PLASTIC PYROLYSIS - PRELIMINARY APPROACH

Page 1


ABSTRACT

Plastics are Hydrocarbon materials that are

synthesized from petroleum products.

This document includes an overview of

plastics chemistry combined with

comprehensive understanding of pyrolysis

process that is essential to take full

advantage and start turning waste plastics

intor premium grade fuel.


CONTENT

Plastic Chemistry ........................................................ 4

Pyrolysis............................................................................. 6

Experimental Data..................................................... 7

Market Opportunity..................................................... 11

References....................................................................... 12


PLASTIC CHEMISTRY

• Polymers are lengthy chain compounds composed of monomers. • A monomer is a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules. • There are several types of polymers , Plastics are a specific type of polymers. • Plastics are hydrocarbon materials that is synthesized from Petroleum Products. • Plastics are classified into 7 types.



PYROLYSIS

Lighter Fraction

Pyrolysis Oil Plastic Polymer Carbon Ash

• Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere. • Hydrocarbon Pyrolysis is results in Thermal Cracking , an inert atmosphere (Oxygen-Free) is essential to avoid a Combustion Reaction. • Plastics which are hydrocarbon polymers are fed into a reactor where they are heated in the absence of oxygen so that the polymer chain of the plastic is cracked into Pyrolysis gas and carbon ash. The Pyrolysis gas can be split into a heavy condensable fraction (Pyrolysis Oil) and into a minor non-condensable lighter fraction.


EXPERIMENTAL DATA 1. Lab Apparatus : Pyrolysis Oil Extraction

a. [Be-h] machine Waste Plastic Oil machine

2 4

Capacity : 1 KG Power : 1 KW Max. Temp : 470°

3 6 5 1

7

Composed of :

1. Electric Heater 4. Lighter Fraction Tube 6. Condenser Water Drain

2. Pyrolysis Gas Tube 3. Condenser 5. Pyrolysis Oil Valve 7. HMI Screen

b. Feed Preparation Plastic must be classified according to its type , Shredding is required for large pieces. c. Procedure Remove the bolts from the top cover, load plastic quantity (1 KG max)

Operate HMI , Electric Heater , and extract Pyrolysis Oil. (Typically after 3~4 hours)


2. Observations

a. Type (1) : PET

Quantity: 1 KG Power: 1 KW Max. Temp : 450째 Time: 3.5 HR

PET Sublimed to Pyrolysis Gas , Final Product In Solid Phase. Pyrolysis Oil Produced Only @ Temp > 600째

b. Type (2) + Type (4) : PE

PQuantity: 1 KG P.Oil : 0.83 KG Power: 1 KW Conv. : 83 % Max. Temp : 450째 C.Ash : 0.16 KG Time: 3.5 HR L.Gas : 0.01 KG

c. Type (3) : PVC

Quantity: 1 KG Power: 1 KW Max. Temp : 450째 Time : 3.5 HR

PVC Heating Produced Significant Quantities Of HCl + Dioxins


d. Type (5) : PP

Quantity : 1 KG P.Oil : 0.89 KG Power : 1 KW Conv. : 89 % Max. Temp : 450° C.Ash : 0.11 KG Time : 3.5 HR L.Gas : N/A

e. Type (6) : PS

PQuantity: 1 KG Power: 1 KW Max. Temp : 450° Time: 3.5 HR

PET Sublimed to Pyrolysis Gas , Final Product In Solid Phase. Pyrolysis Oil Produced Only @ Temp > 600°

3. Lab Results


4. Process Overview

a. Feed Preparation Section

Industrial shredding machine is required for large pieces.

b. Process Flow Diagram


MARKET OPPORTUNITY

•Pyrolysis Oil Technology is not available in Jordan market , its low adoption until now is due to the lack of plastic recycling management , once the market has been identified , then its potential will be tremendous.

•Plastic recycling will be promoted by encouraging plastic consumers (residential , commercial , industrial) to take part in plastic collecting and type separation.

•Preliminary Estimation 20 KG (PE/PP) 16 KG P.Oil (LGO)

•From Experimental Data 1 KG (PE/PP) 1 KW ( 3.5 HR)

•Net Calorific Value For Burner Fuels LGO 42.6 MJ/KG SG. 0.83

Conclusion

Each 20 KG (PE/PP) Each 20 KG (PE/PP)

12.6 MJ Required

20 Liters P.Oil (LGO) (Gross) 8 Liters (LGO) Burner Fuel 12 Liters P.Oil (LGO) (Net)


REFERENCES

•William D. Callister.2010. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction .8TH Edition . Wiley

•Walter Kaminsky, John Scheirs .2006 . Feedstock Recycling and Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics : Converting Waste Plastics into Diesel and Other Fuels, Wiley

Lab Results Provided By

•Blest Co. Ltd. Tokyo , Japan WWW.BLEST.CO.JP •Pyrolyze Co. Amersfoort , Netherlands WWW.PYROLYZE.COM