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An exclusive top-level presentation of the workings of Asia's best universities

Inaugural Edition

Published by QS Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Pte Ltd

QS WorldClass SHOWCASE 2010 Published by QS Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Pte Ltd Inaugural edition, April 2010 Copyright Š QS Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Pte Ltd All rights reserved QS Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Pte Ltd (Asia Pacific, Middle East, Africa & New Zealand Regional Office) 51 Goldhill Plaza #07-01 Singapore 308900 The entire content of this publication is protected by international copyright. No part of this publication may be copied or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, without the prior written permission of the publisher, QS Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Pte Ltd. Any permitted reproduction from this book must acknowledge QS WorldClass SHOWCASE 2010, QS Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Pte Ltd as the source. For permission, please write to Mandy Mok, Managing Director, at Acknowledgements QS Asia would like to thank all the advertisers in this edition for their support. We would also like to thank our QS London colleagues who have contributed. Special thanks to the Prime Minister’s Department of Malaysia, universities and individuals that have contributed photographs for use in the book. Editorial manager: Joachim Sim Design and production: Simon Yeo Advertisement co-ordinator: Jessica Wang Printed by: Times Printers Pte Ltd, Singapore Important note Editorial content in QS WorldClass SHOWCASE does not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher or those involved with it. The authors, publisher and all those associated with this book cannot be held liable for any actions or decisions taken by any person or institution, based on or resulting from the information contained in this book, or any consequences thereof. The entire content is also available online as an e-book at

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Contents Preface






MAIN FEATURES Malaysian Prime Minister has high ambitions for Malaysia and a region on the rise John O’Leary

Beijing banks on C9 to break into higher education’s elite Dr Zhou Zhong, Tsinghua University



Asian business schools up in the downturn David Williams


China More international students seeking graduate studies in China James Donald


Hong Kong

Full of Eastern promise: Yale president sees academic challenge ahead 14 John O’Leary

Hong Kong as centre of education and research excellence Professor Way Kuo

Japan’s top universities sharpen their international focus Professor Michinari Hamaguchi, Nagoya University



Migrating Asia’s top standards to the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology John O’Leary


Rapid growth in demand for higher education in India Pawan Agarwal

Korean universities can make their mark on the world stage Martin Ince interviews Seoul National University president




Indian business schools getting greater global recognition Ross Geraghty




Japanese universities rising to the world challenge Professor Kenji Watanuki



SPECIAL FEATURES Future of international higher education after the global crisis Professor Nigel Healey


Changing trends in university quality assurance in Japan Professor Hiromi Naya


Rankings: bringing Asia out of the shadows Dr Kevin Downing




Japan – leading the way for Asia’s universities Danny Byrne

Asia on the rise in the 2009 world university rankings Martin Ince



QS World University Rankings 2009


Malaysian institutional models in private higher education Dr Mohamed Ali Abdul Rahman

Comparing QS Asian University Rankings with QS World University Rankings



QS Asian University Rankings 2009


Top students offer new promise and a bright future for China Professor Wang Gungwu


Public policy education in Asia: a sunrise enterprise Professor Kishore Mahbubani



Graduate studies in Singapore offer world-class education Ann Graham


South Korea




Quality international distance learning for Asian higher education Dr Petrina Faustine


How Taiwanese universities are internationalising the student body Professor Peter Chang

Langkawi National Geopark: achieving global excellence in sustainable regional development Professor Sharifah Hapsah Syed Hasan



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Thailand aims to become regional higher education hub Professor Jisnuson Svasti



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Contributors John O’Leary serves as Senior Consultant Editor for QS WorldClass SHOWCASE 2010 Edition. John is former education editor at the Times of London and is author of The Times Good University Guide, UK. He is also former Editor of Times Higher Education Supplement. He has a degree from Sheffield University. Martin Ince assists John O’Leary as contributing editor. Martin is a former contributing editor of Times Higher Education and editor of the THE-QS World University Rankings. He chairs the advisory committee for the QS World University Rankings. He is a freelance journalist and media advisor, and author of ten books. Editorial Director: Tony Martin, QS, London Founder and Managing Director: Nunzio Quacquarelli, QS Quacquarelli Symonds QS WorldClass SHOWCASE was conceived by Mandy Mok, Managing Director of QS Asia, as part of her vision to help Asian higher education institutions level up on the world stage through a portfolio of engaging and complementary products and services. These include QS-APPLE (QS Asia Pacific Professional Leaders in Education Conference and Exhibition), QS-MAPLE (QS Middle East and Africa Professional Leaders in Education Conference and Exhibition) and QS WorldClass globalization seminar.

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Preface China, analysed by Professor Zhou Zhong of Tsinghua University in Beijing, is perhaps the best known. But Japan has its Global 30, Malaysia its Apex programme and Thailand its Quality Framework for Higher Education, for example. SHOWCASE covers all of them, as well as the advances made in countries where universities are flourishing without such formal initiatives.

These are exciting times for higher education in Asia. Not only are Asian universities making marked improvement in quality, they are also challenging the global dominance of the more recognized institutions in the West. Asian institutions are also attracting more international students from the region. Indeed, 2009 could be the watershed year for the region, as there was a significant increase in the number of Asian universities ranked in the top 200 of the QS World University Rankings. QS WorldClass SHOWCASE serves to present top Asian universities and document Asia’s progress each year.

Advertorial pages that provide information on individual institutions complement the editorial content of SHOWCASE. They consist of their presidents’ profiles, institutions’ profiles or both. These may be supplemented by their advertisements.

This inaugural 2010 edition of SHOWCASE offers a range of insightful and professionally written articles that present the importance of Asian university education to the advancement of society in Asia in particular and the world at large. It features six main articles on the views of leading luminaries, six special contributions by regional thought leaders and country updates on higher education developments in China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand by guest writers whom we have invited to share their perspectives.

Each president’s profile may comprise a short summary of his personal philosophy in the academic context, a brief biographical background, including career path and major personal achievements, his personal motivation to succeed in achieving such high office and to take success yet further, his personal vision and ambition for increasing his institution’s global recognition and improving its world ranking, and his wider vision for the future of Asian higher education in the global academic scheme of things.

In our Main Features, leading figures in government and global higher education confirm the rise of Asian universities. No longer are they seen as also-rans in the academic world, either in teaching or research.

The institution’s profile may include: its existing claims for global recognition, e.g. Nobel laureates; original research that has led to globally accepted scientific or other advances; specialist institutes; professors with a high global profile and respect in their specialty; global industrial collaboration; strong position in general or specialist world rankings; and high position in national or regional rankings. It may also articulate the university’s forward strategy for internationalization (e.g. recruitment of international academic staff and students), investment in enhanced research facilities, creation of institutional and academic partnerships, hosting of major international conferences (such as QS-APPLE), growth of courses taught in English or other foreign languages, and research projects organised in collaboration with international partners. It could also describe the major features of the institution’s physical infrastructure and the services that it provides to staff and students, both local and international.

Dato’ Sri Najib Razak, the Malaysian Prime Minister, stresses the importance of internationally competitive universities to Asia as a whole. Malaysia, the host of this year’s QS WorldClass globalization seminar, has set out to be an education hub for the region and is still investing in its universities to that end. Professor Richard Levin, the President of Yale University, casts a dispassionate eye over the progress made by the leading Asian universities and finds plenty to celebrate. He predicts that several will be vying for places at the top of the world rankings within two decades. Professor Choon Fong Shih, the President of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia – the world’s wealthiest new foundation – agrees. He guided the National University of Singapore into the upper reaches of the rankings and believes that economic downturn in the West offers Asian universities the chance to make further progress.

Under SHOWCASE’s spotlight, Asian universities can be expected to grow further in future. SHOWCASE will also grow as an annual publication of significance. What are required are its creative development, the continuing contribution of knowledgeable writers and the sustained support of our partners and advertisers. We look forward to a bigger and yet better SHOWCASE next year!

Elsewhere, SHOWCASE charts the efforts that are being made all over Asia to accelerate the rise of the continent’s universities. The C9 initiative in

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Foreword from our advertising packages comprising president’s profile, institution’s profile and advertisement.

It is said that nothing is as powerful as an idea whose time has come. We have conceived QS WorldClass SHOWCASE at a time when Asian universities are rising in world rankings and recognition. Like QS-APPLE (QS Asia Pacific Professional Leaders in Education) and QS WorldClass, SHOWCASE meets the need of the time in Asia.

We have secured the services of one of the world’s top education journalists, John O’Leary, former editor of Times Higher Education and co-author of QS Top Universities Guide. For the 2010 edition of SHOWCASE, John has interviewed the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato’ Sri Najib Razak, for his views on higher education development in his country and in Asia.

While Asia’s leading higher education institutions may increasingly be ‘snapping at the heels’ of their Western counterparts, their peers in American, European, African and Australasian institutions may not be familiar with their academic achievements, research breakthroughs, innovations and international expansion. QS Asia recognizes this need and intends to fill it with SHOWCASE. Its name says it all.

As befitting an exclusive top-level publication of its stature, SHOWCASE will be launched officially at the 3rd QS WorldClass globalization seminar in April 2010 in the Malaysian island resort of Langkawi. The event will be attended by university presidents, vice-chancellors, deans, registrars and other senior administrators, as well as senior officials from the Ministries of Education in Asia.

This inaugural edition of SHOWCASE includes main articles based on interviews with leading luminaries of the academic world, including Professor Richard Levin, President of Yale University. We have also invited thought leaders in Asian higher education to share their perspectives and insights; their contributions are included in our special features. Next, we feature the academic and research achievements of Asian countries in their respective country sections, as articulated by academics and administrators whom we have invited to contribute their views.

SHOWCASE is published by QS Asia, the regional subsidiary of QS Quacquarelli Symonds, producer of the widely respected QS World University Rankings and QS Asian University Rankings. Their latest ranking results (top 200 universities) are included in this edition. QS’ stated mission is to enable motivated people around the world to fulfill their potential by fostering educational achievement, career development and international mobility.

This prestigious publication aims to present Asia’s best universities to the presidents of leading higher education institutions around the world. They are the top 500 universities featured in the latest QS World University Rankings, top 200 universities featured in the most recent QS Asian University Rankings, China’s 106 “Project 211” universities and the top 20 universities in India and the Middle East. In addition, SHOWCASE will be presented to the heads of state of G20 countries, ambassadors and high commissioners of 250 major diplomatic offices worldwide and the chief executives of the top 200 Asian corporations.

The 2010 edition of SHOWCASE has set the stage for an annual edition that will chart Asia’s progress in higher education for many years to come. Like QS-APPLE and QS WorldClass, SHOWCASE is also an idea going places. As the Middle East beckons and the rest of the world watches Asia’s relentless march onto the global stage, we have noted a sense of optimism and promise for the future among the many contributors who have so willingly shared their ideas and thoughts in SHOWCASE. I would very much like to express my heartfelt thanks and appreciation to them for their invaluable contributions and for helping to promote a better understanding of higher education in Asia in the international academic community.

The content of SHOWCASE will also be published online as an e-book, which may be freely accessed via web browsers. To ensure that it reaches the worldwide academic community, the e-book will be publicised via email sent to QS-APPLE’s database of some 65,000 senior academics and administrators in over 60 countries.

Mandy Mok Managing Director QS Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Singapore April 2010

SHOWCASE provides Asian higher education leaders with an unprecedented platform to share their achievements, strategies and philosophies with a distinguished audience of global thought leaders. They may choose

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Najib has high ambitions for Malaysia and a region on the rise The Prime Minister sees the development of top-quality universities as crucial to his country’s future and that of the whole of Asia. In an exclusive interview for QS WorldClass SHOWCASE, he tells John O’Leary of his determination to restore the momentum behind plans he initiated at the Education Ministry earlier in the decade. Few of the driving forces behind the rise of Asian higher education enjoy the power of Najib Razak. Having begun the modernisation of Malaysia’s universities as Minister for Education, he now has the chance to see the project through as Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister plainly feels that the steam has gone out of Malaysia’s higher education drive in recent years. “As Education Minister, I pursued it with a lot of zeal,” he says.“We established new universities, brought in more foreign students and were ahead of other countries in the sense that people hadn’t thought of having foreign universities with branch campuses.” Nottingham, Monash, Curtin and Swinburne all opened up in Malaysia.

During his five-year stint at the Education Ministry – which then encompassed universities as well as schools – Najib set an international agenda that was ahead of its time in many respects. Malaysian universities were given greater autonomy and Asia’s first branch campuses were welcomed into the country. His ambition – since echoed by counterparts elsewhere – was to make Malaysia an education “hub” for the region.

“But then there was a lull,” Najib says regretfully. “Things plateaued: there were no new universities and the focus was not there in terms of Malaysia as a hub. I hope now there will be a resurgence. There are efforts to resuscitate that goal and ambition.”

Now leading the government, as his father once did, he is determined to give that ambition fresh impetus and to help one or more of the country’s universities to join Asia’s assault on the upper echelons of the world rankings. He does not yet see the centre of academic power shifting eastwards, but he is optimistic about the future of the region’s top institutions.

The University of Newcastle upon Tyne is opening a branch campus and others are interested. There has also been a thorough review of higher education with new targets designed to give a clearer focus to Malaysian universities. Higher education plays an important role in the ‘Ninth Malaysia Plan’, an economic blueprint designed to boost Malaysia’s economic future. The plan covers five main areas, one of which is “to raise the capacity for knowledge and innovation and to nurture a first-class mentality”. One aim is to have 60 scientists, researchers or engineers for every 10,000 working Malaysians, for example. It is said that Malaysia currently has less than one fifth of that number.

Relaxed in his Parliamentary office, he is knowledgeable about international higher education and candid about the prospects for progress up the rankings. “It will take time for us to get there,” he says. “We might have to take some bold steps to short-circuit the process to climb up the ladder.” In Malaysia’s case, as in a growing number of countries around the world, that means trying to “pick winners” among the universities and provide the necessary support to propel them up the rankings. Germany has its €2.7bn Excellence Initiative, which includes enhanced funding for nine universities; China is to do the same with its C9 universities; Malaysia has its Apex programme.

The overall aim is to make Malaysia a “centre of higher education excellence” by 2020. There are ambitions to attract many more overseas students, with the Ministry of Higher Education setting up promotion centres in China, Dubai, Indonesia and Vietnam with this in mind. Regional student mobility is a growing trend throughout the world, but particularly in Asia. As well as setting out to take a bigger share of students from neighbouring countries, Malaysia is well placed to be a natural choice for students from Islamic countries in the Middle East and elsewhere.

Apex promises autonomy in finance, management, student selection, the setting of tuition fees and appointment to leadership positions. Nine universities sought the new status. So far, only Universiti Sains Malaysia has been granted Apex status, but the University of Malaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia have also been given the status of research universities, with extra funding associated with the title. The three would be the front-runners to join the Apex club if the government chose to expand the initiative.

Najib says: “The intention is to make a major transformation of our public universities so that they become much more competitive. But it is a plan that needs to be continued with some degree of enthusiasm and focus so that there will be continuous improvement.” Najib believes that successful universities are crucial to the development of Asian economies, but he insists that this need not mean a utilitarian approach to higher education. “Universities should follow altruistic

Najib says:“It is not just about the Apex programme, but there can’t be equal resources [for all universities] if we are going to compete internationally. Any extra funding will be based on merit. We are injecting that culture into the system more and more.”

Facing page: The Honourable Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Hj Abdul Razak, Prime Minister of Malaysia

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The government’s policy will continue to include support for many of the country’s best students to attend overseas universities to broaden their experience. But Najib knows there must be other improvements if talent is not to be lost to the country. “We must create a buzz to attract them back,” he says.“Young people are very mobile nowadays – they are global citizens. There is not enough cutting-edge research to excite the top brains.”

objectives and carry out basic research, but we must ensure that they are able to provide the right kind of quality manpower to achieve national aspirations. We want young people to be imbued with the right kind of skills and value systems. I don’t think we are talking about things that are democratically opposed to each other.” Like a number of Asian countries, Malaysia’s investment in education has been considerable – 6% of GDP in 2008, although the lion’s share necessarily went to schools. Najib says he is satisfied with the returns, but adds:“I would like to see more value and less emphasis on bricks and mortar, more on the intellectual capital of teaching and research. Employers still talk about skills gaps. It seems that whilst we have the numbers, we do not have the right kind of quality yet.”

Najib sees Malaysian higher education moving away from its British routes towards the American model. Although proud to be a Nottingham graduate, his own daughter is at Georgetown University, in Washington. “I would like education to be rather broad-based and flexible at first-degree level,” he says. “I like the fact that the US curriculum is always flexible and choices are made later on.”

The investment will continue as long as the Malaysian economy can support it. Although the country tipped into recession in 2009, it had begun to recover by the end of the year and the World Bank has forecast a return to growth rates close to the 6% average that Malaysia was enjoying before the global downturn.

But the Prime Minister’s aim is for a distinctively Malaysian system that can compete on the world stage. “We have got to accept that we cannot be exclusively Bahasa and English can be the main language of instruction for particular universities. But we must not lose our identity. With the right emphasis on quality, we can have both.”

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) is one of the country’s three research universities. It has been selected as the national centre for gifted and talented children in collaboration with the world-renowned John Hopkins University. Photo shows Prime Minister Najib viewing the master plan of the centre, which is being built on UKM’s Bangi campus.

Then Deputy Prime Minister Najib visiting University of Malaya during its 100th anniversary celebration in 2005. (Photo credit: University of Malaya)

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Beijing banks on C9 to break into higher education’s elite The nine members of the so-called ‘Chinese Ivy League’ will mount a concerted challenge to Western institutions in global rankings. Dr Zhou Zhong, of Tsinghua University’s Institute of Education, traces the background to the government’s ambitious initiative and assesses the implications both at home and overseas. teaching reform, and priorities for first-class university development in 2010-2015 were the most recent themes.

The C9 League represents the nine leading universities in mainland China that have committed themselves to world-class excellence. Often described as ‘China’s Ivy League’, the initiative is actually closer to the German Excellence Programme,which concentrates research resources in a small number of universities.

In addition, the annual conferences have established a de facto C9 association by promoting meetings between the presidents and senior administrators of these top universities. They have turned into a mechanism for discussions of national and international policies, strategy building and institutional development. They have also encouraged the growth of specialist networks covering all major aspects of university operation, including postgraduate education, academic affairs, finance and research.

Formally established in October last year, at the Seventh China Conference on First-class University Development, the C9’s origins can be traced back to Dr Zhou Zhong 1998, when the Chinese government used the centennial celebration of Peking University to launch Project 985. This project concentrated an unprecedentedly large amount of funding from central and regional governments to strengthen the best of China’s national research universities, with the aim of building world-class excellence.

Although the C9 group has a fixed membership, its annual conference is open to other universities. The 2009 conference had delegates from the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shaanxi provincial government and Xi’an municipal government, in whose territory it was held. Hong Kong University, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and the Chinese University of Hong Kong took part, as did representatives of the Australian Group of Eight universities.

The C9 group might have been wider. As far back as 2004, there was debate on whether to include the 30 new members that entered Project 985 in its second phase. This might have involved establishing a qualitybased league like that of the Association of American Universities (AAU), with regular accreditation of membership performance. But the Ministry of Education and the non-C9 universities did not embrace this proposal.

According to the founding Agreement, the C9’s main principle is to complement strengths and share resources. The eight main areas of mutual support identified in the document are: • Undergraduate credit recognition, exchange programmes, and collaboration in postgraduate education; • A C9 Summer School to engage students and young faculty in sharing the best academic resources; • Collaboration in teaching and learning enhancement, common courses and credit recognition and distance learning; • An annual conference of graduate schools with special reference to admissions processes, qualifications and programs; • Collaboration in young faculty development; • Development of the C9 website, and collaboration in doctoral thesis examination; • Collaboration in undergraduate professional and social practices; and • Collaboration in postgraduate education reform.

The C9’s annual conference has developed into an important forum for higher education development in China.The annual themes have included: the nature of the first-class university and faculty development; finance and research university development; teaching and learning; the national innovation system; university culture development; and the transition of Chinese higher education from a big to a strong system. Education and

With regard to undergraduate admissions, the C9 is in effect a league of 2+7. Tsinghua and Peking Universities face fierce competition from one another, but not from other institutions, to recruit China’s best secondary school graduates through the gaokao national examination. The latest form of collaboration is for the C9 to divide into two “camps’, led by Tsinghua and Peking respectively. Each allies itself with a few selected C9 and non-

In 2003, Tsinghua University initiated China’s annual conference on firstclass university development, which set the tone for subsequent meetings and for the C9 League itself. For the universities, the aim was to share experiences, theoretical and practical, of world-class university building and to promote mutual support. Politically, the intention was to persuade the government to make Project 985 sustainable – as it soon did with a second phase of the project.

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C9 universities to attract students to apply to them as a group instead of individually. Each camp sets out shared values and criteria through joint examinations and evaluations, so as to facilitate the applicants’ enrolment into its ally institutions. In addition, some of the remaining seven C9 members have developed undergraduate student exchange and credit recognition mechanisms. For example, universities in the cold northeast regions of China are planning student exchanges with the universities of the warm southern regions.

to become even stronger through the C9 alliance, do they plan to share their privileged resources with the rest of the Chinese higher education sector? In addition, some big universities that are not C9 members have risen rapidly in recognition, both nationally and internationally, posing a challenge to the privileged social position of the C9 members. This may cause others to regard the formal establishment of the C9 in 2009 as a means of safeguarding the C9 universities’ position. A more urgent issue is the future of Project 985 itself. The second phase of Project 985 was prolonged from the planned three years to five years from 2004 to 2009, with about as much funding as the first phase of three years in 1999-2002. It has become ever more urgent for the C9, the other 30 project universities and the Ministry of Education to secure the third phase of project funding from the central government. The formal establishment of the C9 group is regarded as an important signal which might help persuade the Chinese government to sustain its commitment to worldclass university building. After many painstaking efforts, the news came at the end of 2009 that Project 985 would continue into its third phase. China plans to announce its higher education development strategy for the coming decade in 2010. It is of great importance to Chinese universities and to society to see how the C9 is projected in this master plan to build Chinese higher education from a big system to a strong system.

The C9 also promotes itself internationally, especially with other associations of world-leading universities. In March 2009, the C9 and the Australian Group of Eight signed a formal memorandum establishing collaboration between their graduate schools. The main forms of collaboration are annual meetings of their graduate deans, joint efforts in doctoral programs, summer schools and short-term student exchanges. The establishment of C9 has been welcomed by Chinese public opinion. Its central idea of building world-class universities has been well supported by both government and society. But while there are few criticisms of C9, there are some concerns. One is about how to share the benefits of the C9 with other universities in China. And the other is how to make Project 985 sustainable. The context for the relationship between the C9 and other Chinese universities is one of rapid expansion in student numbers since 1999. This expansion has raised concerns for disparities in the quality of Chinese higher education. The challenge of the economic crisis to graduate employment has further highlighted this concern. This raises two major questions about the C9’s external relations. As these universities seek

My own university, Tsinghua, will be 100 years old in 2011. But this year will also be an important milestone for the C9, Project 985 and Chinese higher education as a whole. According to the QS World University Rankings, Tsinghua and Peking have already reached the world’s top 100. They have been highly placed since

Peking University is one of China’s top two universities and is ranked in the world’s top 100.

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the rankings were launched in 2004, in particular last year, when Tsinghua was placed 49th in the world and Peking 52nd. Even so, Tsinghua and perhaps Peking plan to publish a series of “hard data” in 2011 that will add credibility to their claim to be internationally recognized as world-class, both by China and around the world.

Dr. Zhong is a lecturer at the Institute of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing. She obtained her DPhil in Educational Studies and MSc in Comparative and International Education from University of Oxford, and BA in English Language and Literature from Peking University. Her research interests cover comparative and international education, history of education, and geography of education.

The C9 Profile Founded Location Student Faculty QS World population staff University (headcount) Rankings 2009 Peking University






Tsinghua University






Nanjing 1902 University

Nanjing, Jiangsu




Fudan University






Shanghai Jiaotong University






Xi’an Jiaotong 1896 University

Xi’an, Shaanxi




Zhejiang 1897 University

Hangzhou, 39,136 Zhejiang



University of 1958 Science and Technology of China

Hefei, Anhui 18,008



Harbin Institute 1920 of Technology

Harbin, 27,226 Heilongjiang



Tsinghua University is one of China’s C9 League universities.

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Full of Eastern promise: America sees academic challenge ahead Richard Levin is convinced that the leading universities of Asia will soon be challenging his own in global rankings. The Yale President tells John O’Leary that China and India will be long-term powers in higher education, but they are not the only countries with institutions capable of joining the global elite. Professor Levin’s lecture focused on China and India – China for its “staggering” progress and future plans for higher education; India for its potential and new-found ambitions. But he also sees universities of real quality in Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore. He named the University of Tokyo and Seoul National University as “flagship” national institutions, with Kyoto and Osaka close behind. In China, he singled out Peking and Tsinghua universities, in Beijing, with Fudan and Jiatong universities, in Shanghai, as institutions receiving sufficient support to make a breakthrough. Nanjing, Zhejiang and Xi’an Jiaotong were also capitalizing on the extra funding they receive from the Chinese government. But Professor Levin believes that matching the leading Western universities is not simply a question of resources or facilities, but also the culture of learning and an ability to attract and retain the best brains in the world in significant numbers. Freedom of expression and good (autonomous) governance – both lacking in parts of Asia – will need to be secured for the continent’s top universities to reach the next level. “There are areas of engineering and physical sciences with world-class work already,” he says.“But the very best universities are strong in most areas.”The initial emphasis - not unnaturally, given the link with economic development - has been on the sciences. But some of the leading universities are now strengthening their social sciences and humanities, with the aim of creating more rounded individuals, as well as more powerful institutions.

Professor Richard Levin (centre) with his students.

As the leader of one of the top universities in the world, Richard Levin is always on the look-out for potential partners or future rivals. In recent years, his attention has been focused more and more on Asia.

Professor Levin said in his lecture: “It is curious that while American and British politicians worry that Asia, and China in particular, is training more scientists and engineers than we are, the Chinese and others in Asia are worrying that their students lack the independence and creativity to drive the innovation that will be necessary to sustain economic growth in the long run. They fear that specialization makes their graduates narrow and traditional Asian pedagogy makes them unimaginative. Thus, they aspire to strengthen their top universities by revising both curriculum and pedagogy.”

The President of Yale University does not think that the leading Asian institutions are ready yet to challenge America’s (or Europe’s) finest. “It took centuries for Harvard and Yale to achieve parity with Oxford and Cambridge,” he says. But he is convinced that it will be a small number of decades, rather than centuries, before some of the universities at the top of the global rankings are from Asia.

The fact that so many outstanding Asian students have experienced a different form of pedagogy at Western universities – and gone on to become academics themselves – will accelerate the pace of change, as long as they can be attracted home. Professor Levin has noted that the process is well under way in China, where mid-career scholars and scientists in tenured positions in the US and the UK have been attracted by greatly improved working conditions and the opportunity to play a part in China’s rise.

Interviewed on a recent visit to London to address this very subject in a lecture to the Higher Education Policy Institute, Professor Levin was candid about the ground that he believes even the leading Asian universities will have to make up to challenge some of those in the West. But he thinks that the speed of their progress, the willingness to invest and determination to succeed will ensure that the gap is closed sooner rather than later. 14 Yale P14-P16.indd 1

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India, too, is beginning to have more success in drawing on its diaspora, Professor Levin says. He regards the country as an anomaly in higher education terms because of its failure to develop strong institutions despite producing so many brilliant scientists and other researchers. But he sees the current Indian government’s ambitions, which include growth in postsecondary enrolment from 12 to 30% by 2020, as highly significant. He believes that India will have to be more selective in the number of elite universities it plans to develop – 14 in the most recent proposals. But, as the world’s largest democracy on its way to becoming the most populous nation and eventually perhaps the second-largest economy, Professor Levin thinks it is only a matter of time before the country makes its mark in global rankings. The investment required to repatriate the Asian diaspora will be sustained because the continent’s emerging nations are conscious of the link between indigenous research capacity and economic growth in a postindustrial knowledge economy. Professor Levin says they see universitybased research as the most effective driver of scientific discovery that will lead to new technologies. Building world-class research universities requires a critical mass of highquality scholars and scientists. In the sciences, this means first-class research facilities, adequate funding to support research, and competitive salaries and benefits. Professor Levin has seen China making substantial investments on all three fronts, with Shanghai’s top universities – Fudan, Shanghai Jiaotong and Tongji – all developing well-equipped new campuses located close to industrial partners. Another prerequisite for the establishment of world-class higher education, in Professor Levin’s view, is the competitive allocation of research funding. Too often, he says, political or commercial considerations hold sway and basic research suffers. In China, for example, only about 5% of research and development spending go to basic research, compared to 10 to 30% in most OECD countries. “Expressed as a share of GDP, the US spends seven times as much on basic research as China,” he says. Nevertheless, he acknowledges the progress that China in particular has made in research, quadrupling the number of articles in science and engineering so that only the US, UK, Germany and Japan produce more. But he sees more to be done in the sphere of university governance, the last of his requirements for a world-class university. He notes that the issue of governance was under review by the Chinese education ministry, but he argues that university presidents and their senior academic colleagues need control over appointments and other key policy decisions if they are to achieve their academic goals. During his tenure as President of Yale University, Professor Levin has prioritised internationalisation. His three-pronged strategy involves preparing Yale’s students for leadership in an increasingly interdependent

On Yale University’s campus.

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world, attracting top students and academics from outside the US, and positioning Yale as a “global university of consequence”. Among Yale’s many international partnerships, those with Fudan and Peking Universities are among the most substantial. Asia is also one of the destinations of choice for the 85% of the university’s students who now spend time abroad as part of their course. With Professor Levin’s growing familiarity with Asian universities has come great respect for their achievements. He said in his London lecture: “If the emerging nations of Asia concentrate their growing resources on a handful of institutions, tap a worldwide pool of talent, and embrace freedom of expression and freedom of inquiry, they have every prospect of success in building world-class universities.” So should the West regard the rise of Asian universities as a threat or an opportunity? Professor Levin’s verdict is that, like other forms of globalisation, it is a “positive sum game”. His conclusion is: “Everyone benefits from the exchange of ideas, just as everyone benefits from the free exchange of goods and services.” Richard C. Levin is the longest-serving Ivy League president and is recognized as one of the leaders of American higher education. Prior to assuming Yale’s presidency in 1993, he was Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. He chaired Yale’s Economics Department and has been a member of the university’s faculty since 1974.

Tsinghua University was singled out by the president of Yale University as one of China’s top institutions.

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Japan’s top universities sharpen their international focus Michinari Hamaguchi, President of Nagoya University, says higher education must respond to globalisation and the IT revolution. The Nagoya University President believes that teaching in English will help to attract more overseas students and encourage further reform to re-invigorate the nation’s seats of learning without sacrificing traditional strengths. Japanese society is undergoing transformative changes amidst a wave of IT growth and globalization.Even the “once-in-a-century” recession of two years ago seems merely a ripple in this massive swell. The world is fused together with a unifying economic system and the speed of change has accelerated dramatically. As a result, the impact of a single firm can reverberate in all corners of the world almost instantaneously, as we experienced with the collapse of Lehman Brothers. A university, insofar as it is a bastion of intellect, cannot remain isolated from this rapidly changing and ever shrinking world. Globalization inevitably demands the standardization, massification, and marketization of universities.The rapid development of IT has produced a flood of information, flattened bodies of knowledge, and made information exchange fluid and instantaneous. Many established Japanese universities must adapt to these monumental changes if they are to thrive. Nagoya University, for example, has developed a Strategy for Globalization that does not end merely with the internationalization of the student body and existing constituents. Rather, it is an effort that starts with a paradigm shift regarding the purpose of education and research as we question existing practices to examine its viability in today’s global community. Japan has set a target to draw 300,000 international students to its universities by the year 2020. With the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) currently making major investments in 13 selected universities, including Nagoya, the internationalization of Japan’s higher education (the Project for Establishing Core Universities for Internationalization, or the “Global 30 Project”) marches forth unimpeded. The then Prime Minister Fukuda proposed a new target in 2008 because Japan had achieved the prior goal of 100,000 international students by 2000. The initiative was approved in July 2009 in the form of the “Global 30 Project”, which in essence was to have 30 selected universities internationalize their campuses and to be largely accountable for the target of 300,000 international students by 2020. Earlier this year, with the change of the government, the new Hatoyama administration indicated that the initial plans for 30 universities would be scaled down to the 13 selected in the first round of the project. From 2009, the 13 selected universities will receive extra government funding for five years to internationalize their campuses. Internationalization 17 Yale P17-P19.indd 1

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will include offering undergraduate and graduate degree programs taught in English, upgrading key student services functions such as the admissions and career development offices to standards of world-class universities, and establishing collaborations with universities outside Japan leading to dual or joint degrees.

major reforms with our Japanese courses for international students. We are looking to create a Japanese language curriculum that does not end with conversational and academic Japanese courses. Rather, we are actively developing functional courses more appropriate for the work environment, such as Business Japanese.

The 13 universities will also institute an academic calendar that will have an autumn intake and will upgrade teaching standards, particularly at the undergraduate level. Like the top US research intensive universities, Japanese national universities have been bastions of academic research with cutting-edge facilities headed by professors who have published in the leading journals of the world. However, this has come at the expense of teaching and many of the selected universities are using the Global 30 Project as a catalyst to upgrade their teaching standards.

We are also planning to further strengthen student services that will help students better adjust to both the community and business world. My vision is to use this multi-faceted approach of both Japanese language education and student support services to deepen connections with, and understanding of, the nation of Japan. As we roll out these initiatives, my hope is that international students are able not only to assimilate, but to appreciate and value the unique customs and traditions of Japan, so that they can contribute effectively at both the national and global levels at any organizations they choose to affiliate with.

At the centre of the project is the increase in the number of classes taught in English, with the addition of whole English language-only degree programs. Currently, prospective students who aspire to study at a Japanese university often have to abandon their ambition because they are required to have close to native-level Japanese proficiency prior to application. The goal in removing the Japanese language barrier is to attract wellqualified international students to research fields such as in the science and technology that have been the pride of Japan. These new courses are designed not only for international students but also for Japanese students with superior English skills, ultimately to promote multicultural exchange among international and Japanese students, faculty and other staff.

Having produced four Nobel Prize winners - the most of any Japanese university in the 21st century - Nagoya University continues to play a major role in the development of science and technology. Furthermore as an institute of higher learning in the Chubu region - a hub for myriad multinational manufacturers such as Toyota Motor Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Nagoya University has played an integral role for technological developments generating new innovations, while cultivating a core talent pipeline that supports Japanese industry. As we widen our focus from the region of Nagoya to the nation of Japan, we see declining birth rates coupled with an ageing population and the mounting of massive fiscal debt. Perhaps we will proceed down a path in which the strength of a nation is perpetuated through immigration as has been the case with the United States, France and numerous developed nations. Today’s youths will live in this challenging future. While focusing on this future for Japan, I remain confident we can map out an effective medium to long-term vision to continue to make meaningful educational reforms while preserving our traditions.

At Nagoya, we are also planning to include Japanese language courses, as well as cultural and functional courses that will help international students assimilate more easily into Japanese society, and later into the workforce. While establishing this English-based degree program, we are also making

Professor Hamaguchi was born in 1951 and graduated from the Nagoya University School of Medicine in 1975, and subsequently obtained MD and PhD degrees at the Graduate School of Medicine. He worked as a researcher in the Laboratory of Molecular Oncology of The Rockefeller University before returning to Nagoya as a professor in the School of Medicine. He became Dean of the School of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, and in 2009, assumed the position of President of Nagoya University. He has served on the board of trustees of the Japan Cancer Association, the Japanese Biochemical Society, and the Japanese Society for Virology. As a specialist of tumour biology, he continues with his research on the structures and functions of cancer-critical genes, as well as the tumour-specific proliferation control mechanisms and the infiltration and displacement control mechanisms of cancer cells, with the aim of developing a new concept in cancer treatment that efficiently inhibits the signaling system of cells.

Nagoya University is one of the institutions selected as global centres under Japan’s Global 30 Project.

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Global 30 Project The 13 universities selected as global centres are: • Tohoku University • University of Tsukuba • University of Tokyo • Nagoya University • Kyoto University • Osaka University • Kyushu University • Keio University • Sophia University • Meiji University • Waseda University • Doshisha University • Ritsumeikan University Each university will receive between 200 and 400 million yen per annum over the next five years to recruit between 3,000 and 8,000 international students. It is expected that 33 undergraduate courses and 124 graduate courses to be taught in English only will be established over that period. The scheme also covers enhanced systems for receiving and hosting international students, courses in Japanese language and culture, and the promotion of international collaboration. View of the Izumi campus of Meiji University, another university selected for Japan’s Global 30 Project.

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On the move - migrating Asia’s top standards to the Red Sea Choon Fong Shih is hoping to repeat the successes he enjoyed at the National University of Singapore in his new role as President of the world’s wealthiest new foundation. He tells John O’Leary of his hopes for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia, and assesses the prospects for those he left behind. Development will be uneven across the continent, he says, but there will be pockets of excellence, especially in science and technology. He names Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, China and India as the likely locations, with at least ten universities as candidates for world-leading status. There is a long lead time, Professor Shih says, for universities that aspire to such heights. Often the work that lead to a Nobel Prize is started in the winner’s twenties and thirties, only to be recognized 30 years later.“I believe some great science and engineering has started in Asia.” “The rate of change in scientific development is pretty flat in the US and Europe,” he says.“By contrast, the scale of investment in scientific personnel and projects is very high in Asia, especially in China and India. US supremacy has been based on foreign talent, but nowadays there is suspicion of foreign talent and Asia is in a position to reap huge advantages.” Professor Shih also sees the effects of recession in the US and Europe playing into Asia’s hands. “When the dotcom bubble burst, NUS managed to recruit many people from the US who contributed to the success of the university. The same can happen again.”

Professor Choon Fong Shih, President of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.

Choon Fong Shih had it all as President of the National University of Singapore (NUS). Lauded in his homeland for leading NUS into the world’s top 30, he enjoyed a comfortable lifestyle and was a significant figure in global higher education.

“The funding for research has to come from economic growth,” he says. “There is 8-9% growth in several Asian countries, which in turn will create the funds necessary to promote research universities.”

But which vice-chancellor could turn down the chance to build a worldclass university from scratch, with the aid of one of the world’s biggest endowments? At the age of 63, Professor Shih became the founding President of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 50 miles north of Jeddah on the Red Sea, in Saudi Arabia.

“The top Asian universities not only have great science and engineering,” he says.“They are also very internationalised because in Asia we do not see boundaries between researchers. That will contribute to their rise.” Professor Shih also believes that generally flexible attitudes in Asia will serve the region’s universities well. Academics there not only see teaching and research as synergistic, but are more comfortable with an entrepreneurial role.“Some academics are natural entrepreneurs, but they are a minority in the West,” he says. “Many still have an ‘ivory tower’ mentality that does not exist in Asia.”

“It was the opportunity of a lifetime,” he says in an interview for QS WorldClass SHOWCASE. “There were significant resources to build a global university and I felt the time had come for me to move on.” Professor Shih is optimistic about the development of Asian higher education. “The world is not static,” he says. “The legendary ice hockey player Wayne Gretky said ‘I do not go to where the puck is. I go to where it is going to be’. The puck is moving to Asia, although it may take two or three decades. By 2020-30, many, or at least several, of the leading research universities will be located in Asia.”

Not surprisingly, Professor Shih sees NUS as a good model for other Asian universities seeking to make an impression on the world stage. “We recruited top talents worldwide and there was a change of mindset from parochial to global. We defined and measured excellence through global 20

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not believe in bureaucracy or regulation – we are very outcome-oriented.” Already there are research partnerships with some of the world’s top universities, including Oxford, Yale and Harvard. There are 42 partnerships in all. Modelled on the California Institute of Technology, the aim is to grow gradually, eventually adding new subjects as well as more researchers. Economics, management and finance would all be candidates to add to the highly focused curriculum.

metrics. There is always some resistance but there were no exceptions. We support, reward and celebrate excellence, and in some areas NUS is now world-class. In nine years, he took NUS into partnerships with some of the world’s top universities, founding the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and securing a place in the prestigious International Alliance of Research Universities. Since the QS World University Rankings were first published in 2004, NUS has only once been out of the top 30.

KAUST is intended to be a hub for the Middle East, drawing in talent from the region as well as the rest of the world. Professor Shih says: “We hope to have a catalytic effect, so that in five to ten years the success of KAUST will rub off and other universities will want to emulate us.

“By the time I left, we had significant numbers of top-notch academics,” Professor Shih says. “My experiences at NUS will be very helpful in this role and there is no reason why the university should not go further. We had a long-term strategy on recruitment and retention that will pay off.”

“Up to now, Saudi universities have been very focused on the local agenda. But in science and technology, either you win on a global scale or you do not win. That will require a change of mindset in the Middle East, which we hope to bring.”

The expectations at KAUST will be even higher, with an estimated $10 billion endowment intended to produce results by 2020, when the objective is a place among the top ten science and technology universities. At the same time, KAUST will be expected to contribute to the diversification and strengthening of the Saudi economy through its research and commercialization activities.

He says: “It is a truly exceptional academic environment. We will need to bring in some senior people, but I believe more in home-grown talent. Young researchers can come to us for three years and receive $3 million research support. Where else in the world would a young researcher find that kind of money as a research package?”

Professor Shih explains: “King Abdullah sees KAUST as the continuation of the great scientific traditions of Islam’s golden age. The House of Wisdom attracted the very best minds of the time and he wants KAUST to be the new House of Wisdom.” As a result, the university enjoys a unique status in Saudi Arabia, as the country’s only co-educational higher education institution. Women are even allowed to drive within the confines of the ultra-modern campus. There are other innovations, however: there are no departments and a resolutely open plan layout – no “silos”, in Professor Shih’s words. Scientists and engineers work side by side and without tenure. Instead, they work to (lucrative) five-year contracts with top-class support for their research. Young researchers are particularly welcome. Professor Shih says: “We offer a long runway for their careers doing cutting-edge research to take off. There is long-term funding available to take on the major questions in science and engineering. We do not bring in timid individuals. People who come here are scientifically and culturally adventurous – they are risk-takers.” “We are looking at the big questions of the environment and food supply,” Professor Shih says. One project is to turn desert into arable land. Researchers are developing crops that can grow in hot, arid climates and brackish water. Another project uses solar energy to turn seawater into clean water.” The wealth of the university allows it to cut through the bureaucracy found elsewhere. Professor Shih says: “Many researchers in Europe are spending a lot of time writing proposals, hampered by over-regulation. At KAUST, we do

King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia sees his university as the continuation of the great scientific traditions of Islam’s golden age.

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In the long term, despite its enormous endowment, KAUST will have to be run sustainably. The university is already working with companies such as Dow and will be looking for additional sources of income. But for the moment, Professor Shih remains the envy of university presidents around the world, as he builds an institution to rival others that have taken centuries to reach the same point. Professor Choon Fong Shih is the founding President and Professor of Electrical Engineering at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, taking office in December 2008. He has a doctorate from Harvard University and worked in US higher education and research for 30 years before returning to the National University of Singapore, where he was President and Vice-Chancellor from 2000 to 2008. Professor Shih is chairman emeritus of the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and was among the founders of the International Alliance of Research Universities, which links ten of the world’s leading research universities and spans four continents. He is a foreign associate of the US National Academy of Engineering and a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

View of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). (Photo credit: KAUST)

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Korean universities can make their mark on the world stage Jang-Moo Lee tells Martin Ince that his country is depending for its future prosperity on the human resources produced by the higher education system. As President of Seoul National University, he is addressing the global problem of the most talented students being lured away from science and engineering. Yet it is also true that highly talented Korean students are being lured away from the natural sciences and engineering. To cope with this challenge, the efforts of universities alone will not be sufficient. Heightened awareness and support at the national and social levels will also be needed. The fear that too few students are studying science and engineering is expressed all over the developed world. It is a major social issue. Our approach begins by institutionalising a system that encourages young students who are highly talented in science to continue to pursue these academic interests as they move on from secondary to higher education. We must also make sure that graduates with BS degrees get good jobs and that there are employment incentives to create a workforce which is qualified in science and engineering. Co-operative measures by government, industry and academe to heighten social awareness of the importance of engineering, and its relevance to a sound economy, are vital. All three parties must work closely to achieve balance in the supply of and demand for scientists and engineers. We must also enhance convergent and interdisciplinary studies. The significance of thinking across frameworks - involving science and engineering in the arts and humanities and vice versa - is beyond words. It is vital to let students know that the demand for science and engineering goes beyond their own boundaries, and that their career opportunities are far greater than they realise. This is why SNU has recently established the Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, and the Advanced Institute for Convergence Technology.

Jang-Moo Lee, President of Seoul National University

Let’s think first about the Korean education system as a whole. Are Korean universities producing the right people for the next phase of the country’s development? In my view, too many Korean universities aspire to become researchorientated institutions. And their curricula are too identical. I believe that to produce global leaders who can contribute to the nation and to the international community, we should establish a system of higher learning that reflects external changes and provides us with insights into the future. This means that each university must endeavour to secure areas in which it can excel.

How confident are you that the government will protect Korean universities from the current world economic downturn? It is the duty and responsibility of the government to extend its support to the higher education system. SNU and its fellow universities in Korea expect consistent support from the government. In 2009, the government launched the World Class University (WCU) program with a budget of approximately US$120 million per year. The aim is to invite world-renowned scholars to pursue their research and teaching in Korea. SNU has been allocated more projects within this program than any other institution.

Does Korea have a large enough higher education system for the needs of a growing high-technology nation? The fact that 84% of high school graduates advance to college means that university education is almost universal and vibrant in Korea. Specifically, substantial weight is accorded to engineering in Korean college education. The development of Korean industry has depended on the competent engineers that Korean colleges have produced.

The Korean economy has shown relatively strong figures during the current world economic downturn, and the government acknowledges that our future depends on the quality of the human resources produced by the higher education system. 23

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How can Korean universities be more attractive to international students? Many foreign students find Korea attractive and are willing to pursue their degrees in Korean universities. But to meet this demand, Korean universities should take further steps to globalize themselves. The number of classes given in foreign languages, and the number of foreign faculty and staff, must be multiplied, and more measures should be taken to improve both on- and off-campus living for foreign students. How many world-ranked universities will Korea be able to have? There are a number of outstanding universities in Korea, such as Yonsei University and Korea University, to name just a couple besides SNU. Considering the amount of energy Korean institutions are putting into promoting their names in the global arena, the prospect that Korean universities will hold top ranks in the near future seems promising. Does Korean higher education have unique problems, or are they shared with Japan, Taiwan and other East Asian nations? Korean families spend a huge amount of their household income in the private education market, because parents feel that public education may not be sufficient for their children to compete in our highly competitive college admission system. This reality has imposed a unique obligation upon Korean universities, particularly SNU, whose students are from the most selective pool, to pursue excellence on the one hand and the principles of equity and diversity on the other. It is the latter that makes Korean universities unique in comparison to those of other Asian countries. Another distinguishing feature is Korean students’ frequent desire to go abroad and to pursue their studies in other world-renowned institutions. Turning now to other Asian universities, do you think that China will turn from a source of international students into a country that attracts them, from elsewhere in Asia and from around the world? Having been at the centre of Asia for many centuries, China is known for its rich cultural heritage. And now, China also boasts rapid economic growth. So I expect the number of international students willing to study in China to increase gradually. More generally, what does the rise of China mean for Korea’s position in the world of science, technology and culture? As the Chinese economy booms, SNU acknowledges that there will be a need to foster more exchange programs with Chinese universities. I believe other Korean universities will take measures to pursue strategic ties with their Chinese counterparts as well.

The vibrant campus life of Seoul National University is also reflected in the international profiles of its students. (Photo credit: Seoul National University)

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What do you think of the potential emergence of new and well-funded universities in the Middle East?

the autonomy and flexibility of the institution is an absolute priority. For this reason, we are in the process of transforming our legal and institutional status into a corporation, which will make us administratively independent from the government. Under the current law, SNU needs the Ministry of Education’s approval for every administrative action, including hiring a member of faculty or even a staff member. This means that we are subject to too many restraints.

The fact that oil-producing countries in the Middle East are focusing resource on college education testifies that the global community is taking a step toward a knowledge-based society. With generous support from their governments, the prospects for universities in the Middle East are promising, and their growth potential seems to be without boundaries. This growth can be achieved on a firm foundation of national enthusiasm for higher education.

However, this does not mean that SNU will give up its position as a national university, or the social responsibilities which its status entails. Instead, our intention is to transform our legal and organisational status to help us enhance our global competitiveness. The recent change in status of the National University of Singapore is a good precedent.

SNU has already initiated relations with King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia and is looking forward to extending its ties with other Middle East universities.

Professor Jang-Moo Lee, a mechanical engineer by background, has been president of Seoul National University (SNU) since 2006. A frequent spokesman for Korean universities, Professor Lee was chairman of the Korean Council for University Education in 2007/2008. He has been responsible for a significant internationalisation of SNU’s faculty, programs and student body. SNU is Korea’s best-regarded university on the world stage, and was 47th in the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings.

Are Asian nations represented adequately in existing ranking systems? Will there be more of them there in five years’ time? Universities in Asia, including the universities of Korea, are showing great progress thanks to state support and their people’s enthusiasm for education. In the coming years, we will see many Asian universities achieving worldclass standards. Lastly, some questions about SNU itself. How do you see SNU’s position in Korean higher education? We are the first national institution of higher education, and Korea’s flagship university. SNU has played the leading role in Korean higher education overall and in the development of Korean society, in particular by providing excellent human resources to various sectors of the Korean economy and Korean national life. In the business sector, 26% of the ten leading companies’ CEOs are SNU alumni. In the political sector, 157 of 299 members of the National Assembly are SNU graduates. In the academic sphere, SNU has produced 56% of the members of the National Academy of Science. According to the International Professional Ranking of Higher Education Institutions produced in 2009 by the Ecole des Mines in Paris, SNU ranks fifth in the world for the number of its graduates working as CEOs of the top 500 global companies. Some of our celebrated alumni include SecretaryGeneral Ban Ki-Moon of the United Nations and Judge Song Sang-Hyun, President of the International Criminal Court. What are the big challenges that you face every day? The most crucial task is to secure outstanding faculty and to enhance interdisciplinary communication and co-operation by lowering barriers between disciplines. More particularly, the task I face at the present moment is to further promote globalisation that can serve as a foundation for our leap towards becoming a world-class university. For that purpose, securing

Yonsei University is another outstanding Korean university. It celebrates its 125th anniversary this year. (Photo credit: Yonsei University)

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Illuminating the Way - Ingenuity and Innovation in Academia countries. To these students, SNU promises and delivers the finest in higher education. It will serve as their bedrock as they go on to launch careers as global leaders, following in the footsteps of such luminaries and SNU alumni as Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Song Sang-Hyun, Judge and President of the International Criminal Court, and the late Dr Lee Jong-Wook, former Director-General of the World Health Organization.

Emerging as a Premier Institution With “Vision 2025,” Seoul National University (SNU) has endeavoured to undertake innovative projects specifically designed for the globalization of the institution. Efforts to globalize SNU have culminated in the recruitment of distinguished scholars and the hosting of the Global University Presidents’ Summit. These developments earned SNU accolades in the world’s top university guides. SNU was ranked 25th in peer review and 47th in the overall ranking in the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings. Additionally, the 2009 International Professional Ranking of Higher Education Institutions placed SNU in 5th place in the number of graduates who are chief executive officers of the world’s top 500 companies. Thinking across Frameworks Recently, over 60 renowned scholars, including

Heisuke Hironaka, a famed mathematician and Fields Medal recipient, joined SNU’s faculty to share their knowledge and expertise. This Brain Gain is supported by Brain Nurture, a program that honours faculty members with endowed chairs and other special positions for their outstanding research. Notable beneficiaries include Professors Ihm Ji-Soon, Hyun Taek-Hwan and Kim V. Narry. Aware that an interdisciplinary approach, or Brain Fusion, is indispensable for academic breakthroughs, SNU allocated resources towards convergence studies, as seen in the recent establishment of the Graduate School of Convergence Science & Technology and the Advanced Institute for Convergence Technology.

Seoul National University 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Korea 151-742 Phone: 82-2-880-2555 Fax: 82-2-876-5480 Email:

Engaging the World SNU’s realm of influence goes beyond domestic borders. With its various exchange programs and financial aid packages, SNU presently is home to over 2,500 foreign students from 88

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Future of international higher education after the global crisis By Professor Nigel Healey Pro-Vice-Chancellor (International) University of Canterbury New Zealand Table 1: Source regions of international students (2006)

The global higher education sector has expanded rapidly over the last two decades. Over three million students now study at universities outside their home countries. For universities in the so-called ‘developed world’, especially in the English-speaking countries, foreign students have become a vital source of revenue, with domestic student numbers either publicly controlled or domestic tuition fees regulated at below-market rates.

Asia Latin America North America Sub-Saharan Unspecified Total and Western Africa Europe 1,055,459 168,231











Source: UNESCO Global Education Digest 2009

Seen in longer-term perspective, international student mobility is not a new phenomenon. For at least a century, the world’s elites have been willing to send their children overseas to pay for an exclusive education, whether in French universities or Swiss finishing schools for girls. In the post-war era, governments have sought to attract international students, either for altruistic reasons to support economic development in developing countries (eg, the Colombo Plan) or for geo-political ends, to build alliances with future political leaders. The latter driver was especially powerful during the Cold War, where the US and the USSR offered generous financial support to students from contested parts of the world, notably the African continent.

Many commentators have assumed that the interaction of rapid economic growth and demographics will continue to drive the demand for foreign higher education in the major source countries of the developing world - primarily China and India. This article challenges this orthodox view. It argues that significant structural changes were already underway before the current “global financial crisis” transformed public balance sheets across the world. Extrapolating these changes against a background of constrained public support for universities in the developed world suggests that the “perfect storm” which has shaped recent trends in international higher education may be blowing itself out, to be replaced by a new world order.

More recently, international student mobility has been encouraged by governments with ageing populations as a way of increasing the inflow of skilled migrants. At the same time, universities have looked overseas in search of the most talented postgraduate students, to provide the labour to support laboratory-based research teams. In the US, the leading universities have long provided scholarships for foreign PhD students, in the interest of maintaining a vital research culture in science and technology. These long-term factors, however, do not explain the recent surge in international student mobility, which instead results from a ‘perfect storm’ of demand and supply factors.

Growth of higher education As Figure 1 shows, the number of university students studying abroad has grown rapidly, increasing three-fold between 1985 and 2006, from 0.9m to 2.9m. Table 1 illustrates the geographic distribution of international students by region, highlighting the importance of Asia as a source of students, with almost half the total (48.2%). Figure 1: The international higher education market

The demand side

Long-term growth in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship

1975 0.6M

1980 0.8M

1985 0.9M

1990 1.2M

1995 1.3M

2000 1.9M

The demand side originates in the fast-growing developing countries, of which China and India are the best examples. The demand for higher education is driven by:

2006 2.9M

a) Population demographics - rapid population growth means that there are increasing numbers of young people entering the 18-25 age group;

Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008

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b) Per capita growth of gross domestic product (GDP) - higher education is a ‘superior’ good, so that as household incomes increase, the demand grows disproportionately;

The paradox of democratisation is that, while an intended public policy goal, it creates unsustainable financial tension. Mass higher education is invariably either publicly provided or publicly subsidised. Rising participation rates lead to budgetary pressure on the taxpayer subsidies to higher education, resulting in falling per capita subsidies to universities. Australia, New Zealand and the UK have all been forced to introduce domestic tuition fees to allow universities to compensate for declining public subsidies, but these tuition fees have been politically sensitive and highly regulated.

c) Income distribution - for any given level of per capita income, the more unequal the income distribution, the larger the size of the ‘middle class’ with the ability to pay for higher education; and d) The knowledge economy - as countries develop and integrate into the global knowledge economy, higher education becomes increasingly pivotal to a successful career.

Taxpayer subsidies for international students, on the other hand, were eliminated very early in the process, with universities allowed to charge full cost-recovery fees for this group of students. In so doing, governments, wittingly or unwittingly, made international students more financially attractive to universities than domestic students.

Over the last two decades, with the end of the Cold War and the liberalisation of China and India, these drivers have combined to massively boost the demand for higher education in the developing world. And because of the lead times in building greater domestic capacity, the demand by those with the ability to pay has ‘spilled over’ to the universities in the developed world. Rapid GDP growth plays a particularly important role, fuelling both the demand for higher education and the ability to pay for that education from an overseas provider.

Boom and bust? The rapid growth in demand for international higher education from developing countries met a welcoming supply-side response from universities in the developed world, which expanded international enrolments quickly for financial motives. By the early years of the last decade, influential agencies like Australia’s IDP and the British Council were extrapolating these trends into the future, to predict up to eight million international students by 2025.

The supply side Within the developed world, the last two decades have seen the ‘democratisation’ of higher education, sometimes termed ‘massification’ - that is, the shift from a small elite university system to a mass higher education sector, catering for a wider ability range from across a much broader socio-economic spectrum of students. Table 2 shows participation rates in higher education, using UNESCO’s ‘Gross Tertiary Enrolment Rate’ as a proxy, for selected developed and developing countries. It shows the extent of such democratisation in the main English-speaking developed countries.

There are, however, structural changes taking place which cast considerable doubt on these forecasts. On the demand side, there has been an unprecedented expansion of higher education in many developing countries, both in terms of the number of places and the quality of institutions. At the same time, consumers in these markets are becoming increasingly sophisticated and selective in their choice of overseas institution, using league tables like the QS World University Rankings or the Shanghai Jiaotong World University Rankings to guide their decisionmaking. Lower-status universities in the UK and Australia have had to increasingly differentiate themselves in terms of student support and pastoral care to continue to attract international students.

Table 2: Gross tertiary enrolment rates (2006) US


New Zealand















9% (2000 latest data)

On the supply side, the landscape is also changing fast. Under the ‘Bologna’ process, some 45 countries across Europe and the former USSR have standardised their degree structures on the ‘Anglo-Saxon’ bachelormaster-PhD model. Many more countries outside Europe have followed suit, seeking greater harmonisation with the new global standard. One consequence of this change is that, with greater mobility between first, second and third degree cycles, an increasing number of universities are offering programs in English to increase their ability to compete for students. Universities in Continental Europe, now facing the same funding pressure from their governments, are beginning to charge full-cost international fees and exploit their ability to attract English-speaking students from the developing world.

Source: UNESCO Global Education Digest 2008

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Table 3: GDP forecasts for selected countries

Asian universities, like Nanyang Technological University (above), are increasingly becoming more attractive to internationally mobile students. (Photo credit: Nanyang Technological University)

















































Source: IMF World Development Indicator 2009

Within Asia, historically the major source region for international students, the most advanced countries are beginning to mature from source to competitor countries as their higher education systems expand and mature. Hong Kong and Singapore, which sent thousands of students abroad to study in the 1980s and 1990s, are now homes to some of the most highly regarded universities in the world. Under its ‘Global Schoolhouse’ initiative, Singapore is seeking to become a regional hub for international education. Malaysia, Taiwan, Korea and Japan all have ambitious plans to increase the number of in-bound international students, either to generate revenue for the sector or, in the case of Japan, to attract young skilled migrants to combat its ageing population structure. For geo-political reasons, China is also investing in attracting international students to project its culture and language to match its growing economic stature.

The flow-on effects of a recession concentrated in the developed countries is that, through a number of channels, universities in countries like the US and the UK have been particularly severely impacted. Most profoundly, the scale of the fiscal stimulus packages required to avert the feared depression has created huge and persistent budget deficits. Correcting these fiscal imbalances will require cuts in public expenditure for years to come, with the public subsidies to universities being further eroded. In the US, where universities depend more heavily on endowments and alumni giving, both have slumped in the wake of record low interest rates and the recession. In the short term, the pressure on universities in the developed countries will intensify their reliance on international students and increase their marketing efforts. But in the medium term, a combination of sluggish recovery and inadequate resources is likely to constrain the capacity of universities in the ‘West’ to invest in research and new earning technologies, allowing Asian universities to catch up and, in many cases, overtake them.

The global financial crisis and beyond The current recession, characterised as the ‘global financial crisis’, began in the sub-prime mortgage markets of the US and triggered a credit crunch in the countries with banking systems most exposed to the ‘toxic’ sub-prime mortgage debt. Crucially, this negative economic shock was concentrated in the developed countries, most significantly the US and the UK, with the effects only transmitted to Asia through a slump in the demand for Asian exports. Table 3 shows the extent to which the global financial crisis is expected to disproportionately impact the developed world.

While recessions are, by their nature, cyclical, the current recession is different insofar as it will have a lasting negative impact on universities in developed countries, intensify competition for international students in the short term and accelerate the changing world order in higher education in the medium term, as the relative strength and attractiveness of Asian universities steadily increase.

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Conclusions International higher education has grown rapidly over the last two decades due to a ‘perfect storm’ of demand and supply factors, in which rapid demand growth within the fast-growing Asian economies has met with a receptive supply-side response from revenue-constrained Western universities. Structural changes in the landscape of global higher education have, however, been underway for some time, changing this pattern of development. Within Asia, there has been an expansion and maturing of domestic higher education systems. In Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore, for example, this process has transformed these countries from their traditional status as source markets into competitors for internationally-mobile students. In others, notably China, the rapid development of the domestic higher education system is choking off the outflow of students to foreign universities and increasingly attracting overseas students as the status of domestic universities grows. The current recession will undoubtedly cause short-term perturbations to the international higher education sector, as Western universities react to fiscal stress and compete more aggressively for international students. In the longer term, however, the financial difficulties being faced by universities in countries like the US and the UK, traditionally home to the majority of the world’s leading universities, will allow the universities of Asia to close the gap at an increasing rate, serving to accelerate the structural change to a new world order. By 2050, the rankings of the world’s top 100 universities may not just look very different from today; they are likely to be much more Asian.

China’s rapidly developing higher education system is increasingly attracting international students, as the status of its universities (like Tsinghua University, above) grows.

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Rankings: Bringing Asia out of the shadows Dr. Kevin Downing Senior Coordinator Academic Planning City University of Hong Kong Rising Asia In 2009, universities in Asia did particularly well in terms of their annual rise in the QS World University Rankings. For example, China now has six universities in the top 200, Hong Kong five, Taiwan one, Singapore two, Malaysia one, Thailand one, Japan 11 and South Korea four. Contrast this with the position just one year ago when the figures were China six, Hong Kong four, Taiwan one, Singapore two, Malaysia none, Thailand one, Japan ten and South Korea three. In other words, from these Southeast Asian countries alone another four universities have achieved world top 200 status with the accompanying advantages in terms of global brand exposure. This benefits the Asian higher education sector in general which, in the past, has tended to be underestimated on the global stage in favour of institutions from the UK or North America which, whilst they still dominate the top positions, are now aware they are under pressure from their Asian counterparts. This has led to benefits for faculty and students from these Asian higher education ‘tigers’ that are now recognized as coming from institutions that can compete with the very best globally. Whilst this has always been the case for a few of the very elite universities in the region, it is only in recent years that these few have been joined by the many first-class Asian universities. This also helps Asian institutions when they are seeking highquality faculty, students or strategic partnerships with overseas universities and consequently encourages global knowledge transfer. Asian institutions ranked in the global top 600 have also seen growing interest in regional rankings and are now beginning to compete with each other as they aspire to higher positions. All of this will further encourage interest in the QS World University Rankings in the Asian region, and is already leading to interest from even more neglected (in terms of recognition - yet well invested in terms of public funding) parts of the world like the Middle East. For example, some Saudi Arabian institutions featured in the global top 300 in 2009 and look set to rise still further.

Learning from other cultures - a globalised approach to the learning environment.

Are Asian institutions finally coming out of the shadow cast by their Western counterparts? At the recent 2010 World Universities Forum in Davos, an emerging theme was China’s increasing public investment in higher education at a time when reductions in public funding are being seen in Europe and North America. China is not alone in Asia in increasing public investment in higher education, with similar structured and significant investment evident in Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan (Marginson, 2010). Whilst in many ways this investment is not at all surprising and merely reflects the continued rise of Asia as a centre of global economic power, it nonetheless raises some interesting questions in relation to the potential benefits of rankings for Asian institutions. Interest in rankings amongst the Asian higher education sector is undoubtedly high and the introduction of the QS Asian University Rankings in 2009 has served to reinforce this. The publication of ranking lists is now greeted with a mixture of trepidation and relief by many university presidents, and is often followed by intense questioning from the media who are interested to know what lies behind a particular rise or fall on the global or regional stage.

Effective ranking systems help those often younger institutions with a rapidly developing research base, demonstrate that they are evolving and changing in ways which require their governments and other funding bodies to reassess their identified national role. In fact, this is the area where I would expect the QS rankings in particular to exert positive influence in Asia given their concentration on a broader range of criteria than their Shanghai Jiaotong counterparts. For example, if the same institutions remain in the top 100 or so, year after year with few newcomers as is the case with 34

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some ranking systems, this suggests that either the ranking system does not have sufficient discriminative validity, that universities don’t change much, or that they are complacent about their global role and practice. The criteria set for some rankings ensures that the stable of universities in the top 100 hardly changes over time and this offers little incentive for ambitious younger institutions to attempt to enter the elite top 100. On the other hand, we would expect that the well-funded elite would have the reputation and means to remain fairly well placed globally. Therefore, any ranking system must balance the recognition that long-established elite (often British or American) universities are likely to remain at or near the forefront of academic excellence with recognition that higher education is a dynamic global environment in which competition continues to be a key driver of institutional, local and regional advances.

systems currently in positions of relative global dominance. The oldest system, by one year, is that prepared by the Shanghai Jiaotong University (SJTU). This was first published in 2003, with the World University Rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) first being published in 2004. These rankings recognize the growing impact of the global environment on higher education systems and institutions, and the importance placed on some means of identifying institutional excellence by prospective ‘consumers’. Some of these consumers have the advantage of governmentfunded or subsidized opportunities to access higher education, whilst others will be spending their own hard-earned money on obtaining the best education possible for themselves or, more likely, their offsprings. In almost every other walk of life, we can make informed choices because we are provided with appropriate ways of assessing the quality of what we purchase, and consequently narrowing down the choice of products we wish to investigate further. The advent of rankings has made it easier for these individuals to access information about an institution as a whole that will assist with that choice.

A valid question Inevitably, given the increasingly global nature of higher education, academics continue to debate the nature and validity of rankings for higher education institutions (Brooks, 2005; Dill and Soo, 2005; Altbach, 2006). Most evidence, presented in favour of one or other viewpoint or ranking system, has concentrated on the validity of the ranking processes or criteria and, with a few exceptions (Marginson, 2007), has ignored the question of whether ranking in general is of some benefit in the global higher education sector. However, there is another more positive approach to rankings which argues that, whilst ranking systems might not always be objective or fair, they are nonetheless here to stay and (used sensibly) are an excellent way to drive positive changes within institutions that will eventually benefit both students and faculty. Rankings already exert substantial influence on the long-term development of higher education across the world (Marginson and van der Wende, 2007) with two ranking

Whilst it might not always provide information about the particular strengths and weaknesses of the disciplines and departments encompassed within any given higher education institution (HEI), at undergraduate level it is often the reputation and ranking of the HEI that will encourage further investigation. In fact, outside of academic circles (and in some cases inside as well), the strengths and weaknesses of particular departments or disciplines within an institution are often ignored in favour of recognizing that someone has a degree from a highly ranked university. Academics, students, their parents and employers recognize this, and as students become more globally mobile, the reputation of any HEI, contributed by its standing or ranking comparative to others, will continue to grow in importance. Generally speaking, we live in societies where competition is often regarded as a necessity in order to drive progress, and to continuously improve both the quality of products and the efficiency with which they are produced. Is higher education so different or remote from the real world that we are justified in arguing that we should not be subject to these universal forces? Of course not. In fact, research has been driven by competition for hundreds of years and mankind has nonetheless managed to innovate and thrive. Rankings systems and criteria encourage us to identify and engage in extensive benchmarking against institutions with a higher ranking than our own, providing some fascinating insights into how global peers tackle certain issues. Consequently, we can develop institutional systems which incorporate the best of benchmarked global practices, whilst ensuring these meet local requirements. This approach facilitates the identification of clear, agreed quantitative performance indicators for learning and teaching, globalization and research that can be assessed at departmental level and within colleges and schools.

A formal lecture in progress.

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employers, investors, alumni, students, job applicants and ourselves and, without some attempt at relatively objective criteria, it is difficult to identify which universities may qualify today, and how those institutions with real ambition might qualify tomorrow. Reliance on reputation alone is a recipe for stagnation and avoidance of healthy competition, and encourages potentially biased self-justification. All rankings inevitably invite criticism and it is often easier to concentrate on what is wrong with them, than try to identify how they might be used to bring about practical positive strategic change, which will benefit all stakeholders, not least the ultimate product of our endeavours, the quality of our graduates and our research output. Whilst rankings are necessarily imperfect and will always inspire debate, they are also currently inspiring and creating the opportunity for many Asian institutions to emerge from the long shadows cast by those in the West. References 1. Altbach, P. (2006). The dilemmas of ranking. International Higher Education, 42, 1-2. 2. Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for quality learning in university. (London: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press). 3. Brooks, R. (2005). Measuring university quality. Review of Higher Education, 29 (1), 1-21. 4. Dill, D., and Soo, M. (2005). Academic quality, league tables, and public policy: A cross-national analysis of university rankings. Higher Education, 49, 495-533. 5. Marginson, S. (2007). Global university rankings: Implications in general and for Australia. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 29 (2), 131-142. 6. Marginson, S., and van der Wende, M. (2007). To rank or be ranked: The impact of global rankings in higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11 (3/4), 306-329. 7. Marginson, S. (2010). Polar funding policies are closing the gap between East and West. Times Higher Education, 21-27 January 2010, p 24-25.

City University of Hong Kong students hard at work in the laboratory.

Conclusion This paper has considered an often neglected but fairly obvious aspect of the new rankings culture. In other words, what benefits individual institutions, or the Asian region as a whole, can gain from the ranking concept? A pragmatic view has been taken and acknowledges that rankings are here to stay, and have in fact been with us long before the advent of the current dominant two ranking systems in 2003 and 2004. Are rankings propelling us towards the ‘McDonaldisation’ of HEI’s and their offerings, or merely providing at least some comparative measures of an institution’s global standing and a catalyst for further healthy competition? Whatever your answer to this question, there can be little doubt that the notion of a ‘World-Class University’ is becoming ever more important to governments,

Photo credit: City University of Hong Kong

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Asia on the rise in the 2009 world university rankings WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS

By Martin Ince Founding Editor of THE-QS World University Rankings Despite years of thought by some of the world’s best brains, nobody really knows whether universities are an essential prerequisite of economic growth, or whether university systems expand as economies get richer. Either way, many ambitious nations across Asia have decided that higher education is essential to their future economic plans. They are expanding and improving their university systems, and the results are already becoming apparent in the QS World University Rankings.


ranked. By contrast, the University of Hong Kong is in 24th position, making it an altogether more serious world player. China is now expanding its entire education system rapidly, from primary schools to research centres. It intends to become an importer rather than an exporter of students, threatening the business plans of many universities around the world that depend on Chinese students. In our work on these rankings, we have encountered big increases in the amount of research being published by Chinese academics. Not all of it is world-class, but over time it is likely to improve, as is teaching quality in Chinese universities.

From a European perspective, Asia begins with the Middle East. In this region, the only universities in our top 200 are in Israel, with four in the QS World University Rankings 2009. But many other Middle East countries are putting significant sums into new universities. Might we see some in the rankings in a few years, or will it take longer than their backers imagine to create more top universities in the region? Maybe sceptics are right to claim that these societies are still too closed to be a fertile home for intellectual activity.

There is certainly a stark contrast between China’s placing here and the very modest showing by India. No mainstream Indian universities appear in our top 200. As in 2008, India is represented by only two of the Indian Institutes of Technology.

Israeli universities certainly gain in these rankings by being linked to European and US scholarship and by working mainly in English. Turning from mainland Asia to the Pacific Rim, this is also true of the nine Australian and three New Zealand universities in the top 200.

Other Asian nations, lacking the sheer scale of China, seem to be taking a more tactical and less brute-force approach to expansion. South Korea has had a recent spurt of high-technology growth which is reflected in the success of its universities in these rankings. Seoul National has long been a major world institution. It is joined this year by Yonsei, a major private university. Perhaps more importantly, two science and technologybased institutions in Korea, KAIST and POSTECH, have risen sharply in position this year. This is a common theme across Asia, with higher places for Tokyo Institute of Technology and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST).

The top universities of the Asia-Pacific region – Australian National and Tokyo - have been prominent in these rankings since they were first released in 2004. In 2009, they were in 17th and 22nd places respectively, a rough level from which they have varied little between the years. The real story about Asian universities, however, concerns the lower reaches of the rankings. In September 2009, the European Union warned that India and China are likely to become the world’s leading research powers by 2025. The QS World University Rankings suggest that these, and other Asian nations, are already building university systems to support this transition.

Many other Asian nations, such as Taiwan, regard it as a priority to have at least one university in the QS World University Rankings. (National Taiwan University was up 29 places last year to 95). For this reason, there will be enthusiasm in Malaysia over the re-appearance of the University of Malaysia at place number 180. But Malaysia still lags far behind its smaller neighbour Singapore, which has made high technology, such as nanotechnology and robotics, a national priority. Heavy investment in these areas is part of the reason why the National University of Singapore is a world leader, 30th in our rankings, and Nanyang Technological University also shows well at 73.

Japan’s post-war rise to economic success, based on innovation and exports, has long been the model for other Asia-Pacific nations. In the 2009 QS World University Rankings, we find 11 Japanese universities, a total that is unlikely to grow substantially. Many other Asian universities now have plans to enter these rankings. China has six universities ranked last year and there are five more in Hong Kong, which we count as a separate entity while it retains its status as a Special Administrative Zone of China.

While it is natural to pay most attention to Harvard, Cambridge and the other leaders of the QS World University Rankings, every university in the top 200 is a significant global institution. Many Asian universities have plans to join this ranking. They are unlikely to replace Oxford or Yale but their ambitions are ominous for many of the more modestly-placed universities in the top 200.

At the moment, China’s top two institutions, Peking and Tsinghua, are at 49 and 52 in the rankings, while its other universities are more modestly 37 WUR P37-P41.indd 1

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QS World University Rankings™ 2009*

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Comparing QS Asian University Rankings with QS World University Rankings ASIAN



volume are an English language phenomenon. For the Asian University Rankings, the bibliometric data has been separated into Papers per Faculty, which is a productivity measure that should take into account ALL sources in Scopus independent of language and Citations per Paper, which provides an average quality rating for each paper.

The table below outlines the methodological differences between the QS World University Ranking and the QS Asian University Rankings. Criteria

QS World University Rankings

Indicator Weight Research Quality Global Academic Peer 40% Review Citations per Faculty 20% 20% Teaching Quality Student Faculty Ratio Graduate Employability Global Employer Review 10% Internationalisation International Faculty 5% International Students 5%

QS Asian University Rankings Indicator Weight Asian Academic Peer Review 30% (academics with knowledge of research in Asian institutions) Papers per Faculty 15% Citations per Paper 15% Student Faculty Ratio 20% Asian Employer Review 10% (employers with experience in recruiting from Asian institutions) International Faculty 2.5% International Students 2.5% Inbound Exchange Students 2.5% Outbound Exchange Students 2.5%

Internationalisation Internationalisation is a far more complex notion than is reflected by the inclusion of just two indicators in the QS World University Rankings. Due to problems with the availability of data, developing a richer picture at a global level is challenging but in this narrower geographic area we can include additional factors. For many countries with first languages other than English, an exchange, rather than full-time undergraduates, is a key aspect of institutions’ approach to internationalisation. The QS Asian University Rankings, therefore, include additional indicators for inbound and outbound exchange students. Future additional measures of internationalisation, such as faculty exchange and international partnerships, are likely to take effect in these regional rankings before becoming practical at a global level.

Key differences Weightings Bibliometric data The two bibliometric indicators provide a richer picture on research productivity and quality. Drilling down to a less well-known set of universities also means that the results of the Peer Review Survey tail off more quickly than they do in the QS World University Rankings. The combination of these factors explains a reduced weighting for the Peer Review and an increase in that for the bibliometric factors.

In the QS World University Rankings, the exercise is centred on large comprehensive institutions that are leaders in their own countries but have a global focus. The Citations per Faculty indicator takes into account the strength of an institution’s research, factored against the number of faculty members to take the size of institution into account. For the QS Asian University Rankings, the objective is to reach the next tier of institutions in each country – institutions whose principal focus may not be global competitiveness. Much of the research carried out in these institutions, however strong, is published in the local language. The Scopus database accepts non-English language content but fundamentally, citations in any

Impact and effects In combination with additional responses to surveys and updated data from universities and third parties, these changes in methodology have some inevitable effects on the results of the QS Asian University Rankings when compared side-by-side with the QS World University Rankings.

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2009 Asian University Rankings

2009 RANK


QS Asian University Rankings 2009










DATA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10= 12 13 14 15= 15= 17 18 19 20= 20= 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30= 30= 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

University of HONG KONG The CHINESE University of Hong Kong University of TOKYO HONG KONG University of Science and Technology KYOTO University OSAKA University KAIST -Korea Advanced of Science & Technology SEOUL University TOKYO of Technology University of Singapore (NUS) PEKING University NAGOYA University TOHOKU University Nanyang Technological University (NTU) KYUSHU University TSINGHUA University Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) CITY University of Hong Kong University of TSUKUBA HOKKAIDO University KEIO University TAIWAN University KOBE University University of Science and Technology of CHINA YONSEI University FUDAN University NANJING University HIROSHIMA University SHANGHAI JIAO TONG University Indian of Technology Bombay (IITB) MAHIDOL University ZHEJIANG University KOREA University Indian of Technology Kanpur (IITK) CHULALONGKORN University of Technology Delhi (IITD) Indian WASEDA University The HONG KONG Polytechnic University Malaya (UM) TSING HUA University CHIBA University EWHA WOMANS University CHENG KUNG University SUNGKYUNKWAN University NAGASAKI University HANYANG University

Hong Kong Hong Kong Japan Hong Kong Japan Japan Korea, South Korea, South Japan Singapore China Japan Japan Singapore Japan China Korea, South Hong Kong Japan Japan Japan Taiwan Japan China Korea, South China China Japan China India Thailand China Korea, South India Thailand India Japan Hong Kong Malaysia Taiwan Japan Korea, South Taiwan Korea, South Japan Korea, South

100 97 100 98 100 99 95 100 94 100 100 89 89 98 84 100 74 88 84 80 90 99 86 94 92 99 95 75 93 93 76 88 91 76 97 88 97 78 86 79 67 61 67 53 50 68

98 96 100 98 98 89 83 92 93 100 100 81 73 97 67 97 64 77 67 75 97 91 83 82 73 98 83 56 93 93 78 38 71 83 93 97 99 73 88 63 60 55 65 49 35 57

7.1:1 7.8:1 5.2:1 10.1:1 7.8:1 6.2:1 7.5:1 6.3:1 8.8:1 13.8:1 7.4:1 7.4:1 5.3:1 12.1:1 8.4:1 5.5:1 8.5:1 12.6:1 8.1:1 8.5:1 7.6:1 13.6:1 8.4:1 9.6:1 9.1:1 10.6:1 8.5:1 9.2:1 8.2:1 12.7:1 7.5:1 8.9:1 11.9:1 12.1:1 10.2:1 12.2:1 14.6:1 19.8:1 10.7:1 16.9:1 14.8:1 10.4:1 12:1 7.6:1 8.3:1 10.3:1

SCORE 97 94 100 78 94 99 96 99 87 51 96 96 100 63 90 100 90 59 93 90 95 53 90 82 85 74 90 85 92 58 96 87 64 62 77 62 47 29 73 37 46 76 63 95 91 76

DATA 5.7 6.9 8.1 10.2 11.3 7.2 11.1 5.7 15.0 10.5 4.9 8.3 7.9 6.6 8.1 6.7 17.7 8.6 5.6 8.6 2.2 8.2 3.9 8.4 3.1 5.7 4.4 5.7 5.2 8.3 1.5 7.4 3.1 10.5 1.3 9.7 1.9 12.6 1.1 10.8 8.3 1.7 6.4 2.8 4.3 2.9


SCORE 86 93 97 99 100 94 100 86 100 100 79 97 96 92 97 92 100 98 85 98 47 97 68 97 59 86 74 85 82 97 38 95 58 100 36 99 43 100 33 100 97 40 90 55 72 56

DATA 5.5 4.3 5.5 4.0 5.3 5.4 3.2 4.0 3.7 4.1 2.9 4.8 4.2 2.5 4.3 1.7 4.5 3.2 4.2 4.0 4.1 3.4 3.9 2.9 3.9 2.6 2.5 3.9 1.5 2.4 4.0 1.7 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.0 2.7 2.4 1.9 2.9 4.7 4.5 2.7 3.0 4.0 2.7


SCORE 100 96 100 93 100 100 80 93 89 95 71 99 96 58 96 29 98 79 96 94 95 84 93 71 93 59 57 92 23 54 94 29 70 76 67 39 65 55 36 72 99 98 66 73 94 65

DATA 57.9% 42.0% 5.4% 68.1% 6.5% 4.4% 14.3% 6.8% 4.6% 51.8% 5.3% 5.0% 9.6% 54.2% 2.0% 6.7% 14.4% 51.2% 4.1% 2.1% 5.1% 7.1% 4.0% 1.8% 4.1% 7.0% 15.2% 2.5% 8.2% 3.6% 6.3% 3.7% 6.7% 0.6% 3.6% 0.2% 11.6% 57.3% 21.3% 7.3% 4.8% 3.9% 4.7% 6.0% 5.4% 6.9%


SCORE 100 100 49 100 54 46 82 55 46 100 49 48 66 100 36 55 82 100 44 36 48 56 44 35 44 56 84 38 61 42 53 43 55 31 42 29 73 100 95 57 47 44 46 52 49 56

DATA 24.1% 20.8% 8.5% 28.4% 4.6% 5.4% 9.6% 6.8% 9.6% 34.9% 7.5% 6.5% 6.2% 34.2% 6.2% 6.6% 2.8% 9.1% 7.2% 4.0% 3.0% 4.4% 6.0% 0.2% 6.1% 6.3% 1.9% 4.1% 2.9% 0.3% 2.5% 2.7% 3.9% 0.2% 0.8% 0.3% 5.9% 19.2% 12.3% 3.4% 4.5% 10.1% 6.3% 8.4% 3.1% 7.3%

SCORE 100 100 90 100 65 71 93 81 93 100 85 79 77 100 77 80 49 92 83 59 50 63 75 26 76 78 41 60 49 27 46 48 58 26 31 27 75 100 98 54 64 95 77 89 51 84





DATA 2.8% 3.0% 0.6% 7.1% 0.3% 0.6% 1.8% 1.0% 1.1% 3.6% 2.6% 0.7% 0.8% 3.9% 0.8% 1.0% 2.5% 3.6% 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 0.9% 0.5% 1.1% 0.3% 0.3% 1.2% 4.1% 2.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.6% 4.3% 3.7% 1.1% 0.1% 2.4% 0.6% 2.7% 0.1% 0.7%

SCORE 69 75 21 100 12 22 48 30 31 84 66 24 25 88 25 29 63 84 9 16 26 28 18 31 13 12 34 90 60 7 8 12 23 92 85 31 4 62 21 69 2 24

DATA 4.1% 4.9% 0.5% 6.8% 0.2% 0.9% 5.6% 0.6% 1.6% 3.1% 3.0% 0.7% 0.2% 4.5% 0.3% 1.4% 2.9% 7.3% 0.9% 0.4% 1.7% 0.9% 0.4% 1.6% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 3.6% 1.7% 0.2% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 3.8% 4.8% 1.6% 0.2% 6.1% 0.4% 4.7% 0.6% 1.3%


SCORE 89 95 19 100 9 29 98 24 42 75 72 25 8 92 13 38 71 100 29 18 46 28 17 43 14 4 14 83 45 8 20 23 23 85 95 44 8 99 18 94 23 37

100.0 99.2 98.0 97.5 96.0 95.5 94.9 94.5 92.6 92.2 92.2 91.3 90.8 87.0 86.3 86.3 86.2 85.3 85.1 84.8 84.8 84.2 83.7 83.0 82.8 82.6 81.7 77.8 77.1 76.3 76.3 75.8 74.8 74.7 74.6 74.4 72.2 72.0 71.8 70.7 70.5 70.1 69.6 69.3 67.5 67.0

Copyright © QS Copyright © 2009 QSIntelligence IntelligenceUnit Unit

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2009 RANK 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63= 63= 63= 63= 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82= 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99



YANG MING University TOKYO Metropolitan University Indian of Technology Madras (IITM) University of INDONESIA Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) SHOWA University KUMAMOTO University YOKOHAMA NATIONAL University YOKOHAMA CITY University OKAYAMA University KYUNG HEE University PUSAN University GIFU University University of DELHI SOGANG University KANAZAWA University Universitas GADJAH MADA Indian of Technology Roorkee (IITR) OSAKA CITY University University of the PHILIPPINES TOKYO University of Science (TUS) GUNMA University Sains Malaysia (USM) TIANJIN University SUN YAT-SEN University TAIWAN University of Science and Technology Hong Kong BAPTIST University CHIAO TUNG University XI'AN JIAOTONG University DE LA SALLE University CENTRAL University NIIGATA University OCHANOMIZU University BANDUNG of Technology (ITB) CHIANG MAI University KYUNGPOOK University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Ateneo de MANILA University THAMMASAT University TOKAI University MIE University CHONNAM University KAGOSHIMA University Putra Malaysia (UPM) CHANG GUNG University INHA University TOKYO University of Agriculture and Technology TONGJI University SOUTHEAST University HITOTSUBASHI University CHONBUK University AJOU University University CHUNGNAM

Taiwan Japan India Indonesia Malaysia Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan Korea, South Korea, South Japan India Korea, South Japan Indonesia India Japan Philippines Japan Japan Malaysia China Taiwan Taiwan Hong Kong Taiwan China Philippines Taiwan Japan Japan Indonesia Thailand Korea, South Malaysia Philippines Thailand Japan Japan Korea, South Japan Malaysia Taiwan Korea, South Japan China China Japan Korea, South Korea, South Korea, South

PEER REVIEW 34 53 74 90 81 30 42 58 37 39 55 74 42 93 65 41 92 56 49 89 64 32 79 70 62 65 22 50 65 62 58 36 42 84 66 49 59 88 67 61 34 51 39 69 22 39 22 72 61 63 49 26 47



38 4.7:1 64 13.5:1 79 11.4:1 83 10.2:1 63 9.9:1 62 4.5:1 29 6.2:1 72 12.6:1 19 9.2:1 14 8.6:1 38 8.1:1 33 11.8:1 18 8.4:1 90 202.5:1 86 15.1:1 24 12.2:1 73 17.7:1 75 11.9:1 35 16.5:1 97 19.3:1 55 52.6:1 18 4.6:1 67 15:1 56 13.2:1 30 19.8:1 67 14.6:1 - 10.4:1 58 15.8:1 43 11.1:1 96 12.9:1 31 15.5:1 27 14:1 40 13:1 74 15.1:1 53 15.1:1 53 14.8:1 87 12.7:1 97 16:1 76 12.9:1 43 17.5:1 18 14.3:1 26 14:1 19 13:1 72 13.4:1 8.6:1 50 14.5:1 14 11.9:1 30 11.9:1 39 12.4:1 89 13.9:1 16 13.3:1 27 11.3:1 27 15.2:1

PAPERS PER FACULTY 100 53 67 77 79 100 99 59 85 89 93 64 90 4 45 62 35 64 39 30 8 100 45 55 29 47 75 42 70 57 43 50 56 45 44 46 58 41 57 35 49 50 56 54 89 48 64 64 60 51 55 68 44

5.9 8.0 8.3 0.2 0.8 3.9 3.0 3.7 6.2 5.5 1.3 2.7 4.8 4.1 2.3 7.0 0.1 5.4 9.8 1.8 13.8 3.0 1.9 7.4 8.4 4.8 5.0 10.4 5.2 0.3 6.9 6.3 3.6 0.4 1.1 3.6 0.4 0.2 0.5 2.4 6.5 2.5 4.4 1.0 5.4 3.8 8.3 3.0 4.2 0.7 2.5 2.8 3.6

87 97 97 23 29 68 57 66 89 84 35 53 78 71 49 93 23 83 99 42 100 57 43 95 98 78 80 100 82 24 93 90 64 25 33 64 26 23 26 50 91 50 74 32 83 67 97 58 71 29 51 54 65

CITATIONS PER INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL PAPER FACULTY STUDENTS 3.9 4.2 1.9 2.1 1.4 4.3 4.6 2.8 5.7 4.0 2.8 2.9 3.3 2.7 2.8 4.3 2.9 2.0 4.3 2.3 3.6 3.7 1.8 1.0 2.7 1.9 3.4 2.2 1.0 2.5 2.5 4.3 3.2 2.0 3.0 2.8 1.3 2.2 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.5 1.5 3.1 2.5 3.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 2.8 3.1 2.7

93 95 35 43 21 97 98 69 100 94 66 71 83 63 67 96 71 38 96 49 88 90 33 12 63 36 83 47 12 57 56 96 80 38 75 67 19 47 79 87 86 86 25 76 56 73 12 16 14 67 77 64

4.0% 4.2% 0.7% 20.2% 2.9% 1.8% 7.1% 3.0% 3.4% 5.0% 4.1% 1.8% 1.1% 5.9% 4.8% 3.1% 2.2% 5.8% 3.4% 5.3% 4.8% 9.4% 2.9% 9.0% 4.4% 37.3% 2.5% 5.1% 0.6% 3.6% 4.1% 1.6% 0.2% 8.0% 2.7% 15.9% 6.4% 1.3% 4.4% 4.8% 3.7% 1.5% 3.2% 1.2% 5.4% 2.8% 1.5% 2.5% 6.8% 4.2% 3.8% 1.2%

44 45 31 93 39 35 56 40 41 48 44 35 32 52 47 40 37 51 41 49 47 66 40 64 46 100 38 48 31 42 44 34 29 60 38 86 54 33 45 47 43 34 41 33 49 39 34 38 55 45 43 33

3.5% 2.7% 0.2% 5.6% 0.7% 2.0% 7.0% 2.5% 3.5% 4.8% 3.7% 4.4% 1.1% 7.1% 2.3% 1.6% 1.2% 2.8% 0.5% 0.4% 3.0% 7.7% 2.8% 2.4% 2.9% 7.8% 3.2% 1.7% 4.4% 1.8% 1.7% 5.5% 0.6% 0.6% 4.2% 11.8% 4.5% 0.5% 1.1% 2.2% 3.9% 2.5% 10.3% 1.3% 7.2% 5.9% 2.2% 1.1% 9.5% 4.4% 2.7% 4.8%

55 48 27 72 30 41 82 46 55 66 56 63 33 83 44 38 35 48 29 28 50 86 49 45 49 86 52 39 63 39 39 72 30 30 61 98 63 29 34 43 59 46 95 35 83 75 43 34 93 63 48 66

EXCHANGE INBOUND 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 4.3% 0.8% 0.9% 0.1% 0.1% 1.5% 0.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.6% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 2.0% 1.2% 0.1% 5.4% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.9% 0.1% 0.5% 0.2% 1.4% 0.1%

EXCHANGE OUTBOUND 4 3 8 92 26 28 5 3 41 5 10 23 11 7 21 2 8 4 52 33 6 98 14 3 6 3 13 10 23 26 12 4 3 5 5 2 27 4 21 7 37 3

0.5% 0.1% 0.8% 7.0% 0.2% 0.7% 0.1% 0.2% 5.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.7% 0.4% 0.1% 0.5% 0.2% 0.0% 0.3% 0.3% 1.0% 0.2% 2.2% 0.7% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 7.1% 1.2% 0.1% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.6% 1.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.7% 1.4% 0.2%

20 3 26 100 9 25 6 7 97 10 3 25 19 3 22 8 2 12 11 31 8 57 24 3 8 10 18 24 100 35 3 18 12 12 6 24 39 14 18 25 38 9

OVERALL 66.9 66.8 66.0 65.5 65.4 64.1 64.0 63.9 63.2 63.0 62.7 62.2 62.0 61.9 61.4 60.9 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 58.9 58.7 58.4 58.2 58.1 57.9 56.9 56.7 56.4 56.3 56.1 56.0 55.2 54.8 54.7 54.5 54.5 54.2 53.8 53.6 53.5 53.4 53.3 53.0 52.9 51.9 51.8 51.7 51.2 51.0 50.4 49.9 49.6

Copyright © QS Unit Copyright © 2009 QSIntelligence Intelligence Unit

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2009 RANK 100 101 101 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 110 112 113 114= 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125= 125= 127 128 129 130 130 130 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 144 146 147 148 149 150 150 151-160



University of PUNE The CATHOLIC University of Korea SHANDONG University HALLYM University ULSAN University TAIWAN NORMAL University SAITAMA University HANKUK University of Foreign Studies KASETSART University PRINCE OF SONGKLA University BEIJING Normal University University of CALCUTTA RITSUMEIKAN University KHON KAEN University CHUNG HSING University CHUNG-ANG University JILIN University CHENGCHI University HIROSAKI University BOGOR Agricultural University SHINSHU University NANKAI University KITASATO University KANGNUNG University DOSHISHA University AOYAMA GAKUIN University SUN YAT-SEN University FU JEN Catholic University Kinki University (Kindai University) KONKUK University AIRLANGGA University University of MUMBAI YAMAGUCHI University GYEONGSANG University Dongguk University SOONCHUNHYANG University YAMAGATA University SHIZUOKA University DONG-A University DANKOOK University EAST CHINA University of Science and Technology Indian of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) KYOTO of Technology HUNAN University NANJING Agricultural University University of SANTO TOMAS BEIJING of Technology KOCHI University EAST CHINA Normal University SEJONG University LANZHOU University University of SEOUL AKITA Prefectural University

India Korea, South China Korea, South Korea, South Taiwan Japan Korea, South Thailand Thailand China India Japan Thailand Taiwan Korea, South China Taiwan Japan Indonesia Japan China Japan Korea, South Japan Japan China Taiwan Japan Korea, South Indonesia India Japan Korea, South Korea, South Korea, South Japan Japan Korea, South Korea, South China India Japan China China Philippines China Japan China Korea, South China Korea, South Japan

PEER REVIEW 69 26 66 23 24 48 39 24 56 52 27 83 64 47 37 29 56 56 52 25 22 53 39 24 51 22 24 53 75 24 25 22 22 22 23 69 24 22 54 25 25 23 24 25 -



68 689.6:1 8.7:1 47 54.9:1 8.8:1 - 10.6:1 18 13.1:1 - 18.9:1 16 10.6:1 76 17.5:1 60 15.2:1 7.2:1 64 64.9:1 58 30.6:1 49 14.6:1 42 19.9:1 45 12.6:1 29 28.5:1 49 15.8:1 7.5:1 34 13.7:1 4.8:1 - 12.2:1 6.9:1 18 15:1 66 24.4:1 46 20.9:1 9.9:1 24 30.4:1 - 13.8:1 30 13.9:1 34 11.4:1 80 - 12.1:1 13 17.6:1 38 14.6:1 - 13.6:1 - 12.4:1 - 14.2:1 35 17.5:1 13 11.5:1 6.7:1 74 - 14.3:1 - 10.6:1 8.5:1 93 21.8:1 - 11.2:1 - 10.1:1 - 12.1:1 - 20.9:1 - 15.6:1 16 16.3:1 -

PAPERS PER FACULTY 3 88 7 87 74 55 31 74 35 44 97 6 15 47 28 59 16 41 95 52 100 62 98 45 20 26 79 15 51 51 68 62 35 47 53 60 49 35 67 98 49 74 90 25 69 78 62 26 42 39 -

3.0 2.3 11.8 2.0 2.7 1.8 5.3 0.2 0.5 0.7 2.1 2.1 1.6 0.7 4.8 1.3 5.7 1.0 2.6 0.2 1.9 4.1 2.3 1.0 1.3 1.1 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.8 0.0 4.5 2.7 1.0 1.2 4.6 5.7 1.2 0.7 1.3 8.9 3.0 0.8 0.0 4.1 2.5 2.0 3.5 2.9 1.7 -

57 48 100 44 54 42 83 24 26 29 46 45 39 28 78 35 86 31 53 23 43 71 48 32 36 33 44 38 40 42 22 75 53 31 34 76 86 34 29 35 98 57 29 22 70 51 45 64 56 41 -

CITATIONS PER INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL PAPER FACULTY STUDENTS 2.5 3.3 1.6 3.2 3.7 2.7 3.1 2.8 2.0 2.2 1.9 1.7 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.1 3.7 2.1 3.6 2.5 4.2 5.3 1.7 2.9 2.4 2.5 3.6 2.1 2.2 3.3 3.0 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.5 1.6 2.3 2.5 1.5 1.8 0.8 2.7 2.0 2.8 2.5 2.1 -

59 82 28 78 90 65 78 66 39 47 37 31 38 52 52 43 34 14 89 44 89 58 96 100 30 69 55 59 88 44 48 83 73 56 72 82 81 77 56 28 50 57 23 32 9 65 39 66 56 43 -

0.3% 0.1% 8.9% 4.1% 3.1% 4.0% 3.8% 15.6% 12.4% 3.3% 14.8% 9.4% 2.7% 1.1% 2.8% 2.6% 5.5% 2.3% 1.4% 1.5% 0.0% 7.3% 4.8% 1.0% 39.6% 4.4% 5.5% 0.6% 2.5% 3.7% 5.0% 2.9% 2.9% 1.5% 1.0% 0.3% 0.1% 3.0% 1.1% 4.2% 0.6% 3.8% -

30 29 64 44 40 44 43 85 76 41 83 65 39 32 39 38 50 37 34 34 29 57 47 32 100 45 50 31 38 43 48 39 39 34 32 30 29 40 32 45 31 43 -

0.3% 1.4% 4.3% 1.4% 1.7% 4.6% 6.3% 0.4% 0.2% 5.7% 3.3% 0.8% 1.0% 6.1% 1.5% 6.4% 0.9% 0.6% 2.7% 2.9% 2.5% 1.6% 0.9% 1.1% 0.3% 1.2% 5.6% 0.7% 2.1% 1.4% 3.4% 3.9% 1.5% 2.0% 2.0% 0.5% 2.7% 0.6% 0.3% 1.6% 1.3% 2.4% 1.9% 2.1% 0.3% 1.1% -

27 36 62 36 39 64 78 28 27 73 53 32 33 76 37 78 32 29 48 49 46 38 32 34 28 34 72 30 42 36 54 58 37 41 42 29 47 30 27 38 35 44 40 42 28 34 -

EXCHANGE INBOUND 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 2.7% 0.6% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 4.4% 1.4% 0.9% 0.5% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.3% 0.1% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.8% 0.1% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 2.4% -

EXCHANGE OUTBOUND 4 13 12 10 15 67 23 9 15 16 11 93 38 27 18 2 9 17 12 5 1 29 1 6 21 9 26 3 22 12 8 4 4 3 61 -

0.3% 0.7% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 4.6% 0.2% 0.9% 0.8% 0.8% 1.1% 2.5% 2.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 0.8% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 1.8% -

OVERALL 11 25 21 11 10 93 10 28 26 27 33 63 57 18 23 8 19 16 16 0 33 1 14 22 28 28 7 16 8 15 9 11 8 48 -

49.0 48.9 48.9 48.4 48.3 47.8 47.2 47.1 46.5 46.3 45.8 45.8 45.4 45.3 45.2 45.2 44.4 44.3 44.1 43.9 43.8 43.1 42.9 41.5 41.4 41.2 41.2 40.2 39.8 39.5 39.3 39.3 39.3 39.0 38.7 38.6 38.4 38.3 38.0 37.9 37.7 37.1 36.9 36.8 36.6 36.6 36.3 36.0 35.7 35.5 35.4 35.4 -

Copyright © QSQS Intelligence Unit Copyright © 2009 Intelligence Unit

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2009 RANK


151-160 BURAPHA University 151-160 Cheju University 151-160 CHOSUN University 151-160 DALIAN University of Technology 151-160 HANNAM University 151-160 IWATE University 151-160 SAGA University 151-160 XIAMEN University 151-160 YUNNAN University 161-170 ANDONG University 161-170 China Agricultural University 161-170 DONGHUA University 161-170 HUAZHONG University of Science and Technology 161-170 KUMOH of Technology 161-170 KYUSHU of Technology 161-170 NANJING University of and Astronautics 161-170 SEONAM University 161-170 SOOCHOW University 171-180 ANYANG University 171-180 DIPONEGORO University 171-180 HONGIK University 171-180 Indian of Technology (IITG) 171-180 MULTIMEDIA University 171-180 Myongji University 171-180 NORTHWESTERN Polytechnical University 171-180 Pukyong University 171-180 RENMIN University of China 171-180 SEBELAS Maret University 181-190 BEIHANG University (former BAUU) 181-190 CENTRAL SOUTH University 181-190 Changwon University 181CHRISTIAN University 181-190 Kookmin University 181-190 PAICHAI University 181-190 SICHUAN University 181-190 SILLA University 181-190 SOUTH CHINA University of Technology 181-190 YAMAGUCHI Prefectural University 191-200 BEIJING FOREIGN STUDIES University 191-200 University of BRAWIJAYA 191CHUNG CHENG University 191-200 GAKUSHUIN University 191-200 KANSAI University 191KAOHSIUNG Normal University 191-200 Keimyung University 191-200 NANJING Normal University 191-200 NORTHEAST Normal University 191-200 RIKKYO University

COUNTRY Thailand Korea, South Korea, South China Korea, South Japan Japan China China Korea, South China China China Korea, South Japan China Korea, South China Korea, South Indonesia Korea, South India Malaysia Korea, South China Korea, South China Indonesia China China Korea, South Japan Korea, South Korea, South China Korea, South China Japan China Indonesia Taiwan Japan Japan Taiwan Korea, South China China Japan



















Copyright © QSQS Intelligence Unit Copyright © 2009 Intelligence Unit

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Top students offer new promise and a bright future for China By Wang Gungwu Chairman of East Asian Institute National University of Singapore and hoping that bright high school students will all get a chance to study at their universities. The current gap in access is striking. More than half the total expenditure devoted to higher education is spent in the three great cities of Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin and the seven coastal provinces, and less than a quarter in the ten provinces in the western half of the country. It is widely accepted that Peking and Tsinghua Universities, both located in the capital Beijing, are outstanding universities – they are certainly among the best 100 in the world. Some suggest that another 50 or so will become outstanding within a few years. The remaining 1,500 or so will continue to train skilled manpower for local and provincial service. Despite the cries of unfairness in the distribution of resources for education, there is evidence that most of the brightest students are getting to the best universities. This owes much to the national examination for university entry, which many consider to be a horrendous exercise that does not necessarily bring out the best in the candidates. Nevertheless, it stands for open competition and is generally thought to be fair.

(Source: The Straits Times © Singapore Press Holdings Limited. Reprinted with permission.)

I was recently in China and met some very ambitious and intellectually curious students from some of its best universities.They came from different academic disciplines but shared a keen interest in Chinese traditional values. It surprised me to see so many engineering and business undergraduates asking searching questions about ancient Chinese history.

Ever since this “annual obstacle race” was introduced after the end of the Cultural Revolution some 30 years ago, it has offered the best opportunity for students of all classes to get into the leading tertiary institutions. I first encountered this examination in 1978 when the backlog of students who had missed out on an opportunity for a tertiary education in the ten preceding years seized the chance to study again with determination and gratitude. They performed extremely well.

After two sessions with them, I was led to think of some of the contradictions China faces today in higher education. On the one hand, there is amazing progress in tertiary institutions, with more than four million students graduating last summer with qualifications in technical, business and other practical subjects. Hundreds of thousands are still looking for work that would match their qualifications.

Over the years, I have seen professors, locked up on university campuses, spending several summer weeks grading anonymous answer books for this examination.

On the other hand, competition for entry into the top universities is greater than ever and university fees are rising. Millions of high school students have been left behind and some now wonder whether going to universities is worth the investment of time and money.

Over the years, I have also met many of the successful candidates who gained admittance to the top universities in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and elsewhere. I still remember what I thought when I first met them: these students did not need much teaching. The keenness of mind and the confidence they exhibited suggested that they could learn anything they wished. All they needed was the environment to meet scholars and have access to libraries and laboratories.

Some university leaders confirm that they are often torn between wanting their best universities to be world-class, comparable to the best in the West,

47 Wang GW P47-P48.indd 1

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The top universities still have the pick of the best candidates, especially those in the fields of science and technology. Their annual undergraduate intakes have not increased by much over the years, so it does not surprise me that their students are brighter with each passing year.

If such courses continued to attract the best students for another generation, higher education would have shaped another dimension of modernity for China. (Source: The Straits Times © Singapore Press Holdings Limited. Reprinted with permission.)

What has surprised me, however, is that many among them are not content with their chosen disciplines. When the best universities began to offer a wider choice of humanities and social science courses, the number of engineering students who asked to take these courses – and did very well in them – was remarkably high. Hence the exciting time I had with the lively students I met – in two sessions of 30 each from two successive freshman classes, selected mainly from among budding engineers and scientists. What astonished me was that both groups had signed up for two years of courses that included the reading of Chinese classical and historical texts. These courses, carefully structured to harmonise with China’s desire for modernity in business, technology and culture, were additional to their normal classes. They had to be taken during weekends. I had been told that Chinese universities embarked on such courses so as to introduce their students to traditional values. Meeting these students convinced me that this is more than a cultural exercise, more than a minor attempt to broaden their minds. The students had volunteered to be allowed to take the courses and were all intensely committed.

The University of Science and Technology of China is one of the country’s top higher education institutions. (Photo credit: University of Science and Technology of China)

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Public policy education in Asia: a sunrise enterprise By Kishore Mahbubani Dean, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy National University of Singapore leaders will need in an increasingly integrated and complex globalizing world.

In early 2009, the world came to the brink of a total economic and financial meltdown. Total panic was in the air. Fortunately, decisive and coordinated action by several governments saved the world. It may still be too early to learn the enduring lessons from this great global crisis, but one lesson will clearly stand out.

This growing demand for public policy education explains the spectacular growth of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Starting with just 50 students from ten countries in August 2004, it grew to 337 students from 51 countries five years later. It began with two master degree programs and now has five plus a PhD program. Within three years of its establishment, it became the first Asian school to be admitted into the Global Public Policy Network (GPPN) set up by Columbia University, London School of Economics and Sciences Po.

This crisis spells the end of the ReaganThatcher revolution, which propagated that markets knew best and governments should step aside. Reagan famously said: “Government is not the solution, government is the problem.” He also once said: “The most terrifying words in the English language are: “I’m from the government and I’m here to help.” The 2008/09 financial crisis taught us that good governance is indispensable. Hence, we will naturally see a renaissance of public policy education all around the world.

Unlike business school education, which is a truly mature educational industry, public policy education is still in a relatively nascent phase, especially in Asia. There are not many world-renowned public policy schools in the region. A few that are worth mentioning are the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS) and Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP) in Tokyo, and Peking University School of Government (Zhengfu Guanli Xueyuan) and Tsinghua University School of Public Policy and Management in Beijing. Significantly, India – the other great rising power of Asia – has not yet set up any full-fledged schools of public policy, but plans are afloat for the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad to set up a sister institution in public policy.

This will be especially true in Asia. Many Asian governments feel vindicated for having maintained a natural balance between the “invisible hand” of free market economics and the “visible hand” of good governance. As Amartya Sen once said: “If the achievements of the market economy are, to a considerable extent, the work of the invisible hand (to use a complex term with a checkered history, made famous by Adam Smith), governance is its exact obverse (or more accurately, its exact counterpart): the functioning of the visible hand.”

The main educational challenge for Asian schools of public policy is to devise both curricula and case studies that are more relevant for the Asian context. The conceptual structure of most Asian schools has been taken from the North American context, looking at schools like the Harvard Kennedy School of Government and Maxwell School in Syracuse as role models. However, while the principles of, say, economics will have universal application, the economic case studies from North America may not necessarily have universal application.

As more and more countries, especially in Asia, realize once again the importance of good governance, it is inevitable that future leaders will be sent for training in public policy schools. One advantage that public policy schools have over law, business and other professional schools is that they provide a multi-disciplinary education resting on three key pillars: economics; politics; and leadership and management skills. In addition, most public policy schools also provide valuable specialized courses in areas like urban management and health policy, crisis management and geopolitics. This is precisely the kind of broad-based education that future

A close examination of the recent stimulus packages developed by the US and China will reveal the significant differences in approach to policymaking in America and Asia. The American stimulus package was designed by congressional committees and designed to cater to special interest groups favoured by influential congressmen. Hence, not surprisingly, it

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had relatively little impact in stimulating the American national economy. By contrast, the Chinese stimulus package was designed to stimulate the national economy, not to help particular politically influential sectors. Hence, again unsurprisingly, the Chinese stimulus package had a more positive impact on the Chinese economy. Amazingly, in 2009 – the worst year of global economic growth since the Great Depression of the 1930s – the Chinese economy managed to grow by 8.7%. This is a near miracle.

captured in these few words of Larry Summers:“They called it the Industrial Revolution because there were noticeable changes in standards of living in a human life span – changes of perhaps 50%. At current rates of growth in Asia, standards of living may rise 100-fold, 10,000% within a human life span. The rise of Asia and all that follows it will be the dominant story in history books written 300 years from now, with the Cold War and the rise of Islam as secondary stories”.

The declining performance of the public policy sector in America and Europe and the improving performance of the same sector in several Asian countries suggest that the time has come for a two-way street in public policy education. The spectacular successes of some Asian economies, beginning with Japan and the four Asian tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore) and continuing with China and India, suggest that there are some powerful lessons in public policy to be absorbed from the Asian experience.

The success of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, therefore, represents only the tip of the iceberg. As Asia continues to rise steadily with a careful balance between the invisible hand of the markets and the visible hand of good governance, the future looks immensely bright for public policy education in Asia.

Take, for example, the enormous challenge that the whole world is facing now with urbanization. In 2008, we crossed an important historical threshold: for the first time in human history, more people lived in cities than in rural areas. By 2050, two-third of humanity will live in cities. Most of this urbanization will take place in Asia. Hence, it will not be surprising if Asian cities come up with innovative public policy solutions. One of the scarcest commodities in most cities is road space. Western economics teaches us that the pricing mechanism is the best way to allocate scarce resources. This is why London came up with congestion pricing. Many in the world are aware that London implemented this in 2003. Amazingly, few in the world are aware that London was not the first to introduce road pricing. The first city to do so was an Asian city: Singapore. Singapore introduced congestion pricing in 1975 and electronic road pricing in 1998. In fact, London authorities sent many delegates to learn from Singapore’s experience before implementing similar policies at home. Many other Asian public policy lessons remain yet to be discovered by the world. This is why Asian public policy education is destined to become a sunrise industry. The largest number of public policy challenges in the world will be faced by Asian societies. Even if they are only partly successful in meeting these challenges, Asia will naturally provide the largest laboratory for formulating, implementing and assessing public policy. For example, few in the world know that Aceh – a conflict-ridden zone for several decades – produced a true miracle when it delivered both peace and a model humanitarian and reconstruction effort after the enormously destructive tsunami of 2004. Similarly, with far less resources, the Phnom Penh water authority has done a far better job in water management than all the privileged water authorities in UK. And the biggest achievement of Asia is

The Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore attracts many international students to its postgraduate programs, including those from Germany, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa and South Korea.

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Kishore Mahbubani is currently the Dean and Professor in the Practice of Public Policy at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore. He served in the Singapore Foreign Ministry from 1971 to 2004, and was Permanent Secretary from 1993 to 1998. He also served twice as Singapore’s Ambassador to the UN. Professor Mahbubani has published and spoken internationally, and is the author of the books ‘Can Asians Think?’,‘Beyond the Age of Innocence: Rebuilding Trust between America and the World’ and ‘The New Asian Hemisphere: the Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East’. He graduated in philosophy from Singapore and Canada, and served as a Fellow of the Center for International Affairs in Harvard University from 1991 to 1992. In June 2004, he was awarded the Foreign Policy Association Medal in New York. He was also listed as one of the top 100 public intellectuals in the world by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines in September 2005, and was also included in the March 2009 Financial Times list of Top 50 individuals (including Obama, Wen Jiabao and Sarkozy) who would shape the debate on the future of capitalism.

The National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies in Tokyo is one of the few world-renowned public policy schools in the region. (Photo credit: Masao Nishikawa)

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Quality international distance learning for Asian higher education By Dr Petrina Faustine Deputy Rector for International Office & International Program Coordinator Widyatama University Bandung, Indonesia Studying in a higher education institution that is not accredited can prevent graduates from finding immediate employment at decent rates. They may never improve their income and secure a better quality of life. Establishing quality higher education institutions is therefore especially important for the lower income population in the Asia-Pacific region to face global challenges. To synergize the highest standards of global competence, to start up a new visionary and futuristic higher technology content education system, in a more efficient, effective and affordable way than at present, requires an organization such as the Asia Pacific Higher Education Quality International Distance Learning (APHE-QIDL).

other Indonesian HEIs provide only around 15 million places, or 6.67% of the total population. For 40% of the population aged 18 to 35 years, five to six times more distance learning institutions of UT’s calibre would be needed to prevent unemployment of graduates, and to shorten the six to 12 months’ waiting time for employment (Widyatama, 2009), and reduce the return on investment in HEIs from 15 years (Faustine, 2004). Quality international higher education Tougher global competition among HEIs makes the survival of the fittest highly dependent on the high-quality standards delivered to the market. As ‘remote areas’ benefit from the progress in information, communication and technology (ICT), pursuing education is no longer about going to the big cities, but choosing high-quality HEIs, which make it possible for the learners to earn a living at the same time. The current education market forces HEIs to recognize the importance of knowledge for economic and social growth (Kerr, 1991:77) in a more global context. This means possession of as many individual attributes and capabilities as possible, such as the ability to collaborate, communicate, solve problems, as well as understanding subject knowledge and skills in their disciplines (Ling, 2005). Learning in a post-modern world needs new knowledge and skills, as well as access to education incrementally, fragmentally and immediately (Ling, 2005), all of which can be provided more easily through the usage of ICT, regardless of the distance. This can change conventional learning into an interactive/communicative learning process, at a more flexible time, place and pace of learning. Process-oriented society learning culture becomes based on standards of quality international HEIs (Jarvis, 2007).

Facts and figures Taking Indonesia as an example, with a population of over 231 million (UN estimation per 2009), enriched with natural resources, it consists of more than 10,000 islands, strategically located between Australia, Asia and Africa. Eventually Indonesia should be a rich developed country. With only about 10% of its population educated in higher education institutions (HEI), Indonesia has a lower gross national product (GNP) per capita than Japan, which has fewer people and natural resources and less geographical territory. The contrast supports World Bank and OECD’s empirical research findings about significant correlations between educated population and their countries’ economic well-being, or between material wealth and cultural wealth (Giddens, 1999). Therefore, an affordable quality of HEI covering remote areas is urgently required, to conduct quality teaching and improve well-being.

Consequences of market needs Market needs create consequences for graduates of HEIs. Quality international higher education (QIHE) in the Asia-Pacific region (at least) would need to start developing education internationally, hand in hand with the government and HEIs in each country concerned, to have commitment on:

Developed Asia-Pacific countries such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Macau, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand and Australia have income per capita within the range of US$30,000 to US$40,000 per year.Like China and Malaysia, they have better developed open learning than in poorer countries in Asia and the Pacific region. The Indonesian Open University (Universitas Terbuka or UT) supports the country’s education, but UT currently accommodates only about 350,000 students of a population of 230 million. Another 3,000

a. Continuous support to quality enhancement in accessing education incrementally throughout the region; b. Fragmenting expertise at global level to avoid duplication and overlap of researches which will also avoid inefficiency of research funding; and 52

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have to compete head-to-head with each other. This condition shows the need to have distinct differences and innovative programs, which need to be organized in such a way internationally, as to ensure maximum commitment, communication and collaboration, as well as staff development among the team members (Schlusmans and Kathleen, 2009).

c. Promoting the sharing of research findings within the global collaborating HEIs to make further progress. Thus learning becomes an endless cycle of progress orientation, with policies and plans enacted, aligned and synergized with each other at HEIs in different countries, for a sustainable, efficient and effective education development.

Distinct change and socialization The expansion of distance education would require continuous improvement in the digital infrastructure, dissemination of innovative teaching and research methods, the latest technology in learning, collaboration between departments, training modules, applicable research assignments, and linking the curriculum to industry and business needs to reduce the cost of training.

Climate required in organization Alignment and synergy create a climate in HEIs that fosters free-flowing and open-ended engagement through acknowledgement of and respect for the different positions, values, conceptual frameworks and world views brought by teaching staff (Pearson & Trevitt, 2005) from different countries. Accepting ‘difference and discontinuity’ (Tierney, 1997:15), giving key concepts to leaders and decision makers at all levels to enact successful innovation (Somekh (1998), the concepts are:

Conclusion Both students and faculty have to be ready for transformation to foster the establishment of quality international distance learning in Asia-Pacific higher education. This will need brave and persistent visionary decision makers who can collaborate in openness and trustworthiness at the highest level in a global consortium, for a better quality of life in Asia and the rest of the world.

a. Leaders can accept situational complexities and recognize different motivations within organizations to prevail; and b. Leaders can give away power to subordinates without having an inferiority complex, to enact a positive contribution to bring about maximum change at national and international levels, to bring about change through ‘shared meanings’ and understanding, and to achieve alignment of the multi-faceted effects of HEI program in the new world order.

Petrina Faustine obtained her BSc in Economic Development Studies from Indonesian Open University (1992), MBA from ITB/Indonesia (1993), MSc in International Marketing from Strathclyde University of UK (1998) under British Chevening Award scholarship and doctoral degree from ITB of Indonesia (2004). She earned her language certificates in French from Alliance Francais (1981-84), Japanese from BNBG (1984-86) and German from ZDAF and Mittle Stuffe2 (Goethe Institut, 1992-96). Dr Faustine has been lecturing on business management since 1994, and won the SEAAIR 2004 award for best paper. She founded the Indonesian FBN in 2003 and the International Entrepreneur & Family Business Association in 2006.

Global competence consortium in Asia-Pacific International associations of educational institutions are basically a ‘sieve’ of competences, standard qualities, establishments and other attributes. The survival of the fittest HEIs will be dependent on the quality of products offered to the market, as well as their accessibility. Obsolescence of products is due to many similar products being offered to the market. Therefore HEIs

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Langkawi National Geopark: achieving global excellence in sustainable regional development By Professor Tan Sri Dato’ Dr Sharifah Hapsah Syed Hasan Vice-Chancellor/President Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia On 1 June 2007, Langkawi, a group of 99 Islands in the northern waters of Malaysia was accorded National Geopark status by UNESCO. It is Southeast Asia’s first and the 52nd in the UNESCO Global Network of National Geoparks. The concept of geoparks is in line with the 1991 Digne Declaration of the Rights of the Memory of the Earth that called on national and international authorities to protect the unique and inseparable cultural and geological heritage of Earth.

conservation sites - the Manchinchang Cambrian, Kilim Karst and Dayang Bunting Marble Geoforest Parks, referring to the specific rock formation of these sites respectively. One of the most successful geotourism routes is the Kilim Trail, where visitors could enjoy an educational tour of the formation of the Kilim Karst mangrove and various recreational activities while admiring the beautiful scenery.

Langkawi has been studied by researchers from University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), or The National University of Malaysia since 1975, initially from the aspect of its geological formation. The status of UNESCO national geopark is the outcome of painstaking research, expeditions and the dedication of research teams from UKM’s Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development (LESTARI), which successfully collaborated with partners from the Malaysian Geological Heritage Group, Langkawi Development Authority (LADA), Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia, Mineral and Geoscience Department, and National Park and Wildlife Department to promote the concept of a geoforest park as early as the mid-1990s.

The colourful landscape provides the sustaining foundation for its contrasting ecosystems. These geoforests comprise a geological and biological treasure trove unrivalled in terms of intrinsic aesthetic, cultural, scientific and recreational values. These natural hanging gardens manifest an amazing diversity: tree-carpeted hills with soaring eagles (helang) that some legends say gave the island its name, bat-shrouded caves, crevices with gnarled roots, lakes the colour of chalcedony, dramatically dropping cliffs, razor-sharp pinnacles and arches through which thunderous waves crash. It is little wonder that this little paradise has emerged as a premier tourist destination of Peninsular Malaysia, receiving 2,303,157 tourists in 2008 and 2,461,455 in 2009.

Research in the biodiversity of the flora and fauna in the permanent forests as well as the rich cultural heritage was intensified in the 1990s when Lestari was established. Over the years, the researchers compiled extensive knowledge of Langkawi, describing the beauty and charm of its islands of various shapes and sizes, pristine forests and mangroves flanking the waterways, spectacular mountain ranges, sandy beaches and shoreline beautifully carved with black slate and gravel of all hues, enriched and made more dramatic by the historical and cultural heritage such as the legends of Mahsuri, Machinchang Range, Lake of the Pregnant Maiden and other popular tales.

A geopark is not just about rocks and protection of nationally and regionally significant geoheritage resources, such as protected forests, recreational forests, archaeological sites, state and national parks as well as culture. It should be able to support and improve the socio-economic status of the local population as well as the region, particularly through ecotourism, which engages the community in its present and future plans. In this spirit, the Langkawi Geopark promotes a holistic nature conservation that hinges on the interdependency between geological elements such as minerals, rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna, and human inhabitants. Through this approach, the geopark can sustain Langkawi as a premier tourism destination of the world.

From the ancient rocks called the Machinchang Formation, a complex geological process over the ages gave rise to other rock formations of Peninsular Malaysia. From the wide spectrum of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks with enormous minerals, fossils and geological structures, forests took root, and creatures thrived.

In terms of geoheritage, the Langkawi Geopark has one of the oldest rock formations in Malaysia, tracing back to the early Cambrian period, or about 550 million years ago. Three strategic sites are chosen as geopark

Facing page: A sampling of what visitors can see at the Langkawi National Geopark. Photo credit: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

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Realising that the sustainability of Langkawi Geopark rests on public awareness of the preciousness of conservation of these God-given treasures, the researchers have published numerous books, the most recent being Geoforest Parks: The Hanging Gardens of Langkawi (2009). The simple and picturesque presentation of scientific information is designed to create love and respect for our natural heritage and to raise awareness of the importance of conserving ancient geology, unique plants and ecosystems. It is a journey through Earth’s history.

innovation to find the right framework to couch the geoheritage research framework. What started as a challenge presented itself as an opportunity. Among the earlier concepts were the Conservation Concepts of Ibrahim Komoo and friends (1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2003), augmented by that of Shaharuddin Mohamed Ismail et al (2004). Collectively these stressed on identification, characterisation, geodiversity classification, evaluation and ranking. These are then utilised for the best conservation method of each site. The heritage value of biodiversity may be measured by mineral diversity (Che Aziz Ali, 2004), fossil diversity (Mohd Shafeea Leman, 2004) and structural diversity (Tajul Auar Jamaluddin, 2004). Two more destinations were suggested, geoforest parks and landscapes of scenic beauty. UKM researchers also urged the participation of agencies such as museums and galleries in educating the public on preserving geo-artifacts.

The researchers have also creatively utilised information and communications technology to translate the information in the book onto a website at, where it can be downloaded into a mobile device and used as a tour guide. UKM’s Lestari and researchers have been accorded international recognition. Lestari is the secretariat for the Asia-Pacific Global Geopark Network (APGGN). In April 2010, UKM hosts the International Global Geopark Conference. Professor Ibrahim Komoo is one of the seven executive members of the Global Geopark Bureau and three UKM researchers are on the expert panel for geopark evaluation.

The Langkawi Geopark has spawned great interest and many activities related to national heritage sites. More sites have been developed throughout the country. An interactive database on Malaysian heritage resources called MyGEORes is being developed. The UKM researchers are working to prepare new national geoparks with special focus given to Kinabalu, Sarawak Delta, Kinta Valley, Kenyir and Johor Islands. Whilst many geological monuments have been identified in Langkawi, many new ones are also being identified in the rest of Peninsular Malaysia, such as Klang Gate Quartz Ridge, Bako, Pulau Kapas, Batu Layar and Batu Lawi.

The most important impact of the Langkawi Geopark is in the economic opportunities it offers to the people, creating new innovative industries for them to venture into and benefit from, without their future being jeopardised by the nature-resource conservation. The success of the Kilim Fishermen Economic Association is one such example. The association has been able to provide alternative employment for many of its members, from being traditional fishermen to tour boat operators, resulting in a net increase in income, giving them a better quality of life. Many have also become entrepreneurs, breeding fish for restaurants patronised by tourists.

The work of UKM researchers and their partners in the Langkawi Geopark has been a wonderful story of passion with a happy ending. It has turned out to be a model of successful nature-and-heritage conservation, socioeconomic empowerment, entrepreneurship for the locals, theory building and constructing research frameworks for the academics. Langkawi geopark illustrates the value of smart partnerships, and how universities can successfully engage these partners as well as the community to contribute to the development of a region.Through teaching, research and service, UKM not only trains human capital and generates scientific and technological innovations, but also serves as an active agent in business innovation, socio-cultural promotion and environmental development.

The influx of tourists has given a boost to the demand for cottage products such as handicraft, providing a lucrative form of income for the womenfolk. The Women Association of Kuala Triang has enjoyed such benefits from their produce. Whilst it is true that many Langkawians are employed in the service industries and could be construed as negative by many, most have managed to turn themselves into successful entrepreneurs, managing their business as boat operators, raising fish for their own eateries, marketing local produce to national and regional markets, and other allied business ventures. One of the most visible outcomes of entrepreneurship is the setting up of duty-free outlets catering to both national and regional tourists. The Ismail Group of companies is one such company.

Although such activities are more difficult to measure compared to generating inventions, publications and patents for wealth creation, it is imperative to continue to value them for the positive impact that they have on local communities. We need to become better in devising incentives, indicators and methods for assessing and monitoring the impact that universities have on a region’s economy and social well-being.

The Malaysian heritage conservation initiative started almost at the same time as its European counterpart. Hence it was a lesson in creativity and

The contribution of UKM to the Langkawi Geopark is a way of achieving global excellence in sustainable regional development.

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Boost your university's global recognition! Exclusive two-day/three-night seminar and social networking for university executive heads and senior planners As part of its continuing efforts to help university leaders understand the QS World University Rankings and propel their institutions towards global recognition, QS Asia takes you through a highly exclusive annual series of top-level lifestyle seminars at some of Asia’s most exciting destinations - Singapore 2008, Bali 2009 and Langkawi 2010. Network and discuss high-end university strategies with not just your Asian peers but also other key industry players and top personnel of major employers in a relaxed and hospitable atmosphere that includes sports and leisure activities. An extremely elite congregation meant only for key decision makers and senior level management, consideration of a sponsorship opportunity would be most valuable for your institution in increasing its brand visibility and awareness. For more information, please contact us or visit

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Asian business schools up in the downturn The current downturn may be a key moment in the ongoing rise of Asian business schools. Up in the rankings and with the local economic conditions predicted to be less difficult than those in the West, it may be that Asian business schools will profit as the world’s attention turns east. David Williams investigates. programs starting in 2009 will graduate in 2011 and the economy should have picked up by then. On top of this, an Asian MBA costs less, it makes people from outside the region branch out a little more and helps them become much more truly global in orientation.” With Asian markets bouncing back more quickly, it is here that the multinationals are likely to be recruiting. “Most recruiters recognize that Asia will be their key growth market when things turn around,” explains Joan Tay, Director of the Career Services Office at the National University of Singapore Business School (NUS).“We have been seeing a rising trend from global multinational corporations towards hiring from top Asian business schools. More and more campus recruiters from US and Europe, which have never hired in Asia for MBA-level roles before, are coming to Singapore to evaluate and to add us to their list of target schools.” Successful in the rankings This success has been reflected in the rankings. HKUST and the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) have both entered the top 20 of the Financial Times ranking of Global MBAs in the last couple of years. Since 2000, the Indian School of Business, Shanghai Jiaotong’s Antai College of Economics and Management, Nanyang Business School, NUS and the Chinese University of Hong Kong have all made appearances in the rankings. The QS list of Global Top 200 Business Schools tells an identical story, with the number of Asia-Pacific schools included leaping from ten to 23 between 2006 and 2007.

Bustling Hong Kong is a popular destination for postgraduate business education in Asia.

A softer downturn? As China and India have boomed, a number of key schools in the region have risen to global prominence. And with the prevailing wisdom being that the Asian downturn will be softer and the upturn quicker to arrive than in the West, many Asian business schools are predicting they will do even better when the upturn comes.

Thinking differently about Asia The combination of international recognition with a softer downturn leaves Asian business schools well placed to profit from the current global economic situation.

Chris Tsang is Associate Director (Postgraduate Programs) at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Business School (HKUST). “Admittedly, we have mixed feelings at the moment,” he says. “In the short term, our graduates have obviously been hit by the downturn. For students graduating this year it will be a tough time, no matter if they are in the US, Europe or Asia.

“This economic turmoil will make people think of Asia in a slightly different perspective,” argues Marjorie Chang, Administrative Director, Career Services for MBA Programs at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. “There are a lot of students who may not have thought about Asian business schools before who will think about them this year.”

“However, in the medium term, the economy is not likely to be hit as hard as Europe or the US. There is a lot of cash in China and savings are higher, so, if the mainland government can shift demand from export to domestic consumption and undertake more infrastructure activities, the downturn will not be as severe and the recovery will be faster. Those applying for MBA

“I wouldn’t say there is a shift in economic power as yet but there is a shifting of economic attention from the West to Asia and particularly to 61

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China and India,” adds Chris Tsang at HKUST. “This translates into a very positive outlook for this year’s applications. We are not dominating yet, but people are no longer only looking at the US or Europe, they are prepared to look at alternatives.” “This reminds me of the saying that it takes 20 years to become an overnight success,” says Professor Chris Adam, Postgraduate Programs Director at the Australian Graduate School of Management (AGSM) in the University of New South Wales. “Schools in our region have been building on success over time, and what we are now seeing is Asian business schools developing in both scale and reach. They are growing the size of their programs and, because of the relative health of the Asian economy, are able to place their graduates in jobs.” Change already happening It may be a short-term consequence of what has happened to the financial sector over the last few months but many schools are reporting anecdotally that there has been a significant increase in the number of enquiries from potential students based in the West, and particularly from finance professionals. Professor Steve DeKrey is Chairman of the American Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong and Senior Associate Dean of HKUST Business School. “Preliminary data on applications tells us we are about 50% up on inquiries and getting interest from finance professionals in London and New York,” he says. “We haven’t had a lot of interest from this direction before but we are getting it this year and it is really dramatic. People like to go to school where they can get jobs and they know Asia is where the future will be.” Modern skyscrapers in Beijing, China.

“We are now getting enquiries from finance industry people in regions of the world that only ever used to send us students with IT or accounting backgrounds,” agrees Jennifer George, Associate Dean of Academic Programs at Melbourne Business School. Beating America? Jennifer George is however cautious about taking the idea of Asian dominance too far. “It is true that this could be one of those turning points in the perception of the business education sector,” she says. “But it would be a very brave person who would say that the American schools – with their huge endowments, long history and business education know-how – aren’t going to ride out this crisis and come out the other side looking good. At the same time, however, we do have an opportunity to appeal to people who might not have looked to Asia in the past, and that can only mean that we will see a wider range of people thinking seriously about coming to us.” (Reprinted with permission from QS TopMBA Career Guide Winter 2009/Spring 2010)

Colourful lights brighten the night skyline of Shanghai, China.

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Spearheading collaborative e-learning effort in Asia A QS WorldClass interview with Professor Dato’ Dr Ansary Ahmed, President/CEO of Asia e University

“At AeU, you will find flexible learning wrapped around your busy schedules, made affordable and of top quality global learning experience.” Professor Dato’ Dr Ansary Ahmed President/CEO Asia e University

Professor Dato’ Dr Ansary Ahmed graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Microbiology from the University of Liverpool in 1979. He obtained his PhD in Molecular Biology in 1983 from the University of Manchester, UK. He first started his academic career as a tutor in the Department of Genetics and Cellular Biology in University of Malaya, and he received his full professorship in 1998. He has served as Head of Department of Genetics, Deputy Dean Faculty of Science and the Founding Dean for Institute of Postgraduate Studies. Professor Ansary was the Project Leader, Senior Vice President and co-founder of Open University of Malaysia. The university now boasts an enrollment of over 80,000 students. At the national level, he has been actively involved as Steering Committee member of National Biotechnology Group, as Special Science Officer at Malaysian Industry

Government Group for High Technology (MIGHT), Science Advisor Office, Prime Minister’s Department. He also served as member of Task Force National Technology at Mapping Project, National Innovation System and headed the Pharmaceutical Secretariat at MIGHT. Professor Ansary has served as chairman and member of several national task forces and committees in higher education for internationalisation and lifelong learning. He is presently national chairman for e-learning. Professor Ansary is also active internationally. He is a member of UNESCO Kornberg 21st Century Visionaries for Higher Education and currently serves as UNESCO technical consultant to Libya for the ICT transformation of Libyan universities. He is also very actively involved in scientific and technical consultancy. He is often invited as speaker at both local and international events, including Education Leaders Forum, Paris. He has represented Malaysia as a member of

Board of Trustees of Asean University Network for several years. He was project director for total e-learning solution at Ministry of Higher Education, Saudi Arabia, and most recently was appointed honorary advisor for Asia by the Commonwealth of Learning. Professor Ansary is the founding President/CEO of the Asia e University, which is a collaborative effort of 31 Asian countries under the Asian Cooperative Dialogue. He has published more than 120 articles in international and local journals in microbiology, molecular genetics, leadership and management in higher education. In recognition of his contributions both nationally and internationally, he was conferred the Darjah Johan (Champion of the State) Negeri Pulau Pinang in 2005, and the Darjah Paduka Mahkota Perak in 2007 by the HE Sultan of Perak Darul Ridzuan that carries the title of Dato’.

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More international students seeking graduate studies in China China has a reputation as a huge exporter of graduate students, but such has been the rise in its power that the tide is starting to turn. James Donald looks at why international students are now flocking to China for their master and PhD studies. decade. In 2007-08, there were more than 195,000 international students in China, up from 77,000 in 2003. Graduate students numbered more than 10,000 in the most recent survey. South Korea and Japan were the top two countries of origin for the total figure, followed by the United States. This figure is set to rise further over the coming decade. Coe says studying in China for a postgraduate degree is one of the most affordable and essential education options. “China boasts some of the world’s top-ranked universities, offering degrees in almost any field. Moreover, studying in China gives students a leg up on the international job market, especially in multinational companies with offices throughout Asia.” Students considering graduate study in China may be worried that the majority of courses are taught in Mandarin Chinese, not English, although Mandarin is one of the more popular course choices for international students. “Several highly regarded schools in China offer master and PhD programs taught in English, such as Shanghai Normal University, University of International Business and Economics in Beijing, and Ocean University of Qingdao. Those that don’t offer courses in English have early entry Chinese training programs that prepare international students for the rigour of Chinese coursework in their degree programs,” explains Coe.

China hosted the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Pictured above is the ‘Bird’s Nest’ stadium.

In 2008, China captured the hearts and attention of millions worldwide as it hosted the much talked about, highly anticipated, Beijing Olympics. But not satisfied to be out of the spotlight, China has remained a talking point since.

“We have also seen an upsurge in requests for our Business and Economics courses taught in English, as well as Business Chinese Language courses. Our Traditional Chinese Medicine and Martial Arts courses remain popular options as well.”

“China is at a unique place in our global history,” says Jason Coe, Program Director of China Study Abroad. “As we enter what many have termed the ‘Asian Century’, China stands at the forefront, leading the region with its economic might and industrial production prowess.

Studying abroad, although a worthwhile experience, is also a costly one, but the rise in the economic power of China does not mean that the cost of living is high, according to Coe. “Despite the recent economic improvements in China, the cost of living is still quite low. It’s possible for a student to live in a large city, such as Beijing and Shanghai, for less than US$20 a day.” However, employment options for topping up the budget are limited. While on a student visa, international students are not allowed to work in China unless issued a special work permit by their employer.

“When Jim Rogers, former partner of George Soros and one of the world’s most successful investors, was asked his advice for young people, he said: ‘Move to China; learn Chinese’.” Just as English was the lingua franca of the 20th century, Mandarin Chinese may very well prove to be that of the 21st. Regardless, an international education is incomplete without an understanding of China,” Coe adds.

Derek Capo, CEO of Next Step China, says the culture shock for students is not as great as might be imagined. “The life here in China isn’t as much of a drastic change as most people expect it to be. There are some

The latest report by the China Scholarship Council reinforces this – the number of international students in China has risen steadily over the last

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adjustments to be made but it isn’t a worse situation, it’s just different. Given the favourable exchange rates for certain countries, foreigners are able to live in China for cheap. You can buy a bowl of noodles for 45 cents and find a place to live for US$200 to US$300 a month in very comfortable accommodation.” Next Step China helps anyone interested in studying, travelling or doing business in China.

Peking University profile Founded in 1898, Peking University runs over 100 undergraduate and 200 postgraduate and PhD courses. A master degree at the university normally requires three years of study and international applicants must be less than 40 years of age. Potential students need to complete the online application form and write an 800-word personal statement. The application period runs from September to December.

Capo adds that the Beijing Language and Cultural University is very popular for beginners who want to study Chinese. In addition to the postgraduate courses, the university also runs a number of supplementary extracurricular classes on cultural studies. There is also the opportunity to take other courses and activities, including Chinese calligraphy and painting, qigong and shadow boxing. Two other world-class universities, Peking University and Tsinghua University, both of which were ranked in the 2008 THE–QS World University Rankings (50= and 56 respectively), also offer language courses and advanced courses on China’s cultural and business environments to international students.

The annual cost for a master in a humanities subject is RMB 29,000 (US$4,250) and a master in science RMB 33,000 (US$4,830). There are 15 scholarships available for master applicants, with a value of RMB4,000 (US$585). Visiting students to Peking University must take a Chinese language proficiency examination after they have registered. If they don’t meet the standard for a specialty course, it is recommended that they learn Chinese in the International College for Chinese Language Studies for one or two semesters.

(Reprinted with permission from QS Top Grad School Guide 2010)

Inside Peking University, one of China’s top two universities. (Photo credit: Peking University)

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Hong Kong as centre of education and research excellence By Professor Way Kuo President City University of Hong Kong Hong Kong’s higher education system constitutes 12 degree-awarding higher education institutions, including eight institutions funded by the public through the University Grants Committee (UGC) and three selffinancing institutions and a publicly-funded academy of performing arts, serving a local population of about seven million. Every year, about 20,000 students finish their first degrees, with the government committed to providing 14,500 first-year first-degree places to cater for about 18% of the 17-to-20 age group people every year. To further develop Hong Kong as a regional education hub, the government has set the target for 60% of senior secondary school leavers having access to post-secondary education by 2010/11. The continuing improvement of Asia’s university rankings is helping to challenge the dominance of traditional, elite universities in the US and UK. Hong Kong, more specifically, has a strong competitive edge over its competitors in the region. Mainland China’s emergence as an economic powerhouse simply cannot be ignored and Hong Kong has obvious close ties with the mainland in general, and the industrious Pearl River Delta area in particular. In time, if internationally-competitive centres of excellence with critical mass can be built up in Hong Kong, given the rise of Asia, they will become magnets - like the great education centres in the US and UK.

Hong Kong’s ambition to be Asia’s world city is a worthy one. Whether positioning itself as a financial, travel, service or transport hub in the region, there is no doubt that the realisation of that vision will only be possible if it is based upon the platform of a very strong education and higher education sector.

Academic exchange between Hong Kong and mainland China plays a significant role in knowledge exchange between the two places. Hong Kong is increasingly focused on filling a role in linking the mainland and the world at large. To do this, Hong Kong is producing graduates who are culturally sensitive to the developments in the mainland. A large proportion of our non-local student population is from the mainland, and the number is rising. Our higher education sector, which is internationalised, will provide mainland students with a valuable international perspective and offers other overseas students a unique opportunity to capitalise on this exposure to China and the Asian region. The Hong Kong government has increased the quota of non-local students for UGC-funded programs from 10% to 20% of approved student number targets.

As a university president in Hong Kong, I can thankfully say that all the major indicators provide irrefutable evidence that tertiary education, both in terms of its academic and research benchmarks, is flourishing in the city. Despite my reservations about the validity of university ranking tables, it is difficult not to derive some overall sense of satisfaction at the results of the recent THE-QS World University Rankings 2009, in which Hong Kong achieved its best-ever outcome with a record five universities in the top 200. This encouraging performance cannot be overlooked. A higher education system with more top-ranking universities will attract more top-notch students and scholars, with which institutions will become even stronger magnets for high-calibre individuals. Like it or not, these survey results bring Hong Kong’s universities to the attention of a global audience. They also reflect the increasingly significant developments that are helping to forge Hong Kong’s reputation as a centre of education and research excellence.

Institutions in Hong Kong have their own unique strengths in which they can aspire to international competitiveness. While local collaboration is developing, all Hong Kong universities have actually forged close ties and integrated collaborative agreements with esteemed universities and research institutions around the world.

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Apart from internationalising the student body, our institutions also recruit teaching staff internationally. City University of Hong Kong’s faculty has long been staffed by a high ratio of education specialists from around the world. About 40% of our faculty are from abroad, a figure that is representative of most universities in Hong Kong. Hong Kong universities count amongst their number, Nobel laureates, international academicians, IEEE Fellows, and members of world-renowned societies and associations. By 2012, undergraduate degrees in Hong Kong will require four years of study, instead of the current three. The subsequent increase in student numbers will require an estimated 1,000 extra academics, with many of them coming from overseas. No doubt the establishment of global networks and exposure to different cultures through opportunities arising from an internationalised campus will bring lifelong benefits to all students.

View of City University of Hong Kong

hub, and universities are continuing to expand their portfolios of taught postgraduate programs for self-financing students.

Hong Kong universities have a very selective and distinctive focus on research. No institutions can expect to undertake internationally competitive research in all discipline areas, but their combined efforts have had a telling impact on areas as diverse as medicine, information systems, energy and the environment, communications, engineering, law, the humanities and numerous other fields of endeavour.

Half of the 800 new research postgraduate places announced recently by the government, along with the new research endowment fund, have already been allocated to universities. This is arguably the best time for students who want to get into research and academic careers. There are more research places in Hong Kong than ever before because of these new places and the institutions are in a better position to provide research supervision. There are six well-publicised economic pillars in the Hong Kong government’s economic strategic plan – education, medical services, environmental industries, innovation and technology, cultural and creative industries, and food safety and product testing. Each of these areas is generating job opportunities for research postgraduates and driving improvements in research and postgraduate programs at Hong Kong universities.

The establishment of an $18 billion Research Endowment Fund and investment income of up to $4 billion of the principal is being set aside to support theme-based research. It is hoped that the increased funding will promote more high-impact and collaborative research, including collaboration with academics from China and internationally. City University, for example, has applied research and development centres across the border in Shenzhen, which focus on mid-stream, market-driven research with direct applications to industry, commerce and the community.

Asia is up and coming on the world stage, thanks to increasingly prosperous citizens, enormous business opportunities and greater political weight. Asia will become a key presence on the world map of higher education and will be an attractive destination for both students and faculty. Human capital is the single most important asset of Hong Kong and its universities are now forging world-class graduates who are making a significant impact on the world stage. The evidence suggests this is only going to continue long into the future.

Hong Kong’s universities are offering more opportunities for postgraduate study through extra places, new programs and alternative modes of study. The government is boosting the number of research postgraduate posts available under its plans to develop Hong Kong as an education

Professor Way Kuo is a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Academia Sinica, Taiwan and the US National Academy of Engineering. He has worked in the management team of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and served as the Dean of Engineering at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, US. He received his BS in Nuclear Engineering from National Tsing-Hua University in Taiwan in 1972, and PhD in Engineering from Kansas State University in 1980. Professor Kuo is acknowledged as a pioneer in designing and modelling reliability of electronics systems and systems reliability. He is also well known for promoting university education based on problem-driven research.

Hong Kong universities are attracting an increasing number of international students.

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A strategy for continued excellence A QS WorldClass interview with Professor Way Kuo, President of City University of Hong Kong

“We see ourselves as a professional school providing top-notch education and conducting problem-driven research that will advance society and economy locally, regionally and internationally.� Way Kuo President

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At City University of Hong Kong, we are passionate about excellence. We are moving swiftly with our professional education initiatives to prime our students for success in a changing world. We have, in the past three years, consolidated our position among the top 150 universities in the world. Our world-renowned research creates applicable knowledge to bolster social and economic advancement. We think it’s a winning combination.


Rapid growth in demand for higher education in India By Pawan Agarwal Former Director, Higher Education Ministry of Human Resource Development India At the same time, there is a large increase in government spending on higher education. As a mark of policy shift, there has been a historic nine-fold increase in government appropriations for higher education from US$2 billion to $18 billion for the 2007-2012 Plan. As the country faced skill shortages due to increased demand for qualified workers with structural changes in the economy, the country’s economic planners, who were disinclined to invest in higher education earlier, are now more favourably disposed.

Both enrolments and number of institutions for higher education in India have grown rapidly over the past 60 years since independence. With the proliferation of institutions, growth picked up in the past two decades and enrolment grew about 5% annually – almost two-and-ahalf times the population growth rate.

With increased government spending, both the number and capacity of government institutions, stagnant since the early 1980s, have begun to grow. Thus both government and private institutions have a robust growth now, even though the main growth driver for Indian higher education would continue to be the private sector. Additional government money is mainly targeted at setting up new high-end institutions, correcting regional imbalances and spreading higher education facilities.

As of now, India has 480 universities and 22,500 colleges enrolling 12.8 million students. India is the third largest system of higher education in the world in terms of enrolment, next only to China and the US. With a population bulge in the lower age cohorts, middle-class boom and aspiration surge, demand for higher education is destined to grow further over the next decades.

The national government has established several new institutions in the past couple of years. Sixteen central universities (in states not having a central university), eight Indian Institutes of Technology, seven Indian Institutes of Management, five Indian Institutes of Science and Engineering Research, two Schools of Planning and Architecture and ten National Institutes of Technology have been established.

Becoming bigger Until recently, higher education occupied low priority in government spending; hence capacities in the government institutions remained static. However, the bulk of recent supply has been in the private sector that accounts for more than a third of overall enrolment and about fourfifth enrolment in professional and technical education.

In addition, the national government plans to set up 14 innovation universities, 20 Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) through public-private partnership and 374 colleges in low-enrolment districts.

Private institutions continue to grow at a frantic pace. While hundreds of new institutions come up every year, the established players are consolidating their positions and gain scale by setting up new campuses, establishing new programs and expanding into new geographies. As a result, chains of private institutions are emerging and the Indian private sector is becoming more vibrant.

While the new national institutions may not add much to the overall enrolment, this would have a positive domino effect and initiate a process of expansion by the state governments that contribute as much as 95% of the enrolment. Thus the government and private growth together would add significant capacities to accommodate more students in higher education in the coming years.

Growing private spending due to rising prosperity is giving a further boost to private higher education. Despite the global slowdown, the Indian economy saw a robust growth that is likely to pick up and overtake China’s growth in the next five years. With accelerated economic growth, there is a rapid increase in the middle and higher income households; more than half of the people would come from such households by 2025.

Increase in capacity is unlikely to match the huge appetite for higher education in the country. Although India will be the world’s most populous country only by 2028, it is already home to the largest number of young people (0-14 years) – six times that of the US and 38% more than China. Thus, demand for higher education would continue to grow.

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Over the next two decades, as Indian enrolments grow rapidly compared to China, which has slowed down its expansion while US enrolments grow leisurely, even though India may still have one of the lowest enrolment ratio (say about 30%), it would have the largest higher education system in the world.

have physical facilities and electronic resources as good as the global best. Getting quality faculty remains a concern, yet with downturn and efforts to get Indian faculty abroad back, the outlook is positive. Apart from this, several private institutions are also coming of age. In addition to investments in physical infrastructure, they now focus on getting good faculty regardless of the cost involved. Large corporate-sector interest in graduate education and research, and the setting up of highend universities like the NIIT University near Delhi by IT training major NIIT and Vedanta University by aluminium major Vedanta group, augur well for Indian higher education. This suggests emergence of an elite private sector at least in the national context.

Becoming better It is well known that with the exception of the Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management and a few reputable universities and colleges, the bulk of India’s universities and colleges are in a bad shape. Despite its large size, the country is a laggard in research publications and patenting, and investment in scientific research has risen rather slowly.

A closer look at the construct of the world university rankings suggests a bias in favour of scientific research, publication in English language journals, and international staff and student numbers. There is failure to reward teaching and research in humanities and social sciences adequately. As more objective world rankings of universities evolve and the Indian institutions continue to improve, they are likely to figure prominently in the league of global universities.

In recent years, however, notable successes in space technology, atomic energy, automobiles, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and information technology services have reinforced commitment to scientific research. There is greater investment in research; new infrastructure and facilities have been created and environment conducive to scientific research is being built. Government spending on scientific research, currently at 0.9% of gross domestic product, is expected to rise to 1.2% by 2012. A Science & Engineering Research Board has been set up to plan and support research more effectively. From an essentially flat line between 1998 and 2000, the number of publications with Indian authors has risen steadily from roughly 16,500 papers in 1998 to nearly 30,000 in 2007.

Challenges and response As Indian higher education becomes bigger and better, it faces several challenges. Universities and colleges are churning out growing numbers of unemployable graduates without preparing them for the workplace. As a result, the unemployment rate of graduates is increasing twice as fast as the enrolment growth. Fast-paced growth has also resulted in drifting of average standards downwards.

According to the recent Global Research Report, although 30,000 papers produced in 2007 represents only 3% of world output, and in absolute volume, it is still only about half the number produced by China, Germany, Japan or the UK, if the trajectory continues, India’s productivity will be on par with most G8 countries (the world’s leading industrialised nations) within seven to eight years, and will overtake them by 2020. The report describes India as a “sleeping giant that seems to be waking”. At the same time, there is considerable growth in patenting activity.

Due to skewed enrolment pattern, there is absence of alignment between enrolment growth and demand for qualified people. The vocational sector

Even though only two or three Indian institutions appear in the world rankings of universities at present, there are 15 to 20 other institutions that are equally good if not better. These do not appear in the rankings due to information gap. Some of the new institutions with good location, energetic leadership and liberal funding have potential to reach high-quality levels much earlier than expected. Many of the Indian institutions are known for high-quality undergraduate teaching. With brilliant students and dedicated teachers, they have an intellectual life comparable to the best in the world. In recent years, graduate and research programs have also improved significantly. With large recent investments in infrastructure and facilities, several institutions

NIIT University, near Delhi.

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is separated from higher education. It is small and suffers from poor demand due to low prestige and low quality. Thus, while there is acute shortage of people with intermediate skills in several sectors, universities and colleges are producing graduates with no employable skills.

government has the right intention and has sown the seeds for an overhaul of governance system, but it currently lacks an overall vision, strategy and structure to deliver. Conclusion

Recent private growth has helped to correct the mismatch, but the government sector is graduating more of the same kind of graduates. Since government funding is based on staffing costs and not linked to student demand and choice, there is continued inertia in the government sector. In a dynamic system, enrolment pattern dominates budgeting and allocations increase on the basis of enrolment expansion, thereby giving primacy to student demand.

With favourable demographics, rising prosperity, growing optimism about the future and mounting government and private interest, Indian higher education is expected to become bigger and better. Rightly designed and properly implemented overhaul of the apparatus for higher education governance currently underway could further accelerate this process and provide India with a competitive edge in the global knowledge economy.

Falling standards are due to ineffective accreditation system and poor regulatory oversight. Despite being burdensome, regulatory arrangements have gaping loopholes and create perverse incentives. There are no other institutional mechanisms to maintain standards.

Pawan Agarwal is a senior civil servant in India. He has developed substantial expertise in higher education policy and practice while serving as director in the Ministry of Human Resource Development and financial advisor in the University Grants Commission. He was a Fulbright New Century Scholar in 2005-06 and Visiting Scholar at the University of Melbourne on Endeavour Executive Award. His book ‘Indian higher education: envisioning the future’, published by Sage (India) in 2009, offers a comprehensive review of contemporary realties of Indian higher education. In addition, he has written several reports and research papers, and published in journals and magazines on a wide range of issues related to higher education.

While increased government spending would somewhat improve the situation, a radical change in state apparatus for higher education is required to make the system efficient and effective. The new structure needs to accommodate diversity in institutional forms, create incentives for both government and private institutions to improve, and align enrolment growth with changing demand for qualified people. The new

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Indian business schools getting greater global recognition By Ross Geraghty provides feedback from 619 prestigious international MBA recruiters as to the world’s best business schools. The recruiters, from dozens of different services and industries, include such names as Accenture, Goldman Sachs, Johnson & Johnson and Google. These are the blue-chip companies setting the standards they expect from the world’s business schools, and which provide the yardstick against which others are measured. The report shows that India’s business schools are achieving greater recognition amongst the international business community. The ‘ABC’ of Institutes of International Management at Ahmedabad (11th in the AsiaPacific region, up from 12th the previous year), Bangalore (6th, up from 9th) and Calcutta (12th, up from 17th) all featured strongly in the report with IIM Bangalore cementing its place in the Top 10 of Asia-Pacific business schools for the second year running. A strong placing by the Indian School of Business (12th, up from 20th) and SP Jain Institute of Management and Research (21st) reinforced the fact that India is providing a major business school presence in the Asia-Pacific region. War for talent

India’s business education has become a sunrise industry, as more of its business schools are gaining recognition worldwide.

As the war for talent rages, despite the recession, a business school’s reputation with recruiters and MBA candidates is of paramount importance both to business schools and the people who hope to attend them. For the best students, attending a school at the highest echelon of the industry, meaning those with access to the world’s largest MBA recruiters, has never been more important. The success of Indian schools in this kind of survey is great news for the country’s many thousands of MBA aspirants, as well as international students who wish to study overseas in places like India.

Most people don’t need to be reminded that it’s fiercely competitive out there in the wide world of business. International recruiters at the top blue-chip firms, seeking the best MBA graduates to lead their companies, refer more and more regularly to the ‘war for talent’ in interviews and on corporate websites. They are more than aware of the constant evolutionary process of rapidly globalizing businesses and of the amount of effort, finance and strategy that is required to entice the very best talent from this 21st Century battlefield through their doors.

So why are Indian business schools doing so well in recent reports? Alok Jain, Admissions Tutor at IIM Ahmedabad, says: “The world is looking closely at India and it makes a lot of difference for any employer looking for a global dimension. The economy is booming, big investments are coming in and the large population has become a major strength of the country. India has a huge young generation segment, more so than China. For any economy, there is a lot of market available, so there is a lot of potential for companies. Indian business schools like IIMA believe in providing unique Indian business cases in class. That is why Indian schools are improving day by day.”

Echoing this, the world’s top business schools find themselves liaising ever more closely with the business world to learn their specific needs. Not that business schools and the ‘real world’ were ever too distanced in the past – indeed most top business schools’ faculty are drawn from the top echelons of international business, proving that the war for talent exists at faculty level too. But increasingly, courses are being created to provide specialized skills to MBA graduates, while remaining within the intrinsically general business nature of the course. Recruiters

The report is also totally unique in that it ranks the most popular schools by region and discipline. As well as the strong regional showing by Indian business schools, they also featured particularly strongly in the finance discipline. Indian schools did not perform quite so well in other fields such

In recent years, Indian business schools have stepped up to the plate, according to the world’s biggest MBA recruiters in an exclusive January 2009 report. The QS Global Top Business Schools 2009: The Employers’ Choice

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as marketing and entrepreneurship, however. Although not necessarily competing with some of the top US and European schools, this may be a concern to the program managers of India’s biggest MBA providers. “Overall, I think the report shows that Indian business schools are really getting their act together and are doing things right,” says Nunzio Quacquarelli, managing director of QS and an expert in the international MBA industry.“It shows that global recruiters, not just local ones, are looking closely at Indian schools and graduates of those MBA programs, and are seeing the quality and value of the education those schools provide.” Are Indian business schools still playing catch-up? Alok Jain says: “There is still work to do. American and European models have more research-related output where Indian ones have a close co-ordination with Indian business and economy, and we are developing course curricula according to what the industry is asking for. It’s especially true in Mergers & Acquisitions, as many businesses are being acquired by Indian entrepreneurs. This was not the trend ten years ago. Slowly we are developing international aspirations and requirements, and developing courses to meet these demands.” QS Global Top Business Schools 2009: The Employers’ Choice canvassed the opinions of human resource decision-makers. These have the most objective and informed opinions as to which are the ‘best’ business schools, and this makes them ideal candidates to respond to such a survey. Nunzio Quacquarelli, author of the report, says: “When HR managers choose from which business schools to recruit, they will draw from a wide range of information sources, evaluate their experience of MBA alumni currently working at the firm and canvass their opinions, assess the quality and efficiency of schools’ career services and the reputation of the school, globally and locally, look beyond rankings and examine the facilities, the course content and the quality of students.” One thing is for sure. As the Indian economy flourishes and the world’s big businesses start to take the country more seriously as a business proposition, the country’s business schools and those who want to enter MBA courses there, are booming with it. And this can only be good news for the next generation of Indian business leaders.

• • • • • • • • • •

Mumbai University

(Reprinted with permission from QS TopMBA Career Guide Winter 2009/Spring 2010)

Top 10 Schools in Asia-Pacific Region (alphabetical order) Australian Graduate School of Management China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore INSEAD Singapore Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University Melbourne Business School, University of Melbourne Monash University Graduate School of Business Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore NUS Business School, National University of Singapore

• • • • • • • • • •

Next 10 Schools in Asia-Pacific Region (alphabetical order) Asian Institute of Management Australian National University National Graduate School of Management Chinese University of Hong Kong Guanghua School of Management , Peking University Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad Indian Institute of Management Calcutta Indian School of Business Tsinghua University School of Economics & Management University of Hong Kong UTS University of Technology Sydney. Graduate School of Business

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Becoming an Excellent Research University

A QS WorldClass interview with Rector Professor Dr Susilo Wibowo of Diponegoro University

“By the year of 2020, Diponegoro University intends to become an Excellent Research University. ”

Professor Dr Susilo Wibowo Rector

Our Mission: 1. Improve the quality and quantity of education, so that the graduates have higher competitiveness and comparative ability internationally and could contribute to the development of science, technology and art. 2. Improve the quality and quantity of research and publication as well as intellectual copyright as an effort for the development of science, technology and art by local culture and local resources. 3. Improve the quality and quantity of community services as an application and development of science, technology and art. 4. Improve the professionalism, capability, accountability, managerial skill and self- supported higher education management. Diponegoro University (UNDIP) is a prestigious university located at the northern of Central Java, Indonesia. It is renowned for being at the forefront of engineering and technological knowledge and expertise, with a mission to be an Excellent Research University. UNDIP has also established a reputation for innovative education and leading-edge research, with a vision to educating technologists and professionals toward the development of

creative human resource and advanced technological innovations. This is in line with the aspiration of the country to be a fully developed and knowledge-rich nation. UNDIP has 11 faculties and the same number of research centres, in addition to academic departments to service technological, educational and research needs of the university. An important result of UNDIP’s carefully managed modernisation is a steadily improving education system that has poured millions into research and development, and to encouraging international students into the country. In the 2008 THE-QS World University Rankings, UNDIP featured well in the ranking of 501+ position, which decreased from Top 500 (401-500th position) in 2007. In 2009, UNDIP ranked 171st of Top 200 Asia in QS Asian University Rankings. The quality of teaching in UNDIP has improved greatly in recent years, following a government decree that all teachers and lecturers must possess a Master/PhD degree in the subject that they are teaching, which was not the case before the turn of the century. UNDIP has been seeking accreditation as a national university and international recognition as an outstanding university. This objective is in line with the global challenges. The global era requires high-quality education institutions that can participate and compete in

the world. Based on the present conditions, the education quality in a university should always be increased in order to develop qualified, knowledgeable and high technology human resources. The strategic actions had been taken in line with the new paradigm of higher education development program which has been proposed by Indonesian Directorate General of Higher Education (IDGHE). We have a significant share of the most competitive postgraduate and undergraduate programs in engineering, animal agriculture, ICT, science, mathematics, economics, management, medicine, social and political science, public health, fisheries and marine science, and psychology. Student hostel accommodation will be provided by UNDIP on the campus, as well as private apartments for rent around campus provided by the community. A student canteen near the apartments offers a wide variety of meals at reasonable prices. Postgraduate students may be accommodated in private residences for families. It should be pointed out that the rates can vary appreciably depending on the type of lodging, proximity to campus and the other factors. Generally, information on private residences for rent are available in the local newspapers.

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Becoming an excellent research university

Becoming an excellent research university UNDIP began to institutionalize its performance system based on our evaluation and market orientation, and will continue on our route toward creating an excellent academic atmosphere that reflects global trends, while preserving traditions that we have cherished since the University’s establishment. Students in UNDIP will be led and served not only through a strong academic curriculum but also by involvement in extracurricular activities, from traditional performance to athletics, and from leadership training to participation in community service. To bridge the gap between industry and academic education in Indonesia, our students are required to undergo industrial training with relevant organisations as well as improving our research and publication, especially those with potential application for industry. To reach our global vision, UNDIP encourages any collaboration with all kinds of institution or university in the world, since we believe that in collaboration we can see further if we are willing to stand on each other’s shoulder.

Diponegoro University Prof. Soedarto, SH St. Tembalang, Semarang Central Java, Indonesia Phone : +62 24 7460017, Fax : +62 24 7460013 e-mail :, website : Kariadi Campus dr. Soetomo St. No. 18, Semarang Central Java, Indonesia e-mail :, website : Pleburan Campus Imam Bardjo, SH. St. Pleburan, Semarang Central Java, Indonesia e-mail :, website :

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Undergraduate Programs • Faculty of Law • Faculty of Economics • Faculty of Engineering • Faculty of Medicine • Faculty of Animal Agriculture • Faculty of Letters • Faculty of Social and Political Science • Faculty of Public Health • Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science • Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science • Faculty of Psychology Postgraduate Programs 1. Master Programs • Agribusiness (Faculty of Animal Agriculture) • Epidemiology (Faculty of Medicine) • Public Health Nutrition (Faculty of Public Health) • Environmental Science (Faculty of Engineering • Information System (Faculty of Mathematics) • Accounting (Faculty of Economics) • Economics and Development Studies (Faculty of Economics) • Management (Faculty of Economics) • Law (Faculty of Law) • Notary (Faculty of Law) • Public Administration Science (Faculty of Social and Politics) • Politics (Faculty of Social and Politics) • Biomedical Science (Faculty of Medicine) • Public Health (Faculty of Public Health) • Environmental Health (Faculty of Public Health) • Health Promotion (Faculty of Public Health) • Coastal Resources Management (Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science) • Animal Science Management (Faculty of Animal Agriculture) • Architecture Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) • Urban Development (Faculty of Engineering) • Civil Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) • Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) • Chemical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) • Linguistic (Faculty of Letters) 2. Doctorate Programs • Law • Medicine • Economics • Architecture Engineering • Civil Engineering • Coastal Resource Management • Animal Science • Environmental Science 3. Specialist Program Medical Specialization (44 Departments)

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Japanese universities rising to the world challenge By Professor Kenji Watanuki Vice Director, JICPAS Professor, Josai International University President, ACGC (Japan) Asia, with students from China, Korea and Taiwan making up about 80% of the total. This situation may give the impression that Japan lacks initiative or academic programs to attract foreign students, particularly those from Western countries.

The globalization of education is one of the hottest issues for Japanese and Asian universities. Amongst them, the world university rankings, student exchanges and globalized curricula are some of the most important on their agenda.

The second reason is the limited number of Japanese students studying abroad. There were 80,023 Japanese students who went overseas for study in 2008, but the figure has not been increasing above the annual average of 75,000-80,000 for the last five years. This may mean that Japanese students are becoming less competitive in study-abroad experience. This tendency becomes more apparent when we look at the 2009 OECD report, which showed the largest number of students studying in OECD countries was from China with 408,344, followed by India with 153,323, Korea 105,779 and Japan 55,429. Optimistically, we may interpret this trend as an indication that Japan has reached the mature stage in overseas education and become selective. However, this reduction may be hampering Japan’s globalization efforts.

As interest and sensitivity in university rankings grow, more universities in Japan and Asia are offering bilateral or multilateral exchange programs, doublemaster, dual accreditation and consortium programs with foreign partners. As a result, Asian universities are emerging on the world scene. In 2006, there were 2.9 million foreign students and 2.4 million (83.5%) were studying in the OECD countries, and 45.3% of them were Asian students. There are 25 Asian universities (including those in the Pacific) among the top 200 in the THE-QS World University Rankings 2009 (12.5% of the total). The globalization of education is finally gaining momentum in Asia.

The third reason is the slow process of developing education in English. Among universities offering degree programs with English curriculum only

How about the situation in Japan? Unfortunately, the speed of educational globalization is not as fast as it should be. You can readily see the result of lower rankings of top Japanese universities such as the University of Tokyo (22nd) and Kyoto University (25th). Some people are complaining about these results, as they do not reflect Japan’s position as the world’s second most powerful economy (in terms of GDP, after the US), and the existence of well-established universities in the country. In fact, there are 773 universities in Japan - 86 national, 92 prefectural/municipal and 595 private universities. Private universities account for 77% of the total. Thus, Japan has a very competitive structure in education, but this is not shown in the rankings. There are several reasons why Japanese universities are ranked lower. First, the number of foreign students studying in Japan is small. Japan accepted only 123,829 or 4.4% of the world’s foreign students in 2006, whereas the US received 582,984, UK 376,190, Germany 246,369, France 263,126 and Australia 250,794. Most of the foreign students originated in

Students from Yokohama National University on tour of UK to debate on nuclear energy with students from Cardiff University.

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national universities and diminishing budgets. The problems associated with globalization have helped increase awareness and keen competition among universities across the board, thus creating tension and pressure in university management.

at undergraduate level, there are five faculties of five universities. At the graduate level, there are 124 faculties of 68 universities. There are about 200 universities that open some faculties with English classes to foreign students. It means that there are not enough Japanese professors who are able to teach in English or that English-speaking professors are not employed fully for some reasons.

In addition, increased competition from overseas is forcing Japan to quickly boost its global competitiveness. There are the Bologna process in Europe, the higher education action plan and competitiveness initiative, the global strategy in education in UK, the innovation plan in research and education in France, the academic action plan in Germany, the priority in education and higher budget in China, the worldwide education plan for science and technology, and the increase in foreign students in Korea.

The fourth reason is the shortage of globalized exchange programs and curricula. In 2006, the number of exchange programs totalled 12,000, which means there were 15.5 programs per university. There were not many double-degree programs. In 2007, 69 universities were offering the doubledegree program and this figure was less than 10% of the total. Exchange and double-degree programs requiring a globalized curriculum are very important, as they give students the opportunity to use universities’ valuable resources, develop cross-cultural understanding and plan a global career.

Thus, there are many challenges that Japan has to resolve. On a personal note, having lived in US and Europe for 15 years, and participated in many international conferences (including serving in the QS-APPLE Academic Conference Committee), I welcome these challenges and government initiatives. In response to the global shift and needs, I created the Academic Consortium for Global Competitiveness for Japan (ACGC) last year in collaboration with the NPO organization Japanese Council for the Safety of Overseas Students (GCSOS), which has about 130 major Japanese universities as its members. The member universities have a common goal to improve the quality and global competitiveness of Japanese universities. GCSOS aims to share experiences with universities around the world in order to enhance academic and educational globalization.

In order to solve the above-mentioned problems and move ahead in the globalization of education, the Japanese government is now more serious in promoting the globalization of curricula and exchange programs. To tackle the limited number of foreign students coming to Japan, the target of 300,000 students by 2020 was announced. Japan took 20 years to reach 100,000 students (1983 – 2003) and had 123,829 students in May 2008. It was a slow process compared with that of Western countries. The plan was accelerated as it now intends to employ bright foreign graduates to contribute to the economic and social development of Japan.

Kenji Watanuki is Vice Director of Josai International Center for the Promotion of Arts and Science (JICPAS) and a professor of the Faculty of International Humanities, Josai International University. After studying economics at Hosei University, he did postgraduate study in business at the University of Minnesota in the US. He attended Sony’s European Management Program at IMD in Switzerland. Professor Watanuki spent 30 years at Sony Corporation and was stationed in the US and France for 12 years. He taught at Yokohama National University for five years before joining Josai in 2008.

The Japanese government has implemented national awards to support universities financially in order to enhance their competitiveness and presence in the world. Three international strategies were announced in the “Basic Strategy Plan 2008 for Economic and Financial Innovation”. First, the Global 30 Award selected 13 universities to recognize them as the pioneering model of globalization for other universities. The selection criteria include effective implementation of programs in English, acceptance of high proportion of foreign students, promotion of international alliances and establishment of overseas operations. Secondly, the Global COE Award aims to promote excellence in research and education, and to position Japan as the centre of excellence in the world. Thirdly, the Graduate School Innovation Award calls for the restructuring of graduate schools in the areas of globalizing coursework and educational environments, teaching methods and quality standards. Like the US, Japanese higher education depends much on private initiatives, as the government’s contribution to education is limited to 0.6% of the GDP. Japan is faced with problems such as a stagnating economy, dwindling number of high school students entering universities due to population decrease, over-capacity of universities and colleges, corporatisation of

Japanese students debating with students from Pisa University in Italy. Photo credit: Kenji Watanuki

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Changing trends in university quality assurance in Japan By Hiromi Naya President Meiji University of many countries, including Japan. The current economic recession is the result.

Basic changes in university management Currently, discussions of university management from a variety of perspectives are being held in Japan. The ultimate problem is educational “quality assurance”. A public system to guarantee quality assurance through “university evaluation” and a system to award accreditation based on self-assessment are currently under consideration.

This incident provides an opportunity to viscerally experience the global community going through a major transition from a past era to a new one. The financial crisis has shown the whole world that it is in the process of a paradigm shift. The 19th century was an era in which nations aimed for independence as sovereign states. The 20th century was characterized by international relations (the so-called international community); that century was also said to be the century of war. And now, global trends are centred on a theory of citizenship that transcends national borders. It is the era of a transnational world.

This development resulted from changes in university management. These changes are partly due to the decrease in the number of prospective 18-year-old students in Japan’s population as a result of its low birth rate. The second reason is the decrease in income of sponsors resulting from the downturn of the Japanese economy. Another contributing factor is the need to construct a system that will respond to the globalization of education.

Education reflects the era Each nation is striving to build an educational system to develop and sustain human development by setting the national goal through the influence of culture (vertical), global trends (horizontal) and history. From this, we can see that education reflects the way a nation is to be built.

With the deregulation policies initiated by the former Prime Minister Koizumi from 2001 to 2006, competition among universities has become keener. In April 2004, Japanese public universities became independent administrative institutions, known as “National University Corporations”. That development increased competition among public and private universities.

Japan is now entering the third stage of the “opening up” of the country. This stage is analogous to the “Meiji Restoration” that took place about 140 years ago, and to the post-Second World War era marked by “various reforms corresponding to US occupation policies”. We can now understand those two previous stages as enacting a qualitative transitioning of various social systems and values to enable Japan to adapt to the new global standard (model) that appeared during the Meiji Restoration and the postwar occupation.

Theoretical streams of university reform Universities are striving to survive by emphasizing their special characteristics or features, and implementing university reform in response to society’s demands. In addition, globalization is making it necessary to educate people to an academic level where they have the knowledge and ability to perform competently in the international marketplace.

In this current third stage, however, it is clear that American free-market forces cannot provide a sufficient model in itself. Despite this, however, the international community still remains uncertain about its destiny concerning “the values on which the era should proceed, and the directions it should take.” I truly believe that we need to set our goal as the achievement of an environment in which all people of the earth can “live together peacefully and in good health.” Each nation must commit itself

The financial crisis, which started in the US, originated from the bankruptcy of the major American financial services firm Lehman Brothers. It spread swiftly throughout the world and had an enormous impact on the economy

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an underlying philosophy of global harmony, which depends on each individual’s articulation of a personal role that she or he can fulfill through collaboration with other individuals. I truly believe that we need to set our goal as the achievement of an environment in which all people on earth can “live peacefully and in good health.” Each nation must commit itself to “collaboration and harmonious coexistence” with others, and adopt this ideal as the basic common model for the international community. Meeting the challenges to shape the new era will be difficult for us all. However, true international peace is in fact evolving.

to “collaboration and harmonious coexistence” with others, and adopt this ideal as the basic common model for the international community. Asian integration and the quality of university education With this current social situation, there is an ongoing debate from a variety of perspectives on Japanese higher education. “Quality assurance” is becoming a key issue. On 10 October 2009, the Japan-China-Republic of Korea Trilateral Summit Meeting was held in Beijing. In the Joint Statement, it referred to the continuing cooperation during the previous ten years by the three countries for the development of an East Asia community, and described a clear vision that “in the spirit of facing history squarely and advancing towards the future, the three countries will explore the potential and expand the areas of cooperation.” In line with this basic principle, it has been mentioned by some media that the promotion of trilateral university collaboration has also been discussed. To foster university credit transfer and accreditation across borders, we would need to establish a firm system that would ensure the “quality assurance of the university” in each country, such as that in the EU.

Professor Hiromi Naya graduated from the Meiji University School of Law in 1962 (LLB) and the Division of Law and Politics, Graduate School, University of Tokyo in 1966 (LLM). He was called to the bar in 1968 and joined the Dai-ichi Tokyo Bar Association. In the same year, Professor Naya was appointed a full-time assistant at the Meiji University School of Law and became professor in 1980. At Meiji University, he has served as Dean of Academic Affairs and Dean of the School of Law. He became its President in 2004. Professor Naya is currently the President of the Japan University Accreditation Association and the Vice President of the Federation of Japanese Private Colleges and Universities Associations.

The important issue I would like to raise here is the need to have a perspective of “innovation” in higher education. The word is generally used in Japan as the establishment of economic value by technological innovation. The human resource level that companies demand is for those people who are only able to improve the existing technology. But this would mean that it would never be possible to go beyond the existing framework of re-studying a theme that has already been thoroughly researched. In other words, this would just educate people who follow the orders of their immediate seniors. However, the role of a university is to develop human resources that can independently bring about “new discoveries in the natural sciences or fundamental innovative knowledge. I strongly believe that universities should come back to this original point in order to pursue research and further education. I would like to share my views about the term “scientific technology”. “Science” is the seeking for and discovery of truth and that itself is neutral. On the other hand, “technology” is the process through which the fruits of science are implemented for the daily life of the people. At this point, the wisdom of human beings has to be questioned. When moving to this stage, there is a need for a serious examination of the values each person holds. If this is neglected, human beings will face a crisis that would lead to serious chaos. We should not forget the bitter experiences of the past. In the field of education, schools are expected to teach students the “history and culture” of humanity and also to help them acquire the ability to understand the “current world” from a global perspective. The citizens of the world have now entered an era when each person should have

Meiji University’s Izumi campus in spring.

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Japan – leading the way for Asia’s universities By Danny Byrne Attracting international students In recent years, Japan has invested significantly in its universities, a fact reflected in its strong showing in the international league tables. As with universities worldwide, a key area of strategic investment has been the drive to attract international students. As of 1 May 2009, there were 132,720 international students studying at universities in Japan, representing a 7.2% increase on the 2008 figure (123,829). Well over half (59.6%) of these students are Chinese, and the overwhelming majority are Asian (92.3%). There are still relatively few students from North America (1.9%) and Europe (3%), with no statistically significant increase on the 2008 figures in this area. Having achieved in 2008 the 1983 target of attracting 100,000 international students, in July 2008 a revised plan was implemented to reach 300,000 by 2020,with various measures in place to facilitate the achievement of this goal. Expansion is to be focused on 30 universities as part of the US$40 million, government-funded Global 30 program, officially implemented in 2009 by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

The country is noted for its distinctly traditional architectural style.

According to this program, 30 universities will be selected to receive intensive support to enable them to achieve specific goals. In February 2009, an initial 13 were chosen:

Japan remains the powerhouse of the Asian university system, and the strong showing of its premier institutions in the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings again underlined that status. In a repeat of 2008’s performance, ten Japanese institutions featured in the world top 200, with four making it into the top 100. In University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, Osaka University and Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan boasts four of the top ten – as well as nine of the top 20 - universities in the 2009 QS Asian University Rankings.

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Domestically, Japan maintains one of the highest university education rates in the world, with virtually universal accessibility. Since World War II, the percentage of the 18-year-old population enrolling in universities and junior colleges has steadily increased, and now stands at around 50%. If the percentage of students enrolling in colleges of technology and specialized schools is added, this figure rises to over 70%. This high level of university education underpins an economy that is now second in the world in terms of both Gross Domestic Product and Official Development Assistance. Japan also has the highest average life expectancy of any country in the world.

Tohoku University University of Tsukuba University of Tokyo Nagoya University Kyoto University Osaka University Kyusyu University Keio University Sophia University Meiji University Waseda University Doshisha University Ritsumeikan University.

The remaining 17 are to be selected in the coming years.

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The 300,000 International Students Plan

Furthermore, it is often difficult for international students to find jobs after graduating.

There are five main stages of the 300,000 International Students Plan: • Providing incentives for foreign students to study in Japan. • Facilitating procedures such as visa restrictions and accommodation. • Creating attractive and prestigious universities. • Improving the study environment. • Promoting the social acceptance and employment of international students after graduation.

The 300,000 International Students and Global 30 schemes are only in their first year of existence, so they cannot be judged on 2009 figures alone. However, the policy of actively recruiting international students has been in place since 1983. Thus, while Japanese universities continue to lead the way academically and remain a prime destination for international students particularly from Asia, despite their success in 2009 they are not yet on track to meet ambitious projected growth targets.

The plan is also expected to involve a substantial expansion of the Englishlanguage courses on offer at Japanese universities, with a concurrent expansion in the recruitment of English-speaking teaching staff. Though initial proposals recommended that universities selected under the Global 30 scheme should increase their English-only courses to around 30% in order to attract sufficient levels of international students to meet government targets, this remains the prerogative of the individual universities.

Scholarships and admission Since 1982, in an effort to attract foreign talent, students are accepted into special English-language programs, and international students at graduate level are given prioritized allocation as Japanese Government Scholarship students. There are 81 university programs involved in this system.

Though the overall number of international students at Japanese universities grew by 7.2% - from 123,829 to 132,720 – between May 2008 and May 2009, this increase of roughly 9,000 falls well short of the average annual growth rate of 18,000 (around 14% based on current figures) required to reach the target of 300,000 international students by 2020. As well as being by far the most common country of origin for existing international students in Japan, China is the fastest-expanding market, accounting for 6,316 of this 9,000 one-year increase. However, this still represents an annual growth in Chinese students of just 8%, compared with an across-the-board expansion rate of around 14% required to be on course to meet 2020 targets.

Some universities, like Tokai University, have their own scholarship programs providing financial assistance to students with good academic standards. More than 65,000 students from over 160 countries and regions have studied in Japan under the Japanese government (Monbukagakusho) scholarship program that was established in 1954. There are seven types of government-sponsored scholarships under the Monbukagakusho Scholarship program - research students, teacher-training students, undergraduate university students, Japanese studies students, college of technology students, special training students and Young Leader’s Program (YLP). Potential candidates are recommended by a Japanese embassy or Consulate General, or by a Japanese university.

Apart from South Korea, which accounts for 19,605 international students (14.8% of total), no other nationality of origin has a comparable statistical impact as a target market to that of China. So, although Vietnam (the fourth largest provider of international students) exhibited the fastest net growth rate (11%), in real terms this amounts to just 326 extra students. So, if growth targets are to be met over the next ten years, there will be a heavy reliance on an acceleration of the current influx of Chinese students, alongside a considerable expansion in the number of students recruited from the other major source countries - South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. Potential reasons for this difficulty in meeting growth targets, despite investment in offering English-language courses, include the relatively high cost of living, difficulty in finding accommodation, a general lack of information about Japan available to students considering study abroad, and strict entrance requirements at universities and colleges. There are also prohibitively strict visa restrictions on student employment and relatively few part-time jobs for those students whose visas do enable them to work.

Japan is a country of dazzling cultural attractions.

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undergraduate or graduate level and intend to join a Japanese company after graduating. The United Nations University (UNU) also provides reimbursable funds to self-financing students from developing countries to study in Japan through the Japanese universities participating in the program (www.fap. Privately financed foreign students can gain admission in one of two ways: either the student is accepted through domestic or foreign selection on applying directly to the school from his or her own country; or, the student enrols in a private Japanese-language institute, completes the preparatory education of one year, and then applies to the school of his or her choice. In most cases, students need to sit for an entrance examination.

The scenic beauty of Japan beckons foreign students who are also attracted to its many worldclass universities.

In addition, the Career Development Program for Foreign Students from Asia started in 2007. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) are collaborating to provide a consistent human resource development program.

• • • •

The Foreign Students’ High Specialty Practice Operation is available to fulltime students, chosen by the university to participate in the program, and who are holders of the Mongbukagakusho Scholarship. On the other hand, the Foreign Students’ High Achievement Practice Operation is for foreign students from Asia who are currently registered in a Japanese university at

Reference sources ‘Higher Education in Japan’, Higher Education Bureau, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ‘Impact of the global financial crisis on international higher education in Japan’, Professor Tatsuya Sakamoto ‘International higher education in Japan – ‘retuning’ through the 300,000 International Students Plan’, Lrong Lim ‘International Students in Japan 2009’, Japan Student Services Organization

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Meiji University’s 130 Years of Tradition

A QS WorldClass interview with Professor Hiromi Naya, President of Meiji University

“Meiji University Global Common Project will contribute to the sustainable growth and prosperity of the world.” Professor Hiromi Naya President

A Paradigm Shift and University Reform in Japan I have been working on university reform with the recognition that we are now entering the third epoch-making stage of the “Opening of Japan.” Currently, Japan is entering a process of a paradigm shift which is analogous to the Meiji restoration of 140 years ago, or the various reforms corresponding to US occupation policies 65 years ago. What I mean by the “Opening of Japan” is that we need to harmonize ourselves with a diversified world which has, up till now, no concrete model to follow. I truly believe that this “harmonization with diversity” is where private universities can actively play an improtant role. By reaiizing that the 21st century’s perspective of the world is one, by which I mean a transnational world, university officials like us would need to analyze the current situation in which our country is situated, reflect upon our history and culture in order to realize the role that we should be playing in international society. Global Academic Scheme I truly believe that we should create an environment where young people can acquire the skills, incentives and thoughts to help

them accomplish their dreams. This would be the basis of thinking about global university education and management. In this context, the important issue I would like to raise here is the need to have a perspective of “innovation” in higher education. The Global Common Project To fulfill our role in the international community, Meiji University launched the Global Common Project to establish an “Intellectual Global Commons,” where people from all over the world can gather to advance research and education. The project has been widely acknowledged by its selection as one of the 13 universities chosen for the “Global 30 Project,” a Project for Establishing Core Universities for Internationalization launched by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Meiji will form a foundation for transmitting Japanese culture, technology and intellectual property to the world. Under the education policy of “Empowering the Individual,” we will develop our students’ ability to be competent in the international community. Degree programs in English will be offered in the Graduate School of Governance Studies, Graduate School of Business Administration, Institute for Advanced Study


of Mathematical Sciences and School of Global Japanese Studies. The “Cool Japan Program” will be provided to international students on shortterm basis, covering subjects related to Japan’s culture, technology and social system, mainly at the School of Global Japanese Studies. In addition to the educational programs, Meiji will provide care from enrollment to course completion to our international students. Through these efforts, we will contribute to the sustainable growth and prosperity of the world. Right in the Heart of Metropolitan Tokyo Meiji University was established in 1881 and has expanded to become one of the most prominent private universities in Japan, with “Rights,”“Liberty,”“Independency” and “Self-Government” as its guiding principles, committed to fostering students who satisfy the “needs of the times.” The historical “Surugadai Campus” of Meiji University is located right in the geographical and cultural heart of metropolitan Tokyo. At the hub of both tradition and modern Tokyo, we seek to bring various cultures together, as well as to promote the development of intellectual ability. You will find a warm welcome at Meiji University.

Study in Japan

Empowering the Individual Right in the Heart of Metropolitan Tokyo SURUGADAI CAMPUS

1-1 Kanda-Surugadai,Chiyoda-ku,Tokyo 101-8301 TEL.+81-3-3296-4545(Operator)

130 Years of Tradition


1-9-1 Eifuku,Suginami-ku,Tokyo 168-8555 TEL.+81-3-5300-1121(Operator)


1-1-1 Higashi-mita,Tama-ku,Kawasaki-shi,Kanagawa 214-8571 TEL.+81-44-934-7171 (Operator)



Dr. Ryoji NOYORI Nobel Laureate 2001 in Chemistry Establishment of chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions

An open mind has wings. The truth grows wings.

Image Credit: KEK

Dr. Makoto KOBAYASHI Nobel Laureate 2008 in Physics Discovery of the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory

The new millennium got off to a great start at Nagoya University, with four of its professors and alumni winning Nobel prizes in Physics and Chemistry. Last year, we celebrated our 70th anniversary, looking back on the past and planning for an ever more internationalized future. Throughout its history, Nagoya University has done its utmost to maintain a free and vibrant academic culture. As an educational institution, we aim to cultivate what we call “courageous intellectuals”: social contributors endowed with the powers of rational thought and creative imagination. Today, we are taking new steps to become a globalized university where students are able to acquire comprehensive knowledge, develop personal ethics, and aspire to international careers.

Dr. Toshihide MASKAWA Nobel Laureate 2008 in Physics Discovery of the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory

Today, Nagoya University has 13 graduate schools, 9 undergraduate schools, 3 research institutes and numerous research centers. With a student population of 16,485, of whom 1,566 or 9.5% are international students, the University’s campuses have a strong international flavor.

Dr. Osamu SHIMOMURA Nobel Laureate 2008 in Chemistry Discovery of the green fluorescent protein, GFP

A leading national university located in the heart of Japan





Malaysian institutional models in private higher education By Dr Mohamed Ali Abdul Rahman Senior Principal Assistant Director Registration and Standards Division Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia In Asia, higher education is no longer considered an option but a necessity to be employable. Society is taking higher education very seriously and hence, the number of school leavers seeking entry into higher education institutions has been increasing yearly. The available number of public higher education institutions (IPTA) in Malaysia can only provide access to a limited number of students. In addition, limited resources at these institutions too hamper accessibility to more needy students.

(MOE) before 2004. During that era, the role of business sectors in higher education was limited to providing scholarships and educational loans to students, allocating space for student internships, advising universities on the curriculum and employing the graduates. The role then changed to that of becoming key players in providing higher education services themselves. Hence, the resulting IPTS began their role as complementing public universities in producing knowledgeable and skilled manpower. During that era, companies would have to apply for approval through MOE when they wish to establish, register and operate a private college. As the role of IPTS became necessary and relevant in providing higher education services to meet increasing demand by both local and international students, MOE initially adopted a strategy to facilitate the growth of private colleges. Hence, the number of IPTS grew rapidly with a variety of business models with varying enrolment of students and varying quality of higher education services.

The government has to ensure that opportunities are created for students who were unsuccessful in gaining entry into IPTA by allowing the establishment and growth of private higher education institutions (IPTS). At the same time, the government is aware that the birth and growth of private institutions are not the same as those of public institutions. In order for IPTS to complement the public sector, they must be able to provide quality higher education as close to that provided by public universities and colleges. This is to ensure that students enrolling in IPTA or IPTS are receiving quality higher education services. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) to formulate policies, incentives and initiatives that could assist private institutions to improve and strengthen their services to become attractive and offer value for money.

Initially, private institutions were driven to support their companies’ human resource needs. The higher education services provided by the IPTS were primarily for preparing and supplying human resources to industries to meet their demand for both skilled and semi-skilled workers. This intention became profit-driven when there was a demand by local students. However, the basic and additional requirement for human resources to qualify for recruitment began to change with the emphasis on soft skills, leadership, IT skills, problem-solving skills, apart from academic qualification. This requirement necessitated a change in the curriculum and teaching methodology. Being a business, there was a high risk that private institutions would not initiate or develop strategies or activities to meet these new challenges, as working towards such a goal incurs high additional costs. The government was made aware of this development, and hence the necessity to intervene became a priority to guide IPTS to provide quality higher education services.

The importance of the private sector has become more crucial as the demand by international students has increased annually. In a recent statement by the Minister of Higher Education, 75,000 international students are expected to enroll in IPTS this year. In addition, private higher education is considered the next ‘engine of growth’ for Malaysia. At present, Malaysia is placed 11th in the world as a destination among international students who constitute about 2% of the world’s international student population.

In order to realize this objective, MOE applies the Private Higher Education Institution Act 1996 (Act 555) and Regulations to guide the success of the intervention. The regulatory functions flowing from this Act were negotiated and deliberated with stakeholders to allow a healthier growth of IPTS that would eventually result in more responsible institutions which are able to achieve institutional success.

The Ministry of Education Era Private institutions were the responsibility of the Ministry of Education

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The Ministry of Higher Education Era

critical outcomes of this plan include governance, leadership, academia, teaching and learning, and research and development. In short, the real focus is the enhancement of the quality of the Malaysian human capital. Upon graduation, these students must possess first-class mentality, which Malaysia needs to remain relevant and competitive globally, as well as prepare graduates who are able to adapt to economic changes. The government is aware of the challenge ahead to transform profit-driven IPTS into performance-driven institutions. In this regard, the government has to play the role of a regulator and facilitator of IPTS, to ensure their roles are strategically balanced.

In the interest of the nation’s demand for access to higher education and the emphasis on the ability to provide quality higher educational services, the government continued developing strategies, initiatives and policies, both short- and long-term, to assist the growth of healthier IPTS that are able to compete globally. From May 2004 onwards, the management of IPTS became the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). The separation of MOHE from the Ministry of Education allowed the management of private institutions to be more focused. Act 555 was further improved and implemented in 2009 to meet new challenges. These efforts resulted in the growth of private universities, private college universities, branch campuses and colleges. As of 31 August 2009, there were 20 universities, 20 college universities, five branch campuses and 470 colleges that were registered with the Private Higher Educational Institution Management Sector. These IPTS provided access to higher education to 450,531 students, including 50,679 international students.

Showcases of IPTS As a result of complying with several of the government’s policies and initiatives, several IPTS showed improved practices and institutional models that they would be proud to showcase. These may be exhibited in different forms. Showcase IPTS, in this case, are defined as those that have manifested quality practices and services as a result of possessing an understanding of higher education practice and services in depth and breadth. Some of the showcase areas as manifested by IPTS are as follows:

The government’s policy on the operation of private institutions in Malaysia has allowed several major businesses, organizations and even political sectors to set up institutions. For example, the Universiti Teknologi Petronas(UTP), Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) and Multimedia University (MMC) were established by government-linked companies. Sunway College of Sungei Way Group and KBU of the First Nationwide Group are examples of IPTS established by large corporations. IPTS set up by political parties include the MIC’s TAFE College Seremban, MCA’s Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) and UMNO’s UNITAR. Branch campuses are IPTS that involve foreign universities invited to operate in Malaysia. Among them are Monash University Sunway Campus, Curtin University of Technology Sarawak Campus, University of Nottingham in Malaysia and Swinburne University.

International students IPTS are able to showcase the number of international students enrolled in the respective institutions. This is partly due to a direct involvement of the government’s policy on internationalization offering licenses to eligible and qualifying IPTS to recruit international students. The regulatory function of MOHE will continue to introduce new policies and initiatives that can mould and shape IPTS to compete globally. The policy on internationalization has, over the years, increased the number of international students in local IPTS.

The government believes that improvement in providing quality higher education services in the public and private sectors should be an ongoing process. This effort is undertaken in order to compete with the rest of the world in providing quality services, with the intention of realizing the government’s objective of achieving world-class educational standards and transforming Malaysia into an education hub by 2015. In its bid to ensure that these aspirations are fulfilled, the government had identified several initial strategic plans to work on. It is the intention of the government to generate best practices leading to quality services at IPTS. In 2007, the National Higher Education Strategic Plan (NHESP) focused on helping Malaysian public and private higher education institutions to become world-class. The seven major initiatives or strategic plans include widening access and increasing equity, improving the quality of teaching and learning, enhancing research and innovation, strengthening higher education institutions, intensifying internationalization, enshrining lifelong learning and reinforcing the delivery systems of MOE. The five

International students attending a Ministry of Higher Education’s exhibition, which involved direct recruitment. (Photo credit: Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia)

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University status Students would prefer to enroll in ranked institutions, as their graduates are more marketable and stand a better chance of gaining employment. Realizing this, the government encourages the IPTS to upgrade to a higher level. IPTS may upgrade from college to university college, and from university college to university if, and only if, they meet certain requirements. Upgraded IPTS is a showcase of quality institution. Staff qualifications In order for students to obtain bachelor and postgraduate degrees, IPTS are encouraged to recruit more lecturers with higher qualifications like masters and PhDs. This is expected to improve the quality of the teaching-learning process. IPTS with higher-qualified lecturers will also create an opportunity to indulge in the R&D culture, which will in turn attract postgraduate students. IPTS, with experienced expatriate lecturers or those with industry experience, could also showcase their teaching staff. Training

The Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology (APIIT) in Sri Lanka. (Photo credit: APIIT International Development Department, Malaysia)

Offshore activities Apart from encouraging foreign universities to provide higher education in Malaysia, the government also encourages local IPTS to upgrade their capacity and capability to provide higher education abroad. At present, there are about 25 local IPTS providing higher education services overseas. Among them are Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and India, and Limkokwing University in UK, Lesotho, Botswana, Cambodia and Indonesia. The realization of this development is a direct result of the government’s policy on ensuring the quality of IPTS and its policy on internationalization. An initial analysis showed that apart from the marketing efforts of IPTS, word-of-mouth of international students on the quality of IPTS in Malaysia had contributed towards building the confidence of other countries in the IPTS’ ability to provide higher education services of international standards. This has led to the emergence of local IPTS overseas.

IPTS offering programs with internship and entrepreneurship is likely to be more attractive, as these value-added features provide better opportunities for employment. MOHE encourages the integration of internship and entrepreneurship. Conclusion The above elements are indicators of quality. The higher the quality of the services they provide, the more attractive, popular and sought-after they will be. Bearing this in mind, the government will work continuously to improve and increase the number of showcases being offered by IPTS. In the near future, SETARA rating (institutional rating), MyRA rating (Malaysian Research Assessment Instrument), My3S scale (Malaysian Soft Skills Scale - Student’s Attributes) and others will steadily add to the growing list of showcases that MOHE intends to introduce in the effort to improve the quality of higher education services provided by private institutions. The Ministry of Higher Education hopes such efforts are being shared by the IPTS to realize the vision of transforming Malaysia into an education hub of world standards and producing graduates who are able to compete globally.

New programs The Malaysian Quality Agency (MQA) plays a very important role in ensuring the high quality of the curriculum, with emphasis on outcomebased Generic Students Attributes (GSA). IPTS that were able to obtain full accreditation of their courses are naturally in a better position to showcase their study programs to potential students and markets.Twinning programs have been encouraged by MOHE as an alternative to students who could not afford to fulfill their wish to obtain an overseas higher education qualification. Accredited and twinning programs are showcase materials.

Dr Ali assumed his current position in the Private Higher Educational Institution Management Sector of the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education last year. His functions include scanning for best practices in quality higher education services that could be evaluated for translation into standards and criteria. He has previously held positions in the Educational Planning and Research Division of the Ministry of Education, and was a Student Attache in Australia. He obtained his master degree from Japan and his PhD from UK.

Financial assistance Government policies, through the National Higher Education Fund Corporation (NHEFC), provide educational loans to needy and qualified citizens to enroll in IPTS. This initiative proved to be one of the major contributing factors in increasing the participation of Malaysian students in IPTS. NHEFC-related programs are popular with local students as it provides opportunity to obtain partial funding. 97 MoHE P95-P97.indd 3

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Leading UKM towards excellence Inspiring futures, nurturing possibilities

“The community is a classroom without walls and formalities. Universitycommunity initiatives are valuable in instilling social responsibility and accountability in our students. They provide real life experience for developing leadership, organisational ability, team spirit and responsibility. In Malaysia, a community is also a classroom for inter-ethnic respect and for valuing cultural diversity.” Prof. Tan Sri Dato’ Dr. Sharifah Hapsah Syed Hasan Shahabudin Vice-Chancellor, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Born in Kedah, Tan Sri Dato’ Dr. Sharifah has undoubtedly come a long way from her days as a medical student. Gravitating to research and teaching in 1975 as a lecturer in Physiology, she steadily made her way to becoming Head of the Department of Medical Education at the medical faculty in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia – where she was also commissioned as an advisor and consultant to the World Health Organisation (WHO), various UN agencies and international medical institutions. Through extensive international networks and multiple award recognitions, including the prestigious Fred Katz Memorial Medal for her excellent contribution to the development of medical education, she began her mission to elevate Malaysia’s standards in higher education as UKM’s first Director of the Center for Academic Advancement, which entailed developing and monitoring the implementation of UKM’s strategic plan, restructuring of faculties, quality assurance and training of academic staff in teaching and learning. All the while working with WHO to develop guidelines for medical education to be adopted in the entire western pacific region.

From her exemplary work in UKM, she then moved on to become Deputy Director of the Department of Higher Education in the Ministry of Education, where she was responsible for developing the quality assurance system of public universities and the development of the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF). When the Ministry of Higher Education was established, with her appointed as the Director of the Quality Assurance Division, she saw the opportunity to end the dual and separate public-private system of quality assurance for higher education. She proposed a restructuring of the National Accreditation Board into a single Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA) that would be responsible for quality assurance of all higher education institutions, based on standards of the Malaysian Qualifications Framework. The proposal was approved by the Cabinet. In January 2006 she was appointed Chairman and CEO of the National Accreditation Board and quickly got down to formulating the innovative Malaysian Qualifications Agency Bill which was passed as an Act of Parliament in 2007.

Today as Vice Chancellor of UKM, she continues to lead her staff and students with the same vigour from her younger days. A firm believer in people being the instruments of change, she knows remarkable achievements are always within grasp; through transparent governance, consistent leadership, highly accredited staff, progressive teaching methods and research work backed with citations as good as its impact on the quality of life, both locally and abroad. As a Malaysian, she continues to strive in moving UKM to greater heights in national development, new research breakthroughs, collaborative efforts with others for the good of the region and the world, as well as safeguarding the national language for future Malaysians. And when she’s not doing all of the above, she’s out championing women’s rights and gender issues as President of the National Council of Women’s Organisation, as well as chairing other executive positions in various medical and social communities. That, and playing golf.

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Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia A 40-year journey of devotion and diligence international exhibitions, with 128 patented. Understanding their need to internationalise the national identity through networking in the areas of staff, student exchange and research, they have since played host to numerous foreign institutions and organisations, resulting in an increase of postgraduate international students totalling 2,214 as of this 2009/2010 session. Yet with all the achievements gathered over the years, UKM still feels their work is far from over. But with frequent efforts to upgrade and improve the quality of their research services and education, backed by their world-class facilities and a few eager young minds to boot, they believe their relentless pursuit to answer life’s complex questions will always be within reach. Established on 18 May 1970, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was erected on the hard stones of thought, and the sweat and vision of its beloved people. From humble beginnings with 3 faculties in Arts, Science and Islamic Studies under its wing, the national university turned its vision to serve the ever-growing needs of the earth and its inhabitants through 8 distinct niche research areas: • Challenges of Nation-State Building, • Biodiversity for Biotechnology Development, • Renewable Energy, • Medical & Health Technology, • Climate Change, • Nanotechnology & Advanced Materials, • Regional Sustainable Development, and • Content-Based Informatics. Through these research fields and with some of the country’s most prolific minds leading

them, UKM began to make remarkable progress; 50 medals and awards worth, to be precise – all from their participation in the prestigious International Exhibition of Inventions of New Technique and Products in Geneva, Switzerland. And another 27 awards from the Seoul International Invention Fair. Among their long list of contributions stands the Langkawi Geopark, UNESCO’s first National Geopark in South-East Asia and Malaysia’s greatest success in promoting eco-tourism through sustainable development. With their research products gaining global recognition, UKM began to move forward in its research strategy, obtaining more than USD 62 million in grants from various sources, both local and abroad. As a result, 972 results of research made its way into

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor, Malaysia. Tel: +603-89214188 E-mail: Website:

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A Graduate of the UST Faculty of Sacred Theology

A Graduate of the UST College of Fine Arts and Design

Apostolic Nuncio to Haiti Head of the Catholic Relief Operation in Haiti

Chief Animator, Disney-Pixar’s Up, Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Picture Nominated Best Picture, 82nd Academy Awards

DR. JORGE GARCIA A Graduate of the UST Faculty of Medicine and Surgery


Pioneer, Open Heart Surgery in the Philippines President/Director, Asian Hospital Charities, Inc. Chief, Cardiac Division, Washington Hospital Center, USA

A Graduate of the UST College of Architecture Architect of the Istana Nurul Iman Palace, the official residence of the Sultan of Brunei, Hassanal Bolkiah

4oo Years of Greatness Uofniversity Santo Tomas Pontifical and Royal

UST Main Building National Cultural Treasure


The Catholic University of the Philippines


ounded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas (UST) is the oldest university in the Philippines and the largest Catholic university in the world in one campus with a student population of more than 35,000. Reaching out to the rest of the world, UST enjoys the singular privilege of being the only Pontifical university in Asia. In 2011, the University will commemorate its 400 years of dedicated service to the formation of men and women who will become leaders of society and the Church. The UST Quadricentennial celebration is a historic milestone and a grand international event. Sustaining the Tradition of Excellence As an academic institution, it educates competent, committed and compassionate professionals in its five clusters of discipline--- science and technology, arts and the humanities, education and the social sciences, medicine and health, and the ecclesiastical faculties. Its harvest in the licensure examinations is truly bountiful, with its list of professional board topnotchers and higher-than-the national passing percentage rating. The Professional Regulation Commission of the Philippines recognizes UST as the Top Performing School in the board examinations of twelve (12)

different professions. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) also granted the University an autonomous status and a number of its programs as Centers of Excellence and Centers of Development respectively. The University enjoys the distinction of being the first academic institution to have qualified and been given the Philippine Quality Assurance (PQA) Award. Just recently, it has been recognized as the first educational institution in the Philippines whose four landmarks, the UST Main Building, the Central Seminary, the Arch of the Centuries and the University’s Open Spaces, have been declared National Cultural Treasures by the National Museum. This feats unmistakably result from the synergy of several factors: dedicated faculty, relevant curricula, healthy combination of conventional and innovative instruction, responsive student support services, consistent upgrading of facilities and equipment, multidisciplinary research, and effective leadership and administration --- all of which contribute to the attainment of the University’s defined purpose. Building the Church and the Nation The centerpiece project of the Quadricentennial celebration is “SIMBAHAYAN 400: Tomasino Para sa Simbahan, Bahay (Tahanan), at Bayan.” It is a holistic community development project that aims to uplift poor and marginalized communities in the country. It encapsulizes the 400-year activities of the University for the building of the Church, the home and the nation. The celebration highlights the University’s commitment to assist in the protection and advancement of human dignity and of its Asian cultural heritage through research, teaching and various (community and extension) services offered to the local, national and international communities. Come 2011, Thomasians and friends worldwide will declare in one voice: “Proud to be Thomasian at 400!”

Declared Centers of Excellence in: Architecture, Chemistry, Electronics and Communications Engineering, Literature, Medicine and Surgery, Music, Nursing, Philosophy, and Teacher Education Declared Centers of Development in: Biology, Business Administration, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering


Graduate studies in Singapore offer world-class education Singapore offers a lifestyle like no other, and with a rigorous quality assurance system on all its higher education providers, the island state is becoming an increasingly popular choice for graduate students, writes Ann Graham. 2008 THE-QS World University Rankings, 30= and 77 respectively, and in the top 20 of the 2009 QS Asian University Rankings, 10 and 14 respectively. The Singapore Management University, which opened its doors in 2000, is modelled on the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and aims to groom outstanding business leaders and creative entrepreneurs capable of excelling in a rapidly changing and dynamic world. The government has recently announced that a fourth public university will be opened in Singapore in 2011. Designed with a strong research focus, its curriculum is being developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Types of qualifications There are three main types of graduate programs offered in Singapore, all of which are developed to challenge students: doctoral (PhD), master (by coursework or thesis), and the graduate diploma. PhD: At NUS, all doctoral degrees are primarily research-based. They equip students with the skills required to advance knowledge and human progress. Doctoral degrees are typically the first choice of students who seek depth of knowledge, enjoy creative problem-solving, and who aspire to hold high-level positions in their respective fields. Master: Master degree programs are predominantly designed to prepare students for work within a specific profession (typically through coursework) or to gain advanced knowledge in a specific subject area as a precursor to doctoral training (typically through a master by research). Graduate diploma: The graduate diploma provides limited professional training in a specific niche. The diploma is often favoured by those students who seek additional exposure to an area of interest without wishing to commit themselves long-term to further studies.

Singapore’s fast-changing skyline reflects its rapid development as an international city.

Singapore’s diverse mix of cultures, ethnicities, expats and locals offers students almost as much of an education outside the classroom as in it. With its strategic location in the heart of Southeast Asia, Singapore naturally lends itself to the convergence of eastern and western influences. This unique vantage point, coupled with the strong support of its government, means that the education system in Singapore is well poised to offer students the best of East-West education.

Singapore takes its education system very seriously. Every undergraduate or graduate program has to undergo a stringent evaluation and approval by the Board of Undergraduate Studies or Board of Graduate Studies respectively, the University Committee on Educational Policy and the Senate. Quality assurance reviews are also carried out involving student surveys, International Visiting Committees and International Advisory Panels and the Quality Assurance Framework for Universities set up by Singapore’s Ministry of Education. Educational programs in the professions, such as engineering, medicine and architecture, are further accredited by internationally recognized accreditation panels with broad representation from academia and the professional world.

Singapore education Over the years, Singapore has developed a strong public education system with high standards in teaching and learning. The three local public universities – National University of Singapore (NUS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and Singapore Management University (SMU) are internationally recognized as evident in their positions in world university rankings. Both NUS and NTU were ranked in the top 200 of the

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Specialist education

offer scholarships, bursaries and loans. NUS offers generous scholarships to international students who wish to enrol for a PhD degree by research. These research scholarships are awarded competitively based on merit.

A multitude of study options is available for postgraduate students, ranging from mainstream courses to the niche areas. In a bid to be industry-relevant, Singapore universities offer a myriad of speciality courses in areas such as tourism, hospitality and digital media. But they’re not offering them alone. An increasing number of overseas universities have set up their offshore campuses in Singapore, contributing to its reputation as the educational hub of the region.

The government tuition grant, which is available to all qualified candidates, is another funding opportunity for international students. However, the grant does require the student to work for three years upon graduation with a Singapore-registered company, either in Singapore or overseas. More information can be found at:

Nanyang Technological University works with Cornell University in the US to offer a joint Master of Management in Hospitality (MMH). Candidates spend six months in Singapore and six months in the US. The Singapore Management University has worked in collaboration since 2003 with the Swiss Finance Institute and Wealth Management Institute to offer a Master of Science in Wealth Management. More recently, in 2007, New York University Tisch School of the Arts set up a Singapore campus to offer a Master of Fine Arts in film production.

There is a variety of part-time paid work opportunities for students who are interested in seeking employment while they study. Depending on the students’ interests and skills, the nature of work can be wide-ranging from administrative duties to customer service, sales and marketing to event coordination, software development, web design development, tutoring, research assistance or fieldwork surveys. According to Singapore Immigration & Control Authority’s regulations, international students residing in Singapore on a student pass should not work for more than 16 hours during term time, but there is no restriction on the number of hours they can work during vacation.

Graduate scholarships and funding Public education in Singapore is currently heavily subsidized, which benefits not only domestic students but international students as well. In addition, some of the tertiary institutions, both public and private, do

(Reprinted with permission from QS Top Grad School Guide 2010)

International institutions with a presence in Singapore: • University of Chicago Graduate School of Business (Business) • Cornell University (Hospitality) • Digipen Institute of Technology (Digital Media) • Duke University (Medicine) • ESSEC (Business) • Georgia Institute of Technology (Logistics) • University of Hawaii (Hospitality) • INSEAD (Business) • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Engineering) • University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Hospitality) • New York University School of Law (Law) • Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Business, Construction) • SP Jain Institute of Management (Business) • Stanford University (Environment) • Technical University of Munich (Industrial Chemistry) • Tisch School of the Arts, New York University (Film) • Waseda University (Business)

Postgraduate students at the National University of Singapore. (Photo credit: National University of Singapore)

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Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore Training the Next Generation of Policymakers to Transform Asia percent of our international students study on fully-funded, merit-based scholarships provided by the School.

In the 21st Century, one trend will be clear: the re-emergence and renaissance of Asian societies. The Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, which was set up in partnership with the Harvard Kennedy School, uses its global classroom to provide insights into a newly emerging Asia. The School has a unique Asian focus and bridges the gap between prevailing theories in the West and best practices emerging in the East. Its strategic location in the region allows our students to study in one of the best public policy laboratories in the world while immersing in and accessing the wider Asia Pacific region. Mission of the LKY School Our core mission is to educate and train policymakers and leaders from the public and private sectors who will help transform Asia. With more than 330 students from over 50 countries, it is hard to match our classrooms’ diversity and dynamism. Twenty percent of our students come from Singapore; the rest from all over the world. Our international students come mainly from India, China, South East Asia and the United States. They come together in Singapore, one of the world’s most global cities to learn and network with each other.

Strategic Partnerships For aspiring leaders keen to study, work and live in Asia, there are few institutions that combine our global credentials with regional knowledge and expertise. The LKY School is the first Asian school to be admitted into the prestigious Global Public Policy Network (GPPN), which was set up by Columbia University’s School of International & Public Affairs (SIPA), the London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE), and Sciences Po. A select number of our qualified Master in Public Policy (MPP) students obtain a double degree from a GPPN partner school. Students spend one year in Singapore and the second in New York, London or Paris, and often the School provides full funding. Moreover, the University of Tokyo has signed its first-ever double-degree arrangement since its founding in 1877 with the School. And of course, we are privileged to be part of the National University of Singapore, consistently ranked among the top 30 universities in the world.

Alumni Profiles Our students and alumni are ambassadors, senators, editors, social entrepreneurs and aspiring leaders. Three recent American graduates illustrate the appeal of the School: Ms. Willow Darsie joined us from the Aspen Institute; Mr. Joel Aufrecht is now a Presidential Management Fellow in the U.S. Federal Government; and Ms. Helen V. Chou, a graduate of Harvard University and the Columbia SIPA dual degree program with the LKY School, transitioned from financial consulting in New York to international development in Asia Pacific.

Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy National University of Singapore Address: 469C Bukit Timah Road, Oei Tiong Ham Building, Singapore 259772 Web: Email: Tel: (+65) 6516 6134

Generous Scholarships The LKY School is among the most generous schools of public policy in the world; nearly 50

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“Nanyang University, our predecessor…left us the legacy of a strong Chinese culture that enabled us to develop strong links with China.” Dr Su Guaning, President of the Nanyang Technological University Gazetted as a national monument in 1998 and now housing the Chinese Heritage Centre, the beautifully restored former Nanyang University Administration Building overlooks NTU’s scenic Yunnan Garden.


A University at the Crossroads of East and West A QS WorldClass feature on Nanyang Technological University

“NTU’s unique Asian legacy and position at the crossroads of the East and West gives it a special place among the world’s top universities.” Dr Su Guaning President of Nanyang Technological University

A vision of leadership The main science and technology university in Singapore and one of the fastest-growing research universities in the world, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) has been placed consistently in the top 1% of the world’s best universities. The Nanyang Business School has an MBA programme that is ranked 27th worldwide1 – the highest for a Singapore institution (and among the top four from the Asia-Pacific). The S Rajaratnam School of International Studies, a world authority on strategic studies and security issues, was ranked third among more than 1,000 think tanks in Asia2. Taken as a whole, these achievements are indicative of the university’s vision to chart bold new paths in education and research, fostering cross-domain knowledge and versatility with a focus on grooming well-rounded, creative leaders. Research excellence In February 2010, NTU was globally ranked 8th out of 1,084 institutions that had attracted the highest total citations to their papers published in Thomson Reuters-indexed engineering journals, with 5,912 papers cited a total of 28,516 times. NTU has made substantial contributions to Singapore’s drive for research and innovation spearheaded by the National Research Foundation (NRF), particularly in the high-investment areas of biomedical sciences, environmental and water technologies, and interactive and digital media. Increasingly, NTU has been winning the lion’s share of Singapore’s competitive research funds. Since 2007, NTU has garnered S$130m from the NRF’s Competitive Research Programme alone – the

highest proportion of such grants awarded to a particular institution. This year, NTU won three out of the five inaugural Environment & Technology Research Programme grants given out by Singapore’s National Environment Agency. In interactive digital media (IDM), NTU clinched 10 out of 13 grants awarded in the NRF-IDM July 2008 Grant Call. The university has also won a total of S$270m in government funding for its two Research Centres of Excellence – the Earth Observatory of Singapore and the Singapore Centre on Life Sciences Engineering. A university for the world The university’s global reputation attracts faculty, students and partnerships from Asia, North America, Europe, and beyond. Students are drawn here by the university’s industry-relevant, broad-based programmes featuring international learning, research and internship opportunities. Faculty and researchers appreciate the state-of-the-art facilities, global research leadership, access to new grant opportunities, and the well-developed ecosystem on campus for technology transfer and commercialisation. Today, NTU is home to more than 33,000 students and about 5,500 faculty and staff from over 70 countries. About 64% of NTU’s doctoral students are international students hailing from countries such as the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Russia, Romania and the Czech Republic. The university’s 131,600 alumni come from more than 110 countries worldwide. NTU shares a particularly strong bond with China, having trained more than 8,000 mid- and high-level Chinese government officials since the early 1990s. It is now expanding its China Affairs Office to support new China-focused initiatives.

Additionally, the Nanyang Centre for Public Administration has been set up to further extend opportunities for bilateral education development and research. Partner of choice In partnership with local and global organisations, NTU actively explores cross-disciplinary solutions for the future. Among its academic partners are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Cornell University and Carnegie Mellon University in the US; Cambridge University and Technische Universität München in Europe; and Peking University and Waseda University in Asia. NTU works with many global industry and research leaders, and has developed joint laboratories with Thales, Rolls-Royce, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Robert Bosch and Toray Industries Inc. In 2009, NTU led the formation of the Global Alliance of Technological Universities, comprising seven top universities tackling societal issues through leading-edge science and technology. The alliance harnesses the strengths of its members – the California Institute of Technology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Georgia Institute of Technology, Imperial College London, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, NTU and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 1. Financial Times Global MBA Rankings 2010 2. 2009 Global Rankings of Think Tanks (Top 40 Asian Universities)

50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 Tel: (65) 6791 1744 Fax: (65) 6791 1604

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NUS and Industry: Driving Growth, Innovation and Enterprise capabilities. The University continues to expand its network of partnerships to create, innovate and grow. In addition to fostering inter-institutional collaborations, NUS makes developing partnerships with industry a priority. A researchintensive institution, NUS recognises that collaborations with industry help enrich the University’s research culture and facilitate the translation of basic and applied research into commercial application. NUS’ talented and diverse research community working on high-impact research with multi-disciplinary approaches so as to create breakthroughs in scientific and technological knowledge, and in turn improve human lives.

Overview As a leading global university centred in Asia, the National University of Singapore (NUS) is Singapore’s flagship university offering a global approach to education and research, with a focus on Asian perspectives and expertise. NUS has 14 faculties and schools across three campuses. Over 33,000 students from 100 countries enrich the community with their diverse social and cultural perspectives. NUS has three Research Centres of Excellence (RCEs), 22 university-level research institutes and centres, and close ties with 16 nationallevel research institutes and centres. It is also a partner for Singapore’s fifth RCE. Research activities are strategic and robust, and NUS is well-known for achievements in engineering, life sciences and biomedicine, social sciences and natural sciences. NUS also creates a supportive environment to promote creative enterprise.

Close links with industry are essential not only for marketing inventions, but also for researchers to interact with industry experts familiar with market trends and demand. To this end, NUS Enterprise, a university-level cluster, has been established to create value from research, nurture NUS start-ups as well as explore ways to impart and improve best entrepreneurial practices. NUS Enterprise has formed strategic Master Agreements with private-sector companies to build long-term partnerships that promote research collaborations and licensing opportunities. Other exciting initiatives include the Research to Market (R2M) platform that brings together business and academic

communities, research institutions and government agencies to share know-how and experience, and collaborate on translating raw technologies into business opportunities. Partnering Industry: Enhancing Impact, Adding Value NUS’ global standing and its efforts in advancing knowledge and fostering innovation, educating students and nurturing talents have attracted industry leaders around the world. Its industry partners are able to leverage on NUS’ expertise and capabilities, as well as exciting synergies across NUS’ multi-disciplinary research. One such partnership is with General Electric (GE) aimed at developing advanced water technologies to address the world’s environmental and water challenges. The NUSGE Singapore Water Technology Centre, a S$150 million collaboration between NUS and GE Water and Process Technologies, marks the GE unit’s first collaboration with a university in the Asia-Pacific. Mr Kevin Cassidy, general manager of GE Water for Asia-Pacific, said partnering NUS gives GE Water access to “talented researchers from a world-class institution committed to working with industry. It’s also a talent pipeline for us. We can recruit NUS graduates.” He added that “water technology is one of the emerging

Partnerships: Promoting Innovation and Enterprise NUS has long recognised that partnerships can help extend the reach and impact of its educational programmes and research

Dr Tony Tan (left), Chairman of Singapore’s National Research Foundation, striking a gong to symbolise the official opening of the NUS-GE Singapore Water Technology Centre, with Mr Heiner Markhoff (centre), President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Water & Process Technologies, and NUS President Prof Tan Chorh Chuan looking on.

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investment in Singapore. The partnership holds promise of developing novel diagnostic tests and drugs for Asians. In the aerospace industry, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) and NUS have teamed up to establish joint research collaborations, one of which will have NUS and Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS, work together to study flow control technologies for reducing drag around streamlined bodies like aircraft. There will also be sponsorship of overseas internships and joint industry programmes for NUS students. NUS Vice President (Research Strategy) Prof Seeram Ramakrishna (extreme right) at the Master Research Collaboration Agreement signing ceremony hosted by EADS at the Singapore Airshow 2010.

areas that Singapore has recently earmarked as a new area of economic growth. Its technologies in turning sea water and used water into drinking water have made it stand out in the industry.” Another leading industry partner of NUS is pharmaceutical giant Bayer Schering Pharma (BSP). The partnership brings together NUS doctors and BSP scientists to study gene mutations in the blood and tumours of cancer patients, the first part of BSP’s S$20 million

In the area of finance, partnering industry players such as Lion Global Investors, DBS Asset Management and Credit Suisse enhances NUS’ efforts in nurturing talents in the Asian asset management industry. By working closely with its partners, the Centre for Asset Management Research and Investments (CAMRI) at the NUS Business School has established an Investment Management and Trading Laboratory. CAMRI will also offer asset management-related courses, research projects and stock pitch competitions that will enjoy supervision from CAMRI’s and NUS’ finance experts, and sponsorship by financial industry players such as asset managers, sovereign wealth funds and government statutory boards.

Partnerships: A Strategy for Excellence To remain relevant and dynamic, NUS continues to grow partnerships with the world’s leading universities and industry players. Leveraging on one another’s distinctive and complementary strengths, universities and industry can collaborate synergistically to deliver new capabilities and breakthroughs. Through partnerships, universities and industry players can deliver higher levels of excellence that few can reach on their own.

With students and faculty members from more than 100 countries around the world, the global mix of the university community contributes to a rich and unique NUS experience.

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Be the Global Leader at Hanyang A QS WorldClass interview with Professor Chong Yang Kim, President of Hanyang University

“Hanyang University fosters global leaders through practical education and international experience.” Chong-Yang Kim President

Define the origin of Hanyang. How has it helped the university become the leading institution in Korea and world? Hanyang University owes its beginning to DongA Polytechnic Institute in 1939, which later became the first engineering college in Korea. Since its establishment, the University has graduated over 230,000 students. With the high reputation of producing numerous CEOs of global companies and high-ranking officers, Hanyang alumni have been leading Korea and the world. Especially, engineering graduates have made significant contributions to the Miracle of Han River that have helped to achieve today’s economic and societal development. To pursue its mission to train talented individuals to contribute to the community, nation and world, Hanyang is keen to foster more global leaders. Define the educational goal of Hanyang. How is Hanyang differentiated from other renowned universities? Hanyang University highly values “practicality” as its principal educational goal and realizes it through a cluster model, which connects education, research and industry on campus.

Hanyang has two campuses, Seoul and ERICA. ERICA stands for Education, Research, Industry Cluster at Ansan* and is basically a science park which is modelled after the Silicon Valley in the USA. Located close to the Korea’s huge industrial complex embedded with 3,000 small and mid-sized companies, ERICA has great strength in bringing various national and company research centres and laboratories onto the campus. It provides students with access to different technologies, hands-on knowledge and internship opportunities. The cluster also enables collaboration between professors and entrepreneurs to conduct joint research with participation of students. As a result, Hanyang was ranked first nationally in revenues from technology transfer in 2009, and publishes approximately 1,700 theses and registers around 250 patents annually.

dormitories. This effort has resulted in facilitating 3,800 international students. Hanyang has also established formal relations with over 330 universities around the world. Furthermore, to diversify cooperation and extend the network, Hanyang has endeavoured to promote academic collaborations and exchange programs with partner universities as well as government and organizations. In particular, Hanyang has recently developed and implemented a mobility program cofunded by the Ministry of Education of Korea and EU Commission. Through such programs and grants amounting to millions of US dollars, Hanyang is able to make more investments in the future and to cope with international competition. * Ansan is a city located 40 km away from Seoul.

How has Hanyang competed and cooperated with other distinguished universities? To continue the momentum of progress, Hanyang University has put a great deal of emphasis on internationalization and in building an infrastructure to support 500 courses conducted in English per semester, with 150 foreign professors and international

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Hanyang University Today Engineering Korea’s Future! Hanyang University continues to invest in today to create a better tomorrow. Using past achievements as a springboard for future success!

1st in revenues from technology transfer (2009) 2nd on the Technology Examination passing rate (2009) 3rd in World University Rankings by The Times for domestic private universities (2009) 4th on the Bar Examination passing rate (2009) 4th on the CPA Examination passing rate (2009) 4th on the Patent Attorney Examination passing rate (2009) 4th in the number of CEOs/executives in Korea top 100 companies (2009) 4th in the procurement of research grants (2008) 330 Sister Universities Overseas 3,800 International Students 2,000 Students Dispatched Overseas 230,000 Alumni

A Sanctuary of Knowledge and Peace

Kyung Hee University

Leading the Knowledge of the Future, Realizing a Peaceful Human Society, Kyung Hee embarks on a new horizon for the 21st century development of universities.

Kyung Hee University International Programs Degree • Graduate School • Graduate Institute of Peace Studies (GIP) • Graduate School of Pan-Pacific International Studies (GSP) • Kyung Hee International College of Global Studies (KIC) Non-Degree • Global Collaborative Summer Program The Global Collaborative Summer Program in Global Governance and East Asian Civilization: A new paradigm for higher education through the collaboration of University of Pennslyvania and East Asia’s finest universities; Peking University in China, Ritsumeikan University in Japan, Moscow State University in Russia as well as the United Nations and Conference of NGOs (CONGO) • Korean Language Program at Institute of International Education (IE) • International Taekwondo Academy (ITA) • International Student Exchange Program (ISEP) For further information, please contact: Office of International Affairs, Kyung Hee University Email: Website:

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Integrity, Creativity, Aspiration

A QS WorldClass interview with President Baik Sunggi of POSTECH

“We aim to become a world’s top 20 research university by the year 2020.”

BAIK Sunggi President

Leading Korea’s Educational Revolution and Fostering Creative Scientists and Engineers of Future Generation The fifth president of POSTECH, Dr BAIK Sunggi, obtained his PhD in Materials Science from Cornell University and was a researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since he joined POSTECH as one of 43 founding members in 1986, he has held many senior positions, including vice-president. Since his appointment in 2007, Dr Baik has implemented several revolutionary measures at POSTECH, including reforming the university admission policy, enhancing customized undergraduate education, strengthening the tenure system, developing inter-disciplinary academic programs and, more importantly, globalizing the campus.

Chairman LEE Ku-Taek Former Chairman and CEO of POSCO, Rewriting World’s History of Steel Industry LEE Ku-Taek is the incumbent Chairman of the POSTECH Foundation. He graduated from Seoul National University in Metallurgical Engineering and joined POSCO in 1969. He became the Chairman and CEO of POSCO in 2003 and the Executive Advisor in 2009. He commercialized the economical and ecofriendly technology, realizing the Industry’s long-cherished hope and upgraded POSCO’s technical compatibility. He also promoted the global network of the company and enhanced its international brand, Global POSCO.

He is also the President of Korea Ceramic Society, a Fellow of American Ceramic Society and a member of World Academy of Ceramics. He has received numerous awards, including Outstanding Achievement Award and Best Publication Award.

He was selected as one of “Korea’s 60 Frontier Engineers” in 2006 and received the “Most Respected CEO” Award in 2008.

With his innovative leadership, President Baik is striving to achieve the university’s goal of becoming a world’s top 20 university by the year 2020.

As Chairman of POSTECH Foundation, Dr Lee has been an enthusiastic proponent and supporter of POSTECH’s globalization project, leading the university to become a world’s top 20 university.

He received an honorary doctoral degree from the Australian National University in 2007.

Founding Chairman PARK Tae-Joon The World’s Best Steelmaker, Famed for His Legendary Success Story of POSCO, World’s Top Company PARK Tae-Joon is the founder of POSTECH. He graduated from the Korean Military Academy and went on to become the President of POSCO, one of the largest steel manufacturing companies in the world. After achieving the legendary success of POSCO, he founded POSTECH in 1986 through POSCO funding for the development of the nation’s science and technology, and achieved his long-time dream of establishing the first research-oriented university in Korea. He was also elected as a Member of Parliament for several terms and served as Prime Minister in 2000. He has six honorary doctoral degrees from Carnegie-Mellon University, University of Birmingham and four other renowned universities in the world. He has also received many awards from various institutes and organizations around the world. He is an honorary chairman of POSTECH Alumni Association and has dedicated his life to the development of Korea and the nation’s economy.

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From a Leading Science and Technology University of Asia to a World’s Top 20 University advancing to become a world’s top university, POSTECH pursues internationalization in academic and research areas as well as in creating a global environment on campus. POSTECH has active and diverse partnerships with over 70 overseas institutes and offers bilingual support in Korean and English at all levels of the university, from education to administration.

Ever since its establishment in 1986 that marked the birth of Korea’s first researchoriented university, POSTECH has stayed true to its role in Korean higher education: the pioneer. Taking innovative measures and revolutionizing the norm, POSTECH has come a long way in its relatively short history, globally recognized today as a leading science and technology institute of Korea and Asia. Customized Education for the Select Few The founding principle behind POSTECH’s establishment lies in providing customized education for the select few. POSTECH went on to enhance the fundamental science courses and introduce an English Proficiency Certificate Program which requires every student to successfully complete his or her individually fitted English courses. The university commands 10 departments and 17 graduate programs, tirelessly striving to retain the unique trait of the elite, customized education. The excellent measure of POSTECH education is well reflected in the outstanding faculty to undergraduate student ratio of less than 1 to 6 and the exceptional support for the students, including full scholarship for every student and the largest educational investment per student in Korea.

Distinguished Research Achievements Maximizing the university’s research capabilities has always been the utmost priority of POSTECH and efforts continue to establish the university as a global R&D platform. Home to 57 research institutes, POSTECH offers many state-of-the-art research facilities, including Korea’s only synchrotron radiation facility, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, and Pohang Institute of Intelligent Robotics, National Center for Nanomaterials Technology and numerous government-supported research centres. Support at all levels ranging from infrastructure to management and finances have resulted in many distinguished research achievements, and the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings placed POSTECH 25th in the Citations per Faculty index.

POSTECH continuously strives in its pursuit of excellence with all members of the university, fostering science and engineering leaders and working toward realizing its vision of becoming a world’s top 20 research-oriented university by the year 2020.

790-784 San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyungbuk, Korea Tel: +82-54-279-3682~6 Fax: +82-54-279-3590 Email: Web:

POSTECH has been recognized as the top science and technology university in Asia, and the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology has selected POSTECH as the leading university for educational reform for seven consecutive years and the new World Class University (WCU) initiative. Global Competitiveness to Reach Its Goal Growing out of Korea and Asia and further

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Korea’s first research-oriented university Gobal Bilingual Campus

Pursuit of Excellence Pohang University of Science and Technology


The Globalization Strategies of Yonsei University A QS WorldClass interview with President Han-Joong Kim of Yonsei University

“The research and education of the Yonsei International Campus will be the new foundation of global knowledge industry. ”

Han-Joong Kim President

From the CEO of GS Caltex Corporation, DongSoo Hur, to former Korean Prime Minister, Han Seung-soo, Yonsei University’s list of alumni is one of eminence and distinction. The oldest private university in Korea, Yonsei University celebrates its 125th anniversary and the opening of the Yonsei International Campus in Songdo this year. In an interview with QS WorldClass SHOWCASE, President Han-Joong Kim of Yonsei University of South Korea reveals the institution’s major globalization strategies and how he plans to propel the university to greater heights and reach its goal of becoming the “First and the Best” global university. Define the current vision of Yonsei University, “Yonsei, the First and the Best.” To commemorate our 120th anniversary in 2005, Yonsei launched the bold campaign of “Yonsei Vision 2020: Yonsei, the First and the Best.” The vision seeks to solidify our status as a world-class education and research institution. Stationed as we are on the global research frontier, we seek to establish five academic disciplines among the top ten in the world within five years and to be ranked within the top 50 in overall scientific and engineering research. All in all, we seek to move beyond our status as Korea’s leading university to the level of one of the world’s premier universities. Upon fulfilling this vision, Yonsei will strive to become the university where the world’s most talented youths will want to come to

study, where the world’s prominent scholars will conduct their research, and where the world’s esteemed alumni will be honoured. This embodies the vision we pursue through “Yonsei Vision 2020: Yonsei, the First and the Best.” Yonsei University is receiving a great amount of global attention due to the rapid rise in its university rankings in 2009. What assets have contributed to this? Since the launch of the campaign, “Yonsei Vision 2020: Yonsei, the First and the Best” two years ago, we have been producing fruitful results. We enhanced the education and research environment for our students and faculty members and stabilized our budget structure through efficient expense management and fundraising activities. We also improved our administrative organization by introducing the “team system” to abolish bureaucratic problems. I believe these efforts have all come together to boost Yonsei University’s ranking to the 151st place in the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings. This year Yonsei University will open its International Campus in Songdo. Explain your strategies and goals regarding the new campus. 2010 is a significant year for us, as we both look back on our history of 125 years and look forward to our future with the opening of the Yonsei International Campus in Songdo. The new campus will embody the new future of Yonsei University; the research and education of the Yonsei International Campus will be the new foundation of global knowledge industry.

In the new campus, Yonsei University will conduct cutting-edge research and teaching in the newly established College of Pharmacy and the MD Anderson-Yonsei Joint Preclinical Center, as well as in the areas of energy, environment and nanotechnology. In addition, we will establish the School of Asian Studies, an international degree program with a differentiated curriculum that combines language with practical social sciences. Working in partnership with leading universities of China, Japan, the US and the UK, the new school will become the centre of Asian regional studies and lead the upcoming era of Asia. The Yonsei International Campus will serve as the premier international education platform for several of our main colleges, such as Underwood International College, College of Medicine, College of Dentistry, and joint education programs with foreign universities. Furthermore, Yonsei will start a Center for Talented Youth program with John Hopkins University to foster future global leaders. In addition, the campus will become an open campus to the global community by forming consortiums with renowned foreign universities and planning policies that invite students and researchers with global ambitions. Therefore, I certainly believe that the many features of the Yonsei International Campus will greatly promote the internationalization of Yonsei University and thus bring us one step closer to becoming the “First and the Best” university in the world.

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Yonsei Vision 2020 – “Yonsei, the First and the Best” “Yonsei Vision 2020: Yonsei, the First and the Best” in 2005 in commemoration of its 120th anniversary. Yonsei Vision 2020 will fulfill its mission based upon three fundamental objectives - servant leadership, cutting-edge research and innovation, and financial stability.

Introduction Being the oldest private university in Korea, Yonsei University was first established in 1885 by Christian missionaries. Our mission is to educate leaders who will contribute to humanity in the spirit of “truth and freedom.” The 300,000 alumni of Yonsei who take this calling to heart can be found manifesting this proud spirit from leadership positions around the world. Yonsei University’s main campus is ensconced in a spacious, picturesque and natural setting located minutes away from the economic, political and cultural centres of Seoul’s metropolitan area. Yonsei has 3,460 eminent faculty members who are conducting cuttingedge research across all academic disciplines. There are 19 graduate schools, 17 colleges and 133 subsidiary institutions hosting the most selective pool of students from around the world. Yonsei is proud of its history and reputation as a leading institution of higher education and research in Asia. Yonsei Spirit Yonsei University cultivates leaders who embody the spirit of truth and freedom. In 1885, Yonsei’s founder chose our founding philosophy from a passage in the Gospel according to John: “If you continue in my word, you are truly my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”

Yonsei Philosophy Yonsei University serves as the ‘alma mater’ (fostering mother) of all arts and sciences to nurture leaders who will contribute to society in a broad, ecumenical spirit of Christian teaching epitomized in its motto of “truth and freedom.” We will carry forward the cultural heritage of our various civilizations and cultures of the world, leading the human effort towards the advancement of scholarship through creative thought and critical thinking. Moreover, we continue to promote a commitment to justice and to inspire courage, to serve our neighbours wholeheartedly and to contribute to the prosperity of humankind. Yonseians will exercise their leadership to accomplish this mission and to realize our goal to stand proudly on the world stage. Yonsei at the Top 2009 151st in THE-QS World University Rankings 2008 Top Private University in Korea in THE- QS World University Rankings 2008 Top Private University in Korea in Shanghai Jiao Tong University International University Rankings 2007 106th in Science Citation Index (SCI) World Rankings

One of the most ambitious projects of the Yonsei Vision 2020 campaign is the “Global 5-5-10” program, the numbers indicating Yonsei University’s goal to achieve the global top ten ranking in at least five fields within the next five years. The university selected 12 fields that have the potential to rank in the global top ten. Twelve fields from eight divisions (Humanities, Social Sciences, Korean Studies, Science, Engineering, Human Ecology, Medicine, Life Sciences) were selected based on their international status, clarity of objectives and research plans.

Yonsei University 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu Seoul 120-749, Korea Tel: (82-2) 2123-2114 Email:

Yonsei Vision 2020 Plan Yonsei University launched the campaign,

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How Taiwanese universities are internationalising the student body By Professor Peter Chang International Dean Taipei Medical University Taiwan University students in Taiwan, like their counterparts elsewhere in Asia, are not immune to the culture and social bondage of the time. Most of them would have gone through keen competition in classes in middle and high schools. The university experience in living and learning are new challenges to these students, and only those armed with strong potential and incentives will excel in higher education.

students coming to Taiwan have also benefited from the mutual recognition of the credits and degrees that bring down the barriers in transnational higher education. It is likely that there will be more sister or cluster universities between Taiwan and other countries that establish close partnerships and joint programs to pave broader ways for students to seek higher education. A few universities in Taiwan have already developed associations for international students, which further guarantee the rights and improve the experience of international students. Besides the autonomy earned by these Taiwanese universities, several governmental programs have demonstrated strong support for the undergraduate and graduate students to make exchange learning in other countries possible. Meanwhile, exchange students from other countries are also encouraged to study in Taiwan’s universities. The overseas training and learning can last from one to three months in duration, usually as part of an ongoing program that will ensure that the existing partnership continues. The results of such exchanges are usually highly positive, and if the outcomes result in scientific publications or interesting research

It is important for all universities in Taiwan to have a systematic approach to internationalize their students. There are different approaches, both in the curriculum and/or outside curriculum. Seminars for students are mixed with lectures by international scholars, while subjects dealing with international affairs have been significantly enhanced in the past few years. Courses taught in English and in other secondary languages have been added. For example, up to 10 to 20% of the courses are now offered in English to students who take elective courses in many of the universities in Taiwan. Several programs have been offered that are taught entirely in English. This reflects more diversity in the content and scope of education offered to the student body. In addition, more and more extracurricular activities, as well as those based in the classroom or laboratory, have been designed to offer students experiences in another country. Many universities now encourage students to attend courses and practical learning in other countries for at least part of the program, and the take-up is encouraging. Very high percentages of the students spend three to six months in their undergraduate years pursuing international studies, while the figures are much higher for graduate students. Indeed, several graduate programs have requirements for students to spend 25% of the period of graduate studies overseas for research. These developments have been incorporated with recognition of credits involved, as well as dual-degree programs, which give students degrees from both the sending university and the host institution overseas. Many universities in Taiwan have progressed in this direction to facilitate the education of students from Taiwan and other countries. International

International students in Taiwan.

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In summary, internationalization has been recognized as a key element for modern development in higher education in Taiwan. As higher education in Taiwan follows and catches up with the rest of the world, international education in universities is a must-have and is deep in the processes of evolution of higher education in each campus of the country. The commitment and dedication of all these universities will certainly contribute to the internationalization of the student body in the years to come.

outcomes, exchange students usually receive other encouragement and even financial incentives. Such successful experiences usually pave the way for the students involved to pursue more advanced studies, with multiinstitutional learning following their studies in the specific universities. One of the most exciting aspects of the program is the shared learning experience of students from different countries. The proportion of international students in Taiwan has increased significantly in the past few years.This is due to the high incentives of many universities in Taiwan to open up their doors and lower the thresholds for these incoming international students. Such approaches facilitate broader values and diversified merits of problem-solving, as well as harmonized approaches that provide students with various options for tackling new issues. The students from Taiwan usually have strong academic training in basic sciences, while international students in Taiwan, on the contrary, bring different learning experiences from their home countries that arm them with diversity in culture and a different background in education. The diversity brought in and the hospitality in Taiwan usually generate new skills of communication and culture that benefit students in Taiwan and those from abroad.

Professor Peter Chang earned his medical degree from the National Yangming University in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1984. He studied at the Harvard University School of Public Health for his Master of Public Health in 1988 and Doctor of Science in Cancer Biology in1992. He had his clinical training in occupational medicine in Taipei Veterans General Hospital and was board-certified in occupational medicine in 1993. From 1992 to 2002, he was a professor in the same medical school where he did his undergraduate study, and acted as an advisor in international affairs for the Ministry of Health in Taiwan. He spent more than four years in Geneva and Brussels as the health representative for the Ministry. He was appointed a professor and international dean in the Taipei Medical University in 2009.

With the development of this mix of international students, there is greater interest among many leading universities in Taiwan in inviting visiting staff and professors from other countries. These international scholars are usually provided with equivalent or competitive compensation for international travelling and local accommodation, as well as with flexible working hours and teaching periods, which fit their original appointment. The international scholars have much greater autonomy in delivering the lectures, seminars, as well as other education environment in and out of the campus. The impact of the total involvement of these international scholars is tremendous, adding to the high level of international education that many of the campuses in Taiwan now provide. Besides these developments, many universities offer good incentives for international scholars to have short visits, including acting as speakers in international conferences, workshops, practical training, as well as serving in research committees. Many international conferences are organized and held in leading universities.

Seminar for international university students and faculty.

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Towards the World’s Best Medical University - Celebrating the 50th Anniversary

“TMU is further committed to be the best incubator for medical elite in the 21st century.”

Wen-Ta Chiu, MD, PhD President, Taipei Medical University President, Academy for Multidisciplinary Neurotraumatology (AMN) President, Asia-Oceanian Neurotrauma Society (AONTS) Immediate Past President, Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium of Public Health (APACPH)

Near the World’ s Tallest Building Taipei Medical University (TMU), formerly known as Taipei Medical College (TMC), was founded on June 1, 1960 by Dr. Shui-Wang Hu and Dr. Cheng-Tien Hsu, along with other medical professionals and devoted educators. TMU is 600 metres away from the world’s tallest building - Taipei 101. A Quick Glance of TMU During the past 49 years, TMU has devoted to medical education through the efforts of six colleges (College of Medicine, College of Oral Medicine, College of Pharmacy, College of Nursing, College of Public Health and Nutrition, and College of Humanity and Social Science) and Center for Continuing & Extension Education. Currently, there are over 6,000 students, 418 full-time faculty members and 600 part-time faculty members. As of now, there are more than 31,000 TMU graduates. Most of our alumni serve in medical institutions and clinics while some are prominent figures in the fields of research, politics and business. Three JCI-accredited Hospitals TMU operates three Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited hospitals, including TMU Hospital, Wan Fang Hospital and Shuang Ho Hospital, with a total of 3,080 beds. TMU becomes one of the largest and intact healthcare systems with high quality of teaching, research and clinical services in Taipei. Under the connection of the International Office, we have built the partnership with more than 100 world-wide universities, institutes and hospitals, and the successful experience of TMU is well-known around the world.

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Total Quality Education Our teaching achievement has been awarded for four consecutive years by the Ministry of Education, Taiwan. We continuously improve the quality and quantity of teaching, research and clinical services to become an influential, globalized and world leading university. Leading University in Academic-Industrial Cooperation TMU is the leading university in academicindustrial cooperation in Taiwan. TMU has cooperated with 174 biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies. Awards & Accreditations of TMU • Accredited as an International Safe School (ISS) by the World Health Organization • Certified by the British Standards Institution for global development in sustainability at the international level (GRI G3) and AA1000 AS certification • Accredited by Joint Commission International (JCI) for three affiliated hospitals: TMU Hospital, TMU-Wan Fang Hospital and TMU-Shuang Ho Hospital • Accredited by ISO9001:2008 (Quality Management), ISO14001:2004 (Environmental Management), OHSAS18001:2007 (Vocational Safety & Hygiene), ISO27001:2005 (International Information Safety) ISO14064:2006 (Green House Gas, GHG) 50th Anniversary TMU celebrates its 50th anniversary in the year 2010, and we define this year as the “Year of Institutional Development.” Fifty-year-old is considered mid-life age, but it is only the beginning of the development and improvement of TMU. 129

Leading the Promising Future TMU has established the primary goal to be “Striving for in-depth research, educational and medical excellence.” • Develop topnotch research centres • Excel in the area of translational medicine • Implement liberal and life education as well as translational medicine education • Cultivate teaching-oriented faculty • Recruit outstanding national teaching faculty • Increase international certificate-oriented courses • Strengthen Total Quality Education (TQE) and implement more OpenCourseWare (OCW) • Establish learning benchmarks • Cultivate distinguished clinicians in clinical and translational medicine • Enter the top ranking of world universities TMU has dedicated tremendous time and efforts to delivering the highest quality of education and research under the spirit of “Honesty, Care, Excellence and Innovation.” TMU – Your Best Choice for Studying Abroad People in Taiwan believe in an old saying: ” At home parents are what you need, while leaving home, you need friends.” At Taipei Medical University (TMU), we cherish foreign students not only as friends but more like families. Our foreign students from USA, Canada, Japan and Tuvalu, exchange students, visiting professors, and visiting professionals all agree on this. English programs offered here are designed for students who are willing to obtain a postgraduate degree in Taiwan. As a host, I sincerely welcome you to join TMU, a great family near Taipei 101.

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Taipei Medical University Healthcare System: Soaring to Excellence • CyberKnife and Gamma Knife for brain tumour treatment • The first in vitro fertilization in Taiwan • The first cosmetic laser centre in Taiwan • Functional MRI & PET-CT centre • Comprehensive health management centre • Weight management centre • Others

About TMU Perceived as the best medical university in Asia and Pacific Region, TMU is 600 metres away from the world’ s tallest building - Taipei 101. With more than 31,000 graduates who serve and act as health leaders in more than 100 countries around the world. TMU owns 3 Joint Commission International (JCI, international quality assurance standards)-accredited worldclass medical centres that lead the cutting-edge health research and education. With more than 5,000 faculty and professionals as well as 6,000 students in 6 colleges, TMU is further committed to be the best incubator for medical elite in the 21st century. TMU’s Strengths • The leading university with HIV and malaria programs in Africa – Philanthropic medical missions to Swaziland, São Tomé and Príncipe • Leading research around the world – Neural Injury & Neuroregeneration – National Emergency Air Medical Service (NEAMS) – Telehealth Research – Reproductive Medicine – Biomedical Materials – Stem Cell Imaging – Cancer Research – Health Policy • International programs in – College of Medicine – College of Oral Medicine – College of Pharmacy – College of Nursing – College of Public Health and Nutrition

– College of Humanity and Social Science – Continuing and Extension Education TMU’s Mission To cultivate medical professionals with enthusiasm of human concern, social service and global perspectives. TMU’s Vision To become a world-class university in 2020. About TMU Healthcare System With a total of 3,080 beds in capacity, TMU Healthcare System is one of the largest healthcare systems in Metropolitan Taipei. It comprises one medical university and three JCIaccredited hospitals and integrates primary and specialty care with research and education. With the line-up of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Wan Fang Hospital and Shuang Ho Hospital, TMU Healthcare Group becomes a heavyweight healthcare provider, which emphasizes the quality of medical service, teaching and clinical research. TMU Healthcare System continuously strives to improve the quality of medical care and research with the goal of becoming the best global healthcare provider.

Taipei Medical University 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan Tel: +886-2-2736-1661 Fax: +886-2-2377-2956 Taipei Medical University Hospital 252 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan Tel: +886-2-2737-2181 Fax: +886-2-2737-4257 TMU-Wan Fang Hospital 111 Section 3, Hsing-Long Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan Tel: +886-2-2930-7930 Fax: +886-2-8662-1135 TMU-Shuang Ho Hospital 291 Jhongjheng Road, Jhonghe City, Taipei County 235, Taiwan Tel: +886-2-2249-0088 Fax: +886-2-2248-0900

TMU Healthcare System’s Profile • Outpatients: 3 million/year • Inpatients: 70,000/year • Emergency patients: 200,000/year • Operations: 40,000/year Medical Strengths and Facilities • Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging for breast cancer early diagnosis 130

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Thailand aims to become regional higher education hub By Professor Jisnuson Svasti Chairman, International Relations Policy Committee and Deputy Chairman, Research Policy Committee Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Higher education in Thailand dates back more than 100 years to H.M. King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), who established two higher education colleges for Buddhist monks in 1889 and 1893, a medical school at Siriraj Hospital in 1889, a law school attached to the Ministry of Justice in 1897, and the Royal Pages School (later Civil Service College) in 1902. In 1917, the first multi-disciplinary university was established by Royal Decree, elevating the Civil Service College into a university, named Chulalongkorn University after His Majesty, and incorporating the three academic schools. Later, the University of Moral and Political Science, now known as Thammasat University, was founded in 1933, and three more universities were established in 1943 - University of Medical Sciences (Mahidol University), Agricultural University (Kasetsart University) and Fine Arts University (Silpakorn University). These institutions are perhaps the “historic” universities of Thailand, and they have maintained their excellence, especially in their original areas of expertise. Then in 19641967, decentralization of education led to the establishment of regional universities, Chiangmai University, Khon Kaen University and Prince of Songkhla University, which have all developed an excellent reputation nationwide.

for higher education could still not be matched by supply. However, overall student preference is still for the top government universities. Most recently, 40 former teacher-training colleges were elevated to Rajabhat Universities, and ten technical colleges were also elevated to be Rajamangkala Universities or equivalent in 2002. As of December 2009, the Thai higher education system comprised 78 public and 69 private higher education institutions, and 19 community colleges. Due to the diversity of the institutions, OHEC has classified higher education institutions into four groups, with different missions and expectations: a) research universities with graduate school should have high capability for research, high-quality staff, teach from bachelor to post-doctoral levels, produce leaders and help enhance Thailand’s competitiveness; b) universities with fields of specialization, teaching mainly at bachelor and master levels, with good staff producing qualified manpower for industry; c) teaching universities with undergraduate emphasis producing workers for local government and local business; and d) community colleges producing graduates to empower the local community. In its recent 15-year plan (2008-2023), OHEC hopes that development of these four groups of universities will meet Thailand’s needs to compete internationally, as well as to develop local businesses, strengthen local communities and encourage life-long learning. The primary role of the university system is, of course, to produce graduates to serve the manpower needs of the nation. In the academic year 2006, the Thai university system produced about 259,000 graduates at bachelor level, 47,000 graduates at master level and 980 graduates at PhD level. Among all the graduates, 84.8% graduated from government universities and 15.2% from private universities. Bearing in mind Thailand’s population of about 63 million, the number of bachelor-degree graduates may be sufficient, but the number of PhD graduates is inadequate to ensure competitiveness at the international level. In addition, among those with a bachelor degree, 67.8% were in social sciences, arts and humanities, 27.4% in science and technology, and 4.7% in health science. There is a need for a higher proportion of graduates in science-related fields. OHEC announced the Thailand Quality Framework for Higher Education (TQF) in 2009 to standardize the quality of degree programs, and align them with the promotion of mobility of professionals among ASEAN nations by the year 2015. In recognition of the need to develop postgraduate training in Thailand and link it closely to research, OHEC initiated the Centres of

The Thai university system has continued to expand in several stages, supervised by the Ministry of University Affairs (now Office of Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education, OHEC), founded in 1972. Developments since then included the amalgamation of various existing colleges and schools into the King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology (KMUTT, KMITL, KMUTNB) and Srinakarintwirot University, upgrading of Maejo University, and the establishment of six more regional universities - Burapha University, Naresuan University, Mahasarakham University, Suranaree University of Technology, Thaksin University and Ubon Ratchathani University. Another noteworthy innovation was the establishment of two open universities - Ramkhamhaeng University and Sukhothai Thammatirat University - to rapidly expand educational opportunities to the public. In addition, many private universities, colleges and institutions have been established over the last 30 years, since demand 133 Mahidol P133-P135.indd 1

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Research is essential for any country to compete at the international level, but Thailand invests far too little in research (GERD/GDP is about 0.25% only). In terms of scientific publications in international databases, Thailand ranks at approximately 42nd in the world, 7th in Asia and 2nd in ASEAN. These publications come predominantly from the Thai university system, particularly from the Research University with Graduate School group. Mahidol University and Chulalongkorn University are particularly productive,followed by Chiangmai University. However,taken in perspective, research output of staff at Thai universities is very low, at most less than 0.4 papers/staff/year, depending on database and university, so more staff should be encouraged to do research and existing researchers to be more productive. In a welcome move, OHEC has also drafted plans to initiate a “National Research University” project, providing special research support for nine universities, namely Chulalongkorn University, Mahidol University, Kasetsart University, Thammasat University, Chiangmai University, Khon Kaen University, Prince of Songkhla University, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, and Suranaree University of Technology. Thai scientist Pilai Poonsawad (second from right) wins Rolex Award for Enterprise for research on hornbill conservation.

Linkage between industry and academia also needs to be improved in Thailand, although many universities do have RD&E collaboration with industry and have formed units responsible for joint university-industry research, product development, technology transfer and other related activities. In addition, OHEC launched the “University Business Incubator” project in 2005 that provides Grants-in-Aid for business development and entrepreneurship through 56 member universities. Subsequent feedback from this experience led OHEC to allocate further funding for technology licensing activities in 11 universities, in order to promote effective technology transfer to local industries.

Excellence in Graduate Education and Research, to encourage universities with expertise in similar areas to work together in multi-university consortia. At present, there are nine such centres, three with Mahidol University as leader, two with Chulalongkorn University as leader, two with Chiangmai University as leader, one with Kasetsart University as leader, and one with King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi as leader. The Royal Thai Government has also expressed the wish to develop Thailand into a regional educational hub. There are some 884 international programs (296 bachelor, 350 master, 215 PhD and 23 other programs) at Thai universities. However, a OHEC survey in 2008 showed that there were only 16,361 foreign students studying in Thai higher education institutions, with universities having the most foreign students being Assumption University (private university with 2,558 foreign students), Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University (university for monks with 1,329) and Mahidol University (public university with 1,069). In particular, Mahidol University has the most international degree programs in the country (121 at postgraduate level and 19 at undergraduate level), and was the first public university to establish an international college. Some Thai universities have joint degree programs with overseas universities, and many of them participate in the Thailand Research Fund’s Golden Jubilee PhD program, where students have overseas co-advisors and perform part of their research abroad. Almost all Thai universities have several Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with universities worldwide, to promote student exchange, research collaboration and other activities. Major universities such as Chulalongkorn and Mahidol may have as many as 250 MOUs. Many Thai universities are also members of various international university networks, such as the Global University Network for Innovation (GUNI), ASEAN University Network (AUN), ASEAN-European University Network (ASEA-UNINET) and Asia Pacific Leadership (APL) Forum.

Nowadays, world university rankings cannot be ignored, and it is important to understand the criteria and weighting used in each system.

Undergraduate students at an international college in Thailand.

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Thai universities have performed surprisingly well in the THE-QS World University Rankings, which place emphasis on academic peer review. In 2009, Chulalongkorn University was ranked at 138=, Mahidol University at 220=, Thammasat University, Chiangmai University and Kasetsart University at 401-500, and Prince of Songkhla University and Khon Kaen University at 501-600. However, with greater emphasis on quantitative measures of scientific publications, Mahidol University was the only Thai university ranked (at 479) in the Top 500 Universities of the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. When stronger emphasis is placed on academic excellence, including Nobel Prizes, no Thai university was ranked in the Top 500 Universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiaotong University. In addition, new ranking methodologies have been announced for 2010. While there is much controversy about different ranking systems, universities can still benefit by using them to analyze their own weaknesses and strengths, devise strategies for improvement and motivate staff to improve their performance, so that we can provide the best education for our children.

(2002) and the Outstanding Lecturer Award (2005). He was President of the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists (1990-1992) and is Fellow of the Academy of Science for the Developing World (TWAS). He is currently President of the Science Society of Thailand under the patronage of His Majesty the King, and has published 140 research articles in international journals.

Professor Jisnuson Svasti obtained his PhD in Molecular Biology from the University of Cambridge, UK in 1972. He is a staff member of Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand, and was its Vice-President for International Relations (1997-99) and Dean, Faculty of Graduate Studies (2005-07). He received the Outstanding Scientist of Thailand Award

Celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Wellcome Trust-Mahidol University-Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Programme.

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