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FINAL LOGBOOK ENVS10003 - Semester 1 - 2014 Putera Perkasa Sinuraya - 657882

Tutor: Lisa Cummins

CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENTS [Document subtitle]


1 Table of Contents 2

3

4

5

6

Week 1 – Introduction to Construction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 2.1

Studio Activity: Mass Challenge .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

2.2

Knowledge Map .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2.3

Glossary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2.4

References .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Week 2 - Structural Loads and Forces................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 3.1

Studio Activity: Frame Challenge ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

3.2

Knowledge Map .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

3.3

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

3.4

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

Week 3 – Footings and Foundations................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 4.1

Activity on site Take one ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.2

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

4.3

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.4

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17

Week 4 – floor systems and Horizontal Elements ............................................................................................................................................................................ 18 5.1

Studio Activity: Scale, Annotation, Working Drawing convention............................................................................................................................................ 18

5.2

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 19

5.3

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

5.4

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

Week 5 – Columns, Grids and Wall Systems..................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 6.1

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21 1|Page


6.2

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22

6.3

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 22

7

Week 6 – Spanning and Enclosing Space .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Full Size Interim Studio Presentation .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 7.1

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 24

7.2

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

7.3

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 26

8

Week 7 – Detailing Strategies 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 26 8.1

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 27

8.2

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28

8.3

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 28

9

Week 8 – Openings ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 9.1

Activity: In Detail ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29

9.2

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30

9.3

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31

9.4

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 31

10

Week 9 – Detailing Strategies 2 .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

10.1

Activity: On site ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

10.2

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 34

10.3

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

10.4

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 35

11

Week 10 – When things go Wrong ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 36

11.1

Activity 1: Building Detail .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36

11.2

Knowledge Map ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 37 2|Page


11.3

Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38

11.4

References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 38

12

Construction Workshop ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 39

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2 WEEK 1 – INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION 2.1 STUDIO ACTIVITY: MASS CHALLENGE The class was instructed to form a group of four and given a task to form a tower made of bricks (it is made of compressed timber and the brick is shown as in figure 2.1). The tower must be as tall as possible and must be able to accommodate a dog-like action figure somewhere on that tower; the top, the bottom, wherever the group decides. At the very end, the group needs to remove to bricks gradually and determine the weakness of the tower. Our group, firstly, decides the way the bricks should be arranged to form the tower starting from the base. We conclude that it is best to start with the brick system as depicted in figure 2.2. A system where each brick was located adjacent and on top of each other, while the side that had the largest surface area at the bottom; we called this position 1. The bricks were formed from the base as a semi-circular wall (figure 2.3) because we plan to accommodate the dog like statue inside the bottom of the semi- circular tower. This will ensure the stability of the tower and that we have sufficient amount of bricks to reach the height of the ceiling, or so we thought. As our tower grew taller, we realized that it was much more efficient to arrange the brick as illustrated in figure 2.4. This system, call it position 2, oriented the brick in such a way that each brick level is higher but with less surface area at the bottom. This new arrangement of brick started in the mid-level of the tower, forming a brick tower as depicted in figure 2.5. The time has come to remove the bricks one by one in order to analyze its weakness. Firstly, we remove the bottom of the tower, arranged in position 1. To my surprise, even with the removal of some bricks on the base, the tower still stand firm. It is as if the removed bricks are frameworks. However, when we try to remove one of the brick arranged in position 2, all the brick on the level above the removed bricks falls apart. This implies that every level of the brick needs to have certain amount of surface area as the base in order to sustain the structure of tower even with the removal of a few bricks. Furthermore, this sad pattern of collapse repeats as I removed even more bricks from the first level of the brick tower, indicating that the brick tower need to have certain amount of mass below it to sustain its stance. This studio activity, to sum up, taught the group important lessons about the system and stability of structure, a good opening activity for constructing environments.

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Figure 2.1- 6 Brick Tower Images

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2.2 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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2.3 GLOSSARY New Vocabulary Load Path Masonry Compression Force Point Load Reaction force Beam Ashlar Granule Monolithic Marble Basalt

Meaning The Diagram of Forces indicating its transmission to the ground Construction technique by placing mass material adjacent or on top another with mortar to stick them together A force that tends to pressure the material inwards A load that is centered at a certain point A force resulted as a reaction to another force, perpendicular to the force acting on surface Horizontal Element involved in resisting load A finely worked masonry, individually or collectively A pile of large particles A material composed of one basic component A type of metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonite A common type of extrusive igneous volcanic rock

2.4 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Construction Overview 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia Introduction to Materials 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia Load Path Diagram 2014 video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia

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3 WEEK 2 - STRUCTURAL LOADS AND FORCES 3.1 STUDIO ACTIVITY: FRAME CHALLENGE In the previous week, we had been asked to prepare pieces of balsa wood together with the associated equipment to construct a tall balsa tower. In this second week, with the help of a glue and a Stanley knife, we were commanded to create the tower that could accommodate an object on top of it, quite similar to the previous brick tower task. Unlike the previous task, however, we would not take the thin balsa stick one by one. First and foremost, we plan to construct the base of our balsa tower to be a hollow square made of 4 thin balsa wood pieces of equal size. We further plan to make the tower with a cube like structure (made of 12 balsa pieces on each edge) for each level with a square pyramid structure on the top of tower. It certainly sounds like a nice plan so far. In the implementation of the plan however, things turn into the wrong direction. We made the tower on a table but we firstly try to create the two sides of the cube, sticking each of them with a PVA glue. Unfortunately, the way we stick our glue is a bit disorganized and we end up waiting for too long. Knowing that other groups are progressing significantly, we connect the tower using a masking tape. Unfortunately, the resulting tower was very disorganized and imbalanced and thus we put even more masking tape. Finally the tower could stand but when the tutor, Lisa, examines the load capacity of the tower, the tower basically collapsed within seconds. Our final tower is as depicted in Figure 3.1. From the observation of other balsa tower, made by other groups, we can derive some lesson from our tower: Do not precast parts of the structure if it is unnecessary and just craft it immediately, make the tower on the floor and ensure that the top and the bottom of the tower have sufficient surface area to ensure stability when carrying a load and last but not least, the tower needs to be neat and stable.

Figure 3.1 Masking tape for the tower

Figure 3.3 thin tall tower, very fragile on top

Figure 3.2 Triangular base tower (very balanced and firm)

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3.2 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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3.3 GLOSSARY Terms Bracing Column Enclosure Frame Sustainability Stability Structural Joint Tension System Structural System Enclosure System Mechanical System Dynamic Load Static Load

:

Meaning Structural members used to support the structure in terms of increasing stability, stiffness and balance. (commonly used cross bracing) A vertical compression structure that transmit the load from the structure above towards the structure below or the ground Building element that acts as a barrier or shelter of the structure (roof, wall, etc) A basic structure that reflects the skeleton of a building. A property that dictates a structures ability to lasts indefinitely in respect to resources (oil, water, iron) used to maintain it. A property that refers to a structure ability to maintain its shape in spite of its carried load. A junction that connects one structural element to another. A force that acts outwards of a structural element, as if it is pulling it apart An assembly of interrelated parts forming a complex and unified whole for a purpose System that support and transmit gravity load safely to the ground (Beams, columns and loadbearing walls) Shell or envelope of a building Provide Essential services to the building An often unpredictable load that happens suddenly to a building. It is hard to measure (Earthquake, accident, etc) A predictable load that occurs regularly and could be estimated reasonably (Live Loads and Dead Loads)

3.4 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Construction Systems 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia ESD and selection of materials 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia Structural Connections 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia Structural Systems and forms 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia

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4 WEEK 3 – FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS 4.1 ACTIVITY ON SITE TAKE ONE In this week tutorial, I go on a tour with my classmates around campus. This tour aims to improve the comprehension of building elements by identifying and analyzing the buildings that we visited in relation to what I have been learning until now. The first building that we visited is the lot 69 Café. Here I can identify that this building is mainly supported by steel columns. In other words, this café is mainly lightweight construction, composed of steel frames. It should be noted, furthermore, that the glasses in the café does not transfer load. It is not a load-bearing wall and it is there for perhaps aesthetic purposes. Furthermore, the black steel that attached itself to one of the columns seems to be utilizing pin joint. My reasoning is the black steel does not seem too be embedded inside the wall. We then go forward to our next destination, the Frank Tate Pavilion, just near the Sydney Myer Asia Centre.

Figure 4.1 Frank Tate Pavilion.

Frank Tate Pavilion has a very unusual design, a timber structure with a cantilever on one end. Despite its strangeness, this building should be considered to be a sustainable one because this pavilion is mainly composed of timber, a renewable resource, and it provides a good place to relax and study. As we exit through the Sydney Myer Asia Centre and encounter old geology south theatre, we notice a brick wall as illustrated in Figure 4.3. Newton (2014), in the online learning describe this bond pattern as the stretcher coarse. This perpend and the bed joint could also be seen clearly from this brick structure. The glass window possibly acts as an enclosure, as described in Ching (2008). Its role as an enclosure is to provide shelter from temperature, wind or moist. Figure 4.2 Lot 69 Cafe

Figure 4.3 Old Geology South Theatre

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Finally, we arrived at the construction site which will house the new architecture building, the New Melbourne School of design, as illustrated in figure 4.4. This Construction has been going on for quite a while. This building appears to be composed of concrete panel walls. Timber as a material for this building is also evident in the site. Each of the floor, furthermore, have window openings that is oriented to the north. The most interesting aspect of this building however is the massive cantilever. As can be seen from figure 4.5, the weight of this cantilever seems to be transmitted to the part of the building that it attached itself to, before the weight is sent to the ground. Thus, this building must be very steady and firm. Glass enclosure and steel columns is also visible in the cantilever.

Figure 4.5 New Melbourne school of design Cantilever

Figure 4.4 the soon to be Architecture Building

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Our next destination is the oval pavilion building, a partly demolished heritage building site. This building contains a big cantilever on the front. It is composed of lightweight material such as timber, as evident on the cantilever and some of the wall panels and it also employs some mass weight material like bricks on some parts of the wall. Comparing what I have observed and what I see in the oval pavilion drawing set, the oval pavilion certainly resembles that of the drawing set. However, the scale of each drawing should be multiplied by 2. For instance, the site plan in my A3 drawing set should be 1:2000 not 1:1000. This is because the original is an A1 size drawing. Looking at the drawing set the first time, it could feel overwhelming. All those details concerning the features of the building is practically information overload. However, there are certain obvious parts of the drawing set such as the site plan and the ground floor plan. Going back, we encounter a column that somehow is supporting certain structure. This column is particularly interesting since it greatly resembles the pad footing as described in the footings and foundation e-learning (footings and foundation 2014). Figure 4.4 Oval Pavilion

We then visit the Union house north court and encounter a membrane like structure, as illustrated in figure 4.6. This Membrane structure is mainly composed of lightweight material and is supported by “ties�, tension members that resembles strings, as described in the online learning (Structural Elements 2014)

Figure 4.5 Example of isolated footing

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We then arrived at the arts west student center as illustrated in figure 4.7. It is clear that there is a massive truss hanging on this building. Although it provides a clear demonstration of what a truss is like, this truss, presumably, is there for aesthetic purposes because it does not seem to be carrying any major load. Finally, we arrive at the underground car park, south lawn. It is a dark place, mainly constructed of concrete, a mass material. Between the parking spaces, there is hollow column supporting this substructure. Apparently, this hollow columns houses trees. I am not very sure if Figure 4.7 Arts West Student Centre this is a sustainable idea because plants excrete chemicals that may degrade building materials. Still it is just a speculation.

Figure 4.8 Underground Car Park, South Lawn

Figure 4.6 Union House North Court

That is the end of the tour.

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4.2 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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4.3 GLOSSARY

Figure 4.9 Week 3 Visual Glossary and Notes

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New Term Centre of Mass Ductility Mortar (Masonry) Equilibrium Moment of Force Slab Substructure/ Superstructure Panel Uplift (Wind) Overturn Rubble Slate Shear Force

Meaning A point about of which an object is balanced Material property that dictates its fragile response against forces A paste utilized to bind blocks or fill the gap between them A state of balance where the sum of forces equal to zero A tendency to make an object rotates A thick block commonly utilized in construction. Structure below the surface of a building/ Structure above the surface of a building A distinct piece section of wall An upward force caused by wind traveling across the roof Rotate and object so that it is on its side or upside down Loose mass of rocks due to fragments of destroyed structures A metamorphic rock derived from a shale type sedimentary rock through low grade metamorphosis A pair of unaligned forces pushing one body to one direction and another body to the opposite direction

4.4 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Blocks 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Bricks 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Footings and Foundations 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Masonry 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Mass 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Structural Elements 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Mass construction 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton.

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5 WEEK 4 – FLOOR SYSTEMS AND HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS 5.1 STUDIO ACTIVITY: SCALE, ANNOTATION, WORKING DRAWING CONVENTION Due to medical absence, I am unable to attend this week studio session and the studio session for week 5. However, I have undertaken the session outside class that resembles the activity which I missed, independently. Scale is a very important concept in construction detail. It is used to create a smaller representation of an actual building to make it easier to understand the building as a whole. Some of the good examples are site plan, floor plan and so on. However, scale could also be utilized to represent something larger than its actual size. It is usually utilized when trying to observe and comprehend very small details of a building. Building detail also utilizes symbolic representations of structural elements and materials. This symbols will make it easier to understand the building. Since there are a wide array of symbols, it is good to have this list of symbols as references when consulting the oval pavilion drawing set.

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5.2 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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5.3 GLOSSARY Vocabulary Beam Cantilever Span Spacing Scaffolding Joist Girder Formwork Metal decking Concrete Plank Scale

Meaning A mostly horizontal element A part of a structural element where it is supported on at one end (where the overhanging is significant) Distance Measured between two structural supports A repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements A temporary structure for building or repairing to support and transport people and material upwards A support element typically arrange in parallel to support floor or celing Main horizontal support beam element that supports smaller beams (joists) A structural element (sacrificial or temporary) that makes up the form of the poured concrete A flat surface capable of supporting weight similar to floor but constructed outdoor. Utilized to increase a structure stiffness and spanning capability A thin piece of flat concrete used especially in flooring A ratio that compares the measured distance on the map to its actual distance

5.4 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Concrete 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Floor and Framing System 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Pre Cast Concrete 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. In situ Concrete 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton.

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6 WEEK 5 – COLUMNS, GRIDS AND WALL SYSTEMS 6.1 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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6.2 GLOSSARY Vocabulary Axial Load Frame Post Stud Lintel Seasoned Timber Nogging

Meaning Load administrated parallel to the line of axis of the object in question Arrangement of pieces of material that gives the structure a shape Similar to column but with timber material Thin vertical members commonly used in framing A beam that spans above a space or an opening, usually used on doors or windows Timber that has been dried to remove its moisture content A horizontal bracing member that is attached to a wall to give rigidity, (usually used in framing)

6.3 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Engineered Timber Products 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. From Wood to Timber 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Timber Properties and Considerations 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Walls, Grids and Columns 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton.

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7 WEEK 6 – SPANNING AND ENCLOSING SPACE FULL SIZE INTERIM STUDIO PRESENTATION

In this studio session, each students presents their A02 findings to the class. I have taken the notes relating to other groups site in knowledge map format

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7.1 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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7.2 GLOSSARY

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Vocabulary Cladding Soffit Ponding (Roof) Parapet Alloy Eave Bronze Brass

Meaning The application of one material to protect another material it covers from outside influences (noise, water, light) The underneath of construction element Unwanted pooling of water typically on roof. It will increase the dead load and may cause leakage An extension of the exterior wall usually exposed on the edge of roof, terrace or balcony A mixture of two or more metal A bottom edge of the roof. It may form an overhang to throw water away from the walls Combination of copper and tin Combination of copper and zinc

7.3 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Ferrous Metals 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Introduction to metals 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Non-Ferrous Metal 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Roofing Strategies and Systems 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton.

8 WEEK 7 – DETAILING STRATEGIES 1 This week, there is no studio session due to Good Friday.

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8.1 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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8.2 GLOSSARY Vocabulary Thermoplastic Thermosetting Flashing Vapor Barrier Gutter Drip Sealant Faรงade

Meaning In liquid form in high temperature and solidify in low temperature Can only be mold once, reducing its reusability and recyclability An impervious material installed in order to redirect the flow of water, typically out of the building A barrier that prevents the transfer of moisture A narrow channel system installed as a component of a roof to carry off surface water A break in channel to prevent capillary reaction of water A barrier that prevents water from penetrating The front part of a building that faces to a street or open space, an outward appearance

8.3 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Detailing for heat and moisture 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Paint 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Plastic 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Rubber 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton.

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9 WEEK 8 – OPENINGS 9.1

ACTIVITY: IN DETAIL

In this studio activity, we took another tour to the oval pavilion building to find and observe our chosen building element detail in the actual site. My group got the roof section detail located in the function room. My detail is basically the skylight on the roof. When I see my detail from the interior, I could not see one component of my detail, which I later found out to be inside the gutter and that explains why it is not visible. I took a photography of my actual detail and after a Figure 9.2 Folded A1 Paper second look it really does resemble that of the drawing set, as illustrated in figure 9.1. After we observed it and get back to class, we then attempted to draw the detail, using the drawing as a reference, in 1: 1 scale. Although, drawing it may appear to be tough, it Figure 9.1 The Roof Skylight actually pretty easy. The only thing that is necessary to be done, is to copy the building detail into the A1 paper and multiply every length by 10 because the scale of the A3 building detail is 1: 10. After the main sketch was done, it still need further furnishing. Firstly, it is necessary to put some annotations on the important details using the construction environments guide book as reference and finally, I should put some details and additional blackness on some lines in order to highlight different and important parts. After the drawing is done, it is folded into A4 paper, as illustrated in figure 9.2 which made it easier to carry around. Refer to week 10 section or the appendix for illustration concerning the A1 drawing.

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9.2 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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9.3 GLOSSARY Vocabulary Shear Wall Sill Jamb Architrave Hinge Joint

Meaning Wall placed to resist lateral loads Sloped component of structural member that redirects water out of the building, usually via sloping The main vertical member that forms the sides of the window or door A material that fills the gap between the jamb span and the rough opening A moveable joint installed in a door or the like which allows it to move or slide A point on which part of artificial elements are joined (roller, pin fixed)

9.4 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Glass 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Windows and Openings 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton.

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10 WEEK 9 – DETAILING STRATEGIES 2 10.1 ACTIVITY: ON SITE This studio session activity will focus on the site visit on the Victorian Cancer Department, under construction. All in all, this site is larger than the A02 site we have been assigned to. Firstly the class take a visit the lowest level. In this level, the walls thick steel walls. The constructor asserts that this is to prevent radiation. I am no radiologist but perhaps the radiation is due to vast electrical systems that fills this big room. This dark room are mainly composed of mass weight materials, concrete. As the group goes up, we notice that the reinforced concrete columns and walls beginning to become smaller and smaller. This is because the lowest level need to put up with the load of all the superstructure above it while the upper floors not only need to resist the load above it but also to ensure that it does not emit too Figure 10.1 The Basement Hull much load to the lower levels.

Figure 10.2 Example of Concrete wall with steel frames

Steel posts, concrete slabs and other materials and structural elements discussed in the class were evidently used in this construction site. Figure 10.3 shows timber formwork ready to be poured in situ concrete. From the same picture, timber columns and slabs are also visible. Insulation is also present at various parts of the building such as on figure 4.4 that illustrates insulation of the pipes.

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As we go upwards, windows and some newer elements are visible, as illustrated in figure. There are window frames completed with sills to keep storm water away from the building. There are also some pipes that is utilized to transmit water presumably. Figure 10.4 illustrates the window sill to transmit water out of building utilizing gravity. Finally there is also a concrete sprayer, illustrated in figure. This concrete machine is present in all levels of the buildings. This tool is utilized to transport plastic concrete up the building.

Figure 10.3 Formwork

Figure 10.2 Concrete Sprayer

Figure 10.3 Top Floor

Figure 10.4 Window Sill

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10.2 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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10.3 GLOSSARY Vocabulary Constructability (Construction Detailing) Bracing Shadow Line Joint Cornice Movement Joint Composite Material Skirting Sandwich Panel

Meaning A characteristic of building detail that gives room for mistakes (forgiving) and easy to read and implement Additional reinforcement to make a structure more rigid A type of mortar joint Decorative horizontal element, visible on the roof and ceiling A gap between material to allow freedom of movement due to expansion and contraction Two or more materials combined, but still distinguishable and synergic A material placed along the base of the wall. Usually coved. Aluminum Sandwich Panel, two thin aluminum panels bond with non-aluminium panels used for cladding, insulation etc

10.4 REFERENCES Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Composite Materials 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton. Construction Detailing2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton.

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11 WEEK 10 – WHEN THINGS GO WRONG 11.1 ACTIVITY 1: BUILDING DETAIL This week, the building detail section is presented to the class. The A01 size of this drawing is available on the appendix. As can be seen from the picture, it is a roof section located in the function room. The left hand part of the detail, not visible from the interior, is composed of roof sheeting, thermal inslulation and timber acoustic insulation. This building also details timber studs, as symbolized a crossed rectangular, sealant and window frame. Finally, Steel studs is symbolized by the hollow section.

Figure 11.1 A01 Drawing

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11.2 KNOWLEDGE MAP

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11.3 GLOSSARY Vocabulary Corrosion IEQ Lifecycle Defect Fascia Diaphragm

Meaning Damage caused to metal, usually by oxidation Indoor Environmental Quality A repeating process that may trigger feedback Flaws that could cause problems either short term or long term A banding that is situation vertically below the roof edge A layer of wall attached to a building to help resist lateral loads

11.4 REFERENCES A tale of Corrosion 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Rebecca Cameron. Ching, F.D.K 2008, Building Construction Illustrated fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey. Collapses and failures 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Peter Ashford. Heroes and Culprits 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Dr. Dominique. Lateral Forces 2014, video recording, University of Melbourne, Australia, directed by Claire Newton

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12 CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP In the construction workshop, we in a group of 4 were asked to build a 1000 mm span bridge utilizing all the materials and tools given to us. The materials given to us consist of plywood and timber pine beams. The tools provided to us are hammers, nails including gang nails, tape measure, saw and cutting board. Our group plans to make a timber truss utilizing the materials we are given. We plan to span the truss about 1000 mm with a height 200 mm and plywood attached on the middle of the truss as sheer walls. However, constructing this type of structure consumes huge amount of time. Thus, in the end of session, although we eventually finish, our quality of work is not as we expected it to be. The visual diagram provides notes about the handmade truss. When the opportunity comes to test the truss, it can only withstand 100 kN, and then it fails by buckling on the bottom chord. The bottom chord, furthermore, fails as if it is being pulled apart. It is quite ductile, nonetheless, showing signs of failure before it finally buckles, although the maximum deflection is a mere 10 mm. Other group’s structures are quite good; some can even resist a maximum load of 700 kN with a maximum deflection of 52 mm. I observe that, possibly, if the timber members are joined more properly utilizing that gang nail plates, and have the truss more symmetrical and balanced, the truss could do better than a mere 100 kN. Furthermore, unlike other group structures, our truss have greater cross section and if managed correctly, it could have the greatest ratio of cross section area to strength and thus, efficient in building the actual structures due to greater material efficiency.

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Figure 12.1 Truss Load Path and visual diagram

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