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MMM BUSINESS MEDIA - SPECIAL EDITION OF FLEET EUROPE - May 2011 - Deposit office Luxembourg-Gare

LCV operations with geographical input across Europe

MANUFACTURERS Innovation in product & services

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NILFISK-ADVANCE When LCV Management englobes driver competition

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PANEL VANS Tailor-made solutions for professionals

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EDITORIAL

Edito

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The technological evolution continues There’s a lot going on in the LCV market. The revival of the global economy has led to a natural increase in LCV sales on an international level. Sales that in the future will be increasingly green. Not only is there the European directive that requires manufacturers to reduce the CO2 emissions of their range to a maximum of 175 g/km by 2017, but companies are also keen to purchase delivery vans with low CO2 emissions and to implement a certain downsizing. What’s more, many companies are carefully monitoring the introduction of the first electric vans. In this issue of Van Europe you can read how some fleet-owners are organising their fleet policy, in respect of basic issues such as cost management, safety, green technology and integrated telematics. There is no doubt that sustainability and telematics are playing an increasingly prominent role in professional mobility. In order to provide you today with relevant answers to the technological challenges of tomorrow, we invite you to come to the first Fleet Europe Technology & New Powertrains Event, that will take place on 7 June 2011 in Brussels (Belgium). Go to http://www.fleeteurope.com/newpowertrain/ to see the programme and to register. See you there!

CONTENTS

VAN Europe

“To provide you today with relevant answers to the technological challenges of tomorrow, we invite you to the Fleet Europe Technology & New Powertrains Event.” Steven Schoefs Chief Editor

MANAGEMENT

MARKET

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LCV Market: sales is getting back on track

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Manufacturers: innovation in product & services

LCV Bodywork: lack of harmonisation because of too few pragmatists

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18 Ericsson: being mobile with dry & wet vans

Panels vans: partners for the real professionals

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Nilfisk-Advance: respect for country differences

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Engine downsizing: reducing CO2 through fewer cc’s

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Emerging markets: different LCV design but same pricing

EDITORIAL TEAM Editor in chief: Steven Schoefs (sschoefs@mmm.be) Team: Julie Widart (Final Editor), Tim Harrup, Stijn Phlix Experts: Professor Peter Cooke (University of Buckingham), Vincent Rupied (Leaseurope & CVO), Bart Vanham (Fleet&DriverCare)

SALES & MARKETING TEAM Sales Director: Marleen Neukermans (mneukermans@mmm.be) Key Account Manager: David Baudeweyns (dbaudeweyns@mmm.be) Sales assistants: Patricia Lavergne (plavergne@mmm.be), Romina De Gregorio (rdegregorio@mmm.be)

Marketing: Kathleen Hubert (khubert@mmm.be) PRODUCTION Head: Sonia Counet EDITOR Developement Director: Caroline Thonnon Managing Director: Thierry Degives Editor/CEO: Jean-Marie Becker © Reproduction rights (texts, advertisements, pictures) reserved for all countries. Received documents will not be returned. By submitting them, the author implicitly authorizes their publication.

MMM BUSINESS MEDIA sa/nv Complexe Arrobas Parc Artisanal 11-13 4671 BLEGNY-Barchon (Belgium) Phone: 00 32 (0)4 387 87 87 Fax: 00 32 (0)4 387 90 87 info@mmm.be www.mmm-businessmedia.com


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VAN Europe

News

Elektro-Caddy makes debut in Hanover Volkswagen Nutzfahrzeuge (utility vehicles), the city of Hanover (capital city of Lower Saxony) and the Stadtwerke Hannover AG, Enercity, Hannoverimpuls (the economic development company for Hanover and its region), exhibition and fair organising company Deutsche Messe AG, along with construction and housing company Gesellschaft für Bauen und Wohnen Hannover (GBH), The charging points necessary for this project will be are beginning a collaboration with a installed and supplied with green electricity obtained view to sustainably developing the from renewable sources by the enercity company. use of light utility vehicles which do not emit any CO2. The method they have chosen is to test together, over a period of two years, the electric version of the Volkswagen Caddy in the Hanover region. The Elektro-Caddy, which has a range of 110 km, a load volume of 4.2 m³ and I 500 kg, is a vehicle which can be used on a daily basis with no restrictions.

Daimler and Bosch to establish joint venture for electric motors

Netherlands subsidises green vans

According to their letter of intent, joint production should start in 2012.

The scheme will run from July 1st up until and including December 30th.

German car manufacturer Daimler and automotive & technology specialist Bosch plan to cooperate in the development and production of electric motors for all-electric vehicles in Europe. The companies have signed a letter of intent and begun negotiations to establish a new 50:50 joint venture. Both companies aim, by bundling their competencies, to accelerate development advances in electric motors as well as to make accordant synergies accessible. It is envisioned that the electric motors developed will be used in Mercedes-Benz and smart electric I vehicles from 2012.

Mr Schultz van Haegen, the Dutch minister for the Environment, has allocated 2,6 million euros to subsidise green company vans. Commercial companies, water authorities and research institutes that acquire a company vehicle running on ‘green’ gas, biogas, or higher blends of biofuel, are eligible for the subsidy. The grant must be requested in advance, and only applies for at least three new cars or vans per request. The grant will amount to 3,000 euros, with a maximum of 100,000 euros per project. I

G4S launches a first electric vehicle for carrying cash G4S Cash Solutions, active in the transport of cash and in protection, is to operate, in London, the first electric vehicle in the world to be used for the carrying of valuables. The vehicle’s battery will be recharged while it is driving via solar panels. The use of electricity makes these vehicles 7 times more economic than traditional transport. The Dutch branch of G4S has also expressed its interest in I a vehicle of this type.

Longer stowage drawers from Modul-System Modul-System, manufacturer of modular racking systems for service vehicles with more than 35 years of experience, is to offer a solution to provide extra storage space in vans. The company’s new extendable drawer system is designed to help van, pick-up and passenger car operators carry heavier and bulkier loads. The new extra-long drawers are compatible with the full range of systems from Modul-System. High strength steel and aluminium are used in the construction of this equipment. Drawers can hold up to 80 kg and are fitted with a safety catch device to prevent them from closing when they are fully opened and in use. They have been developed in consultation with end users, and have undergone testing including crash-testing. I The new system was launched at the recent Commercial Vehicle Show in Birmingham in the UK.


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VAN Europe

Management

LCV Market

Sales is getting back on track The rules of the game in the cyclical utility vehicle business are well-known: with an expanding economy the flow of goods increases, which in turn - over the medium term - lifts vehicle sales. Current developments on the van market are reflecting this picture. fter the massive slump in 2009, the European panel van market finds itself back on a growth trajectory. In the range up to 3.5 tonnes total weight, sales figures in Europe (EU27 plus Norway and Switzerland) grew by almost 9% in 2010. In absolute figures, nearly 1.42 million new vehicles were sold in 2009, around 1.54 million in 2010. Of course, this is still a long way from overcoming the more than 30% collapse in the

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2008/2009 annual comparison: 2.04 million units had been sold in 2008. However, the trend at the beginning of 2011 supports the view that the recovery will continue. Nearly 250,000 new car registrations in January and February represent a more than 14% increase over the same period last year. The volume markets demonstrate the greatest increases: Great Britain (+37.9%), Germany (+33.2%) and France (+11.1%).

The state of the LCV market is one of the most accurate barometers for the health of countries’ local business.

Russia on track The crisis also appears to have been gradually overcome in the increasingly important „neighbour market" of Russia. After the sale of light utility vehicles (2.8 to 6.0 tonnes of total weight; compared to Western Europe, small panel vans are virtually insignificant) dropped by 44% in the 2008/2009 annual comparison, 2010 then saw a 32% rebound. That means 138,900 new vehicles sold in 2010 compared to 105,500 in 2009. However, almost 70% of the market is in domestic hands: in 2010, Russian producers GAZ and Sollers (with the make UAZ) accounted for around 71,100 and 24,300 vehicles, respectively. Western manufacturers are hoping for some relief on that front thanks to Russia's impending entry into the WTO (World Trade Organization), and otherwise is relying on co-operations on Russian territory. A prime example is the planned make-to-order production of Mercedes vans by GAZ.

Upward curve

LCV production on the move to China According to the international organization of motor vehicle manufacturers (OICA), nearly two million light utility vehicles rolled off the assembly lines in China in 2010, almost exactly the same number of units as in Western and Eastern Europe together. The niches for European panel van makes are thin on the ground, situated primarily in the interface with light trucks (where the Iveco Daily has found its well-deserved success) as well as for station wagons and minibuses. As the leading manufacturer, Mercedes-Benz, has started its own panel van production on site: the approximately 11,000 Mercedes vans built in 2010 in Fuzhou will be followed by around 19,000 in 2011. While the European manufacturers’ core markets will thus continue to be located in the EU, a certain change can be expected over the medium term. Daimler, for example, is striving to shift the ratio between intraand non-European sales figures from the current 70:30 to 50:50.

In the enormous utility vehicle markets in China (see boxed text) and India, where sales figure records are broken year after year, European van producers also face a tough challenge compared to the dominant local manufacturers. The situation looks substantially more positive in Latin America, where Western European marks – in the volume markets of Argentina, Mexico and Brazil, among others – enjoy a very powerful presence. Moreover, van sales in Latin America in 2010 showed the strongest development worldwide with + 41%. Although the 9% gains in the USA and Canada may look rather modest in comparison, the curve is nevertheless pointing upwards around the globe. Ralf Becker I


Industry

VAN Europe

LCV Manufacturers’ Strategy 2011

Tailor made mobility is key Manufacturers are not only developing their product offering in order to meet the needs of users, but also adding extra tailor-made services to provide mobility solutions while respecting the notion of sustainable development.

Opel - Vauxhall I Product Strategy 2010 was a busy year for Opel/Vauxhall Commercial Vehicles with the launch of the all New Movano. 2011 is the first year where the full range of models is available, with Combi and L1 panel vans completing the line-up, which spans from 8 – 22m3 and including front and rear wheel drive vans, passenger carriers, platform, chassis and crew cabs as well as a comprehensive range of factory-sourced specialist bodies such as Dropside, Tipper and Box bodies. Towards the end of the year, Vivaro will receive updated powertrains. I International Organization Opel/Vauxhall has a specialized Commercial Vehicle dealer network with a total of 2,000 distributor sites across Europe. The Repairer network coverage in Europe of close to 500 sites. Opel/Vauxhall has several agreements at European and Global Level with international fleet clients where both passenger cars and LCVs are featured as Opel/Vauxhall focuses on covering all mobility and transportation needs. I Sustainability The next three years will see the expansion of Opel/Vauxhall’s ecoFLEX models into the CV market, with the introduction of fuel saving technology such as start/stop, low rolling resistance tyres, aerodynamic kits etc., with further improvements to come as the Euro 6 emissions standard approaches. I Opel’s advice for international fleet managers by Ian Hucker, Director - European Fleet, Remarketing & Used Vehicle Operations “Opel/Vauxhall as part of General Motors is one of the few OEM’s that can offer Pan-European and Global support and supply for its customers. Another of our advantages is that we own and work closely with all local Opel/Vauxhall subsidiaries in the European Countries.”

Peugeot I Product Strategy Having recently launched a number of new models, Peugeot van range is in the strongest position ever to cover all market segments and customer needs. In 2011 Peugeot will launch the pending LCV range of Euro5 engines (Bipper, Partner, Expert, Boxer) from June 2011. Peugeot will also have an all automatic gearbox on the Peugeot Exper. Also, e-HDI Stop and Start technology has been launched on the Peugeot Expert, and will be cascaded onto other models. And last but not least Peugeot is currently developing sales on Peugeot Partner full Electric. I International Organization Peugeot works with a team of qualified and experimented B2B experts which is the single point of contact in Peugeot for international customers everywhere in the world. Peugeot has signed over 200 international Fleet agreements in 2010 with large B2B International customers. I Sustainability Peugeot has been engaged for many years in developing vehicles and services as widely as possible allowing customers to lower their carbon footprint. Peugeot’s answer is not one technology; the answer depends on the needs of the customer. The 100% electric car iOn for major cities, on industrial sites the electric Partner Venturi, for sales forces and long distances there is diesel hybrid technology, and for all customers Peugeot provides new technologies: E-Hdi (Stop and Start) and lower CO2 emissions (Euro-5 engines). I Peugeot’s advice for international fleet managers by Pierre Garnier, Director Peugeot Professional International “Don’t think only about vehicles but think about the whole full service answer. Even if the answer to the daily technical need is important, the mobility of your teams and the services are also vital. You have to find an OEM partner, which is able to provide this full service offer wherever you are.”

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VAN Europe

Industry

Renault I Product Strategy The current launch of the complete range of the new Master will reinforce Renault’s leadership in Europe on the LCV market up to 3.5 tons. 2011 will be the first launch year of electric models of which one dedicated to LCV customers. Renault Kangoo Z.E. is intended primarily for fleet and business use. Ownership of the vehicle will be separate to that of the battery. Customers will be able to purchase or lease their ZE van and take out a subscription for the battery. Renault will also propose a long version of Kangoo ZE : Kangoo Maxi ZE. I International Organization The Renault LCV fleet structure is suited to serving large international clients with 8 International Key Accounts Managers, over 100 national Key Account Managers and dedicated Fleet teams in the Renault network at a local level. Renault’s International Global Offer Coordination secures effective implementation of the single international corporate car policy, thereby contributing to reducing overall Total Cost of Ownership. I Sustainability Innovation to reduce the environmental impact of vehicles is part of the objectives of the plan Renault 2016 – Drive The Change. This is founded on Renault’s ambition to make sustainable mobility accessible to all, expressed in the brand tagline, “Drive the Change”. With its partner Nissan, Renault aims to become the leader in zero-emission mobility, namely the first automaker to sell a complete range of electric passenger cars and light commercial vehicles at an affordable price. This year will see the launch of Fluence Z.E., Kangoo Z.E. and Twizy, followed by ZOE in 2012. I Renault’s advice for international fleet managers by Robert Boscari, Director, Fleet Sales & Marketing - Corporate Sales Division “Finding just the right company to manage the corporate fleet can be a challenge. • To select a structure allowing the customer to be fully supported in their own international development. • To select vehicle range highly competitive in terms of price, total cost of ownership and CO2 emissions. • Quality and safety items have to be taken into consideration in the car brands selection.”

Fiat I Product Strategy Fiat Professional obtained the best results ever in terms of market share in 2010: 12.8% in Europe (EU27+EFTA) with a particularly good performance in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, the UK and Spain. For 2011 Fiat plans to reinforce its position and increase market share, targeting 13% in Europe. Among their models, the company expects growth with the new Doblò Cargo. 2011 will see the launch of the New Ducato with a complete new range of Euro 5 engines, new interiors and improved features. I International Organization Fiat professional has based its strategy on customer relationships through its presence in 19 countries with specialized structures and dedicated resources. Fiat is also creating a team of International Key Accounts specialists for light commercial vehicles dedicated to international companies. In addition to teams in every individual market, FGA is offering one of the most substantial customer relationship channels, the Customer Services Centre, employing more than 400 people and serving 23 European countries; starting in 2011 they will launch a dedicated fleet customer service. I Sustainability FGA investments have focused on the reduction of the TCO, including the reduction of fuel consumption and service and maintenance costs. In addition, the group has strongly invested and developed in CNG fueled engines, an available alternative to traditional fuels. For example in the case of the Ducato E5 the new 2.0 115 hp engine provides in average 15% fuel savings compared to previous versions. Fiat Group has also developed eco:Drive, a software programme that helps drivers to consume less fuel, reduce CO2 emissions and save money. I Fiat’s advice for international fleet managers by Flavio Castelli, Marketing Director of Fiat Professional “Check if the product range of the LCV brand suits the needs and if this brand has the vehicles and the expertise to offer specific solutions. Check if the LCV brand offers hybrid models, e.g. vehicles powered with natural gas. Check if the CO² and consumption level of the diesel engines are in line or are better than the competition. Check if the European service network of the LCV brand is well developed.”


Industry

VAN Europe

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Citroën I Product Strategy Since 2009 Citroën has been one of the top 3 brands in Europe in LCV sales. The objective is to remain on the podium. In 2010, Citroën sold 175,000 LCVs, which represents a growth of over 6% compared with 2009 when 165,000 were sold. For 2011, Citroën plans to at least, maintain this same growth rate. Citroën plans to increase its presence in all markets, with a specific focus on France (the first LCV market for the brand) and Germany. In addition, Citroën plans to retain leadership positions in Spain and Belgium. Another important market is Russia where Citroën is launching B2B and LCV sales teams and in China where the company is developing an LCV plan with a second joint venture partner (PSA - CHANGAN: subject to final approval by ‘relevant authorities'). In 2011, Citroën is launching several new models, like the Citroën Berlingo First Electric, Citroën C4 LCV versions, Nemo EGS, Berlingo EGS6 and e-HDi as well as the complete Euro 5 range. I Sustainability The strategy is to offer multiple solutions to environmental challenges facing the planet. Citroën has already begun to develop green technology, such as e-HDi micro-Hybrid technology. On top of this, Electric vehicles are a reality at Citroën with the launch of the Citroën Berlingo First Electric and C-ZERO in 2010. The company has sold 2000 units since the launch. I Citroën’s advice for international fleet managers by David Staniforth, Director of Citroën Business International “Choose a partner for the long term with appealing state of the art technology, exciting products and a global presence. Your fleet partner must be able to meet your fleet needs, now and tomorrow.”

Julie Widart & Steven Schoefs I

What will be the next big thing in your LCV Business? Ian Hucker, Opel/Vauxhall : “CO2 legislation and Electrification of LCVs will have more and more coverage in the next period.”

Flavio Castelli, Fiat: "Our commitment is to continue to reduce CO2 and polluting emissions for light commercial vehicles too, working on the introduction and development of a portfolio of technology solutions, to increase recoverability, recyclability and reusability and to improve product safety." Robert Boscari, Renault : “Mobility offers and sustainable development policies adapted to fleet customers requirements based on TCO reduction are the main key business values for the international fleet business. Renault, with the launch of the zero emission vehicles, will play an important role with LCV fleet customers in their desire to reduce costs, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.” David Staniforth, Citroën : “Citroën believes that the future will revolve around flexible mobility solutions, including a combination of state of the art combustion engine vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and full electric vehicles.”

Pierre Garnier, Peugeot : “The next big thing will be probably the green policy to comply with coming CO2-emission standards for LCVs, following the new EU-regulation with an objective of 175g in 2017. 70% of the objectives must have been achieved for 2014. This means new technology development (Stop & Start, Hybrid, full electric vehicles) and new services (Eco-driving, LCV telematic tools…).”


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VAN Europe

Management

Fleet-owner, Ericsson

Being mobile with dry & wet vans Ericsson is in the process of reorganising its vehicle fleet operations across the world. Within this context, we asked Serge Ruytjens, Fleet Manager Western and Central Europe, to give us an insight into the thinking behind the LCV fleet. Segmentation is the key element. here are four new regional groupings for the purposes of organising the vehicle fleet within Ericsson: Western & Central Europe, Latin America, North America and the Mediterranean. This structure was established at the beginning of the spring, and Serge Ruytjens’ strategy for the Ericsson vehicle fleets will now be implemented globally by the company.

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I Ericsson is a worldwide company. How is it developing outside of your area, and how are you organising the fleets?

Serge Ruytjens: “I am very happy to say that other parts of the world are also developing rapidly. Russia is growing very fast, and in Africa we expect to quadruple volumes over the next five years – not just our van fleet but our business too! In general organisation terms for our fleets, from twenty three market units which is how it was orga-nised before, we have restructured down to ten larger regions. My territory includes three market units. These are the UK and Ireland, Western Europe, and then Central Europe from Poland to Croatia.”

Ericsson has developped an innovative fleet strategy in Western and Central Europe.

I Do you have different types of vans in your fleet? Serge Ruytjens: “During a recent workshop on this subject, we decided to work on a certain segmentation. This depends on the type of activity to be carried out by the technicians. We also look at prevailing weather conditions, whether it is dry, or very rainy… maybe there is a lot of ice. And then we have to take into account whether the landscape is mountainous, or rural. The different types are the small LCV’s of course, and here we are concentrating on the Volkswagen Caddy at the moment, but there are also opportunities for other brands. Then there are the large LCV’s which are predominantly for transporting goods, but sometimes used for transporting people too. These are vehicles such as the Volkswagen Crafter, the Citroën Jumpy, the Renault Trafic… Alongside these two types of LCV, there is a significant pre-sence of 4-wheel drive vehicles, which are also necessary because of certain weather conditions. Normal 4-wheel drives and pick-ups represent one segment. Around one third of our pick-ups are operational in the UK, the highest single concentration. This is because not only is the UK a rainy country, but our technicians need to service electricity pylons which are often in the middle of fields, and they have to get there and get back. We also use these vehicles in the USA, because they have to pull generators and things like that. The fourth segment is what we refer to as MPV’s, and these are also found in our ‘benefit company car’ list. These are vehicles such as the Skoda Octavia, Opel Astra, Ford Mondeo, but always in ‘break’ version. These are for technicians who need to carry small equipment but no heavy weights.”


Management

I For drivers using this last category, presumably these are their everyday cars, but what about vans, do these have to be left at the company premises at night? Serge Ruytjens: “Yes, every night. And our vehicles are on the road every day. Drivers are not allowed to take the vans home at night, because otherwise this would have an impact on taxes and contributions.”

I How do you identify the criteria for vehicles for ‘wet’ or ‘dry’ countries? Serge Ruytjens: “We are currently working on a grid file which will include every possible type of situation. We are taking into account not only the terrain and weather conditions I have already mentioned, but also health and safety regulations in every country. Safety is a very important consideration for Ericsson, we want our people to take to the road in the best possible conditions. Something we are now doing with our new vans is to fit them so that there is storage space to contain all of their equipment, making it easier to work and ensuring that there is some order within the vehicle. But I should point out in terms of van types, that in many cases the same vehicles can be found in different types of countries. For example, it may not be as wet in Spain as it is in the UK, but sometimes our Spanish operators need to pull generators, and this cannot be done with a small LCV – so here too you will find some bigger 4-wheel drive trucks.”

I Do you use different types of tyres? Serge Ruytjens: “In general, and especially for the 4-wheel drives, we use allweather tyres. These are suitable for winter and summer, for wet and dry conditions, in fact for all circumstances.”

I Do the drivers have any say in what type of vehicles you select? Serge Ruytjens: “Yes, absolutely, the drivers and also the unions. When we are deciding on vehicle types, we establish a short list of two or three types of vehicle per segment, taking all the elements I have mentioned into account. We discuss this with the unions once we have a first proposal, and if necessary, if they have something extra they want

included, we will certainly take this into account. If their requests are well-founded and financially feasible, we will go and see whether we can modify our proposal.” Your company works in the electrics field. Have you thought about electric vans? Serge Ruytjens: “Well here, we have decided at the moment not to integrate electric vans. I should say that we have tried hybrid cars, but we don’t have a particularly good experience with them, and here I am talking purely about cost. I made a cost study comparing hybrid cars in our fleet with traditional cars falling in the same segment, and the costs turned out to be much higher for hybrids. So this has somewhat put us off electric vehicles, and we will wait and see how the market evolves over the next four or five years. We no longer wish to bear the cost of being a pioneer. From a practical point of view, the limited range offered by current batteries in electric vehicles means that our technicians would not be able to carry out their work efficiently. They are not yet suitable for our type of activity.”

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You have mentioned cost – do you measure the TCO of the van fleet separately from cars? Serge Ruytjens: “Yes, we really make a distinction between benefit and service vehicles. For one thing, there are completely different VAT regulations, completely different CO2 tax regimes and so on. We see these fleets as two different things, and so it is a totally separate approach. We use the same leasing companies for both in some cases, however. Some of the major leasing companies have different departments for the two types of fleets, but although this might be convenient for us in certain circumstances, it isn’t an absolute requirement. Turning to brands, when we have optimised our lists for benefit cars, we will try to go in the same direction for vans, where this is possible.”

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Tim Harrup I

The Western and Central Europe UV fleet Estate cars: Small LCV’s: Large LCV’s: 4-wheel drives:

1,820 1,650 150 900

About Ericsson Ericsson was founded in 1876 in Sweden, and in 2001 it created a joint-venture with the Japanese manufacturer Sony, active in the communications field, with well-known products including televisions and mobile telephones under the ‘Sony-Ericsson’ name. Ericsson employs over 75,000 across the world. Turnover in 2010 increased by 0.2% on 2009 despite the continuing consumer confidence crisis, to just over 200 billion Swedish Kroner, or around 22.5 billion Euros. Serge Ruytjens, Fleet Manager Western and Central Europe.


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VAN Europe

Management

Fleet-owner, Nilfisk-Advance

Respect for country differences Today Nilfisk-Advance operates worldwide with Sales Entities in 43 countries, distributors in more than 70 – and Production Units in Asia, Americas and Europe. Nilfisk-Advance has 5,000 employees. Worldwide, Nilfisk-Advance manages a fleet of 1.500 vehicles of which roughly 1/3 is in LCV’s. Category Manager Søren Danig, based in Denmark, explained some of the elements which make up the company’s successful fleet policy for vans.

Nilfisk-Advance employs 5,000 people globally and markets hundreds of different models of professional floor cleaning equipment and high pressure washers through its international network.

amous for cleaning equipment and services, Nilfisk-Advance clearly has a need for utility vehicles in its operations, and these are spread across Europe.

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How do you manage the fleet? How do the countries report to the head office? Søren Danig: “The fleet is managed locally based on a group vehicles policy specifying the framework and the different elements of operation. The definition of company vehicle related matters is a joint responsibility between Group Human Resources and Group Sourcing. All vehicles are leased from approved suppliers on a fixed interest

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rate contract. If suppliers other than approved suppliers are requested, such requests need written approval from Group Sourcing. As is also the case for company cars, vans will be selected from approved models and TCO limits within the individual countries’ ‘Car Policy Parameters’ file. Based on quotes from the leasing companies on the companies predefined “Standard Vehicles” and HR car policy intelligence reports a maximum TCO limit has been specified taking fuel cost, insurance etc. into consideration.” What are you relationships with your suppliers?

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Søren Danig: “Nilfisk-Advance has a dual supplier set-up with two international leasing companies, LeasePlan and ALD and/or local suppliers in some strong local markets. The next step within the development of the fleet area may be to look at OEM agreements, and we are already having initial talks with manufacturers. In addition to the above, in Germany and UK we use fleet management companies.” Is there a green aspect to the fleet, and if so, please what you have done to make it green? Søren Danig: “We are pushing on the ‘green’ aspect, but at the moment this mostly involves personal vehicles.

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Management

As part of our awareness campaign in this area, in December 2010 we had a Drive Smart campaign where drivers worldwide participated in a 4 week measurement of their fuel consumption. I would add, however, that all new vans (along with all new cars) already have to comply with Euro-5 emission norms, and this will evolve to become Euro-6.” Tell us a little bit more about the ‘Drive Smart’ competition. Søren Danig: “We gave away iPads as prizes, some in a lottery, but two in particular to drivers who achieved the best results over the period of the competition. Before the competition, we advised drivers how to achieve the best results. We recommended keeping tyres well inflated, which can save 2% in fuel as well as increasing tyre life, and driving smoothly, avoiding sharp acceleration and braking. We also advised changing gear at lower revs, removing unnecessary weight from the vehicle, planning the route ahead of time, and switching off equipment such as air conditioning – and even the engine – when these were not required.”

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What is your relationship with your drivers, do you measure individual performance, do you give eco-training etc..? Søren Danig: “This is locally based. We always look at the various differences that exist in fleet practices from one country to another, and it is therefore

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they are following the fuel consumption closely.” Do your van drivers take their vehicles home with them at night or do they have to leave them at company premises? Søren Danig: “This depends on the country in question, but mainly they take them home with them. This means that they also use them for transport to and from different workplaces, but not for other personal use. This also depends to some degree on the different tax regimes and other regulations in different countries. In our home country of Denmark, for example, drivers cannot use the vans for private purposes of any kind, otherwise they would be taxed for use of a company car. But there are some countries where they may be allowed to use the van for purposes such as picking up their children from the day-care centre.” I

You measure the TCO of your vans. How does the fitting out of the cargo space come into this? Søren Danig: “The cost of the vans is calculated without the cargo space fitout. This is considered to be a separate investment from the investment in the vehicle itself. This differs slightly from the calculation for cars, in that the towbar fitted to some passenger cars forms part of the monthly budget allocation. Staying with extra equipment, in no circumstances do we allow the tuning of engines, or the fitting of radar detectors. Mandatory extra equipment in vehi-

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“In December 2010 we had a Drive Smart campaign where drivers worldwide participated in a 4 week measurement of their fuel consumption.” reasonable to expect that the way in which each country interacts with its drivers will not be the same. With the introduction of the NilfiskAdvance Car policy we have increased the transparency in our different cost elements, this also brings more local focus on the individual drivers’ performance and in the major countries

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VAN Europe

cles where this is not standard, includes winter tyres where applicable, a mobile phone kit and air conditioning. Mobile phone use has to be in line with local regulations.” Tim Harrup I

Søeren Danig, Category Manager at Nilfisk-Advance.

History of Nilfisk-Advance The founder of Nilfisk-Advance P.A.Fisker was trained as an electrical engineer and loved electrical motors. He founded his company in 1906 and started to produce motors to drive coffee grinders, machine tools, fans and drills. P.A. Fisker´s vision was from the beginning to have an international company selling goods to the whole world. The real break through came when he invented a ground breaking vacuum cleaner weighing only 17,5 kilos which could be operated by only one person! In a time where other cleaning machines were huge and needing 4 or more operators, the Nilfisk C1 was a revolution.

The van fleet in Europe Austria Belgium Czech Rep. France Germany Holland Hungary Italy Poland Portugal Scandinavia Spain Switzerland UK

7 15 12 55 100 20 10 8 3 8 62 25 8 44


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VAN Europe

Market

LCV Bodywork

Lack of harmonisation because of too few pragmatists With Directive 2007/46 the European Union aims to harmonise the type testing rules. What manufacturers and body-builders want most is less bureaucracy. Technology works without the EU, too. ne of the magic words much used over the past few years in the automotive sector, including the commercial sector, is the expression “One-Stop-Shopping“. Carrier vehicle, structure and accessories come directly from the dealer, with a single invoice covering all the items. It only works, however, as long as the bodywork is either technically not too complicated or demanded in sufficient quantities by

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craftspeople or medium-sized service providers.

Level of integration Virtually all suppliers had a simple and easily adaptable flatbed body in their ex-works price lists. Even the three-sided tipper on the transporter chassis presents a minor challenge. Iveco was the only real lorry professional to succeed in offering its Daily as a tipper model

Whether it’s on a staking truck, a wheel loader or a flower lorry: the more complicated it is to connect the bodywork to the carrier vehicle, the more bureaucracy is involved in type testing.

as well, right from the start. A ladder chassis similar to a lorry and power takeoff possibilities on the transmission facilitated the adaptation of hydraulic functions in a highly professional manner. For manufacturers who are blessed with neither robust lorry chassis made of steel profiles nor on-board hydraulic connections – and apart from Iveco (on the Daily) and a few light trucks from the Far East (Renault Maxity, Nissan Cabstar) that means virtually all of them – things are not so easy. On such vehicles, hydraulic equipment functions only via an electrically driven pump: this has to be fitted in somewhere beneath or on the chassis, along with the oil tank and electrical connections. This structure requires more powerful batteries. Insulated bodies for refrigerated and chilled transport units require a considerably higher level of integration. For the electrical and electronic connection to the basic vehicle it is fairly irrelevant whether additions are made to a finished panel van or whether a chassis is fitted with an insulated box body. While top manufacturers such as Mercedes, Volkswagen, or even PSA and Renault already take care to prepare special “transfer points“, at least for the relatively simple light functions, connection to the ever more widely used Can Bus systems proves somewhat more difficult. The data from the "Controller Area Network" (CAN) are very practical, when it is a matter of providing for more complex functions such as central locking, door control or air conditioning in the bodywork. Mercedes responded here with the new version of the Sprinter and introduced the first “parameterable“ special module (albeit only as an optional extra). This unwieldy expression refers to a compact box that is usually placed under


Market

VAN Europe

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3 Questions to... Cord Wahlers, Schutz Nerve-racking bodywork the driver’s seat where it is easily accessible. It gives the body-builder access to one of up to three independent Can Bus systems (engine, comfort, accessories). The prerequisite for this is that the manufacturer releases the bus protocols, which are often defined in house, for the body-builder. And some commercial vehicle constructors have a problem here. This is a sensitive area, which the bodybuilders are only slowly winning over.

One-stop-shopping problem Complete vehicles, which can be made available through the one-stopshopping trade, are therefore currently only equipped with straightforward technology. Customers who purchase a complete vehicle also want to have the servicing and repair work for the upgrade taken care of with their dealer, or with a reliable contractual partner in the vicinity. Companies such as Peugeot, for instance, have greatly expanded their range of complete vehicles in the past couple of years. However, this had to be accompanied by the guarantee of prompt repairs, Saturday service in the workshop and the offer to provide a courtesy vehicle. This professionalisation is not easy for the service support points, as scarcely any dealers have more than one tipper, cooler or box on the forecourt. And they are not at all able to provide courtesy vehicles. So virtually everything is technically feasible. The only question is, what about the quality? Let us take the example of the box body. Owing to the disastrous EU regulations on drivers‘ licences, it is well known that holders of driving licences for vehicles between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes are gradually dying out, and with them the “heavy“ haulier segment. The reaction is for vehicle constructors to focus on vans with a maximum total

Cord Wahlers is Sales Director at the German vehicle manufacturer and body-builder Schutz in Kirchlinteln. weight of 3.5 tonnes. Any member of staff can drive them, but their load capacity is limited: a maximum of 1.5 tonnes for normal panel vans is confronted with load capacities of just 800 kilos with a tipper with steel bridges. This dilemma sometimes leads to nothing less than festivals of lightweight construction. Here lightweight boxes are put together which have difficulty in coping with possible distortions from the chassis. But the manufacturer’s chassis should also be particularly light, which is very often to the detriment of the general robustness. The consequences of this are lightweight vehicles that no longer bear any relation to the robustness of a 5- or 6-tonner and respond with corresponding sensitivity to overloading, torsion and vibration. Constructors can deal with many of these disadvantages by using modern and high-quality materials but the effort for so little load capacity is huge. The impression remains that the coperation between body-builders and vehicle manufacturers is improving more and more, even without harmonising regulations. On the other hand, Cord Wahlers, representing his colleagues in the bodybuilding and upgrading sectors, sees a real need for harmonisation in the European type testing bureaucracy. Authorisation procedures could be quickly simplified and quality improved at the same time. But: "there are obviously no pragmatists on the committees", says Wahlers, "they would just have to ask we vehicle makers..."

For you as a body-builder, what annoys you the most about type testing in Europe? Cord Wahlers: “We still have almost stifling bureaucracy and to some extent positively arbitrary approval procedures. That’s the case for some of our neighbouring countries and even in some of the federal states in Germany, where in some cases we have to cope with widely differing type testing procedures. It often takes a lot of time and is even harder on the nerves.”

1.

How are things as regards the technical standards? C. Wahlers: “That’s the least of our problems. For example, it’s not too difficult to find components with the “E” label and build them in properly. The documentation is worse: We have to document each individual component in detail in the type testing papers. That holds us up a lot.”

2.

How is the communication and data exchange between body-builder and vehicle manufacturer? C. Wahlers: “It depends who we’re working with. Major partners like Daimler set up a number of portals for body-builders years ago. We are given access, and this provides all the information we need. That’s ideal, of course. Other manufacturers, such as Fiat and PSA, are on the right lines here, too.”

3.

Robert Domina I Robert Domina I


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Industry

Panel vans

Partners for the real profession a On the Western European market there are still ten manufacturers who offer closed panel vans in the highest class, i.e. 3500 kg GVW and above. That is important, because a GVW of more than 3500 kg also immediately brings one into the category requiring a C driving licence.

or transporting large volumes of freight in a closed panel van, the offers in Western Europe are limited to ten manufacturers. In recent years that number has been further reduced because vehicle manufacturers such as LDV Maxus have disappeared and the Eastern European manufacturers do not offer their products here (such as GAZ, Lublin, Nysa). In this overview we cover only panel vans with a GVW of 3500 kg (B-driving licence) or more (C-driving licence).

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Introduction of Euro-6 Moreover, there is also an interesting alternative to the closed panel van, and that is the chassis-cab with load platform, and then vehicles such as the

Nissan Cabstar and Atleon, the Isuzu N-series, the Renault Maxity, Toyota Dyna and the Mitsubishi Fuso Canter also come into consideration. Striking for the remaining palette are the cooperation agreements between the major manufacturers. Citroën, Fiat and Peugeot have joined forces on this level in the Sevel group and are building the Jumper, Boxer and Ducato together. The Nissan NV 400, the Opel Movano and the Renault Master are also based on a single underlying design, and the same applies for the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter and the Volkswagen Crafter. Nevertheless, the cooperation between Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen is coming to an end in the near future, and Volkswagen might be developing a

Citroën Jumper The design of the Jumper is still fairly recent and completely up-to-date. Weight classes: 3500 – 4000 kg Useful load capacity: 1300 – 1900 kg Wheelbase: 3000 – 3450 – 3800 – 4035 mm Load volumes: 8 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 2.2 HDi 100 (74 kW/100 hp – 250 Nm), 2.2 HDi 120 (88 kW/120 hp – 320 Nm), 3.0 HDi 160 (115 kW/157 hp – 400 Nm)

Fiat Ducato Like the Citroën Jumper, this is a recent design that is offered in many versions, including one using natural gas. Weight classes: 3500 – 4000 kg Useful load capacity: 1100 – 2000 kg Wheelbase: 3000 – 3450 – 4035 mm Load volumes: 8 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 100 Multijet (74 kW/100 hp – 250 Nm), 120 Multijet (88 kW/120 hp – 320 Nm), 140 Natural Power (100 kW/136 hp – 350 Nm), 160 Multijet Power (115 kW/157 hp – 400 Nm)

new series of commercial vehicles for this class together with truck manufacturer MAN. Another important element is the impending introduction of the Euro-6 emission standards for this category of vehicles. By 2017 the European Union wants to impose a maximum emission of 1975 g/km on panel van manufacturers. In the meantime, alternatives for the conventional panel van with diesel engine are already being offered in the form of electrical drive, a hybrid drivetrain or gas engines. In the longer term, solutions as fuel cells also come into consideration. Hendrik De Spiegelaere I


Industry

n als Ford Transit Ford builds the popular Transit in countless versions in a modern plant in Turkey. One striking aspect of the Transit is the existence of versions with front-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive. Weight classes: 3500 – 4600 kg Useful load capacity: 1555 – 2251 kg Wheelbase: 2933 – 3300 – 3750 mm Load volumes: 7.7 to 14.2 m3 Engine versions: 2.2 TDCI (63 kW/85 hp – 250 Nm; 85 kW/115 hp – 300 Nm; 103 kW/140 hp – 350 Nm), 2.4 TDCI (74 kW/100 hp – 285 Nm, 85 kW/115 hp – 310 Nm; 103 kW/140 hp – 375 Nm), 3.2 TDCI (147 kW/200 hp – 470 Nm)

Iveco Daily The technical basis of the Iveco Daily is clearly inspired by this manufacturer´s experience in building trucks with a sturdy chassis. Iveco offers a wide range of environmentally-friendly versions (EEV or CNG). Weight classes: 3500 – 4200 – 5200 – 7000 kg Useful load capacity: 1500 – 4140 kg Wheelbase: 3000 – 3300 – 3950 mm Load volumes: 7.3 to 17.2 m3 Engine versions: 2.3.11 HPI (78 kW/106 hp – 270 Nm), 2.3.13 HPI (93 kW/126 hp – 290 Nm), 2.3.14 HPT (100 kW/136 hp – 320 Nm), 3.0.14 (103 kW/136 hp – 350 Nm), 3.0.17 (125 kW/170 hp – 400 Nm), 3.0.18 (130 kW/176 hp – 400 Nm)

Mercedes-Benz Sprinter The most recent changes to the Sprinter relate primarily to technical elements such as Euro-5 engines, new gearboxes and a start/stop system. There are also hybrid engines and engines using natural gas or LPG. Weight classes: 3500 – 4600 – 5000 kg Useful load capacity: 1520 – 2679 kg Wheelbase: 3250 – 3665 – 4325 mm Load volumes: 7.5 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 10CDI (70 kW/95 hp – 250 Nm), 13CDI (95 kW/129 hp – 305 Nm), 16CDI (120 kW/163 hp – 360 Nm), 19CDI (140 kW/190 hp – 440 Nm), 16 (115 kW/156 hp – 240 Nm), 24 (190 kW/258 hp – 340 Nm), 16NGT or 16LGT (115 kW/156 hp – 240 Nm)

Mercedes-Benz Vario This is the superman among the large panel vans and also the oldest concept. The Vario still has a real ladder chassis like a truck and belongs in the heaviest category. Weight classes: 5990 – 7490 kg Useful load capacity: 2400 – 3900 kg Wheelbase: 3300 – 3700 – 4250 mm Load volumes: 10.4 to 17.4 m3 Engine versions: OM904 (95 kW/129 hp – 500 Nm)

VAN Europe

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Industry

Nissan NV 400 The Interstar was succeeded by the NV 400 and offers a better weight/load capacity ratio than its predecessor. The technology was also thoroughly revamped. Weight classes: 3500 – 4600 kg Useful load capacity: 1600 – 2500 kg Wheelbase: 3182 – 3682 – 4332 mm Load volumes: 8 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 2.3CDTI (74 kW/100 hp – 285 Nm; 92 kW/125 hp – 310 Nm – 107 kW/146 hp – 350 Nm)

Opel Movano Just like the Nissan and Renault versions of the same design, the Movano was radically modernised recently. The Movano can also be delivered with front or rear-wheel drive. Weight classes: 3500 – 4600 kg Useful load capacity: 1600 – 2500 kg Wheelbase: 3182 – 3682 – 4332 mm Load volumes: 8 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 2.3CDTI (74 kW/100 hp – 285 Nm; 92 kW/125 hp – 310 Nm – 107 kW/146 hp – 350 Nm)

Peugeot Boxer Peugeot has an iron-clad reputation with the Boxer, whose design in its basic form dates from 2006. Weight classes: 3500 – 4000 kg Useful load capacity: 1300 – 1900 kg Wheelbase: 3000 – 3450 – 3800 – 4035 mm Load volumes: 8 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 2.2 HDi 100 (74 kW/100 hp – 250 Nm), 2.2 HDi 120 (88 kW/120 hp – 320 Nm), 3.0 HDi 160 (115 kW/157 hp – 400 Nm)

Renault Master The new Master does an even better job than its predecessor in fulfilling all expectations in terms of power, performances, load capacity and load volume. The new engines are also striking. Weight classes: 3500 – 4600 kg Useful load capacity: 1600 – 2500 kg Wheelbase: 3182 – 3682 – 4332 mm Load volumes: 8 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 2.3CDTI (74 kW/100 hp – 285 Nm; 92 kW/125 hp – 310 Nm – 107 kW/146 hp – 350 Nm)

Volkswagen Crafter In 2010 the Crafter received a completely new drivetrain with a lower consumption and above all cleaner exhaust gases, thanks to the application of AdBlue exhaust gas purification. Volkswagen offers a robotised gearbox for the Crafter. Weight classes: 3500 – 5000 kg Useful load capacity: 1324 – 2730 kg Wheelbase: 3250 – 3665 – 4325 mm Load volumes: 7.5 to 17 m3 Engine versions: 2.5 Tdi (65 kW/89 hp – 220 Nm; 80 kW/109 hp – 280 Nm; 100 kW/136 hp – 300 Nm; 120 kW/163 hp – 350 Nm)


Trends

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Engine downsizing

Reducing CO2 through fewer cc’s Well before compulsory limits on CO2 emissions are applied to light utility vehicles, several manufacturers are reducing the displacement of their engines in order to decrease vehicle fuel consumption. Downsizing is no passing trend. ver the past decade, the performance of light utility vehicles has made much progress, to the point where they offer top speeds which

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are illegal in most European countries on vehicles which are sometimes blithely heavier than 3.5 tonnes. Fuel economy is the order of the day now… but not at the expense of performance. These savings can be obtained via improvements in the functioning principles of the engine (less friction), by lengthening gear ratios, but also by reducing the cylindrical capacity itself. In order to provide equivalent service, a vehicle with a small engine

For the same performance levels, an engine with a smaller cubic capacity reduces the operating costs of a light utility vehicle by 2 to 12%.

Difference in impact on TCO Purchase of vehicle

TNO has also calculated the potential impact of engine downsizing on the total cost of operation. It shows the savings to attain a minimum of Circulation 2% and a maximum of 12%, a wide taxes variation which is explained by the numerous factors allied to the way the vehicle is used, and thus to the driver’s own driving behaviour. The driver clearly has a very high impact on consumption, as well Maintenance as on maintenance costs, which and repair can move from 2 to 3 cents per kilometre. Low estimate

10 5 0 -5 -10 -15

Registration tax

Fuel and lubricants High estimate

operates more in high load zones, where efficiency is at its maximum. This, however, requires supercharging.

Renault as an example In the domain of the passenger car, new engines are offering astonishing performance. The Fiat Twin Air (85 bhp from 900 cc) and the 1.4 litre TSi from Volkswagen (168 bhp) are two good examples. But what is the situation with LUV’s? According to Dutch institute TNO, it would be possible to reduce the average capacity of light utility engines by 31%, which would lead to fuel savings of 16%. This is admittedly a purely theoretical calculation (other specialists estimate a maximum gain of 5% for a diesel engine), but several recent examples are showing the way ahead. Renault has recently launched two new engines for the Renault-Nissan alliance: a 1.6 dCi called R9M which replaces the previous 1.9 dCi. This engine will develop 130 bhp like the previous 1.9 litre, but will emit 30 fewer grams de CO2. The new Renault Master is also fitted with a new 2.3 dCi (M9T) providing 100 to 150 bhp which replaces the 2.5 litre unit and one of 3 litres of the former generation. Renault promises a reduction of 10 % in CO2 emissions. Mercedes, by contrast, has not followed the trend with its new OM651 engine, destined for the Sprinter. The German brand has preferred to work on higher injection pressures (up to 1,800 bars) and on a two-stage supercharging to obtain extra power and torque at low revs… and a reduction of fuel consumption of 0.5 to 1 litre per 100 km. Claude Yvens I


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Industry

Emerging Markets

Different LCV design, but same pricing LCVs are an important but too often under researched and reported sector of the automotive industry. The car industry is migrating from Europe and North America to China, India, Brazil and Russia – so is the LCV industry. That may well mean future design and planning will be oriented towards these new markets rather than Europe. While some production will move east the increasing cost of logistics could support continued European production. LCV can be used for personal transport as well as for business purposes – it’s much harder to stack a car 4m high, with a load of chickens, timber or bags of cement than it is to put the same goods in an LCV – a pickup. Passengers, while they might be less comfortable in an LCV can at least travel in the back! In many countries comfort is secondary compared with mobility. What might be the implications of this shift in demand for LCVs? From a European point of view they are probably twofold. On the one hand design and production will increasingly be focused on China, India and South East Asia. That could mean global players as well as emerging automotive manufacturers will increasingly design for those markets where the key will be ‘increased utility’ – better fuel consumption, more robust vehicles, perhaps designed for Asian ergonomics instead of the rather larger European driver.

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At the same time, far Eastern markets have different pricing structures – could that mean cheaper units in Europe? Probably not. OEMs seek to differentiate pricing as far as possible between markets and it is unlikely that there would be significant reductions in terms of standard vehicles. Equally, the European LCV user has come to expect the creature comforts of the passenger car – comfortable seats, air conditioning, ICE systems and a host of other creature comforts. OEMs generate significant margins from additional specifications so one must expect such enhanced specifications will continue to be provided – at least for Europe and North America.

Design & development rethink However, any significant change in market mix in Europe could attract emerging Far Eastern manufacturers looking to export to the most prestigious – and potentially more profitable markets and they may seek initially to buy market share through aggressive pricing.

A globalisation of the LCV may mean standard products will become more widely available.

Such a market penetration strategy could, in turn, put pressure on European LCV producers to cut costs and price more aggressively. One has to ask if the massive growth of the LCV market – and associated production – of LCVs in China, India and the other Asian tiger economies will create a rethink of European LCV design, development and marketing? Indeed, could the LCV industry be entering a period similar to that nearly forty years ago when ‘cheap Japanese cars’ first hit the European markets? – And look how they have developed in the intervening period! Any change in structure and product with LCVs will have the added complications of true globalisation, increased communication and awareness and of course, over the next few years, South America and Russia entering the LCV fray as well. From a positive viewpoint the shift in LCV focus towards China and India in particular may mean lower cost of production although that will be mitigated to some extent by the higher logistics costs. If new players outsource Asian domestic designed product manufacture to Europe, extended supply chain issues may arise as the car OEMs are finding post Japanese. On a more positive note however, a true globalisation of the LCV may force new economies into the system and for the international fleet operator it may mean standard products will become more widely available. But these are early days. How do you expect the markets and products to change? I’m not sure even the experts are all agreed in their predictions beyond a ‘period of changing dynamics’. Professor Peter N C Cooke University of Buckingham I



Van Europe 2 UK