JOURNAL WEEKS 04, 05 & 06 PAULINA PYTKA STUDENT NO.637869
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION GUIDED TOUR: EASTERN PRECINCT STUDENT CENTRE
TITLE BLOCK List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page. • • • • • • •
Contractor Client Project name Drawing title Scale Orientation Drawing no.
Why might this information be important? This information provides a general overview of the project.
DRAWING CONTENT - PLANS What type of information is shown in this floor plan? • • • • •
Walls Openings Context (adjacent structures and existing features) Section references Electrical conduits
Week 04 Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. Annotations refer to specific aspects of the design, relevant to a particular area and are thus indicated by arrows.
Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on this floor plan? What units are used for the dimensions? The dimensions are in millimetres 2500mm corresponds to 2.5m
Illustrate how the locations of sections are identified on the plan. What do these symbols mean? Viewing direction Section name/no. Page reference
Is there a grid? What system is used for identifying the grid lines? Vertically labelled with alphabetical letters Horizontally labelled with numbers Why is some information found in General Notes? This information applies to the whole project and subsequently, all drawings. What is the purpose of the legend? The legend describes the reference symbols
Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean? Drawing No. Page Reference How are windows and doors identified? Provide and example of each. Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings? Doors and windows are numbered numerically, clockwise around the edge. Door labels start with D… and Window labels start with W…
DRAWING CONTENT - PLANS Illustrate how floor levels are noted on the plan? The level number is included in the title on plans Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? Clouds surround areas where changes have been made.
DRAWING CONTENT - ELEVATIONS What type of information is shown in this elevation? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan?
Week 04 Is there a legend? What does it identify and how is it used? A general legend elaborates on the short hand reference labels.
Elevations provide information about vertical heights and the aesthetics of the design Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? Provide an example of the dimensions as they relate to the elevation. More detailed elevations of smaller sections use smaller dimensions What types of levels are shown on the elevations? Illustrate how levels are shown in relation to the elevation.
What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. References are made to the appearance of the faรงade, including materials and their finishes.
Illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations. Door
Are any parts of the elevation clouded? Why? Is there a grid? If so, how / where is it shown? Vertically labelled with alphabetical letters Horizontally labelled with numbers
A cloud surrounds the whole of Section KK, perhaps because an aspect that applies to the entity of the faรงade has been altered. Illustrate where this elevation is located in relation to the plan? A01, A0427
DRAWING CONTENT - SECTIONS What type of information is shown in this section? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan and elevation?
Week 04 Provide examples of how different materials are shown on the sections.
The sections provide information about the interior finishes, insulation and show basements.
Steel frame Plywood Concrete Brickwork
Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the elevation? The dimensions are provided under the same conventions however they provide different details such as that of floor thicknesses and ceiling heights. What types of information on the sections are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. Material finishes of the interior as well as the uses of spaces are denoted.
Find where this section is located on the plans. 02, A0207
Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation (beyond).
Roof that has been cut through Student desk shown in elevation (wood panels)
DRAWING CONTENT - DETAILS What sorts of things are detailed? • Pre-existing components of structure that are to remain • Some crucial choices of materials and their uses are justified by structural engineering • Joining structural components (i.e. anodised black vermon mesh to perimeter of shading device) Are the details compressed using break lines? Why? The use of black lines may prevent the details from being confused with other written information and thus improve legibility of the drawings. Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale.
Timber batten sliding door
Find the locations of these details on the plans, elevations and sections. C, A207
ORMOND COLLEGE CTM DRAWINGS
1. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
FOUNDATIONS AND FOOTINGS The footing plan and schedule drawing conveys a structural system involving both tension and compression. A series of bored piers and strip footings in blinded trenches are shown supporting a reinforced concrete slab. The concrete itself offers resistance to compressive forces while the steel reinforcing bars within it absorb tensile forces. PRIMARY STRUCTURE Horizontally, the primary structure consists of beams and trusses that distribute a load to vertical members. These include columns, which allow the force to safely reach the ground. SECONDARY STRUCTURE The secondary structure includes minor members that connect and support the load bearing abilities of those in the primary structure. For example, battens can be used as vertical supports to a wall while lintels are used horizontally to support the weight of the wall above it.
2. GRAPHC STRUCTURAL DIAGRAMS
FOUNDATIONS AND FOOTINGS
Vertical aluminium beam
PFC frame fixed to slab
Concrete column and beam
3. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Floor • • • • • • •
Carpet tile Stone floor tile Ceramic tile Sealed concrete Timber lining Concrete slab Precast concrete pavers
Walls • • • • • • • • • •
Steel frame Copper cladding Cement rendering on exterior brickwork Metal Panel Spandrel Glass blocks as part of façade Translucent glass for windows Masonry concrete walls Cement sheet for external soffit Plasterboard Plywood particleboard
Roof • Colorbond roofing
4. STRUCTURAL JOINTS Mitred joint The joining of two members at an angle where each is cut at an angle equal to half of the angle of junction.
Butt joint The square fitting of two members whose contact surfaces have been cut at right angles to the faces of the pieces.
Â Caulked joint The joining of a pipe with hub and spigot ends whereby the spigot end of one is placed inside the hub end of another, then a rope is packed into the annular space around the spigot before molten lead is poured over it. Additional lead is poured into the joint with a caulking iron.
5. STRUCTURAL FIXINGS Weld Structural fixing that joins metals or thermoplastics through coalescence, which involves melting the materials at their joining and allowing it to cool. Welding is generally used in the making of shear-resisting steel connections and rigid connections. Some examples include welding flanges to a girder of beam, connecting stiffener plates or a shear tab to a column and welded web stiffeners. Concrete Concrete fixings are rigid joints, generally precast and involve grouting or high-density plastic bearing strips at their connections for support bearing compressive forces. In precast slabs, grout voids of hollow core units are used at the ends of members to tie them into concrete masonry support. Additionally, precast concrete members can be connected to site cast concrete toppings when through reinforcing bars when they protrude upwards from the underlying member. In precast structural tees, the ends of connecting concrete members rest the edges of the inverted tee beams with a separating synthetic rubber bearing bad. They are further secured through steel plates welded to their angles as in the case of precast beams. Bolt Bolted fixings are pinned joints that allow rotation but resist translation in any direction. Bolts can be used instead of welding in seated connections and framed connections in steel beam connections. Screw A screw joint uses threads on the ends of two pipes to draw the two pieces together and form a pinned joint. Nail A nail is a straight, small, rigid, slender shaft of metal, one end of which is usually pointed; the other end has a head that may be driven with a hammer; usually used as a fastener to join separate pieces of wood. Nails may become loose once the materials they connect expand and shrink over time
6. SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS Carbon footprint The design is mainly composed of steel, concrete and glass. 1.8 tonnes of CO2 are produced per tonne of steel 150kg of CO2 are produced per tonne of concrete 185kg of CO2 are produced per tonne of glass However, these materials are not used in the same ratio across the design. Embodied energy Steel: 19.8 MJ/kg Concrete: 1.11 MJ/kg Glass block: 142.5 MJ/sf
Recyclability Steel can be recycled without losing its properties or reducing performance. Almost 100% of concrete can be recycled.
7. ECONOMICAL IMPLICATIONS OF DECISIONS
• The design decision to achieve the effect of copper cladding was a costly one and has subsequently been strategically and sparingly applied. • The desire for a complete glass facade may have been unattainable for the span or height of the building as well as very expensive if customized glass sheets were to be made. As a result, cheaper, glass blocks were used however; they produce a significantly different aesthetic to that of thin, translucent glass panels. • In using glass blocks, a timber frame would not have withstood the load of these; hence a steel frame was selected. Steel is widely used in framework, second to timber, and although it is more expensive, it is more durable and can support greater loads. • The use of cement sheets for walls as opposed to masonry would have been cheaper as they are manufactured on a production like. Thus, the installation costs would have been reduced. • The choice of a Colorbond roof may have been influenced by a desire for a modern appeal. This material is more expensive than shingles for example, however, being coated in alloys and plastics to improve durability, it may be more cost effective in the long term. • Some walls are prefabricated concrete while others were made in situ, the later being more expensive, however, tis technique may have been employed in making intricate shapes that could not be accurately measured for prefabrication offsite.
ORMOND COLLEGE CTM MODEL
Top and bottom plates
Welded metal frame
Colorbond steel roof
REFERENCES Ching, F 2008, Building Construction Illustrated, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada Harris, C 2006, Dictionary of Architecture and Construction, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., USA. Tata Steel 2013, Colorcoat-online, N/A viewed 9 September 2013 <http://www.colorcoat-online.com/en/technical/functional_design/buliding_structure>. Williams Boag Architects 2005, Ormond College Centre for Theology and Ministry/Joint Theological Library Drawings, Melbourne. Wikipedia 2013, Wikipedia, N/A viewed 9 September 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure>.