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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES THE ANTHEM Nós somos os atletas do futuro

We are the athletes of the future

Com sonhos, anseios e esperanças

With dreams, hopes and wishes

Construímos com fé esse dia

Built with faith day by day In our lives of children

No nosso viver de crianças

We feel the Olympic flame within.

Sentimos, em nós, a chama olímplica

Which flag is in the athlete’s hand Swimming, running and jumping

Qual bandeira na mão do atleta

All struggle to reach the finish line

A nadar, a correr e a saltar Todos lutam por chegar à meta

The flag raises to the sound of the anthem The winner on the podium

Eleva-se a bandeira ao som do hino

With the medal against his chest

E ao pódio já sobe o vencedor

A reward for all the effort and pain

No seu peito ostenta a medalha Recompensa do esforço e da dor

Being an athlete is about winning... and losing In every gesture daring to improve

Ser atleta é ganhar...é perder

Respecting the rules and others

Em cada gesto usar correção

Uplifting the heart and soul

Respeitando a regra e o outro

Translated version of the anthem

Eleva-se a mente e o coração

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I - The Ancient Greek Olympic The first Olympic Games were held in Olympia Greece in 766 BC. They were held every 4 years in honour of the Greek god Zeus.

The Stadium in Olympia

They were religious festivals and sporting events. The events were: boxing - pentathlon (throwing the disc, javelin, jump length, running and wrestling) - rowing - horse racingmessengers’ and trumpeters’ race.

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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES They were so important that wars were halted for the games. The winners won a basil/olive wreath and were received as heroes. Later on they were awarded a cash prize.

With the birth of Christ, the world began converting to Christianity. In 392 AD the Roman Emperor Theodosius I banned the games because he considered them to be a pagan (non- Christian) festival. Emperor Theodosius II ordered the burning down of the temple of Zeus in 426 AD to ensure the Games never took place. They didn’t take place for the following 16 centuries‌

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II – The Modern Olympics 16 centuries later, in 1894 the Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin devised a plan to revive the Olympic Games with the hope of uniting people. He founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) with 15 representing countries. This Committee continues to be in charge of the organisation to this day.

The first Olympic Games of the modern era were held in Athens (in the village of Panathinaikos) in 1896. 285 athletes from 13 countries participated.

From then onwards, the Olympic Games take place every 4 years in a city chosen by the International Olympic Committee seven years in advance.

As there are certain sports that require snow and ice, in 1924 the Olympic Committee decided to hold the 1st Winter Olympics. They are also held every four years like the summer ones.

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In 2001, the International Olympic Committee created the Youth Olympic Games for fourteen- to eighteen-year- old athletes.

They are a shorter version of the Olympic Games.

In the 2008 Olympic Games were held in Beijing (China).

In 2012 they will be held in London (United Kingdom).

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III - The motto

The Olympic Motto is "Citius, Altius, Fortius" - Faster, higher and stronger. Each athlete fights to uphold the motto but only the best achieve it! Another theme of the Olympics is "The most important thing is not to win but to participate", which is the best known. Sport promotes good practices, healthy habits and interpersonal and group interaction. Participation is in fact the most important factor because it is a life time habit. The two slogans that were chosen by Baron de Coubertin, the father of the Modern Olympic Games, came from parts of Christian sermons.

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IV – The Symbols 1- The Olympic Flag It is a white rectangle with five interlocked rings in the centre. The rings (blue, yellow, black, green and red) represent the union of five continents.

2- The Olympic Flame In the ancient Olympic Games, a fire was always kept burning while the competitions lasted (evoking/celebrating the legend of the giant of Greek mythology, Prometheus who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to the humans).

Nowadays, the flame is lit, in Olympia (Greece), a few months before the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games.

This flame used to light the Olympic Torch. It is transported to the city where the games are held by several well-known people, including athletes.

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3 – Olympic Anthem It was first sung in Greek but since then it is sung in the language of the host country.

It is sung at opening and closing ceremony while the flag is hoisted and lowered.

4- Mascot There has been an Olympic mascot since the 1968 Olympics. It is usually a native animal that represents the culture of the host country.

Up till now the most famous mascot has been Misha the bear, from the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow. It gave rise to the Misha cartoon that was used in several products targeting the young public.

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V- The medals The athletes that come in the second and third places are awarded medals

First place – gold medal Second place – silver medal Third place – bronze medal

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For the medal award ceremony the top three athletes stand on the podium.

The athletes receive the medals from a member of the Olympic Committee. Afterwards the national anthems of the three countries are played and sung and their flags hoisted.

For the London Olympics (2012), the medals have been created by the modeler of the film "A Space Odyssey" (2001). The 2012 medals are the heaviest and largest ever: each one weighs 400 grams,85 mm in diameter and 7 mm thick.

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The Pierre de Coubertin Medal

The medal was first awarded in 1964 and named after Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the International Olympic Committee.

It is a special medal made of solid gold given by the International Olympic Committee to those athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events. Pierre de Coubertin medal is the highest honour of the Olympic Games, having so far been awarded to five athletes from Canada, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Brazil and Austria.

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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES VI - The Sports Events

There will 29 sports events in the London Olympics 2012. • Athletics

• Basketball

• Canoeing

• Fencing

• Gymnastics

• Handball

• Field hockey

• Judo

• Pentathlon

• Taekwondo

• Table tennis

• Triathlon

• Synchronized swimming

• Volleyball

• Rowing

• Badminton

• Boxing

• Cycling

• Football

• Horseback riding

• Weightlifting

• Swimming

• Water polo

• Tennis

• Diving

• Archery

• Shooting

• Sail

• Pentathlon • Pentathlon includes fencing, shooting, swimming (200m freestyle) horse riding and athletics - practiced by the same athlete. In the Triathlon the athlete has to swim, cycle and run. 15


VII - Portugal at the Olympic Games The Portuguese Olympic Committee was founded in 1909 and our athletes participated for the first time in 1912 in Stockholm (Sweden).

They have participated in all editions of the Games since then, which makes us the 18th most assiduous country.

Our athletes have won 22 medals for Portugal: 4 gold (1984-1988-1996-2008) 7 silver 11 bronze

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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES VIII - The gold medals The Portuguese get truly excited each time the Portuguese flag has been hoisted and the anthem played as they stand on the podium! Four Portuguese athletes have stood on the highest place of the podium: • Carlos Lopes (1984, Los Angeles) - athletics / marathon 42 195m • Rosa Mota (1988, Seoul) - athletics / marathon • Fernanda Ribeiro (1996, Atlanta) - athletics / 10000m • Nelson Évora (2008, Beijing) - athletics / triple jump

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The Paralympics

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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES

The Paralympic Games I - The Origin The first sporting event for the disabled occurred on 28th July 1948 in the city of Stoke Mandeville, 50 miles from London.

Its founder was Sir Ludwig Guttmann, a German neurologist who lived in England and worked in Oxford University. When the 2nd World War ended in 1945, he was the head of a service that was focused on rehabilitating wounded soldiers. As he believed that sport was a method of therapy, he resorted to basketball, archery, billiards and darts as a form of treatment.

It was with these sports that the first sporting event took place with disabled athletes.

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II - The Athletes and the Games 400 athletes in wheelchairs participated for the first time in the 1960 Olympics in Rome representing 23 countries. These were Paralympic athletes! The term "Paralympic" comes from two words: • Paraplegia (paralysis) • Olympic (Olympia)

The term "Paralympic"gained a new meaning with the inclusion of more disabilities in the games: • To (preposition of Greek origin) meaning "near" "beside". • Olympics (for the Olympics)

This term came into official use in the 1988 Olympics in Seoul (South Korea).

The Paralympics take place at the same time as the Olympic Games.

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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES III - The Motto, Anthem and the Symbol The Paralympic motto is "Spirit in Motion" and was introduced in the 2004 Paralympic Games in Athens.

Its symbol is a white flag with three ‘agitos’ coloured red, blue, and green, encircling a single point. The agito ("I move" in Latin) is a symbol of movement. The colours of the agitos stand for the three colours that are most widely represented in national flags around the world.

The Paralympic anthem, also known as a hymn, is the musical piece, "Hymn de l’Avenir" (Hymn of the Future). It encourages one to go on and to walk tall.

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IV - The Torch and Mascot The Torch The torch is carried by Paralympic athletes and officials up to the place where the games will take place. It burns from the opening of the games to its closure.

The Mascot Since the 1980 Paralympic Games that each game has a mascot. Usually the mascot is a native animal from the host country.

This mascot can be seen in many of the products used by young people.

Mandeville: the Paralympic Mascot for London 2012

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V - The Paralympic Athletes More than a thousand athletes have won more than one medal in the Olympic Games. Due to their physical limitations, these athletes have to make an extra effort to overcome all the obstacles the encounter. And they can!

They achieve this through sheer will, hard work, persistence and courage!

They deserve our respect and admiration!

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VI - The Portugal’s Participation in the Paralympics Portugal first participated in the 1972 Olympics with nine athletes in wheelchairs. It was the only time we did not get any medal. Since 1984, Portugal has participated in all the Paralympic Games in different events, like: athletics, cycling, table tennis, soccer, swimming, basketball, cycling and others. The Portuguese Paralympic athletes have had excellent results, which have been as follows: • 8 Paralympic Games (1972-1984-1988-1992-1996-2000 2004-2008) • 222 athletes • 11 events • 25 gold medals • 29 silver medals • 31 bronze medals

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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES

The Olympics are a major international event wherein thousands of athletes participate. The practice of sport presupposes a physical activity subject to rules, which contributes to the physical, intellectual and psychological well-being of its participants (professionals or amateurs).

Practising sport means not only respecting the rules, meeting colleagues and opponents, being true, and able to tell right from wrong. . It also imprints notions of friendship, loyalty, courage, humility and honesty. Attitudes that promote the unity of nations and a better society! It is fair play in sport! Learning how lose and win! "The most important thing is not to win but to participate." We cannot all be Olympic athletes - but it is very healthy for the body and mind that we practise exercise. 25


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On your marks Get set - Go (Games)

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1. Colour and label the continents on the map. Asia Africa North America South America Europe Oceania

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MINI-OLYMPIC GAMES You have read about the Olympic and Paralympic values. On the acrostic below write your own values using the letters that spell out the word ‘Olympics’.

_______ O_______ _______ L ________ _______ Y________ _______M________ _______ P________ _______ I ________

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_______ C _______

Imagine the next host country would be Portugal. Think of a native animal and draw your mascot. If you need some inspiration go to: http://youtu.be/q1fy6ZmG4YY

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Contents I - The Ancient Greek Olympic....................................................................................................... 4 II – The Modern Olympics ............................................................................................................. 6 III - The motto ................................................................................................................................ 9 IV – The Symbols ......................................................................................................................... 10 V- The medals .............................................................................................................................. 12 The Pierre de Coubertin Medal ............................................................................................... 14 VI - The Sports Events.................................................................................................................. 15 VII - Portugal at the Olympic Games ........................................................................................... 16 VIII - The gold medals .................................................................................................................. 17 The Paralympic Games ................................................................................................................ 19 I - The Origin ............................................................................................................................ 19 II - The Athletes and the Games .............................................................................................. 20 III - The Motto, Anthem and the Symbol ................................................................................ 21 IV - The Torch and Mascot ...................................................................................................... 22 V - The Paralympic Athletes .................................................................................................... 23 VI - The Portugal’s Participation in the Paralympics ............................................................... 24 (Games) ....................................................................................................................................... 27

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olympic games booklet  

olympic games booklet

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