converted into alternating current via a number of Danfoss TLX 15X inverters with an operating voltage between 250-800V. The produced alternating current is transformed in 53 | P a g e

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high-voltage before it is metered into the high tension transmission line available next to the site. The entire operation will be connected to a process monitoring unit which can be accessed by operators from the control room. Process data can also be accessed from anywhere in the world by selected individuals. Results from the energy yield simulation conducted on the site with the REC-250PE manufactured by REC Solar shows a total energy production of 97,148,700 kWh/year, specific yield of 17,680 kWh/kWp/year, and performance ratio of 80.5%.

Figure 3.7: Site Simulation result for plant using RE-250PE modules (Per 5MW)

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3.5 Process Technology Since the main component of the solar power plant consists of solar modules, a considerable effort would be made in this section to explain the different types of cells or modules that are available in the marketplace. 3.5.1 General Technology Overview Solar PV cells fall into two categories:  Crystalline silicon technologies.  Thin film technologies. Crystalline Silicone Technologies Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells are currently the most common solar cells in use mainly because c-Si is stable. It delivers efficiencies in the range of 15% to 25%, relies on established process technologies with an enormous database, and, in general, has proven to be reliable. Ironically, c-Si is a poor absorber of light and, what might be a sin in this micro-miniature age, it needs to be fairly thick and rigid. A basic c-Si cell consists of essentially seven layers (Fig. 3.8). A transparent adhesive holds a protective glass cover over the anti-reflective coating that ensures all of the light filters through to the silicon crystalline layers. Similar to semiconductor technology, an N layer sandwiches against a P layer and the entire package is held together with two electrical contacts: positive topside and negative below.

Figure 3.8: A crystalline silicon cell

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There are two types of c-Si commonly in use: monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon. Cut from a high-purity single crystal, monocrystalline silicon consists of 150-mm diameter wafers measuring 200 mm thick. Despite gaining more favor, polycrystalline silicon seems more involved to make, i.e., sawing silicon blocks into bars and then wafers. In either case, one c-Si cell generates approximately 0.5 V, and multiple cells are connected in series to boost output voltage. Thin Film Technologies Thin-film solar cells are potentially cheaper than traditional panels but less efficient, below 20% of light-to-voltage conversion. Typical thin-film solar cells are one of four types depending on the material used: amorphous silicon (a-Si) and thin-film silicon (TF-Si); cadmium telluride (CdTe); copper indium gallium deselenide (CIS or CIGS); and dyesensitized solar cell (DSC) plus other organic materials. Thin-film solar cells consist of about six layers (Fig. 3.9). In this case, a transparent coating covers the anti-reflective layer. These are followed by the P- and N-type materials, after which the contact plate and substrate added. The thin film in essence operates with the same principle as c-Si cells.

Figure 3.9: A thin film cells

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The singular difference between thin-film and c-Si solar cell is the thin and flexible pairing of layers and the photovoltaic material: either cadmium telluride (CdTe) or copper indium gallium deselenide (CIGS) instead of silicon. Hence, they are thinner and lighter than other cells technologies. Crystalline vs. Thin Film Crystalline silicon technology has been around a while and proven its worth and mettle, while thin film is still pretty much in its infancy but has the potential to be significantly less expensive and at least comparable in efficiency and reliability. Advantages of c-Si cells include a high efficiency rate, high stability, ease of fabrication, and high reliability. Longevity is another plus: c-Si modules deployed in the 1970s are still in operation, and single crystal panels can withstand the harsh conditions associated with space travel. Other benefits include high resistance to heat and lower installation costs. And, silicon is more environmentally friendly come disposal/recycling time. On the downside, c-Si cells are the most expensive solar components in terms of initial cost. Also, they have a low absorption coefficient and are rigid and fairly fragile. Thin-film soar cells, on other hand, are less expensive than older c-Si wafer cells. They are more flexible, easier to handle, and available in thin film sheets. They’re also less susceptible to damage than their silicon rivals. The main disadvantage of thin-film solar components is their lower efficiency, which in some applications can offset the price advantage. They also have a more complex structure. Flexible versions require unique installation skills. Both c-Si and thin-film solar panels suit a wide range of similar power applications. Based on their pros and cons, more c-Si is used in applications requiring higher efficiency, while thin-film panels will take on more cost-effective and flexible situations. 3.5.2 ABIBA Solar Plant Modules For the purpose of the ABIBA Solar Power Project, REC Solar’s REC-250PE polycrystalline modules have been sourced while DuPont Apollo’s LK-240P-20 thin film modules are being considered as back-up option. Renewable Energy Corporation or REC is a vertically integrated solar company with operations in USA, Germany, Singapore, and headquartered in Norway. REC Solar is the 4th largest solar company in the world and the largest in Europe with over 3700 employees and annual revenue of $2.2 billion. REC Solar’s REC-250PE poly-crystalline panels are manufactured in their integrated manufacturing facility in Singapore. In terms of quality, the panels are subjected to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Underwriter Laboratories (UL) international compliance requirements. The performance of REC panels during certification is far higher than the IEC and UL threshold. This is part of their strict internal qualification

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test requirements before the panels are released into the market. In other to make sure that its panels far surpassed international standard requirements, REC have created its own internal quality standard which is shown in Table 3.1 below. Figure 3.10 also shows a comparison between REC panels and limit required by international standards;

Table 3.1: REC Internal Quality Standard vs. International

Table 3.2: Panel Quality Comparison with International Standards

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To further ensure quality in the field, REC has developed a field inspection method and tracking systems across the world in different locations where their panels are installed. The field inspection method and tracking systems help to ensure data collection on module performance as well as gain understanding of actual module performance in different environmental conditions and climate exposures. This is important for two reasons Validate known degradation mechanism and models in order to feedback information into the design and development process.  Help identify potential new phenomenon to develop mitigation. The feedback loop methodology for gathering field data is depicted in Figure 3.11:

Figure 3.10: Panel’s Field Data Gathering Methodology This comprehensive product testing enables REC to offer industry leading warranty on the solar panels. To ensure trust in its quality testing criteria, the panels have a 10-year product warranty which cover defects in material and workmanship. A 25-year power output warranty is also offer to cover a module performance of maximum degression of 0.7% per year (starting from 97% of nameplate power).

Figure 3.11: Panel Warranty vs. Standard

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With a module capacity of 250Wp, a total of 217,890 modules will be employed to make up an aggregate capacity of 50,000kWp or 50MWp. The 217,890 individual Solar PV modules to be installed in the project work on the basic photovoltaic principle. Due to the large size of the plant, a central inverter concept will be adopted. A typical inverter, widely available, was chosen in the analysis with 1000 kW AC nominal power. So 50 central inverters are required for the site and it will be necessary to maintain a necessary stock of spare parts at site. In order to meet the voltage and current constraints of the inverters, the module string concepts are the following:  24 Modules are connected in series to make up a string and  9078 strings are connected to 50 inverters. In this way, the electrical design is kept simple and modular and the nominal AC capacity of the plant is 50,000 kWp. 3.6 Project Phases Activities that would be considered and undertaken during the different phases of the project are explained in detail in the subsequent sub-sections. Detailed engineering design of actual project is included in the appendix. 3.6.1 Site-Preparation Phase

Figure 3.12: Site Illustration during Preparation Phase

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Prior to site preparation, utmost importance was placed on acquiring Federal, State, or Local Government owned-land owned rather than displacing private owners from their land. The Manchok Ranch belongs to the Kaduna State government and was donated for the purpose of the project through the State Ministries of Agriculture and Land. Although there are very few farmers currently farming illegally on the area apportioned, agreement have been reach with the local government representatives, with the farmers awareness, to move them to a different location on the ranch while also providing full compensation and assistance. Some of the site preparation activities to be considered include:  Proper Documentation – Once site is selected, it is necessary that all the documentation necessary to legally utilized the land as well as commence the implementation of the project are in place. Some of these critical documents include Certificate of Occupancy (CoO), energy yield report, environmental, and construction permits.  Stakeholder’s Buy-in – It is also important that there is support and buy-in from the State Government, Local Government, local chiefs, as well as the habitants of the community in which the project will be situated.  Site Clearing – The earliest on-site physical activity to be undertaken prior to preconstruction and construction phases is the clearing of the vegetation on the site. For this purpose, individuals from the local community shall be employed and trained to use grass-cutting equipment such as tractors, mowers, and other necessary tools required for clearing the site. The vegetation shall be reduced to a level that is comfortable for pre-construction activities to take place. Vegetation removed during these activities shall be disposed in accordance with Federal Ministry of Environment and Kaduna State Ministry of Environment’s guidelines.

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3.6.2 Pre-Construction Phase

Figure 3.14: Site Illustration during Pre-Construction Phase The following activities shall be undertaken during the pre-construction phase:  Employment & Training – Employment and training programs of both skilled and unskilled labour shall be completed prior to pre-construction phase activity. Most unskilled and some skilled employment will be reserved for the residents of the surrounding communities as part of the agreement made with the local government and chiefs.  Access Road – In order to make movement of equipment, materials, and people easy to and from the site. The 0.5km access road and all other roads with soft surface soil shall be reinforced to withstand the weights of heavy trucks that will be used during the process. Basic gravel shall be used for reinforcement. The gravel roads shall be constructed by digging a trench of a width of approximately 5 meters and a depth of 0.4 to 0.5 meters (see Figure 3.15). The trench is filled with two layers of gravel. A bottom layer of 25 cm of 0-63 ballast and a top layer of 20 cm of 0-25 crushed stone.

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Figure 3.13: Illustration of Access Road Construction  Pre-Construction Works – Some of the pre-construction works that will be implemented would include a 3-layer fencing, a warehouse, and guard house. The warehouse and guard house shall be used for housing construction materials & equipment as well as site-security personnel respectively. For security reasons, it is necessary to avoid unauthorized people on the grounds of the solar power plant. A 3-layer fencing system is been proposed but may change based on the requirement of the insurance company contracted for the power plant. The inner and outermost layer of the fence can be a see-through barb wire fence while the midfence should a translucent metal-sheet. The distance between the fences will be approximately 1 meter. Standard metal fences topped with barbed wires are the most common fences for solar power plants. Whether the poles are rammed approximately 1.5 meters into the ground or they are fixed with concrete foundations as in Figure 3.16. Cameras, infrared sensors and/or electric fences along the boundary may be necessary in addition to a fence or wall, if necessary.

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Figure 3.14: Illustration of Site Fencing  Logistics Arrangement – In consideration of the massive movement of equipment, materials, and other resources needed during the construction phase, a proper logistics plan need to be in place. The logistics plan and support will be provided through various outlets – sea, air and road transport. The bulk of the equipment will be supplied via Lagos port. Some smaller and highly sensitive equipment may be air freighted to Abuja before transportation through land. Within Nigeria the logistic support for the project shall be provided mainly by road transport through which all materials and equipment including personnel shall be taken to site. To be included in the logistics plan is also mitigation plan to reduce anticipated numbers of traffic incidents that may arise due to the increase in road activities and overall noise levels etc. Emergency and safety plans will also be in place to protect employees, facility, and the community. 3.6.3 Construction Phase The construction phase will be executed in accordance with a standard planning framework that will be continuously reviewed as it becomes expedient by project team to ensure:  Maximum efficiency in construction.  Minimum adverse environmental and health impacts.  Earliest completion time.  Compliance with the laws of the land and all regulatory requirements. Construction phase activities would include further activities undertaken during the preconstruction phase such as employment & training, logistics arrangement, emergency and safety measures as well as the following:

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Figure 3.15: Site Illustration during Construction Phase  Construction Works – All administrative buildings and staff quarters would be built before panel installations to house employees within the construction complex. This measure would be taken to protect expatriates and other workers from different regions of Nigeria who may not be familiar with or have a home in the community. The main objectives of the construction phase would be mounting solar panels and sub-structure, electrical installations, and grid connection. The solar modules of the power plant will be mounted on a substructure made of galvanized steel and aluminium. The structure has the shape of large tables (Figure 3.19). The inclination of the tables depends on the geographic region and its sun light conditions. In Nigeria the module tables will be facing South with a tilt angel of approximately 10°. For the fixation of the module tables in the ground, no concrete foundations are needed. GPS directed machines will be used to ram galvanized steel poles approximately 1.5 meters deep into the ground (Figure 3.18). Some advantages of these methods are: time efficient mounting and environmentally 65 | P a g e

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friendly dismantling after the end of the power plant life time without any rests of concrete in the ground.

Figure 3.16: GPS directed Machine for ramming Galvanized Steel

Figure 3.17: Solar Panels mounted on Galvanized Steel 66 | P a g e

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During electrical installation, string inverters and combiner boxes are attached to the metal sub-structure underneath the modules. The shaded position protects them from UV light and heat so that no buildings are needed. Trenches for cables will be excavated along the edge of the rows of module tables in an angle of 90째. The trenches are 60-80 cm wide, 80-100 cm deep and are filled with a layer of sand to protect the cables (picture 10). Once all module tables are interconnected, the cables are covered with a layer of sand (for protection). Finally the trenches are completely filled with the soil previously excavated.

Figure 3.18: Inverters and Combiner Boxes underneath the sub-structure

Figure 3.19: Cable Trenches

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Step-up transformers (Figure 3.22) will be delivered “ready to use” in small preconfigured buildings/boxes. Their electrical configurations are tailor made to the local grid operators’ requirements. The transformer buildings are positioned on a gravel bed (composition similar to the gravel roads) in order to avoid them from sinking into the ground over time. At the end of the construction period the power plant will be connected to the nearest medium voltage substation via an overhead line or via an underground cable.

Figure 3.20: Step-Up Transformer

Figure 3.21: Completion of Solar Power Plant (Illustration) 68 | P a g e

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3.6.4 Operations Phase During the operations phase, effort will be made to make sure that the surface area is revegetated. Since a large majority of the surface area is not sealed, the open space between the module tables will allow rain water to drop down between the modules and allow grass to grow almost on the entire surface as well as limit the risk of erosion. In addition, the grass will be periodically trimmed as part of the maintenance schedule.

Figure 3.24: Site Illustration during Operations Phase

Figure 3.25: Site Re-vegetation

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The operations and maintenance (O&M) of the power plant during operations shall be contracted to reputable O&M contractor (a sample O&M schedule is attached in the appendix). Quaint, through its EPC Partner (REC Solar), is currently in talks with BELECTRIC to help provide and install real-time operations monitoring system for the plant. The process monitoring system helps to identify any malfunctions at an early thus reducing downtimes resulting from repair works. The device also allows to check the performance data of the power plant via internet connection any time and to at act in good time. The process data can be accessed in the control room or anywhere in the world (via internet) by authorized personnel. A great deal of importance shall also be placed on safety & emergency procedures. All employees shall be made to wear proper personal protection equipment while on-site. They will also be fully trained and certified on the necessary safety and emergency measures. Besides the revenue provided to Federal, State, and Local Governments from power generation proceed, additional corporate social responsibility related programs will be in place to support and help develop the local community. 3.6.5 Decommissioning and Abandonment Phase At the end of the solar power plant’s useful life, all equipment and materials shall be decommissioning safely and with due regard to the environment, and relevant legislation available at the time of decommissioning. Since Quaint EPC’s partner, REC Solar is a founding and board member of PV Cycle, effort will be made to work with REC to identify recycling centres where all equipment and material can be safely recycled. (PV cycle is a voluntary take-back and recycling programme for end-of-life modules). Further effort will be made to re-use the facility for a similar or different project. In the case that the facility is not re-used by Quaint, adequate commitment shall also be maintained with stakeholders to mutually ascertain alternative needs and possible use of the facilities, by other parties.

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Figure 3.26: PV Cycle Analysis 3.7 Project Schedule Based on the timeline estimate presented in Figure 3.26 below, the projected commissioning date is approximated to be December 2014. Key Deliverables Sep' 13 Oct' 13 Nov' 13 Dec' 13 Jan' 14 Feb' 14 Mar' 14 Apr' 14 May' 14 Jun' 14 Jul' 14 Aug' 14 Sep'14 Oct' 14 Nov' 14 Dec' 14 EIA Certification PPA Signing Project Financing Mobilization Phase Construction Phase Commissioning

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CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTION OF BASELINE CONDITIONS

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4

DESCRIPTION OF BASELINE CONDITIONS

4.1 General Collection of baseline data of the project area is an important phase of any Environmental Assessment process. Baseline data provide vital information on the existing environmental quality in which a development is planned. It is also useful for delineating environmental sensitive areas and for preparing an Environmental Sensitivity Map for contingency planning. In this study, the environmental characteristics of the project area were established through extensive literature search, field sampling/measurements, laboratory analysis, stakeholder consultation, and data interpretation. Data from literature search were obtained from the existing two-season baseline study of 133kV Jos-Kafanchan Transmission Line Project. Fieldwork for the baseline was conducted on August 8, 2012 and January 19, 2013 by Carbon & C Integrated Services Nig. Ltd. for the completion of draft report. Another set of data was collected and analysed by Quaint, with the assistance of KEPA representatives on September 22 2013 (See Appendix for data) for the final EIA report to verify if there any gap in the data. Comparison shows that there’s no significant difference between the data gathered by Quaint and Carbon & C Integrated Services Nig. Ltd. 4.2 Data Acquisition Methods For this EIA study, environmental data were acquired by carrying out fieldwork activities that involves collection of ecological samples (soil, vegetation, water, air quality, sediment etc.), socio-economic, and health data on the communities in the study area. Generally, the sampling and laboratory analysis procedures were in line with FMEnv guidelines and standards and American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) and American Public Health Association (APHA) sampling protocols. A list of the sampling equipment and procedure are provided in Table 4.1 and appendix respectively. S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

LIST OF EQUIPMENT Spectrometer Model - HACH DR 2010 Sound meter Model - EXT ECH 407736, Range 35-130 dB GPS Model - Garmin 76 CSX Particulate Monitor Model: AMS 950IS, Range 0-1999 Âľg/m3 Carbon Monoxide Analyzer Model - T PI 707, Range 0-200 mg/m3 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) meter Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) meter Model Q - T RAK Single gas monitor 7575, Range 0-100 mg/m3 SO2 meter Model Q - T RAK Single gas monitor 7575, Range 0-20 mg/m3 NO2 meter Model Q - T RAK Single gas monitor 7575, Range 0-20 mg/m3 NH3 meter Q - T RAK Single gas monitor 7575, Range 0-20 mg/m3 CH4 meter Q - T RAK Single gas monitor 7575, Range 0-100 mg/m3 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) Model: T hermo Scientific ICE 3000 Series AA Spectrometer

Table 4.1: List of Equipment

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Figure 4.1: Pictures from Site Visit for Collection of Ecological Samples

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4.3 Baseline Conditions 4.3.1 Meteorology and Climate Conditions The project area is within the Savannah zone associated with high temperatures, low humidity and cloudless sky for most of the year. The climate of the study area is tropical. It is under the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) or Inter-Tropical Discontinuity Zone (ITDZ). They are by marked wet and dry seasons. The dry season starts around November and ends in March/April. The effect of the dry dusty northeast trade winds is strongly felt because of the latitudinal position of the area. The wet season on the other hand, occurs between the months of May and October. The meteorological conditions of the study area are greatly influenced by this seasonal alteration. Although weather/climatic data were collected during the field study, historical data were also collected for the study area. The main characteristics of the climate and meteorology of the study area is described and/or presented in (Fig. 4.1 – 4.6) below.  Air Temperature Maximum average temperature of the area is 27.6o in the month of March and the minimum average is 23o in the month of January with clear skies in the dry season, there may be differences of 12o between day and night temperature, but diurnal differences are much less during the rainy season.

Figure 4.2: Average Monthly Temperature of the Project Area

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 Solar Insolation (kWh/m2/day)

Figure 4.3: Avg. Solar Insolation of the Project Area  Precipitation (mm)

Figure 4.4: Avg. Monthly Precipitation of the Project Area

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 Wind Speed (m/s)

Figure 4.5: Avg. Monthly Wind Speed of the Project Area  Clearness (from 0-1)

Figure 4.6: Avg. Clearness of the Project Area

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 Wet Days (days)

Figure 4.7: Avg. Wet Days per Month of the Project Area Source: These data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center; New et al. 4.3.2 Air Quality and Noise Measurement Air quality is a major environmental health problem affecting developed and developing countries around the world. Increasing amounts of potentially harmful gases and particles are being emitted into the atmosphere on a global scale resulting to adverse human health and the environment conditions. It is therefore important to establish the ambient atmospheric condition of the project area prior to development in order to monitor any changes. The following air pollutant (SOx, NOx, Cox, NH3, H2S, CH4, and suspended particulate matter (SPM)) measurements were carried out at different outdoor locations within the study area. The data is presented in Table 4.2.  Oxides of Sulphur Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3) are the two oxide of sulphur of most interest in the study of air pollution. The SO2 is often measured during environmental assessments since it is relatively stable in the atmosphere than SO3.

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SO2 is a colourless gas that is produced from volcanic, oceans, biological decay and forest fires releases. It can also result from fossil fuel combustion, smelting, manufacture of sulphuric acid, incineration of refuse and production of elemental sulphur. Health effects associated with this oxide includes breathing/respiratory illness, alterations in pulmonary defences and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. In the atmosphere, SO2 mixes with water vapour to produce acid rains (EPA, 1995). The ambient concentration of S02 in the study area for both seasons was below NESREA daily mean of 0.5 mg/m3. Hence the area had negligible detectable S02 pollution at the time of sampling.  Oxides of Nitrogen The two oxides of nitrogen that are emitted in significant quantities to the atmosphere are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02). The level of nitrogen dioxide in air was measured at the field because it is relatively stable than nitric oxide that is formed only at high temperature combustion processes (Peavy et-al, 1989). Nitrogen dioxide (N02) is a suffocating brownish gas that is highly reactive. It results when fuel is combusted at high temperatures and occur mainly from motor exhaust and stationary sources such as electric utilities and industrial boilers. It is a strong oxidising agent that reacts in the air to form corrosive nitric acid, as well as toxic organic nitrates. It plays a major role in the atmospheric reactions that produce ground level ozone or smog (EPA, 1995). N02 can irritate the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infections such as influenza. The level in the ambient air of the project area was below equipment detection limit of 0.085 mg/m3.  Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless and poisonous gas produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels – gas, oil, coal, and wood. At present ambient levels, it has little if any effect on property, vegetation, or materials. However, it impairs the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood at higher concentrations, owning to its high affinity for haemoglobin, the component of the blood for the transportation of oxygen. The carbon monoxide level in the ambient air of the project area was below NESREA limit of 5.0 mg/m3. This indicates that the area was free of carbon monoxide pollution at the time of sampling.  Suspended Particulate Matter Suspended particulate matter (SPM) is any dispersed matter in air, solid or liquid, in which the individual aggregates are larger than a single small molecule (about

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0.0021Jm in diameter) but smaller than 500lJm. These include total suspended particles, PM10, PM2.5, fine and ultra-fine particles, diesel exhaust, coal fly ash, mineral dust, metal dust and fumes. The SPM pollutants provoke respiratory diseases and can cause cancer, corrosion etc. They can constitute nuisance, interfere with sunlight and also act as catalytic surfaces for reaction of adsorbed chemicals. The effect of SPM depends on levels of exposure and susceptibility of the exposed population. The value was below the NESREA 1-hour mean limit of 600 mg/m3.  Noise The mean noise levels at all stations within the project area ranged between 51.1 and 67.2dB and were below 90dB, the permissible noise level for an 8-hour working period (FMENV. 1991); meaning that at the time of the study there was no significant source of noise in the vicinity of the project site. Parameters

Unit

Noise TPM CO CO2 SO2 NO2 H2S CH4 NH3

dB (mg/m3) (mg/m3) (mg/m3) (mg/m3) (mg/m3) (mg/m3) (mg/m3) (mg/m3)

Dry Season mean Range 57.1 50.8 - 67.0 251 221 - 323 0.3 0.0 - 0.9 1.40 1.00 - 2.14 0.007 0.002 - 0.032 0.034 0.021 - 0.055 0.001 0.001 - 0.002 0.333 0.321 - 0.046 0.005 0.001 - 0.008

Wet Season mean Range 56.8 51.1 - 67.2 243 219 - 316 0.3 0.0 - 0.8 1.20 1.00 - 2.12 0.009 0.003 - 0.400 0.033 0.025 - 0.058 0.001 0.001 - 0.002 0.345 0.301 - 0.500 0.004 0.001 - 0.009

Table 4.2: Air Quality and Noise data 4.4 Soil Baseline Condition 4.4.1 Soil Physio-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics Soil samples were collected at five (A – E) points within the project area with the aid of Spade, Hand Trowel and Hand Auger. Five samples (top: 0-15cm & bottom: 15-30cm) were collected each from the designated sampling stations. The summary and details of the physical and chemical characteristics of these soil samples are presented in Table 4.3.

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Table 4.3: Soil Physio-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics

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4.4.2 Soil Geology The project area is underlain by the Precambrian-Crystalline rocks of which are the Migmatite gneiss, the Metasediments (consisting of quartzites and schists) and the older granites (consisting of coarse grained porphyritic granites & medium grained granites)  The Porphyritic Granite These are found mainly at the southwestem part of the area, extending to about 25km down the area. The granites are coarse-grained with large or pink prismatic pheneocryst (Aroh, 1998). In some places occurs as whale backs trending NNESSW up to about 7 metre radius.  Metasediments Schists outcrop are mainly in the northern and central parts of the area and are exposed along streams and road cutting. They are mostly fine to medium grained with a general greyish colour (Akor 1998; Amade, 1998).  Gneiss It is most abundant of all the rock types present in the area as 50% of the area is gneissic rocks, in most places hosting schists and quartzites,. It is almost foliated with alternating bands of light and dark minerals (Ogunmola, 1998). The banded gneiss is enriched with mafic minerals and thin streaks of felsic bands, patches have been seen along River channels.  Superficial deposits In rivers, streams and areas with deep weathering are thick superficial deposits, consisting of clay material, autochthonic of eluvia, diluvia or alluvial origin. On watersheds there are discontinuous layers of duricrust concretionary and vesicular, reddish brown colour and, on the average, of 1m thick. 4.5 Water Resources Due to the presence of mountains in the surrounding areas, grand water is the most reliable source of water for the site and community. Currently portable water is available on the Manchok Ranch via strong borehole, some of which have been sealed off because of the huge volume of water coming out. Samples from the borehole as well as surface water from nearby river Kaduna were analysed and presented in Table 4.4 as baseline surface and ground water parameters.

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S/NO

PARAMETERS

UNDERGROUND WATER

SURFACE WATER

A

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

90 44’ 54.8”N, 80 28 45.6”E Colourless

90 42’ 47.6”N, 80 28.0 2.7”E Brownish

27.8

28.6

7.76 1.036 5.8 25 50 3.5 42.5 240

8.04 1.806 6.5 164 922 14 38.8 130.6

7.5

11.6

4 ND

102 3

1

Colour

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Temperature (0C) pH Conductivity (ms/cm) Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) TSS (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Total Hardness (mg/l) Alkalinity (mg/l)

B

BACTERIOLOGICAL TEST

1 2 3

BOD5 @ 250 C Total Coliform Faecal Coliform

C 1 2 3 4 5 6

CHEMICAL TEST Sulphate Nitrate Nitrite Phosphate Chloride Oil & Grease

36.9 2.1 0.14 6.28 118.9 ND

49 6.3 0.043 10.16 113.6 ND

D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

METALS/HEAVY METALS Calcium Magnesium Sodium Zinc Lead Copper Iron Chromium Cadmium

36.6 9.8 15 1.051 0.03 0.36 0.5 0 0.001

28.9 9.1 18 1.23 0.066 0.493 0.25 0.008 0.003

Table 4.4: Analysis of Surface and Ground Water

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4.6 Vegetation The study area is typical Guinea Savannah vegetation with scattered trees and patches of grasses especially during the dry-season. The physiognomy of the area is parkland with scattered individual trees, some at various stages of exploitation. There are some water catchments plantations of Eucalyptus camaldultensis, Casea seamea and Azadirachta Indica. The Acacia genus is the most abundant in the area followed by the exotic species which were either planted or whose seeds were carried to the area by birds and animals. Most of the sample plots have evidence of human interference either in the form of padama irrigation plots, lopping of tree branches for feeding of animals or outright deforestation for firewood. Most of the trees have started shedding their leaves as an adaptation to survive the dry season except Acacia nilotica which has a reversed phenology. Table 4.4 shows the tree population and their economic importance.  Grasses and Sedges The grasses found in most sample plots are Androprostogon spp, Aristida spp, panicum spp, chloris spp, Digitaria spp, and Eragrostis.panicum spp is the most dominant.  Sacred Forests The inhabitants of the project area confirmed at the time of the field study that there were no sacred forests within the project area. Also, herdsmen and hunters informed the field team that they are free to roam the entire sampled area during the wet and dry seasons.

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S/N

1

Genius

Acacia

Botanical Name

Local Name

Usable Parts

Economic Importance

A albida,

Gawo

Leaves, bark, shoot

Fodder

A nilotica

Bagaruwa

Pods

Tannin, Fodder

A Ataxacentha

Sarkakiya

Shoot

Farm Boundary

A Seyal

Farar kaya

Shoot

Demarcation, Gum

A Senegal

Dakwara

Stem

Gum

2

Adansonia

A Digitata

Kuka

Leaves, Pods

Conduments, Food

3

Albizia

A Levek

Kasari

Shoot Root

Medicinal

4

Anogeisus

A Leicarpus

Marke

Shoot

Firewood

5

Azadirachta

A Indica

Maina

Fruits Leaves

Medicinal

6

Balanities

B. aegyptiaca

Adua

Leaves, bark, shoot

7

Butryropermum

A parodoxycum

Kadanya

8

Calotropis

C. procera

Tumfafiya

Leaves, bark, shoot

Medicinal

9

Caessia

Marga

Fruits leaves

Medicinal

10

Combretum

C. nigricana

Chiriri

Leaves, bark shoot

Firewood

11

Cornifora

Africana

Dashi

Leaves, bark, shoot

Medicinal

E. camaldulensis

Turare

12

Eucalyptus Camaldulensis

C. saeriana C. seamea

13

Diosperous

14

Ficus

Disoperos mespilliformis Ficus platiphyla

15

Guira

16

Fodder Firewood Food

Medicinal, Firewood

Kanya

Friut leaves

Food

Gamji

Leaves, bark, shoot

Medicinal

Guira Senegalensis

Sabara

Roots, leaves, bark, shoot

Medicinal

Hyphaine

Hyphaine seibaica

Goriba

Fruits , leaves

Food

17

Khaya

Khaya senegalensis

Madaci

Leaves, bark, shoot

Medicinal

18

P. Dactilifera

Dabino

Fruits

Food

Piliostigma recticulum

Kalgo

Leaves, bark, shoot roots

Medicinal, Firewood

20

Phoinix Piliostigma reticulatum Prosopis Africana

Kirya

Leaves, bark, shoot Roots

Medicinal

21

Pterocarpus

Madobia

Leaves, bark, shoot

Medicinal

22

Sclerocarya

Prosopis Africana Pterocarpus erinaceous Sclerocarya birrea

Danya

Fruits, roots

Medicinal, Food

23

Sterculia

Sterculia Setigera

Kukuki

Leaves, bark, shoot

Medicinal

24

Tamarindus

Tamarindus indica

Tsamiya

Fruits leaves, bark, shoot

Conduments, Medicinal

25

Ximenia

X. Africana

Tsada

Leaves, bark, shoot

Food

26

Zizipus

Zizipus spina-cristi

Kurna

Fruits leaves

Food

19

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4.7 Wildlife The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) revealed the prensce of a variety of wildlife population in the study area can be classificated into the following categories in Table 4.5. Categories

Mammals

Aves

Reptiles

Insects

Zoological Name

Local Name

Crytory erythropis

Gafiya

Veranus niloticus

Tsari

Cercopithecus tentalis

Bin

Garzella dorcas

Barewa

Eucnema albicauda

Tunku

Epiterus elbi

zomon dawa

Xerus erythiopus

Kurege

Eggreta alba

Kazar Ruwa

Dasymys incomtus

Bera

Rattus natalensis

Beran daii

Baleapica pavonina

Gauraka

Egretta egretta Streptopela senegalenses

Balbela Kurciya

Streptopela diceprten

Hazbiva

Agama fragama

Kadangare

Adeola raltoides

Damo

Ivoborychus spp.

Maciji

Python sevae

Mesa

Galus domestica

Kuda

Coleoptera spp.

Mulmula Kashi

Odonata SDD.

Draoon

Table 4.6: Categories Wildlife in the Project Area 4.8 Socio-Economics Study The socio-economic data of these EIA report was gathered in collaboration with delegates recommended by the Kaura LGA officials. The data is certified as accurate by the Kaura Local Government and a copy of the certification letter is included in the Appendix. The town of Manchok is located in Kaura Local Government Area in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The headquarters of the local government is the town of Kaura. It has an area 485km2 and a population of 222,579 according to the 2006 census.

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Kaura Local Government Area consists of the Moro’a Chiefdom (with Manchok as headquarter), Kagoro Chiefdom, Attakar Chiefdom, and Atyap Community (See Map in Fig 4.7). The distribution of households by main source of household income in the Kaura area is as follows: Agriculture 34.89%, agricultural labour 5.82%, wage labour 3.12%, commerce 7.62%, service 26.08%, forestry 2.4%, industry 6.24% and others 13.83%.

Figure 4.8: Map of Kaura Local Government Area

Figure 4.9: Map of Kaduna State with Local Governments 87 | P a g e

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4.8.1 Histrical Background The Moro’a Chiefdom lies between 9°25°N and 10° 00°N and between longitude 8° 25°E and 8° 30°E. The Chiefdom occupies a stretch of undulating savannah landscape that extends to North-East and South-East into the Jos Plateau with an estimated area of approximately 25 kilometres square. The Moro’a Chiefdom Area is a semi-temperature zone that shares similar climatic and physical relief with the Plateau region, with about 70 inches of rainfall annually. It is well-watered with the rainfall, falling in between the month of Match and November. The area of Moro’a Chiefdom is drained by the streams which flow from the Jos Plateau and Attakar hill with rivers and streams from the surrounding hills of Kaura Local Government Area. Moro’a Chiefdom is situated on the Northern Guinea Savannah Belt of Nigeria within the geo-political map of Nigeria. It is situated in the South-Eastern site of Kaduna State and made the Eastern part of Kaura Local Government Area. To the East and South, Moro’a Chiefdom with its headquarters in Manchok shares boundaries with Riyom Local Government Area of Plateau State and Kauru Local Government of Kaduna State. Moro’a Chiefdom also shares boundaries with the Kagoro chiefdom by the west, with the Attakar chiefdom by the south and with the Atyap people of Zango Kataf Local Government area by north. The Moro’a Chiefdom, consist of the Asholio and Atyap community of Kaura. Others include the Fulani, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo and other Nigerians. While the Fulanis are scattered in all its villages where they live as distinct clusters, the Hausas, Yorubas, Igbos, and others, who came in search of means of subsistence and business opportunities live mostly in TSOK (Manchok), the present headquarters of Moro’a Chiefdom. The Moro’a Chiefdom is abundantly blessed with fertile land. The area had valuable grazing land and is rich in tree crops such as oil palm, rubber, fig and timber – bearing trees with lateral soil found in Manchok and Jankasa. Moro’a Chiefdom is entirely suitable for cultivation of crops and rearing of animals. Linguistically, the Moro’a people (ASHOLIO) and most of her neighbours were described as “Semi-Bantu” by the British colonial ethnographers. Later studied revealed that these groups belong to the Plateau sub-group of the Bantu language group of the Nigev (Congo group languages). In fact, based on this linguistic evidence, there is a tradition that suggested that these tribes have common origin and ancestry. However, it is important to note that the peaceful and cordial relationship between Moro’a chiefdom and her neighbors have been instrumental to the socio-economic and political development of Kaura Local Government Area, Kaduna state and the entire nation.  Manchok Community Manchok community is the headquarters of Moro’a chiefdom which is majorly occupied by the Anyio Aswa clan who according to Bonat constitutes the Ashim

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household of the Koman lineage who today forms part of the chiefly family in the chiefdom. Follow by others like the Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba’s, Igbo’s etc. that came and settled for commercial purpose, farming etc.  Political Administration Besides elected officials, namely LGA Chairman and Vice-Chair, that runs the activities of the Kaura LGA, the local political administration of the communities in Kaura LGA ( that is, the Moro’a, Attakar, Atyap and Kagoro communities) is the same as follows from the highest to the lowest in power which are –

Figure 4.10: Political Administration of the Community  Ethnicity The ethnicity of the communities of Kaura Local Government area is made up of four major tribes which are Kagoro, Moro’a, Attakar, and Kataf. These major tribes constitute about 90% population of the area while the other minority tribes such as

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the Hausa’s, Fulani’s, Igbo’s etc. constitute about 10% population in the area. The major languages spoken in these communities are Gworok, Asholio, Takat, Atyap, Hausa, and English. In Manchok community, the major languages spoken are Asholio then follow by Hausa then English. 4.8.2 Demographic Studies  Family Pattern The family’s in the communities of Kaura local government area consists of a man (male) as the head leader follow by his wife/wives and then his children. It also includes members of his extended families and those of his wife/wives such as brothers, cousins, brother-in-law etc. Inheritance rights are reserve for biological offspring, whereby the male shows the highest population statistically in these communities.  Religious Believes Prior to the arrival of colonialism, the communities believe in hero worshiping, selfglorification etc. Arrival of colonialism brought with it Christianity which was happily accepted within these communities. According to our research, Christians in the communities of Kaura Local Government Area constitute about 90% while others such as the Moslem believers, idol worshippers etc. constitutes about 10%.  The Lifestyle The people of Kaura Local Government and their life-style is concerned with the mutual relation of human beings, living in organized communities, unfitted for solidarity life, existing only as a member of a compound organism, nesting near each other in the environment. The communities socialize in many ways- they organize recreational / games, dances etc. The villages also gather socially during festival which is always peaceful and periodical celebrations which comes up once in a year to enable the people, both within and outside, to come together and discuss vital issues concerning the community. They meet together for burial rites, marriages ceremonies, naming ceremonies etc. Visiting friends to exchange news is a form of social interaction in the communities. This kind of life style as studied seems to be the major reasons why the people still live in peace and harmony and in good terms with their visitors and neighbors.

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 Source of Income The sources of income of these communities are through taxation, tourism, agriculture, trade and commerce etc. The major source of income out of those mentioned above is through trade and commerce (by buying and selling of the community’s products such as food crops, livestock etc.). Trade and commerce as the major source of income to the communities as led to the establishment of market places in the communities of Kaura Local government area.  Income Distribution Household’s income could be defined, for the purpose of this study, as including the income accruing to all working members of the household of the communities in a year. Estimating the overall annual income of household was quite difficult due to non-existence of records of income receipt among the communities. To improve the reliability of the annual income estimate, both the income and expenditure approaches were used. The figures from the two approaches were then compared using Pearson’s moment correlation coefficient (presented in Figure 4.11).

Figure 4.11: Annual Income Distribution in Naira

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 Settlement Pattern The settlement pattern in the communities of Kaura Local Government Area is such that they are linear on both sides of the road and in clusters. The people have long history of this type of settlement as studied in their historical background.  Housing Pattern In the course of our research, we discovered that rooming houses and single bungalows are well seen around the communities while storey building is not common. Major housing clusters are about 5km away from the proposed site of the solar power plant in the cattle range.

Figure 4.12: Housing Pattern in Manchok Area  Social Group In the course of our study we discovered that the social groups within the communities of Kaura Local Government consist of people with the same interest, mission, vision, idea etc. who meet to form an association with the interest to development. Some of the major social groups found in the communities are the Moro’a development Association (MDA), Attakar Community Development Association (ACDA), Kagoro Development Association (KDA), Market Women Association (MWA), Attakar Youth Development Association (AYDA) etc. These social groups help in resolving issues, organizes festivals, discuss, important issues that has to deal with the challenges of the communities for the interest of massive development of the immediate local communities and the local Government at large.

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4.8.3 Local Chiefs  Attackar Chiefdom The Attakar community was a district under Moro’a chiefdom before it was carved out as chiefdom in the year 2000 under the leadership of Alhaji (Dr) Ahmed Makarfi on September 14th 2000. One of the major reasons for giving the Attakar community their own chiefdom is due to their rapid increase in population. The Attakar people after having their chiefdom went ahead to divide its community into four districts which are Fadan Attakar district, Mifi district, Zangang district and Tafan district. The first and present chief of Fadan Attakar is His Royal Highness Mr Tobias Wada.

Figure 4.13: Attackar Chiefdom Palace  Moro’a Chiefdom At the time of the 19th century, the Asholio had attained a high level of development amongst the people who today inhabit Moro’a chiefdom. This could be seen from their relatively high degree of political centralization. How that centralized structure evolved is still largely unknown. However, from the oral tradition, it is obvious that the Asholio where a relatively small community at the time; they settled at Tukwad sometimes before the 17th century. They were already a distinct dialect

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group with a lineage like an organization. The basic unit of social organization was the Ali household, while several Tause households constituted a lineage too. The Kwai lineage has a group large enough to be considered separate clan at Tukwai. The tradition shows clearly that the leader of each Kwai led his people out of Tukwad, starting with the “Atio Nwap” who was the head of the Asholio community and leader of the “Anyio Lutwe”. It was at Kajim that the clan organization proved inadequate in the face of expanding its population and natural calamities. A new institution was needed to mobilize and organize the Asholio for the purpose of land colonization, especially in the face of stiff opposition from their Atyen neighbours. It was at this stage and under these circumstances that the institution of the “Agwam” as temporally leader emerged, in addition to the institution of the “Atio Nwap” as spiritual leader. Below are the names of the past till to-date chiefs of the Asholio. 1. Atyia – Nwap Asholio 2. Doba 3. Angulu 4. Kambai 5. Duya kaki 6. Shekari Alla 7. Sanet 8. Wane 9. Duya II 10. Shekakari, Duya (1903 - 1906) 11. Boman Akut (1906 - 1936) 12. Kazar Boman (1936 - 1966) 13. Tagwai Sambo (1966 - date).

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: Figure 4.14: Moro’a Chiefdom Palace  Kagoro Chiefdom Chief Kaka Bishut was installed the first chief of Kagoro by the British Administration. Before he was installed, Kaka, unlike his elder brother, Mugu Bishut, did not have the type of exposure his brother. Mugu had been impressed by the Jema’a way of life. Kaka was able to assert himself as the chief of Kagoro. He had no problem administering the chiefdom. During the first tax assessment exercise, the colonial administrators described Kaka as the most intelligent man in Kagoro. Kaka grew the population of Kagoro from 6330 to approximately 11,137 in 1926 at the time of his death. Below are the names of the past till to-date chiefs of Kagoro 1. Chief Kaka Bishut Kamang -> 1905 – 1926 2. Chief Aluwong Benyan Tukum -> 1926 – 1929 3. Chief Mugunta Atin Afuwai -> 1929 – 1932 4. Chief Biya Kaka Kamang -> 1932 – 1944 5. Chief Gwamna Awan Kamang -> 1945 – 2008 6. Chief Ufuwai Bonet -> 2008 to date.

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Figure 4.15: Kagoro Chief Palace 4.8.4 General Infrastructure  Road Network The two major road networks around the project location are the Jos-Kafanchan Road and the Manchok Road which goes into Kaduna city. The roads are in relatively good condition. The Manchok Road is newly construction while some reconstruction was carried out on the Jos-Kafanchan Road in early 2013. See photo below.

Figure 4.16: Major Road Network

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 Electricity It was discovered that electricity is available in almost all the communities of Kaura LGA. But like the rest of the country, supply is erratic and minimal due to lack of generation capacity. There is a 133kV high-tension transmission line that runs through the community. Electricity is currently being supply by the government-operated Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) and there is an office located in Manchok.

Figure 4.17: 33kV Transmission Line along Jos-Kafanchan Road for Electricity  Water Supply Portable water is available in the surrounding communities. Water for Kaura LGA are sourced from the following1. Water Intake – There are two major water intake location sourced from the VAG RIVER (Kagoro and Manchok Intake). The Manchok water intake supplies water to the entire community of Kaura Local Government as well as other neighbouring Local Government communities. The Manchok intake is part of a World Bank Project. 2. Overhead Tank – There is also an overhead storage tank located in Manchok center for the storage of water in case of emergency and during dry season when rainfall is low. 3. Mono Pumps and Borehole – Mono-pumps and Boreholes are used in areas that don’t have access to water supplied from the main treatment plant.

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Figure 4.18: Main Water Treatment Plant in Manchok

Figure 4.19: Overhead Tank in Manchok  Telecommunication Major telecommunication companies have infrastructure for clear services in the communities. The major network providers with presence in the area include MTN, GLO, AIRTEL, and ETISALAT. Television and radio signals such as DSTV etc. are also provided in the communities.

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Figure 4.20: Telephone Mask in Manchok 4.8.5 Social Infrastructure  Churches and Mosques There are many and different types of churches in the communities around Kaura Local Government area due to the large population of Christians living in the communities. However, the number of mosques is comparatively low due to the lower population of Muslims. Churches available are namely- Catholics, ECWA, Anglican, COCIN etc.

Figure 4.21: Catholic Church in the Community 99 | P a g e

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Figure 4.22: St Anthony Church  Community Centres There are many community centres in Kaura Local Government Area. Some of them includes Bantex centre in Manchok, Kagoro town hall in Fadan Kagoro, Attakar town hall in Attakar, Women multi-purpose centre in Manchok etc.

Figure 4.23: Kagoro Multipurpose Hall

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 Market Places There are two main market places in the community of Kaura Local Government. Moro’a market day, situated in Manchok, takes place every Friday of the week. The second main market is the Kagoro market day which takes place every Saturday of the week. Apart from the two main markets, there are other smaller markets in the villages of the chiefdom’s which operates almost every day.

Figure 4.24: Moro’a Market Day

Figure 4.25: Kagoro Market Day

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Health Facilities There are approximately 30 health facilities in Kaura LGA such as the Primary health centre (PHE) in Manchok, Health clinic in Fadan Attakar, Primary health care (PHC) in Kagoro etc. The health facilities render services such as the Routine Immunization (RI), laboratory services etc. The communities of Kaura LGA have a total of 133 trained staff from both the Local Government and the Local Government Service Board.

Figure 4.26: Kaura Rural Hospital  Ancestral/Historical Monuments Some of the ancestral / historical monuments of Manchok and its surrounding communities are A. The grave of the founder of Kaura community that refuse to disappear with time. B. An ancient underground cave named “KUU” located close to the grave of Kaura community founder. C. The “ASWUON HILL” which is the source of most rivers around the communities. D. The mysteriously pure “VAG” river. E. The foot-print at “TSOG-MBWANU” in Bondon district across river Kaduna which divides Moro’a land into two parts. The foot-print of the dogs carried for hunting by the fore-fathers still remained there till date. F. The “BUKI ATING” water mountain. G. SALT: Legends have it that the Attakar people are blessed with some natural salt which was discovered at a particular location on the Attakar hill. 102 | P a g e

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H. Foot-print of “KAKTAGWAN” of Kagoro Chiefdom: “KAKTAGWAN” was an extraordinary tall man, whose hand were so long that sitting on the massive rock at Agban; he could extend his hand and reach for something from “KANKADA HILL” in Bajju land. His footprints are still seen on the rock of Kagoro till date.  Sanitation General environmental sanitation in Kaura Local Government communities normally takes place every last Saturday of the Month in accordance with the schedule adopted by the Federation.  Waste Management Waste is individually management by people living in the communities of Kaura Local Government. The wastes are controlled by disposing or dumping at “BRONI BRONO”, close to Kagoro Development Area. 4.8.6 Education There are many education institutions in Kaura local government and the people of the communities are quiet educated. A brief account of the different levels of educational institutions is provided below.  Tertiary Institutions A. KAGORO ECWA THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE (KETC) ECWA theological college was established in 1930 by the Sudan Interior Mission (SIM). It started as a vernacular institution which believes in God, love and compassionate care, hard work, accountability, salvation of souls and quality training.

Figure 4.27: ECWA Theological College in Kagoro

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B. ECWA COLLEGE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY, KAGORO Mrs T. Archibald established the comprehensive Health Centre and ECWA School of Health and Technology in the 1950s. The centre was established to reached the unreached with quality health care by providing training health workers with sound and moral health training within the communities of Kaura Local Government at large.

Figure 4.28: ECWA College of Health Technology in Kagoro C. FEDERAL SCHOOL OF STATISTIS, MANCHOK Federal School of Statistics is an old school of statistics established by the Federal Government and well recognized in the State. The school was in its temporary site in Kaduna North before coming to its permanent site in Manchok in the 2012.

Figure 4.29: Federal School of Statistics in Manchok

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Secondary Schools Kaura LGA has 11 government schools with one of schools with its own board. It has private secondary schools such as ELIM Primary and Secondary School in Kagoro, Eagle Foundation in Manchok etc. Lists of the Government Secondary Schools in Kaura Local Government Area provided by the education zonal office are; -

Government College, Kagoro Government Secondary School, Malagun (senior and junior section) Government Secondary School, Kadarko (senior and junior section) Government Secondary School, Magata. Government Secondary School, Manchok (senior and junior section). Government Secondary School, Mahuta. Government Secondary School, Bondon (senior and junior section). Government Secondary school, Fadan Attakar (senior and junior section). Government Secondary School, Zankan. Government Secondary School, Zangan. Government Secondary School Management Board, Kagoro (former teachers training college).

Figure 4.30: Government Secondary School, Fadan Attakar

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Figure 4.31: Government Secondary School, Manchok  Primary Schools There are 104 Government primary schools and many private primary schools in Kaura LGA. Some of the government primary schools are established by the Local government while others by the Universal Basic Education (UBE). The number of primary schools in Kaura Local Government Area was obtained from the education department. Below are the numbers of the government primary schools according to districts in Kaura Local government Area; -

Kaura district has 6 primary schools. Kajim district has 5 primary schools. Kukum district has 6 primary schools. Zankan district has 5 primary schools. Agban district has 9 primary schools. Kadarko district has 7 primary schools. Fadan Attakar district has 5 primary schools. Mifi district has 9 primary schools. Manchok district has 6 primary schools. Malagun district has 6 primary schools. Fadan Kagoro district has 5 primary schools Bondon district has 5 primary schools.

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-

Biniki district has 5 primary schools. Anthurung district has 6 primary schools. Fadan Daji district has 6 primary schools Kpak district has 8 primary schools. Matuak district has 5 primary schools.

Figure 4.32: Anthurung Primary School, Attakar

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CHAPTER FIVE ASSOCIATED AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS

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5

ASSOCIATED AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS

5.1 Introduction The objectives .of the assessment are to identify the potential environmental, social, and health impacts associated with the proposed project activities, evaluate the likelihood of occurrence, magnitude and significance of identified impacts. Thereafter, mitigation measures would be proffered for the anticipated negative impacts, while measures would be provided for enhancing the positive (beneficial) effects. 5.2 Assessment Methodology The following steps were employed to assess the effect of the project on environment and social-economic issues: -

Establishment of Basis Identification of Impacts Prediction of Impacts Evaluation of Impacts Communication of Impacts

5.2.1 Established of Basis Establishment of basis involves the collection of environmental and socio-economic baseline data in the project area and the integration of these data to develop an understanding of the existing natural and social environment. Majority of these baseline data have been described in Chapter Four. 5.2.2 Scoping Scoping seeks to identify those aspects of the proposed activities, which based on past experience; literature searches or intuitive perception could have significant impacts on the environment. The boundaries of this EIA study were determined through the scoping process and involve consultation with stakeholders as well as studies on social, economic, and health issues. The scoping process attempts to obtain answers to such questions as:  What impacts will occur as a result of the execution and operation of the ABIBA Solar Power Project?  What will be the extent, magnitude, and duration of the impacts?  Which of these impacts will be important within local and national contexts?  What can be done to mitigate, reduce or avoid altogether the adverse impact or to enhance/ maximise positive impacts?

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The project activities that would impact on the environment and socio-economic factors were identified as:  Site Investigation  Bush clearing  Construction (Facility, Solar Panel Installation, and Electrical Works)  System testing, Operations and Maintenance  Decommissioning The following Priority Issues/Impacts have been identified:  Land Acquisition.  Potential effects of the project on the economic quality of life of the habitants of the community.  Potential effects of pollution incidents (Water & Air) as a result of construction;  Potential effect of noise and vibration generated during construction on the nearby communities and animals.  Potential effect of migrant influx and contract workers on capacity of community facilities/infrastructure, communicable disease and cultural values.  Increased competition from migrant workers for employment, leading to fewer opportunities for the local population.  Potential conflict between community members and other stakeholders;  Erosion at the construction stage affecting the community land, herdsmen, and animals.  Potential effect of waste generation and management on community, water & soil quality and animals.  Possibility of fire and/or explosions and other accidents/incidents affecting community, workers and shareholders. 5.2.3 Associated and Potential Impacts Table 5.1 shows checklist of the associated and potential environmental / socioeconomic impacts of the proposed project activities. The impacts have been categorized based on the stage of the project at which they are anticipated to occur and the related project activity or activities.

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Project Phase

Project Activity Land Acquisition

Site Preparation

Survey Soil Analysis Bush Clearing Access Road Facility/Fencing Panel Installation

Pre-Construction & Construction

Electrical Installation Waste Disposal Employment & Training Operations & Maintenance

Operations

Industrial Waste Disposal / Release Employment & Training Social Programs

Decommissioning

Project decommissioning

Environmental / Socio-Economic Components

Potential / Associated Impacts

Loss of land, economic crops, and therefore decrease in income Soil, Vegetation, Wildlife, Habitants / Exposure to adverse Farmers weather conditions due to vegetation removal. Migration of wildlife. Exposure of soil and Soil, Vegetation, Wildlife migration of wildlife. Increase in noise, pollution of air and water Noise, Air, Soil, due to construction Vegetation, Water activities. Noise, Air, Soil, Exposure of employees to Vegetation, Water, electricity Electricity Pollution of water, soil etc. Soil, Water, Vegetation from toxic and nondegradable waste. Increase in income and Income, Skill Acquisition acquisition of knowledge. Adverse effect on health Noise, Electro-magnetic due to increase in noise radiation, Electricity, and radiation or exposure. Pollution of water, Air, Water, Soil, negative effect on farming Vegetation etc. Increase in income and Income, Skill Acquisition acquisition of knowledge. Local programs for Economic Growth & community development Development and empowerment Return of land for reuse to Land Reuse, Soil, improve local economy or Vegetation re-use by Quaint for similar or other project

Table 5.1: Checklist of Associated and Potential Impacts

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5.3 Environmental Screening 5.3.1 Basis of Screening The areas of concern in assessing the potential impact of the activities of the ABIBA Solar Power Project are water and air quality, soil, ecology, land-use pattern, wildlife, vegetation, geology and hydrogeology as well as socio-economic and health status of the host communities. The screening was based on the following considerations:  Knowledge of the project activities.  Knowledge of the equipment types, operational procedures relating to large solar power plants.  Information from literature survey, historical data and rapid “on the spot” assessment of water and air quality and meteorology.  Comparison of available results with FMEnv guidelines and standards.  Past experience on other EIA projects. 5.3.2 Screening Approach The checklist of project activities and their potential impacts identified were subjected to comprehensive environmental impact assessment, which is consistent with its scale and complexity. The techniques used for rapid assessment of the activities involved in the ABIBA Solar Power Project include:  Identification of key impacts and their indicator parameters.  Determination of the magnitude and significance of the impacts.  Evaluation of the importance of the impacts for decision-makers.  Incorporation of concerns of host communities during consultation initiatives, as well as socio-economic/ health studies. 5.4 Impact Quantification and Determination of Significant Impacts The identified associated and potential impacts of the proposed project were quantified using the Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM) and the ISO 14001 Procedure for evaluation and registration of Environmental Aspects and identifying significant environmental aspects/impacts. Criteria and Ratings for Identifying Significant Environmental Impacts of the project are as follows: Legal / Regulatory Requirements (L) – is there a legal/regulatory requirement or a permit requirement? 0 = There is no legal/regulatory requirement 3 = There is a legal/regulatory requirement 5 = There is a permit required

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Risk (R) – What is risk/hazard rating based on Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM) (Tables 5.2a & 5.2b)? 1= Low risk 3 = Medium/intermediate risk 5 = High risk Environmental Impact Frequency (F) – What is frequency rating of impact Based on RAM? 1 = Low frequency 3 = Medium / intermediate frequency 5 = High frequency Importance of Affected Environmental Component and Impact (I) – What is the rating of importance based on consensus of opinions? 1 = Low importance 3 = Medium/intermediate importance 5 = High importance Public Perception (P) – What is the rating of public perception and interest in proposed project and impacts based on consultation with stakeholders? 1 = Low perception and interest 3 = Medium/intermediate perception and interest 5 = High perception and interest The significant potential impacts of the proposed project (Table 5.3) were identified as those impacts in the checklist of Table 5.1 that satisfy the following criteria. (L+R+F+I+P) ≥ 15:

Sum of weight of legal requirements. Risk factor, frequency of occurrence, importance and public perception greater than or equal to the benchmark (15).

(F+I) > 6:

Sum of weight of frequency of occurrence and importance of affected environmental component exceeds the benchmark (6). The weight of the public perception/interest in the potential impact exceeds the benchmark (5).

P = 5:

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Consequence

Severity

Environment

0 1 2 3 4 5

No Effect Slight Effect Minor Effect Localised Effect Major Effect Massive Effect

Increasing Probability (of incident occuring) A B C Never in

Seldomly in

Often in

Industry

Industry

Industry

Low Risk Medium Risk High Risk

Table 5.2a: Risk Assessment Matrix for Environmental Consequences Severity

Potential Impact

0

No Effect

1

Slight Effect

2

Minor Effect

3

Localized Effect

4

Major Effect

5

Massive Effect

Definition No environmental damage. No change in the environment. No financial consequences. Local environmental damage within the fence and within systems. Negligible financial consequences. Contamination, damage sufficiently large to affect the environment single exceedance of statutory or prescribed criteria, single complaint. No permanent effect on the environment Limited loss of discharges of known toxicity. Repeated exceedance of statutory or prescribed limit. Affecting neighbourhood Severe environmental damage. The company is required to take extensive measures to restore the contaminated environment to its original state. Extended exceedance of statutory or prescribed limits Persistent severe environmental damage or severe nuisance extending over a large area. In terms of commercial or recreational use or nature conservancy, a major economic loss for the company. Constant high exceedance of statutory or prescribed limits.

Table 5.2b: Further Definition of Consequence – Severity Rating for Risk Matrix Table 5.2: Risk assessment

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Table 5.3: Significant Impacts on the Proposed Project

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The following activities of the ABIBA Solar Power Project are deemed to exert significant impact on the environment based on the analysed completed and presented in Table 5.3 using the Risk Assessment Matrix and ISO 4001: land acquisition, bush clearing, solar panel installation, electrical installation, construction waste disposal, operations & maintenance, industrial waste disposal, land re-use, and disposal of equipment after decommissioning. Table 5.4 below summarizes the indicator parameters of each identified environmental component. Project Phase

Site Preparation

Project Activity

Potential / Associated Impacts

Land Acquisition

Loss of land, economic crops, and therefore decrease in income

Indicator Parameters Changes in economic conditions

Migration of wildlife.

Wildlife density

Land Survey Soil/Air/Water Analysis Bush Clearing Access Road Facility/Fencing

Pre-Construction & Construction

Operations

Panel Installation

Migration of wildlife. Exposure to adverse weather conditions due to vegetation removal. Migration of wildlife. Exposure of soil and migration of wildlife. Exposure of soil and migration of wildlife. Increase in noise, pollution of air and water due to construction activities. Exposure of soil and wildlife migration.

Construction Waste Disposal

Pollution of water, soil etc. from toxic and non-degradable waste.

Operations & Maintenance

Adverse effect on health due to increase in noise and/or exposure to toxic elements from operation activities.

Industrial Waste Disposal / Release

pollution of water, negative effect on farming etc.

Project Decommissioning decommissioning

Return of land for reuse to improve local economy or re-use by Quaint for similar or other project Disposal of structures from site after decommission.

Wildlife density Soil fertility and wildlife density Soil fertility and wildlife density Soil fertility and wildlife density Change in noise level and air composition. Soil fertility and wildlife density. Increase in toxicity level of water and soil from toxic waste of construction activities Increase in toxicity level of air, water and soil from toxic waste of operations activities Increase in toxicity level of air, water and soil from toxic waste of operations activities Plant and wildlife density Soil fertility and wildlife density

Table 5.4: Indicator Parameter of each Identified Environmental Component 116 | P a g e

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5.5 Environment Assessment 5.5.1 Site Preparation Land Acquisition: Considerable effort was made to ensure minimal displacement from the activities involved in securing land for the project. Quaint placed a higher priority on acquiring land belonging to the Government for the project which results in the selection of the Manchok Ranch. The Manchok Ranch is an 8000 hectares land belonging to the Kaduna State Government under the supervision and management of the Kaduna State Ministry of Agriculture. Although there are a few small-scale farmers currently operating illegally on the land, efforts will be made to compensate and relocate them to an unused area of the ranch once activities commence on the project. This impact is deemed to be significant, irreversible, with long-term effect. Land Survey shall involve limited interaction with vegetation to provide path for survey. The may lead to removal of wildlife habitat (vegetation) will lead to temporal migration of wildlife. The effect is not significant in the short term since the survey routes would be revegetated naturally. Activities during Soil/Air/Water Sampling for laboratory analysis may cause temporary migration on wildlife due to human interaction with vegetation. The impact is analysed as minimal, not significant, and reversible. Bush clearing activities during site preparation shall involve the removal of the vegetation, which would lead to exposure of the soil to adverse weather conditions. The removal of the vegetation shall lead to migration of wildlife from the area. The effect is significant, irreversible, and permanent until the life span of the project (> 25 years). 5.5.2 Construction Access Road construction as described in Chapter 3 involves digging a trench and filling with gravel to provide fortified pathway to the site from the main road. This activity would interact with vegetation and soil. The effect is insignificant. Fencing of the project area may also result in wildlife migration but the area of contact during this period is relatively minimal and therefore insignificant. Panel Installation activities and other civil works may result in the elevation in noise levels due to construction activities. It may also have effects on soil and wildlife in the surroundings. Increase in greenhouse gas emissions may also be experience due to huge amount of heavy trucks that would be required for transporting construction equipment and materials from offshore Lagos to site in Manchok, Kaduna. All these and others associated with panel installation will have a significant impact on the environment. Disposal of construction wastes may have irreversible consequences on soil fertility, and water toxicity etc. if not disposed properly. Therefore, plan will be in place to work with EPC

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partners and local as well as federal environmental agencies to properly dispose of the waste. This activity’s impact on the environment is significant. 5.5.3 Operations Operations activities may increase noise levels in the surrounding communities. Increase in activities during operations may also affect vegetation and wildlife migration in the area. Since the project is a solar power project, there is no anticipation of any toxic emission into the environment from operations activities. However, other effects mentioned are deemed significant on the environment. Disposal of wastes from operations may have irreversible consequences on soil fertility, and water toxicity etc. if not disposed properly. These wastes may include batteries used for auxiliary power etc. Therefore, plan will be in place to work with EPC partners and local as well as federal environmental agencies to properly dispose of the waste. This activity’s impact on the environment is significant. 5.5.4 Decommissioning Abandonment of facility after life of project would affect vegetation, soil fertility, as well as population of wildlife in the area. Because this activity is significant, Quaint will ensure that the site is properly decommissioned and re-used for similar or different project. 5.6 Social Impact Assessment 5.6.1 Demographic Impacts The settlements in the project area are predominantly rural and therefore their population sizes are generally small. Given the very small size of most of the communities, the influx of workers during the construction phase may significantly affect the demography of the communities, not just in terms of population numbers but also in terms of population structure. The latter will be a function of the selective nature of migration which is often dominated by adult male population. Construction activity will no doubt affect the sex ratio of communities for the period the activity is taking place in particular communities. However, to reduce these factors, efforts will be made to ensure that a significant number of the unskilled labour comes from the local community. Attention will also be placed on hiring female workers for gender balance. 5.6.2 Socio-Economic Impacts Farming on a small-scale is by far the most dominant occupation in the host communities, and as a result, personal incomes are generally on the low side. The project will potentially impact occupation and income, among others. Because employment in the ABIBA project will attract higher income, there would be some redirection of labour from agriculture and other sectors of the local economy to the project. In addition, the higher

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personal incomes associated with employment in the project could cause some inflation in the local economy. Therefore, price increases and redirection of labour are likely to be among the major consequences of the project in the local economy. In addition, Quaint’s CSR programs are also designed to help improve the socio-economic conditions of the local community. 5.6.3 Impacts on Lifestyle The Influx of non-locals into the predominantly rural, traditional, and conservative communities may have some visible impacts on local lifestyles, some of which may alter local norms, customs, and practices. 5.6.4 Impacts on Social Infrastructure The most common social infrastructures in the host communities are primary and secondary schools, healthcare facilities and water supply systems. Increase in demand as a result of population growth due the construction and operations activities may much enormous pressure on the limited available local infrastructure. 5.7 Perception of Impacts A survey was conducted to understand the perception of the habitants in the local community about the environmental and socio-economic impacts (both positive and negative) of the solar power development. These views were used to construct a social impact matrix for the project. Tables 5.5 and 5.6 set out the perceived benefits and adverse effects of the project. The figures in the tables refer to percentages of respondents in the communities surveyed who indicated specific (severity of) impacts. Table 5.5 pertain to the possible benefits of the project while Tables 5.6 pertain to the possible adverse effects of the project. It is clear from Table 5.5 that the respondents expect a lot of impact in respect of the inmigration of male and youths, increase in income, new job opportunities. On the other hand, Table 5.6 also indicate that there may be some concerns about overpopulation, occupation change, inflation, pressure on social infrastructure, and loss of wildlife. (Note: Survey questionnaire available in the appendix)

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Variables Increase in female influx Increase in male influx Increase in youth influx Increase in adult influx Increase Income New job opportunities New/Improved Schools New/Improved Health New/Improved Roads New/Improved water supply Increased participation in local festival Change in Food Habits Change mode of dressing

No Response Very Little Little (%) (%) (%) 4.3 45.4 34.6 2.7 6.6 37.1 1.9 9.6 23.7 3.1 37.5 35.6 0.7 9.6 15.4 1.1 3.5 19.1 2.5 29.3 23.9 3.5 30.1 24.8 6.1 25.4 29.3 0.1 43.9 34.7 0.4 24.9 35.3 1.4 57.8 25.6 0.9 43.1 35.4

A Lot (%) 15.7 53.6 64.8 23.8 74.3 76.3 44.3 41.6 39.2 21.3 39.4 15.2 20.6

Total (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 5.5: Possible Benefits of the ABIBA Solar Power Development Variables Overpopulation Occupation Change Out migration Inflation Reduced Agriculture Production Destruction/Encroachment on Land Pressure on Social Infrastructure Loss of farmland Loss of drinking water Loss of wildlife Ground-water contamination Surface-water contamination Deforestation Sexual laxity Crime

No Response Very Little Little (%) (%) (%) 0.4 34.8 39.1 1.4 24.7 35.5 2.8 65.2 21.6 1.7 34.3 33.3 0.8 51.4 28.4 0.0 39.3 37.5 0.3 27.4 33.4 1.4 45.3 27.1 0.7 61.2 23.3 2.5 34.6 34.2 1.3 55.1 34.3 0.6 45.2 47.2 1.1 48.8 30.3 6.4 32.1 39.1 2.1 49.9 35.7

A Lot (%) 25.7 38.4 10.4 30.7 19.4 23.2 38.9 26.2 14.8 28.7 9.3 7.0 19.8 22.4 12.3

Total (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 5.6: Possible Adverse of the ABIBA Solar Power Development

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5.8 Health Impact Assessment The potential health impact from the project activities are assessed in the table below:

Table 5.7: Potential Health Impacts

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5.9 Disease Risks Associated with the Project Malaria All the communities are vulnerable to the risk of malaria, but those members of the communities with immunity are less vulnerable and may not be affected by the disease. Some migrant workers including expatriates from temperate regions who have no previous exposure to malaria may contract it. Also construction workers and camp followers may be exposed to the malaria parasite. Malaria vectors are widespread during the rainy season. In the dry season, they are confined to the vicinity of permanent ponds, and river pools. Control measures include: provision of screened accommodation for workforce; use of netting treated with mosquito repellents; use of insect repellent paint on interior of walls of houses. Diarrhoea Cases of diarrhoea have been discovered in the project area. The project is not likely to alter the existing disease pattern in the communities. Existing conditions which leads to contaminated water and food, which encourages disease development, are not likely to increase in magnitude during the construction and operational phases of the project. The health services available in the communities in the project area have the capability to deal with diarrhoea cases. The health sector in the project area has been acquainted with the proposed project and may require increased budget to accommodate the additional pressure on their infrastructure and drug supply. The project will produce no change in diarrhoea prevalence. Respiratory tract infections The prevalence rate of these diseases is moderate in the project area especially in the dry season. All members of the communities are vulnerable to the infections. Logistics and other activities during the mobilization and construction phases of the project may produce dust particles which, if inhaled, will predispose the workforce and nearby communities to respiratory tract infections. North-East trade winds from the Sahara desert bring dusty, cool air during the harmattan period (December-January) and may increase the prevalence of the diseases. Suspected cases of respiratory tract infections are referred to hospitals for full diagnosis and treatment. The risk of infections is moderate; however, an increase is expected during project construction. These particles will further predispose the vulnerable groups in the communities to infection.

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Skin rashes These diseases, which result from poor sanitation and its spread aided by overcrowding, are of low prevalence. The prevalence may increase due to the presence of poor, jobseeking immigrants in the communities of the project area. The available health facilities have the capability to cope with the expected increase. Injury The proposed project will involve transportation of heavy equipment, and personnel, thus increasing the density of vehicles on the road. The potential for road accidents is likely increase. During the construction phase, occupational accidents may occur particularly among unskilled labour force; fire outbreak may occur in the operational phase; snake bite and scorpion sting may occur in all the phases of the project. The available health facilities in the project area will require reinforcement in terms of equipment, medication and personnel to cope with the expected increase in the rate of accidents and injuries. 5.10 Project Specific Risk and Hazard Assessment The purpose of undertaking a risk and hazard assessment is to present non-routine environmental hazards, which may arise during the construction and operational phases of the solar power project. Risks addressed include potential effects on the terrestrial, air, water as well as health effects on the local population of the affected areas. Table 5.9 provides a quick overview of the main contributions to overall risk for each area of the project. Events leading to release of hazardous material or effect Construction/ on the environment (construction/operational phase) Installation Construction activities Operator Failure Hazard or toxic chemicals Condensate storage and transport refueling Dropped objects Rains

Operation

x x x x x

x x x

Table 5.8: Applicable Risks by Project Component 5.11 Hazards and Effects Management Process (HEMP) The approach adopted to describe the management of the acute hazards that have been identified in this project is consistent with Hazards and Effects Management Process (HEMP). HEMP is a structured methodology for assessing hazards and associated risks

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where the focus is on Health, Safety and Environment. The process describes the hazards in four phases; identify, assess, control and recovery. The HEMP structured methodology aims to secure awareness of the relevant hazards and manages the associated risks. By recognizing and preventing that “potential to harm” being realized, harm will be avoided. There are many hazards, and associated with each hazard are risks. A risk is likelihood of consequences. Thus risk is a function of the likelihood, or chance of something going wrong and the severity of the potential consequences or outcome. Mismanagement of one particular hazard can have consequences that simultaneously impact to a varying degree on several of the broad risk types. For instance a gas leak and subsequent fire outbreak or loss of contaminant being primarily an environmental risk can also escalate to asset damage and loss of life. Identify Assess Control Recovery

What are the Hazards? What could go wrong? How likely? What consequence? i.e. what is the risk? Is there a better way? Controls adequate? Consequence limited? Recovery adequate?

Table 5.9: Hazards and Effects Management Process 5.12 Methodologies The methodologies used to perform the risk assessment study for this project included the following:  HAZID (Hazard identification) analysis  HAZOP (Hazard and operability) analysis  Faulty Trees or the similar Cause and Effect Diagrams •  Event Trees The quantitative analysis of this study was carried out using the HAZID technique. 5.12.1 Evaluation of Hazards The identified hazards are shown in Tables 5.10 for external / environmental. Table 5.11 shows the various facility hazards that may occur, their causes and effects including the description of their controls for various phases of the project development. Table 5.12 gives a summary of the health hazards associated with the project. The probability of such hazards occurring is also included. A number of the identified hazards are occasional while

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relatively fewer ones are either probable or remote. The terms probable, occasional, and remote in this context refer to high, medium and low chances of occurrence respectively.

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Table 5.9: Facility Hazards

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Table 5.10: Health Hazards

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CHAPTER SIX MITIGATION MEASURES

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6

MITIGATION MEASURES

6.1 Introduction The rationale for impact quantification and significance has earlier been discussed in the previous chapter. The results indicate that various components would be impacted positively or negatively. In order to preserve the present integrity of the environment certain steps have been recommended to mitigate or control the major negative impacts identified in this study. The control/mitigation measures have been based on the baseline conditions with regards to the biophysical environment, socio-economic and health status of the host communities. Also considered were the project activities and their envisaged impacts and concerns of stakeholders during consultation meetings and socio-economic/health status of the host communities. 6.2 Biophysical Environment Impact Mitigation Measures Mitigation measures are defined for the identified significant associated and potential impacts based on the following criteria:  Prevention – design and management measures for ensuring that significant potential impacts and risks do not occur;  Reduction – Operational and management measures for ensuring that the effects or consequences of those significant associated and potential impacts that cannot be prevented are reduced to a level as low as reasonably practical;  Control – Operational and management measures for ensuring that residual associated impacts are reduced to a level as low as reasonably practical, Table 6.1, presents a summary of the mitigative measures recommended to ameliorate all the significant associated and potential impacts identified for the proposed Solar Power Project. 6.2.1 Planning Phase Quaint shall:  Ensure that all priority is placed on acquiring government owned land.  Otherwise, compensation shall be made to communities for private land take and farmlands in line with Federal Government Land use decree. 6.2.2 Site Preparation Quaint shall:  Use environmental route/path for site survey.  Enforce “no hunting of game animals” during site preparatory activities.

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 Avoid excess land take and minimize bush clearing during site survey. 6.2.3 Construction Phase Quaint shall:  Use equipment, which emit low levels of noise with acceptable exhaust gases, which conform to national and international standards and specifications.  Enforce proper waste management practices and good in-house sanitary practices for base camp workforce.  Use existing access/right of way if available.  Carry out major construction/civil works during dry season or provide silt curtains to control the suspended particles.  Prevent intruders/from inquisitive onlookers from work site.  Avoid interference/destruction of infrastructures such as telecommunication lines, existing PHCN transmission lines, and settlement.  Use noise defenders at high noise zones.  Educate road users on road regulations especially those involved in the project.  Use qualified and experienced staff to undertake project.  Ensure no contamination of soil, water and vegetation, liquid fuel/lubricants from machines and vehicles during refuelling.  Guide road users on days for moving equipment etc. 6.2.4 Pre-commissioning Phase Quaint shall:  Use proper PPE including ear defenders at high noise zones.  Place/caution signs. 6.2.5 Operation Phase Quaint shall:  Ensure regular maintenance of right of way for pipeline.  Provide security to prevent vandalism. 6.2.6 Decommissioning and Abandonment Phase Quaint shall:  Re-vegetate all bare areas and restore site to original land use.  Restore land to original form as much as possible and return to indigenes.  Educate/guide road users on days of movement of dismantled parts.

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Table 6.1: Summary of Identified Impacts and Proposed Mitigation Measures

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6.3 Socio-Economic Impact Mitigation Measures The expected socio-economic impacts of the ABIBA Solar Power Project include the following:  Demographic Impacts (redirection of labour, inflation).  Socio-economic Impacts (redirection of labour, inflation).  Impacts on Lifestyles (sexual laxity, alcoholism, youth militancy).  Impacts on Cultural Properties (religious sites/shrines, etc.).  Impacts on Social Infrastructure (schools, health care facilities, water supply).  Impacts on natural resources (land uptake, destruction of vegetation and farms). The usual practice is to differentiate these impacts for purposes of analysis. However, in reality they tend to be closely interrelated. For example, an increase in population (demographic impact) can increase pressure on natural resources and social infrastructure. Project activities will be very visible and transient in the surrounding communities during the construction phase. However, they will be much less visible in these communities during the operation phase. This low visibility should not be seen as reducing the stake of these communities in the project. Quaint will continue to show interest in these communities after the construction phase for the maintenance of good community relations. The possible adverse social impacts of the project were spelt out in the previous chapter. These impacts were derived from experience elsewhere and from the views of respondents in the host communities. The impacts provide the basis for the articulation of appropriate mitigation. Impacts 1. Population growth due to in-migration 2. Inflation in the local economy 3. Pressure on local infrastructure 4. Destruction/Loss of farms 5. Deforestation 6. Sexual laxity 7. Youth militancy/unemployment

Mitigation Measures a. Use local labour as much as possible a. Use local labour as much as possible a. 1(a) above in order to minimize additional demand for infrastructure. b. Help increase the capacity of local infrastructure a. Compensation a. 1(a) above in order to minimize additional demand for fuel wood. b. Facilitate reforestation a. 1(a) above in order to minimize social disruption b. Public enlightenment about potential health risks (STDs). a. 1(a) above to have the youths gainfully employed. b. Facilitate skills acquisition programmes.

Table 6.2: Key Mitigation Measures

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Table 6.2 shows the major mitigation measures required to address each social-economic impact. Population growth and consequent on in-migration will be particularly a feature of the construction phase. The mitigation measure of engaging local labour, as shown in Table 6.2, applies to several of the impacts. Farmer/farm relocation and compensation are very sensitive issues that need to be addressed after effective consultation with, and participation of the local people. 6.4 Health Impact Mitigation Measures Adverse health impacts will require appropriate mitigation measures while the beneficial health impacts will be enhanced. The proposed mitigation/enhancement measures for the respective impacts are summarised as follows:  Environmental Sanitation/Waste Management: The objective here is to achieve proper management of refuse, sewage, and vectors of diseases. The Environmental Health Unit of the local government area will be in charge of management.  Refuse Management: The ultimate goal is refuse collection in waterproof polythene bags. Biodegradable organic matter shall be collected in separate bags from that of non-biodegradable materials (cans, plastics, glass etc.). The biodegradable matter shall be used for composting while the non – biodegradable shall be sold for recycling.  Disease: Diseases such as malaria shall be controlled by use of bed nets, and spraying of rooms with insecticides, proper sanitation measures such as clearing of bushes around base camps.  Water Quality Impairment: Boiling and filtering of water for drinking shall be encouraged. The ultimate measure is the provision of regular potable water, accompanied by hygienic practices in camps.  Noise: The present low noise level (40 – 50) dBA should be sustained. In the project area, excessive noise from heavy machinery used in construction and operational activities can be mitigated with the use of ear protective devices (muffs) and deployment of low noise type equipment.  Housing: Housing shortages will become more acute with influx of people into the communities. The problem associated with housing can be solved by the use of base camps or housing complex on-site.  Health Education: Most of the mitigation measures recommended up to now need proper health awareness amongst workers to succeed. Therefore, modern basic health centres within the project area shall be encouraged to provide good health education to the existing communities and the workforce on the control of infectious diseases, sanitation etc.

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CHAPTER SEVEN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

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7

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

7.1 Introduction This chapter is concerned with the planning and integration of programmes aimed at ensuring that identified and unidentified impacts of the proposed project are contained and brought to an acceptable minimum. It provides confidence on the part of project planners that a reliable scheme will be put in place to deal with any contingency that may arise during all phases of development, from preliminary study to abandonment. In keeping with Quaint’s policy on the environment, consideration of the environmental implications of this project began from preliminary study, conceptual design, up to the present stage of EIA. This EIA report is intended to provide an environmental input into the planning and execution of the project. Environmental management activities of the proposed project will be governed by a series of regulations that impose standards and mitigation of environmental hazards. This Environmental Management Plan has the following specific long-term objectives:  Ensure compliance with legislation and Company policy.  Achieve, enhance and demonstrate sound environmental performance built around the principle of continuous improvement.  Integrate environment fully into the business.  Rationalise and streamline existing environmental activities to add value in efficiency and effectiveness.  Encourage and achieve the highest performance and response from individual employees and contractors.  Provide standards for overall planning, operation, audit and review.  Enable management to establish environmental priorities.  Be applicable throughout the organisation.  Hold early consultations with communities and regulating authorities to ensure hitch free operations. 7.2 Waste Management Any field development project involving bush clearing and excavation is bound to encounter waste management problems that must be handled in compliance with required local, national, and International regulations. It is, thus, important that an effective waste management scheme be in place to avoid contravening guiding regulations and Quaint’s Policy on environment.

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7.2.1 Waste Management Strategies For effective management, wastes generated by Quaint’s activities shall be classified by type, source, quality, and quantity. All activities shall be planned and executed in such a manner as to:  Take all practical and cost effective measures to minimise the generation of wastes, by employing the four R’s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover) through process optimisation or redesign, efficient procedures and good housekeeping.  Minimise the hazards presented by all wastes and to ensure that all wastes are managed and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner.  Waste management shall be carried out in full compliance with applicable local, State, and national legislation and guidelines of relevant regulatory agencies.  Wastes generated by Quaint’s activities shall be managed from “cradle to grave” to eliminate the potential liabilities that could result from improper disposal;  The management of wastes shall be the responsibility of the company key/front-line staff.  Fell trees and stumps shall be cut into small pieces and given to the local communities for use as firewood. 7.2.2 Sources and Inventory of Wastes Wastes are expected from all phases of the project implementation, viz.: site preparation, excavation/construction, operation and abandonment. The Environmental Management Plan for the proposed ABIBA Solar Power Project is as summarized in Tables 7.1, 7.2, & 7.3. 7.3 Environmental Audit An Environmental Audit process provides an assessment of the environmental performance during the operational phase of the facilities. It is an internal control process to ensure those environmental issues and management procedures are strictly followed. This audit should be carried out every three years to ensure that environmental standards are maintained and EMP is followed. Each environmental audit:  Examines line management systems, plant operations, monitoring practices, procedures and plans;  Identifies current and potential environmental problems, and  Examines compliance with regulatory requirements.

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7.4 Social Management Plan This is essentially concerned with the social action plan for the host communities. Social Action Plan (SAP) consists of measures designed to mitigate the adverse social impacts of projects. Among other things, SAP lists mitigation measures, the means by which the measures will be implemented, the time schedule for the implementation, as well as the implementing agency. Social action plan is therefore based on clearly identified mitigation measures. These measures are usually designed in collaboration with host communities in order to engender a sense of ownership. This can be achieved by holding wide-ranging discussions with cross sections of the communities. This is necessary for the success of the measures. 7.4.1 Mitigation It is clear from the literature and from experience that development projects do generate some adverse social impacts, in addition to the positive effects they have. Mitigation measures are usually designed to address the adverse impacts. The mitigation measures for the respective adverse social impacts were spelt out in previous chapter. On the basis of the proposed mitigation measures, a proposed social action plan is provided in Table 7.2. 7.5 Health Management Plan The health concerns enumerated must be properly managed. The tool for achieving this is the incorporation of a health management plan into the project plan. The health management plan provides the measure of assessing the accuracy of the predicted project impacts and monitoring of the effectiveness of the proposed mitigation/enhancement measures contained in the HIA report. The recommended health management plan indicates how the health concerns highlighted in the HIA would be managed (Table 7.3). The health risk associated with the proposed project will be alleviated if the mitigation measures suggested are implemented. Quaint has institutionalized audit schemes aimed at verifying the effectiveness of environmental control and highlighting areas of weakness in environmental management. The field development audit should take the form of periodic inspections and surveillance, which should focus mainly on environmental performance, through appropriately designed checklists. Part of the audit activities includes evaluation of environmental integrity of field facilities and identification of the residual environmental risks retained after implementation of mitigation measures. 7.6 Resourcing Quaint considers environmental management an important aspect of project procedures. Consequently, in any project for which a project management team is set up, an environmental specialist is always an integral part of the team. In this project, an

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environmental focal point has been appointed to liaise between the engineering project managers and the environmental specialist consultants as well as advise on all environmental issues in conformity with the Group policy. Quaint recognizes the need to use external environmental consultants to supplement inhouse environmental specialists. To this end, environmental consultants will continue to provide expert advice to environmental managers throughout the development of this project. Environmental protection, like safety, is the responsibility of all staff at all levels. The environmental specialist assists with advice on environmental matters from an expert point of view. However, responsibility and accountability must be clearly defined, from those who monitor environmental performance to individual contractors who have responsibility for environmentally sound practices in their workplace and surrounding area. All staff will be made aware of their responsibilities through induction and training courses. The following mitigation steps shall be clearly borne in mind:  Adherence to the environmental and social issues raised in this study (Chapter 7) ensure compliance with statutory standards;  For every mature tree greater than 60cm girth cut down as a result of construction, at least one tree will be planted in replacement;  Land uptake for ROW will be kept to the barest minimum 7.7 Contingency/Emergency Plans Quaint has contingency plans to respond to emergencies such as fire etc. These may occur as a result of equipment failure, malfunctioning, obsolescence, or sabotage. 7.8 Consultation Quaint has a principle of direct line of communication with all third parties, including all local communities. The primary objective has always been to ensure that its operations are devoid of interruption and disturbances arising from community - related issues. The proposed project will involve this form of consultation during the site preparation and development phases. Quaint shall also maintain regular communication with all the regulatory bodies– Federal Ministry of Environment, State Environmental Protection Agencies and Local Governments Areas on issues that may arise as a result of this project. 7.9 Monitoring: Measurements and Procedures Systematic observation and measurement of selected variables shall be undertaken in order to identify the nature and magnitude of longer-term impacts of the project. The procedures shall include:  Identifying the sources and characteristics of all observed environmental effects;

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 Quantifying claims on resources and discharges to the environment;  Quantifying and qualifying indirect effects on the environment.  Details of the monitoring program are given below: (Table 7.4) 7.10 Decommissioning, Abandonment, and Restoration Plans The ABIBA project is designed to last over minimum period of 25 years, at the end of the project life span; Quaint shall invoke the standard decommissioning and abandonment programme. The tasks shall include the following:  Ensuring that the decommissioning and abandonment are done with the same care and respect for the environment with which the pipeline project was designed, constructed and operated.  Assessing residual impacts that the project has had on the environment during its life span.  Monitoring the abandoned environment.  Restoring the environment as much as possible to its original state. Quaint shall maintain a record of the abandoned facilities and a copy will be given to the relevant Government - FMENV, host communities and other stakeholders.

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Table 7.1: Environmental Management Plan

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Table 7.2: Proposed Social Action Plan

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: Table 7.3: Recommended health intervention activities and performance indicators

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Table 7.4: Monitoring Programme

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CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSION

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8

CONCLUSIONS

This EIA report, for the proposed 50MW on-grid ABIBA Solar Power Project, was conducted in accordance with the required local, national, and international standards. In undertaking the EIA study, a holistic approach was used whereby Quaint, the host communities, and the Governments of Kaduna State (the primary stakeholders) as well as the regulatory bodies (the secondary stakeholders) were widely consulted. General consensus on key environmental sensitivities of the solar project on the project area in terms of natural environment, socio-economic/cultural, and health characteristics were identified and quantified. The significance of the impacts was duly assessed through standard field and laboratory methodologies, predictive modelling as well as desk reviews. The EIA has demonstrated that the overall impacts associated with the project can be managed within reasonable and acceptable limits by applying all identified mitigation measures contained in this report. In consideration of the above therefore, there is no major environmental issue to impede the development of the proposed ABIBA Solar Power Project, which is designed to supply constant electricity to the national grid for consumption. All the identified potential adverse impacts of the proposed project shall be eliminated or reduced through the implementation of the recommended mitigation measures. The benefits that will be derived from the proposed solar project are therefore much greater than the short-term environmental effect.

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9

REFERENCES 1. IRENA, (2012). Renewable Energy Technologies – Cost Analysis Series. Vol 1 – Power Sector, Issues 4/5. 2. Butti, K.J, & Perlin, J.I. (1981). A Golden Thread (2500 Years of Solar Architecture and Technology). Van Nostrand Reinhold. 3. Martin, C.L., Goswami, D.Y. (2005). Solar Energy Pocket Reference. International Solar Energy Society. 4. Akobundu, I.0., & Agyakwa E.A. (1998) edition. A Handbook of West African Weeds. lTA Ibadan. 564pp. 5. Alan, A.H. (2003). Environmental Management Systems, Auditor/Lead Auditor Course. Training Manual, A17165 Hampshire, United Kingdom. 6. Allen, S. E., Grimshaw H. M., Parkinson J.A., & Quarmby, C.O. (1989). Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials, 2nd Edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 7. Allen, S. E., Grimshaw, H. M., Parkinson, J. A., & Quarmby, C.O. (1974). Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 569pp. 8. Anon M.E. (1986). Laboratory Manual for Agronomic Studies in Soil, Plant and Microbiology. Contributors: Odu, C.T. (Soil Microbiology), Babalola, O.A. (Soil Physics), Udo, E.J. (Soil Chemistry), Ogunkunle, A.O. (Soil Morphology & Description), Bakare, T.A. (Plant Analysis), Adeoye, G.O. (Coordinator). Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 83pp. 9. ASTM Standards (1999). Water and Environment Technology, West Conshohocken, USA. 10. Borrow, F.H., & Demey, R.A. (2001) eds. Helm Identification guides: Birds of Western Africa. Christopher Helm, London. 832pp. 11. Charles, A.E. (1998). Safety, Health and Environmental Protection, WCB l McGrawHill Companies Publication, United States of America. 12. Dasmann, R.F. (1964) ed. Wildlife Biology. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 231pp

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13. Davies, G.M. (2002) ed. African Forest Biodiversity - A Field Survey Manual for Vertebrates. Earth-watch Institute (Europe) 161pp. 14. Davis, S.N., & Roger J.M. (1966) Hydrogeological; New York; John Valley; 463pp. 15. Enger, E.D., & Smith B.F. (2000). Environmental Science; A Study of the Interrelationships (7th edition). McGraw Hill Companies, USA. 234-237pp. 16. Environment Canada (1980). Guide to water quality Parameters. Inland waters Directorate, Water Quality Branch. Ottawa, Canada. 19p. 17. Ezealor, A.U. (2002) ed. Critical Sites for Biodiversity Conservation in Nigeria. Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Lagos, Nigeria. 109pp. 18. EQS, (1995). Environmental Quality Standards. Exploration & Production HSE Manual, Report No. EP 950375. 19. FMENV, (2002). Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Environment, Lagos, Nigeria. 20. FEPA, (1991). National Interim Guidelines and Standards for Industrial Effluent, Gaseous Emissions and Hazardous Wastes Management in Nigeria, Lagos. 21. FEPA (1991). Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Environment, Lagos, Nigeria. 22. FMENV (1999). National Guidelines for Environmental Audit in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Environment, Lagos, Nigeria. 23. FRN Atlas (2012). The National Atlas of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. 24. Happold, D.C. (1987) ed. Mammals of Nigeria. Clarendon Press of Nigeria and Clarendon Press Oxford, UK. 25. Harland, W.B., Hughes N.F., Cook A.H., & Sclate J.G. (1983). General Hydrogeology. Cambridge University Press, UK. 141 pp. 26. Hill, D.S., & Waller, J.M. (1982) ed. Pests and Diseases of Tropical Crops Vol.1. Principles and Methods of Control. Longman Group Ltd 175 pp. 147 | P a g e

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27. Isirimah, N.O. (2000). Soil and Environmental Pollution Management. Nichdano Publishers, Owerri, 4-16 pp. 28. ISO 14001, (1996). Environmental Management Systems – Specification with guidance for use. International Standard, ANSI/ISO 14001:1996. 29. ISO 19011, (2002). Guidelines for Quality and Environmental Management Systems Auditing – Specification with guidance for use. International Standard, ANSI/ISO 19011:2002. 30. Kingdon, J.K. (1997) ed. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, 32 Jamestown Rd., London NW1 7BY. 476pp. 31. Moshby, H.S. (1963). Wildlife Investigational techniques. The Wildlife Society, Blacksburg, Virginia 419 pp. 32. Needham, J.G., & Needham, P.R (1966). A guide to the study of Freshwater biology, 5th ed, Holden Day Inc., San Francisco, U.S.A. ISBN 0-8162-6310-8. 33. Oosting, J.H. (1956). The Study of Plant Communities - An Introduction to Plant Ecology. 2nd. Ed. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco and London. 440pp. 34. Serle, W.F., & Morel, G.A. (1992) eds. A Field Guide to the Birds of West Africa. Collins, London, UK. 35. Todd, D.K., (1980): Groundwater Hydrology 2nd Ed. John Villey and Sons: London, New York Sydney, Toronto. 535pp. 36. Word Bank Group (1998). Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook.

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10 APPENDIX 1: International Environmental Conventions signed by Nigeria YEAR

CONVENTION

1948

Convention of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO)

1954

Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil (not the 1978 Protocol)

1958

Convention on fishing and conservation of living Resources of the High Sea (note: into force 20 March 1966)

1958

Convention on the High Seas

1958

Convention on the Continental Shelf

1958

Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone

1968

African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and nature Resources

1969

Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (not the 1976 and 1992 Protocols)

1972

Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

1972

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter

1973

Convention to Regulate international trade in Endangered species of Fauna and Flora (CITES)

1974

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

1979

Convention on Conservation of Migratory species of Wild Animals

1981

Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Regions

1985

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

1987

Montreal protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

1989

Basle Convention on the Control of Trans boundary movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal 1990 Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, response, and Co-operation

1992

United Nations Framework Convention on Biological Diversity

1992

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (+ 1997 Kyoto Protocol)

1994

United Nations Convention to Comfort Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in African.

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11 APPENDIX 2: Nigerian Environmental Laws and Regulations 1956 Act No. 31

Oil pipelines Act

1965 Act No. 24

Oil pipelines Act (Amendment)

1967 Act No. 28

Petroleum Control Act

1968 Act No. 34

Oil in Navigable Waters Act i) Oil in Navigable Waters Regulations

1969 Decree No. 51

Petroleum Drilling and Production Decree

1969

Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations

1971 Act No. 30

Sea Fisheries Act

1973 Act No. 25

Petroleum Technology Department Fund Act

1978 Act No. 6

Land Use Act

1979 Act No. 99

Associated Gas Re-injection Act

1985

Associated Gas Re-injection (continued Flaring of Gas regulations

1988 Decree No. 58

Federal Environmental Protection Agency Decree

1988

Decree No. 42 Harmful Wastes (Special Criminal Provisions, etc.)

1991

National Environmental protection (Effluent Limitations) Regulations

1991

National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Producing Waste) Regulations

1991

National Environmental Protection (Management of Solid Hazardous Wastes) Regulations

1991

National Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria

1991 Decree No. 36

Federal National Parks Decree

1991

Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria – Department of Petroleum Resources

1992 Decree No. 59

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (Amendment) Decree

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1992 Decree No. 71

Sea Fisheries Decree

1992

Environmental Impact Assessment Decree

Decree No. 86

1992

Proposed National Guideline and Standards for Waste Management in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria – FEPA

1993 Decree No. 94

Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation) Projects Decree

1993 Decree No. 101 Water Resources Decree 1993

Guidelines for the establishment of a Petroleum Refinery, Petrochemicals and Gas Processing Plants in Nigeria

1994

Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure for Nigeria – FEPA

1995

Petroleum (Drilling and production) (Amendment) Regulations

1995

Sectoral Guidelines for Oil and Gas Industry Projects (Oil and Gas exploration and production – onshore) – FEPA

1995

Sectoral Guidelines for Oil and Gas Industry Projects (Oil and gas exploration and production – offshore) – FEPA

1995

Sectional Guidelines for Oil and Gas Industry Projects (oil and gas pipelines – onshore and offshore) – FEPA

1996

Petroleum Refining (Amendment) Regulations

1996 Decree No. 8

Oil and Gas Free Export Zone Decree

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12 APPENDIX 3: International Codes, Standards, and Guidelines  ISO 7731: Danger signals for work places – “Auditory danger signals”  ISO 8201: Acoustics – “Audible emergency evacuation signal”  ISO 8995: “Principles of visual ergonomics – the lighting of indoor work system”. World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for drinking water quality.” Part 1: Recommendations. 2nd ed. Part 2: Health criteria and other supportive information. 2nd ed. Part 3: Surveillance and control of community supplies. 2nd ed  ISO 6385: “Ergonomic principles in the design of the work systems”  ISO 9241-1 “Ergonomics requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs)” Part 1: Guidance on Regulations L23” UK Health and Safety Executive Code of Practice “The Control of Legionellosis including Legionnaires’ disease, second edition”  ISO/CD 11014 “Safety data sheet for chemical products” Part 1: Content and order of sections.  ISO 7730, Moderate thermal environment – “Determination of the PWV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfort.”  ISO 13852: “Safety of machinery – Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs”  ISO 11429: Ergonomics – “System of auditory and visual danger and information signals”  ISO/DIS 13853: Safety of machinery – “Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the lower limbs”  ISO 13854: Safety of machinery – “Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body”  ISO 11428: Ergonomic – “Visual danger signals – general requirements, design and testing”  ISO 11429: “Ergonomics – System of auditory and visual danger and information signals”

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13 APPENDIX 4: SIA & HIA QUESTION 1. SETTLEMENT CODE 1.1 Date of Interview _____________________ 1.2 Name of Village / Quarter ______________ 1.3 Ethnic Group ________________________ 2. RESPONDENT SOCIAL DATA 2.1. Sex? 2.1.1 Male 2.1.2 Female 2.2. Age? 2.2.1 (10 - 20 years) 2.2.2 (21 - 30 years) 2.2.3 (31 - 40 years) 2.2.4 (41 - 50 years) 2.2.5 (51 - 60 years) 2.2.6 (61 and above) 2.3 Marital Status? 2.3.1 Single 2.3.2 Married 2.3.3 Divorced 2.3.4 Widow 2.3.5 Widower 2.4 Level of Education? 2.4.1 Primary School 2.4.2 Secondary School 2.4.3 Vocational/Technical School 2.4.4 Tertiary School 2.4.5 No Formal Education 2.5. Employment? 2.5.1 Farming / Hunting 2.5.2 Fishing 2.5.3 Technician 2.5.4 Trading 2.5.5 Business/Contractor 153 | P a g e

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2.5.6 Teaching 2.5.7 Civil Servant 2.5.8 Retired 2.5.9 Student / Apprentice 2.5.10 Unemployed 2.5.11 Others (specify) 2.6 Skills? 2.6.1 Mason 2.6.2 Welder 2.6.3 Technician 2.6.4 Fisherman 2.6.5 Politician 2.6.6 Transporter 2.6.7 Unskilled 2.7 Length of Service? 2.7.1 0 - 5 years 2.7.2 6 - 10 years 2.7.3 11 - 20 years 2.7.4 21 - 20 years 2.7.5 Above 30 years 2.8 What is your annual income? 2.8.1 1,000 - 10,000 2.8.2 11,000 - 20,000 2.8.3 21,000 - 30,000 2.8.4 31,000 - 40,000 2.8.5 41,000 - 50,000 2.8.6 51,000 - 60,000 2.8.7 61,000 - 70,000 2.8.8 71,000 - 80,000 2.8.9 Above 80,000 2.9 Family Size? 2.9.1 1 – 3 2.9.2 4 – 6 2.9.3 7 – 10 2.9.4 11 – 15 2.9.5 16 – 20 154 | P a g e

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2.9.6 Above 20 2.10 Age Distribution of household (Including Parents)? 2.10.1 0 – 14 2.10.2 15 – 24 2.10.3 25 – 34 2.10.4 35 – 44 2.10.5 45 – 54 2.10.6 Above 55 2.11 Distribution of household occupation? 2.11.1 Student / Apprentice 2.11.2 Business / Contractor 2.11.3 Technician 2.11.4 Farming/Fishing/Hunting 2.11.5 Teaching 2.11.6 Civil servant 2.11.7 Married / House Wife 2.11.8 Unemployed 2.11.9 Others (Specify) 2.12 How many births in the last 12 months? 2.12.1 :........................................ 2.13 How many deaths in the last 12 months? 2.13.1 :........................................ 2.14 List the common sickness in the settlement? 2.14.1 :........................................ 2.14.2 :........................................ 2.15 List the Environmental problems in the settlement? 2.15.1 Soil infertility 2.15.2 Pest attack / invasion 2.15.3 Soil salinity 2.15.4 Erosion 2.15.5 Rain storm / flooding 2.15.6 Others (specify) 2.15.7 No idea

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2.16 Status of respondent 2.16.1 Traditional ruler / head of settlement 2.16.2 Church leader 2.16.3 Traditional chief / councilor 2.16.4 Family head 2.16.5 Union leader 2.16.6 Doctor/Nurse/Herbalist 2.16.7 Immigrant / Settler 2.16.8 Visitor 2.16.9 Others (specify) 2.17 Who should speak for your community on oil matters? 2.17.1 Chief 2.17.2 Community chairman 2.17.3 Community secretary 2.17.4 Youth leader 2.17.5 Church leader 2.18 How long have you lived in the settlement? 2.18.1 Less than 5 years 2.18.2 6 - 10 years 2.18.3 11 - 15 years 2.18.4 16 - 20 years 2.18.5 Above 20 years 2.18.6 Since birth 2.19 What is your religion? 2.19.1 Traditional 2.19.2 Islam 2.19.3 Christianity 2.19.4 I worship God 2.19.5 Atheist 2.20 Of what use are the water bodies in your area? 2.20.1 Fisheries 2.20.2 Irrigation 2.20.3 Domestic 2.20.4 Transportation 2.20.5 Recreation 2.20.6 None 156 | P a g e

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2.20.7 Others (specify) 3. RESPONDENT ECONOMIC DATA 3.1 What type of house do you (own / live in)? 3.1.1 Thatched 3.1.2 Thatched / wooden 3.1.3 Thatched / mud 3.1.4 Zinc roof / wooden 3.1.5 Zinc roof / mud 3.1.6 Zinc roof / block 3.2 Do you own? 3.2.1 Canoe 3.2.2 Bicycle 3.2.3 Motor – Cycle 3.2.4 Car / Lorry 3.2.5 Engine boat 3.2.6 Fish pond 3.2.7 Other (specify) 3.3 What other properties do you own? 3.3.1 Rubber plantation 3.3.2 Palm plantation 3.3.3 Cocoa plantation 3.3.4 Forestry / Raffia palm 3.3.5 Farm land 3.3.6 Poultry (specify) 3.3.7 None 3.3.8 Others (specify) 3.4 Rank order of pattern of land ownership? 3.4.1 Inheritance (Patrilineal/Matrilineal) 3.4.2 Tenant / lease 3.4.3 Family 3.4.4 Outright purchase 3.4.5 Communal 3.4.6 Other (specify) 3.5 What is the total size of your land in hectares?

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3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.5.6

0 - 1 (1 = football field) 2 -3 4 -5 6 -7 Above 7 None

3.6 Which is the farming method in this area? 3.6.1 Garden 3.6.2 Fallow 3.6.3 Shifting cultivation 3.6.4 Rotational bush fallow 3.6.5 Others (specify) 3.6.5 No idea 3.7 What cropping system is common here? 3.7.1 Mono - Cropping 3.7.2 Mixed - Cropping 3.7.3 Inter - Cropping 3.7.4 Others (specify) 3.7.5 No idea 3.8 What has been the nature of Agricultural yield? 3.8.1 Increasing 3.8.2 Decreasing 3.8.3 The same 3.9 Form of farming? 3.9.1 Net (canoe) 3.9.2 Net (Motorized Boat) 3.9.3 Hook 3.9.4 Trap/Basket 3.9.5 Any other (specify) 3.10 What is your usual means of transportation? 3.10.1 Canoe 3.10.2 Engine Boat 3.10.3 Motorcycle 3.10.4 Car 3.10.5 Bicycle 158 | P a g e

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3.11 Name Sacred sites in your community 3.12 ………………………………. 3.13 ………………………………. 3.14 ………………………………. 3.15 ………………………………. 3.16 ………………………………. 3.17 ………………………………. 3.18 ………………………………. 4 RESPONDENTS ATTITUDE TO COMPANY /ENVIRONMENT 4.1 Name the company’s in this area and state the benefits you have derived from them.....……………………..? 4.1.1 Employment 4.1.2 Scholarship 4.1.3 Community Project (specify) 4.1.4 Skills Acquisition 4.1.5 None 4.1.6 Negative 4.1.7 Name negative effects 4.2 Are you aware of any intended project in the community? ( is it? 4.2.1 Cement factory 4.2.2 Gas pipeline 4.2.3 Development project (specify) 4.2.4 No idea

Yes

No). If yes, what

4.3 What benefit do you expect from this project? 4.3.1 Employment opportunity 4.3.2 Economic boom 4.3.3 Infrastructural development 4.3.4 Scholarship 4.3.5 Housing 4.3.6 Hospital 4.3.7 Others (specify) 4.4 What is your attitude to this project? 4.4.1 Support the project

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4.4.2 Resist the project 4.4.3 No idea 4.4.4 Demand compensation 4.5 What pipeline related social-problems do you have in your area? 4.5.1 Youth / Juvenile delinquency 4.5.2 Land dispute 4.5.3 Chieftancy tussle 4.5.4 Inter-family problem 4.5.5 Inter-village / Tribal conflict 4.5.6 Acute unemployment 4.5.7 Child abuse/ Infant pregnancy 4.5.8 Alcoholism, Prostitution 4.5.9 Other (specify) 4.6 What are your fears on the proposed project in order of importance? 4.6.1 Loss of land (acquisition/deforestation) 4.6.2 Damage to farmland 4.6.3 Pollution of air/waterways 4.6.4 Health problems 4.6.5 Socio-cultural interference 4.6.6 High cost of living 4.6.7 Increased population 4.6.8 Soil infertility 4.6.9 Social disorder 4.6.10 Frequent death 4.6.11 Others (specify) 4.6.12 Explain your fears in details 4.6.13 ………………………. 4.6.14 ………………………. 4.6.15 ………………………. 4.7 Give general comment on activities of Quaint any other company in this community? 4.7.1 ...................................................... 4.7.2 ...................................................... 4.7.3 ...................................................... 4.7.4 ………………………………………. 4.7.5 ………………………………………. 4.8 What pipeline induced problem have you experienced, when and where? 160 | P a g e

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4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4 4.8.5

...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ………………………………………. ……………………………………….

4.9 Type of waste discharge system 4.9.1 Water System 4.9.2 Pit system 4.9.3 Bucket system 4.9.4 River 4.9.5 Bush/swamp 4.9.6 Others (specify)...................................... 4.10 Source of water supply 4.10.1 .......................................................... 4.10.3 .......................................................... 4.10.3 .......................................................... 4.11 Do you have the following in the river/creek? 4.11.1 Shrimps/prawns 4.11.2 Oysters 4.11.3 Thias 4.11.4 Periwinkles 4.11.5 Scallops 4.11.6 Carbs 4.11.7 Others (specify)........................... 4.12 Types of wild life in the area 4.12.1 .................................................. 4.12.2 .................................................. 4.12.3 .................................................. 4.13 List in order of importance what you expect from Oil Company 4.13.1 …………………………………… 4.13.2 …………………………………… 4.13.3 …………………………………… 4.13.4 …………………………………… 4.13.5 …………………………………… 4.13.6 …………………………………… 161 | P a g e

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4.14 Which group(s) in your community suffers most from industrial activities? 4.14.1 …………………………………… 4.14.2 ………………………………….... 4.14.3 …………………………………… 4.14.4 ………………………………….... 4.14.5 ………………………………….... QUESTIONNAIRE FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SURVEY (HIA) A) SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES 1. Name of Town/Village: ____________________________________________ 2. Household No. (District/settlement/house no.): _________________________ 3. Age (Last birthday): ______________________________________________ 4. Sex: Male Female 5. Marital Status: Married Single Divorced Separated 6. What is the highest level of education you attained: _____________________ 7. Occupation: ____________________________________________________ 8. Income per Month (for Adults only): __________________________________ 9. Ethnic Group: ___________________________________________________ B) LIFE STYLE / HABITS 1. Common food/preparations taken in the community _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. During the last 4 weeks, how often have you had drinks containing alcohol? Would you say: Every day At least once a week Less than once a week None at all (don’t take alcohol) 3. Smoking ( Yes No) If yes, how many sticks per day?…………. 4. Use of Tobacco (

Yes

No)

5. Exercise ( Yes No) Type …………………. (b) How often ………………. 162 | P a g e

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C) COMMON HEALTH HAZARDS IN THE COMMUNITY 1. During the last 12 months have you been admitted into a hospital on account of ill health? ( Yes No) 2. If yes for which condition? 3. List all illness episodes in the last 12 months: ______________________________________________________________ 4. Which disease conditions in your opinion poses the greatest health threat to the community: (in order of priority) ______________________________________________________________ 5. How many people on the average died in your community within the last 12 months: Adults________ Under 5________ Less than one year ________ 6. What, in your opinion, is the most important cause of death in the community? (a) Amongst children under one year _____________________________ (b) Amongst children under 5 years _____________________________ (c) Amongst adults ___________________________________________ D) IMMUNIZATION STATUS (CHILDREN) Have you received any of the following vaccines? (i) DPT ( Yes No) (ii) BCG ( Yes No) (iii) Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) ( Yes No) (iv) Typhoid ( Yes No) (v) Yellow Fever ( Yes No) (vi) Tetanus Toxoid ( Yes No) (vii) Small Pox ( Yes No) (viii) Hepatitis Vaccine ( Yes No) (ix) Others (Specify) ( Yes No) E) KAP REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 1. Have you ever heard of diseases that can be transmitted through sexual intercourse? Yes No 2. Can you describe any symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases in women? 163 | P a g e

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Abdominal pains Genital discharge Burning pain on urination Genital ulcers/sores Itching Swelling in the groin Others: _______________________________ 3. Can you describe any symptoms of sexually transmitted disease in men? Genital discharge Burning pain on urination Genital ulcers/sores Itching Swelling in the groin Others: _______________________________ 4. Have you heard of HIV/AIDS?

Yes

No

5. Do you have a close friend or close relative who is infected with HIV or who has died of AIDS? Yes a close relative Yes a close friend No No response 6. In your opinion, can people protect themselves from contracting sexually transmitted diseases or HIV/AIDS? Yes No If yes, by what means ______________________________________ 7. Do you think this project will increase or decrease the chances of people contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS? Yes will increase chances Yes will decrease chances No difference Don’t know 8. If yes, how _________________________________________________ 9. What do you think can be done to prevent people from contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS during this project? _________________________

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F COMMUNITY HEALTH NEEDS 1. What in your opinion are the most important health needs of your Community? (Score in order of priority 1 – 5) Safe drinking water Food Health services / clinics Electricity Good toilet system Waste disposal Others (Specify): ___________________________________________ 2. In order of preference, what do think should be done to improve the Health Services in your community? (i) ________________________________________________________ (ii) ________________________________________________________ (iii) ________________________________________________________ 3. What Health problems do you think may arise because of this project in your Community? (i) ________________________________________________________ (ii) ________________________________________________________ (iii) ________________________________________________________ (iv) ________________________________________________________ 4. In order of preference what do you think should be done to minimize these anticipated health problems? (i) ________________________________________________________ (ii) ________________________________________________________ (iii) ________________________________________________________ (iv) ________________________________________________________ G) ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 1. What is the source of your drinking water? Tap Well Stream Other (Specify): ___________________________ 2. How do you dispose your faeces? Bucket System

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Pit latrine Water System Bush Into River/Stream Others (specify) 3. How do you dispose your house refuse? Dustbin Open dumping on land / creeks Composting Incineration Others (specify). (H) OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES 1. Have you been exposed to any of the following (Explain possible sources): Asbestos Lead Benzene Coal dust Loud noise (over a long period of time) Others (name them): ___________________________________________ 2. Have you had any of the following occupational illnesses: (Explain symptoms) Respiratory diseases Skin diseases Upper limb and neck disorder Cancer and malignant blood disease Poisoning Noise induced hearing loss Infectious diseases Mental ill-health Thank you so much for your patience and cooperation.

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Quaint EIA Report