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EXPERT KNOWLEDGE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS FEBRUARY 2013 – ISSUE 26

Accurate Weighing of Parent Stock is Vital to Monitor Flock Progress The proper sampling and accurate weighing of breeder pullets and hens during their life is both important and necessary, according to Pete Sbanotto, product manager for Cobb-Vantress, Inc. Knowing the flock's status on weight and body composition gives the producer and technical service per-

sonnel the information necessary to make the best decisions for long-term performance. This information is vital at any stage during rearing and production, as feed management decisions based on incomplete or inaccurate weights could easily This feature is continued on page 4

NOVEDAD: Enfoque latinoamericano del editor principal de ElSitioAvicola, Chris Wright


February 2013 – Issue 26

COVER STORY

Accurate Weighing of Parent Stock is Vital to Monitor Flock Progress The proper sampling and accurate weighing of breeder pullets and hens during their life is both important and necessary, according to Pete Sbanotto, product manager for Cobb-Vantress, Inc.

P1 Asia is Key to Global Egg Output Growth - P9

EDITORIAL

Asia now accounts for almost 60 per cent of global hen egg production, according to poultry sector expert,Terry Evans, in his latest analysis of the world's egg industries.

LATEST POULTRY INDUSTRY NEWS

Is Poor Drinker Management Costing You Money? - P14 Dennis Brothers, Jess Campbell, Jim Donald and Gene Simpson of the National Poultry Technology Center at Auburn University explain how poor drinker management can lead to increased ventilation rates, the need for litter de-caking and add to the overall cost of broiler rearing during the winter.

Selection for Improved Leg Health in Purebred Broiler Lines and Underlying Genetic Parameters - P19 As a result of genetic selection, the prevalence of four leg conditions in purebred broiler lines has declined over the last 20 to 25 years, new research from Scotland shows.

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Breeding & Genetics Health & Welfare Biosecurity & Hygiene Feeding & Nutrition Housing & Equipment Incubation & Hatching Processing & Packaging

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Editorial ‘Breeding and Genetics’ is our topic for the second edition of ThePoultrySite Digital this year. In the lead article, Pete Sbanotto, product manager for Cobb-Vantress, Inc., explains why the proper sampling and accurate weighing of breeder pullets and hens during their life is both important and necessary. Individual bird weights are important to monitor the progress of the flock. However, he says, this must be augmented with the regular handling of the flock, including recording the body composition and fat reserves before light stimulation. Attention to these details most often results in more consistent production, higher peaks and better persistency.

Breeding & Genetics Jackie Linden ThePoultrySite.com Senior Editor jackie.linden@5mpublishing.com

Turning to genetics, new research from Scotland shows that, as a result of genetic selection, the prevalence of four leg conditions in purebred broiler lines has declined over the last 20 to 25 years. This is good news for bird welfare. Continuing our Global Poultry Trends series, industry watcher,Terry Evans, highlights the fact that Asia now accounts for almost 60 per cent of global hen egg production. China dominates the league table within Asia, with a share of around twothirds of the total output from the region. And finally, researchers from the National Poultry Technology Center at Auburn University have found that poor drinker management can lead to the need to increase ventilation rates and litter de-caking, which can add significantly to the overall cost of broiler rearing during the winter. Jackie Linden

Contact

Jackie Linden Senior Editor jackie.linden@5mpublishing.com Tel: +44 (0) 1234 818180

Alex Guy Head of Tactical Sales alex.guy@5mpublishing.com Tel: +44 (0) 1234 818180 Mobile/Cell:+44 (0)7867 357546

Chris Harris Editor in Chief chris.harris@5mpublishing.com Tel: +44 (0) 1234 818180

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Accurate Weighing of Parent Stock is Vital to Monitor Flock Progress feature continued from page 1

cause the flock to become underweight or overweight. Weights above or below the recommended standards could compromise the ideal body composition, and in either case could result in a 10- to 15egg per hen decrease in life-of-flock hatching egg production. REARING PERIOD There are techniques for the correct rearing of pullets that should be observed at all times. Although some locations are using the electronic platform scales to collect many weights during the course of every day, there are a few challenges with this method. Firstly, if the pullets and cockerels are raised together, setting the scale weight limits to exclude the male weights from the female weights becomes at best an art of estimating the break-over point. Platform scales will give a more accurate result if used where the sexes are raised separately. Also, the total number of weight recordings in a day does not necessarily reflect many different chickens, as some birds will stand on the scale multiple times during the day. Move the scale location within the house several times during the life of the flock to get a better sampling of weights. While the actual bodyweight of the pullet is an easily documented measurement of the flock's progress, primary breeder companies are concentrating on attaining the proper body composition during the time prior to light stimulation of the flock. To know the body composition of birds in the flock, it is necessary for the technician to handle birds often. Birds should be weighed every week from seven days of age through peak production and the weights recorded, and should always be weighed individually on an off-feed day, or before feeding if the flock is fed daily. Recording individual weights allows the calculation of flock uniformity. Handling of the birds during the weighing process gives the technician an opportunity to make any needed adjustments in a timely manner.

4

Pete Sbanotto

The number of birds to be weighed varies. Basically, weighing pullets in two or three locations in each house or pen is best. It is important that after birds are penned for weighing, weigh every bird in the pen. Do not reject any weights. A more accurate sampling may be attained by opening up the catch pen and moving away, allowing time for the birds to walk into the pen without driving them. If the weights of the flock are not following the recommended guideline, an investigation must be made quickly to determine the cause. Possibilities include disease challenges, temperature or air quality issues, inadequate feed space for all birds to eat, slow feed delivery times, feed formulation or quality problems, or even inaccuracy of the feed weigh scales. There are certain times during rearing when weights are critical. The first would be at seven days of age, when the technician can decide if the flock has been started properly as well as make any adjustments to improve uniformity by beginning the grading process.


Accurate Weighing of Parent Stock is Vital to Monitor Flock Progress The next important weight is at around four weeks of age. The proper weight and protein consumption (grams of crude protein consumed by each bird) should be calculated at this time, and compared to the recommendations from the primary breeder.

after consuming her daily ration. Accurate weights have been generally considered to be 'empty' weights in order to get the true weight of the hen without the added complication of guessing how much to adjust the weight because of feed in her system.

The next critical time is at 15 to 16 weeks. From this time until light stimulation, consistent and proper weight gains are important. A weight gain of 33 to 35 per cent in the period between 16 and 20 weeks is

Contrary to this belief, research at the University of Arkansas shows that hen weights tend to remain constant all through the day at any time beginning at two hours after feed cleanup.This would indicate that

‘Hens can be weighed at any time after two hours post feed clean-up with no change in the accuracy of the hen weights’ needed to flesh the pullets properly and add some fat reserves to prepare the birds properly for daylength increases. If the weights are above standard at 16 weeks, it is difficult to accomplish the proper fat deposition without the flock becoming overweight. The tendency is to try to bring the overweight flock back to the recommended standard, and doing this retards the development of the body composition. A female put into light stimulation before her body composition tells her that she is prepared for reproduction will not respond to the daylength increase by maturing her reproductive tract and developing egg follicles. Instead, she will gain weight and put on fat until she is ready for production but the stimulation of the first and largest daylength increase is already lost.

the technician gathering the flock data does not really need to wait until after midday to do the weighing, and the results would still be just as accurate. The weights in Figure 1 were taken by including all birds of the same pen during each weighing so no sample error would enter into the data. These hens were being fed 139 grams per bird (30.55lb/100) on an every-day basis.The weight patterns are typical of any age for hens in production, and are consistent and repeatable over a wide range of hen ages and weights, even including onset of lay. This research concludes that hens can be weighed at any time after two hours post clean-up with no change in the accuracy of the hen weights.This could help the technician make more productive use of the complete workday if there are several flocks to be weighed in a day's time.

PRODUCTION PERIOD Research at the University of Georgia in the US has shown that when the pullets are moved to the production house, feeding should be done daily, as the maturing pullet needs consistent nutrient inputs to mature properly.Again, the flock needs to be weighed at least weekly from housing through peak production. The weighing of hens is sometimes compromised by the hen having a certain amount of feed in her system

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Hen weights need to be monitored throughout the life of the flock to know if it is progressing properly. In the period from onset of lay (normally defined as the week of three per cent production) to peak, the flock needs to gain from 18 to 20 per cent in weight. Less than 18 per cent indicates that the hen may not be receiving enough nutrients for production and weight gain, which could affect persistency of lay. Conversely, too much gain - over 20 per cent - indicates that the hen is receiving more nutrients than


FEATURE ARTICLE

3,580

Average hen weight (g)

3,560 3,540 3,520 3,500 3,480 3,460 3,440 3,420 3,400 3,380 3,360 Pre-feeding At-clean-up

2 hours

4 hours

6 hours

8 hours

Hours after feeding Figure 1. Hen weights: Results from weights taken at 40 weeks and four days of age she needs and could easily become overweight, which also affects persistency. Hen weight is a good tool to monitor the flock status but other factors are also important in determining the feeding protocol. For example, if the flock is gaining properly but feed consumption time is excessively short or long, it indicates the direction that the flock weight could take in the following couple of weeks. Feed consumption times greater than three-and-ahalf to four hours would indicate that the flock could be receiving too much feed, and that the weights would be expected to go up. Conversely, if the feed is cleaned up in less than one to one-and-a-half hours, we would expect the following week's weight gains to be less than expected. Hens should be weighed at least every two weeks after peak to ensure that the feed allowance is being reduced properly. Weighing may need to be done more often in instances when weight gains are not meeting expected standards. Although every flock is a bit different, a common goal is to reduce the peak

feed amount by 12 to 14 per cent over a period of several weeks. This percentage would need to be modified according to the weight of the flock as it ages. The hens need to be gaining slowly after peak for the best persistency. Constant weight monitoring will allow accurate feed withdrawal. SUMMARY Individual bird weights are important to monitor the progress of the flock. The weight progress and uniformity of the flock can be monitored, and the egg performance can be compared to the actual weight history to fine-tune a flock programme. But this must be augmented with the regular handling of the flock, including recording the body composition and fat reserves before light stimulation. Attention to these details most often results in more consistent production, higher peaks and better persistency.

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Asia is Key to Global Egg Output Growth

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FEATURE ARTICLE

Feature Article

Asia is Key to Global Egg Output Growth Asia now accounts for almost 60 per cent of global hen egg production, according to poultry sector expert,Terry Evans, in his latest analysis of the world's egg industries. China dominates the league table within Asia, with a share of around twothirds of the total output from the region. Global hen egg production will reach a new record of around 65.5 million tonnes in 2013, almost entirely as the result of continued growth in Asia. A one per cent cut-back in the US will impact on the total for the Americas, while lower production in the European Union - as a result of the introduction of the ban on cage production - will at least partly offset further growth in the rest of Europe. The only official data on a global basis comes from the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) the most recent data covering the period to 2010 (Table 1 and Figure 1). During the decade to 2010, world hen egg output averaged 2.3 per cent a year, rising from 51 million tonnes to 63.8 million tonnes. Since 2010, the economic climate - in terms of both production costs and consumer purchasing power - has deteriorated, with the result that the annual expansion in egg production has slowed. Consequently, output in 2012 is assessed at around 65 million tonnes while for 2013, an increase of less than one per cent is anticipated, bringing the total to around 65.5 million tonnes. It is clear from Table 1 and Figure 1 that global growth is closely linked to the development of Asia's egg industry. Note that the global totals include hatching eggs, which are estimated to represent around five per cent. Back in 2000, Asia contributed some 29 million tonnes or almost 57 per cent of the global total of 51 million tonnes. By 2010, this region's share had risen to 58.6 per cent as production had climbed

9


Asia is Key to Global Egg Output Growth

Table 1. World egg production (million tonnes) 2000 Africa

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2012E

2013E

1.9

2.2

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.6

2.8

2.9

2.9

Americas

10.4

11.7

12.3

12.3

12.5

12.6

12.8

13.1

13.1

Asia

29.0

32.6

33.0

34.5

36.2

37.2

37.4

38.1

38.6

Europe

9.5

9.9

10.1

10.0

10.2

10.3

10.5

10.6

10.6

Oceania

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

51.0

56.6

57.9

59.6

61.8

62.8

63.8

65.0

65.5

WORLD

Source: FAO to 2010; E = author's estimates for 2012

to 37.4 million tonnes out of a total of 63.8 million tonnes, and it looks as though in 2013 Asia will produce around 38.6 million tonnes of a world total of some 65.5 million tonnes, pushing its contribution up to 59 per cent. In 2010, there were some 6,556 million layers worldwide, of which around 4,211 million (64 per cent) were in Asia. Of the near 50 countries in this region, 10 produce more than 500,000 tonnes of eggs a year, their combined output of nearly 34.6 million tonnes representing 92.3 of the regional total in 2010 (Tables 2, 3 and 4). China's dominance in this picture is clear from these figures and Figure 2. Output in China has escalated from just below 19

million tonnes in 2000 to almost 24 million tonnes in 2010, exhibiting an annual growth rate of 2.3 per cent. This was marginally slower than the 2.6 per cent recorded for the region as a whole hence, by the end of the decade, China's share of the total had slipped a shade from 65.2 per cent to 63.7 per cent. This observation is also true for the combined total of the 10 leading producing countries, their share having slipped from almost 94 per cent to 92.3 per cent, which serves to emphasise that considerable expansion has occurred among the other countries in Asia. Many managed to double their annual production, while their combined output increased by a million tonnes over the decade from 1.8 million tonnes to 2.9 million tonnes. Although the quantity of fowl eggs produced in China exceeds 28 million tonnes a year, the volume of hen

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Africa 2000

Americas 2005

2006

Asia 2007

Europe 2008

2009

Oceania 2010

Figure 1. Global hen egg production (million tonnes)

10

World 2012E

2013E


FEATURE ARTICLE Table 2. Leading egg producers in Asia ('000 tonnes) Country

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

China

18,911.9

21,040.6

20,935.2

21,833.2

23,292.2

23,633.7

23,827.4

India

2,035.0

2,568.0

2,814.0

2,976.0

2,969.3

3,323.0

3,378.1

Japan

2,535.4

2,481.0

2,487.7

2,583.3

2,553.6

2,507.5

2,515.0

Indonesia

642.0

856.6

1,010.8

1,174.6

1,122.6

1,071.5

1,117.8

Iran Isl. Rep.

579.0

758.0

677.0

703.0

727.0

725.4

741.0

Turkey

810.0

753.3

733.4

795.3

824.4

864.6

740.0

Thailand

514.6

468.7

513.3

539.4

565.6

577.0

585.5

Korea Rep.

478.8

514.9

537.4

543.8

566.1

566.0

570.4

Pakistan

344.1

400.9

456.5

479.3

503.4

529.1

556.4

Malaysia Total of above

390.6

442.0

453.0

476.0

479.0

510.0

540.0

27,241.4

30,284.0

30,618.3

32,103.9

33,603.2

34,307.8

34,571.6 Source: FAO

reporting a 5.2 per cent average annual increase over the years 2000 to 2010. Estimates of annual production vary, the most optimistic puts output in 2010 at 3.72 million tonnes, well above the FAO figure, with further growth of some 2.7 per cent in 2011 to 3.82 million tonnes. As always in these output calculations much depends on the average egg weight which, for India, some consider to be around 55g.

eggs amounts to around 24 million tonnes, the difference of more than four million tonnes being accounted for by other forms of poultry. The ratio of brown to white-shelled eggs is currently estimated at around 70:30, with 90 per cent of the commercial laying flock housed in cages. Like most producers, the Chinese are facing higher raw material costs but there are also concerns about labour shortages and the related rising labour charges. Consequently, nearfuture production growth could well be close to the one per cent recorded towards the end of the last decade.

Large increases in feed prices in particular will have dampened expansion since then, while consumer prices have escalated by as much as 40 per cent, having an adverse impact on demand. Indeed, the industry has asked the government to impose a ban on maize ex-

India is easily the second largest egg producer in Asia, 25

20

15

10

5

0 China

2000

India

Japan

2005

Indonesia

2006

Iran Isl. Rep.

2007

Turkey

Thailand

2008

Korea Rep.

2009

Pakistan

Malaysia

2010

Figure 2. Leading egg producers in Asia (million tonnes)

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Asia is Key to Global Egg Output Growth

Table 3. Hen egg production in Asia ('000 tonnes) Country

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Afghanistan

15.0

21.8

14.7

16.9

16.7

16.8

16.3

Armenia

21.4

28.8

25.7

29.2

31.7

34.7

38.6

Azerbaijan

30.4

49.0

45.7

52.3

69.6

72.9

71.0

2.7

2.0

2.8

3.0

2.7

2.9

3.0

125.0

185.0

178.0

177.0

186.0

154.0

188.0

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China Cyprus Georgia

4.8

5.7

6.5

6.3

6.8

6.9

7.0

11.7

13.3

14.8

17.1

16.8

15.9

17.6

18,911.9

21,040.6

20,935.2

21,833.2

23,292.2

23,633.7

23,827.4

10.6

9.5

9.1

8.6

10.0

10.0

9.9

20.1

28.0

13.9

24.3

24.3

23.9

24.6

2,035.0

2,568.0

2,814.0

2,976.0

2,969.3

3,323.0

3,378.1

Indonesia

642.0

856.6

1,010.8

1,174.6

1,122.6

1,071.5

1,117.8

Iran Isl. Rep.

579.0

758.0

677.0

703.0

727.0

725.4

741.0

Iraq

29.6

51.7

46.6

40.4

45.8

35.3

35.5

Israel

87.9

92.4

93.5

93.5

96.3

100.8

102.5

Japan

2,535.4

2,481.0

2,487.7

2,583.3

2,553.6

2,507.5

2,515.0

45.8

40.6

44.7

38.8

50.6

45.9

46.9

India

Jordan Kazakhstan

93.8

139.4

139.0

148.3

166.4

184.0

207.3

Korea Dem. Peo. Rep.

110.0

140.0

142.0

147.9

148.0

10.8

155.0

Korea Rep.

478.8

514.9

537.4

543.8

566.1

566.0

570.4

Kuwait

21.3

26.0

22.0

22.0

22.0

22.8

22.5

Kyrgyzstan

11.4

17.7

19.1

20.8

20.6

20.6

20.8

Lao Peo. Dem. Rep.

10.0

13.0

13.7

13.4

14.5

14.8

15.0

Lebanon

43.2

45.5

40.2

45.7

45.7

46.0

47.0

Malaysia

390.6

442.0

453.0

476.0

479.0

510.0

540.0

Mongolia

0.4

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.5

Myanmar

112.0

186.6

209.9

231.5

263.4

265.0

279.6

Nepal

22.2

28.8

29.4

30.1

30.9

30.8

31.5

Occ. Palestinian Ter.

36.9

37.4

37.9

41.0

39.4

39.7

40.5

Oman

6.8

9.5

9.0

9.0

9.3

9.3

9.3

Pakistan

344.1

400.9

456.5

479.3

503.4

529.1

556.4

Philippines

243.4

320.3

330.3

335.1

350.8

368.5

387.3

2.7

4.1

3.1

2.9

2.9

2.9

3.0

128.5

169.6

158.1

170.6

170.0

191.0

193.0

16.0

20.6

21.3

22.4

20.3

20.0

20.4

Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syrian Arab Rep.

52.3

49.0

51.1

51.9

59.0

64.8

64.6

127.3

155.2

189.0

171.4

151.4

162.4

162.4

Tajikistan

1.5

5.5

5.9

6.2

8.5

10.6

13.1

Thailand

514.6

468.7

513.3

539.4

565.6

577.0

585.5

Timor-Leste

1.2

0.9

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.1

810.0

753.3

733.4

795.3

824.4

864.6

740.0

Turkmenistan

21.0

45.1

37.0

47.9

47.7

49.6

50.0

United Arab Emirates

14.6

17.2

17.6

25.4

25.4

30.0

26.1

Uzbekistan

68.9

107.8

116.5

121.2

132.9

148.7

170.9

Viet Nam

185.4

197.4

198.5

223.0

247.0

273.3

321.1

Turkey

Yemen

31.1

48.4

50.8

53.6

56.4

58.6

60.6

ASIA

29,008.7

32,597.4

32,957.1

34,524.4

36,194.5

36,993.3

37,435.8

WORLD

51,012.5

56,609.2

57,935.6

59,589.3

61,774.8

62,832.1

63,782.3 Source: FAO

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FEATURE ARTICLE ports to try and halt the escalation of corn prices. So, it looks as though any increase in production this year will be small compared to recent years. All the commercial flock is housed in cages, and more than 90 per cent of eggs are white-shelled. Japan is the third largest egg producer. While annual production has shown some year-to-year fluctuation, it has hardly changed significantly throughout the past decade or so at around 2.5 million tonnes.The latest assessments indicate a small movement away from cages to barn production, with the latter currently accounting for some six per cent of all eggs against little more than one per cent a few years ago, according to data published by the International Egg Commission (IEC). The brown to white egg ratio is estimated at 39:61. According to the FAO, Indonesia's egg industry expanded rapidly by nine per cent a year between 2000 and 2007 to peak at 1.18 million tonnes but it has since contracted somewhat. During the first half of the decade covered by the FAO data, the egg industry in Iran also expanded quickly at more than 5.5 per cent a year to reach 758,000 tonnes in 2005. However, during the next five years, output has fluctuated somewhat and even failed to match the 2005 level in 2010. Furthermore, an outbreak of avian influenza has since brought about a severe contraction in production. All birds lay white eggs and are housed in cages. Production in Turkey has varied around an average of some 800,000 tonnes a year although some sources consider that in 2010, this figure exceeded 900,000 tonnes. However, there are indications that output has since been cut to around 874,000 tonnes in 2011. Some two-thirds of the flock produce brown eggs, while virtually 100 per cent of output comes from cage units.

Table 4. Asian egg production ranking in 2010 ('000 tonnes) Country China

23,827.4

India

3,378.1

Japan

2,515.0

Indonesia

1,117.8

Iran Isl. Rep.

741.0

Turkey

740.0

Thailand

585.5

Korea Rep.

570.4

Pakistan

556.4

Malaysia

540.0

Philippines

387.3

Viet Nam

321.1

Myanmar

279.6

Kazakhstan

207.3

Saudi Arabia

193.0

Bangladesh

188.0

Uzbekistan

170.9

Syrian Arab Rep

162.4

Korea Dem. Peo. Rep.

155.0

Israel

102.5

Azerbaijan

71.0

Sri Lanka

64.6

Yemen

60.6

Turkmenistan

50.0

Lebanon

47.0

Jordan

46.9

Occ. Palestinian Ter.

40.5

Armenia

38.6

Iraq

35.5

Nepal

31.5

United Arab Emirates

26.1

Georgia

24.6

Kuwait

22.5

Kyrgyzstan

20.8

Singapore

20.4

Cambodia

17.6

Afghanistan

16.3

Lao Peo. Dem. Rep.

15.0

Tajikistan

13.1

Cyprus

9.9

Oman

9.3

Brunei Darussalam

7.0

Bahrain

3.0

Qatar

3.0

Timor-Leste

1.1

Mongolia

0.5

Bhutan

0.3 Source: FAO

Although recording gains over the past decade, the average annual rate of expansion in both Thailand and Korea has been in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 per cent.

excess of 600,000 tonnes.

For the decade to 2010, the egg output in Pakistan expanded by about five per cent a year which, if it has been sustained, would put current production in

Output in Malaysia showed a good 3.3 per cent expansion in the 10 years to 2010 to approach 550,000 tonnes by the end of the period.

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Feature Article

Is Poor Drinker Management Costing You Money? Dennis Brothers, Jess Campbell, Jim Donald and Gene Simpson of the National Poultry Technology Center at Auburn University explain how poor drinker management can lead to increased your ventilation rates, the need for litter de-caking and add to the overall cost of broiler rearing during the winter. It is well understood that in winter, the main purpose of ventilation is not temperature management but air quality control: we monitor relative humidity and adjust ventilation accordingly to reduce overall litter moisture. This also keeps litter moisture down. If we do not control litter moisture, ammonia levels can rise and cause multiple problems such as poor bird health, impaired

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paw quality and overall lowered flock performance. One factor often seen in the field that makes the ventilation job more difficult – and expensive – is poor drinker line management.We provide water for birds to drink, and if our drinkers for any reason are allowing water to be wasted, going into the litter instead of the birds, producers are losing money, both at catch time because of lower flock performance, and through increased operating costs. Wasted water can only be taken out of the house by increasing ventilation or later by the litter machine. Both methods will result in an increase in flock cost.


FEATURE ARTICLE

The amount of moisture having to be removed from even a well-managed poultry farm can be staggering to consider. Birds need a lot of water to grow properly and efficiently, but typically only about one-third of the thousands of gallons we pump through the drinker lines actually comes out of the house in bird live weight.The rest of that moisture either stays in the litter or is pumped out of the house by ventilation. We certainly do not want to do anything that makes it harder for birds to get water or makes less water available. We do want to keep litter drier and reduce the amount of work the ventilation system has to do.  And that is what this article is about – cost-effective, simple ways to minimise excess moisture from poor drinker management. If you can reduce the amount of moisture put in the house, you can then reduce ventilation by some correlating amount without harming overall air quality. If you can cut back on ventilation without sacrificing air quality and save fuel cost all at the same time – that is a win-win-win situation. An example of just how much water comes into a modern poultry house is illustrated in the charts below.These numbers come from real world poultry operations in the Southeast raising a 6.25-pound broiler in 49 days. The total amount of water having gone into the house at 49 days was 48,165 gallons or 414,934 pounds. That equates to 207 tons of water. At catch, this house only produced 137,200 pounds (68 tons) of birds out the front door.  So in this case, only 33 per cent of the total water going into the house came out in the form of saleable bird weight.Where did the other 67 per cent, or 139 tons, go? It was either deposited into the litter or removed through the fans. As you can see, there is a lot of water to be removed that the birds do not convert into saleable pounds. It is generally accepted that around 65 to 75 per cent of the water coming into the house has to be removed by means other than the catching crew.  There are only two options – ventilation or the litter

This drinker system has an issue with leaking nipples. Notice wet caked litter under the drinker lines as well as drops of water that are continually leaking from the nipples. This system may benefit from a good cleaning and consistent flushing programme or could be in need of nipple replacement. This problem has been allowed to progress far too long and now the grower has a wet litter problem that he will be unable to solve by ventilation alone.

machine, and ventilation is the preferred method. In the example above, if poor drinker management caused only a two per cent increase in total incoming water, it could amount to approximately 1,000 gallons more water to be removed over the course of the flock. This would result in equivalently more ventilation needed for moisture removal. At an average outside temperature of 40°F and LP at $1.75 per gallon, and assuming the two per cent more water caused us to increase ventilation rates by an equal two per cent, that would result in about $110 more fuel cost per house per flock. That may not sound like much but when we consider that all we have to do to avoid this cost increase is a little management of our drinker systems, it becomes an ‘easy’ saving to obtain, not to mention the other benefits that better drinker management will yield as we discussed earlier – improved paw quality and better ammonia control, which equals overall better performance. Further, you have to realise that poor drinker line management and maintenance can result in much more than two per cent waste, and every two per cent more water wasted, going into the litter instead of the birds, is likely costing the grower another hundred dollars or more.

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Is Poor Drinker Management Costing You Money? What aspects of drinker management do growers and managers need to pay close attention to in order to avoid wasting water? The three most common problems are: • drinker nipple leakage • improper drinker line height adjustment, and • improper drinker line pressure adjustment

not being activated by a bird. The best way to combat this problem is consistent drinker system flushing and cleaning. Drinker systems need to be flushed and cleaned with an accepted cleaner between every flock. Consult your specific drinker system literature or contact the company’s representative for accepted cleaners for your specific system.  There are a few cleaners that most every system will accept. One of the more common cleaner/disinfectants proven to be effective is 35 per cent hydrogen peroxide, which can be found at most poultry supply locations in gallon jugs. A grower can use a medicator system and pump the 35 per cent peroxide through the medicator at a rate of one ounce per gallon of water into the drinker system. 

Water taken into a broiler house per day: single flock

Flush with this mixture until foamy water comes out the end of the drinker lines, then let it sit for at least a couple of hours. It is a good idea to manually activate every nipple on the line while the cleaning agent is in the system.This will help keep the nipples themselves clean. Next, flush the lines with clean water until nothing but clear water comes out the end of the drinker line flush port. It is also a good idea to flush the drinker lines with clear water at least twice during the grow-out for at least 20 minutes per line.This helps keep the bio-films and contaminants to a minimum and helps make the ‘between-flock’ cleaning more effective. 

Total water for flock per house

DRINKER NIPPLE MANAGEMENT This is probably the most common issue we see in the field. Most modern drinker systems have an acceptable nipple that, when new or when cleaned and maintained properly, minimises leakage. However, it does not take long for the rigors of a modern poultry house to impact the drinker system. Bio-films and contaminants getting built up in the drinker lines and ultimately, the nipples themselves will eventually decrease in their ability to deliver the appropriate amount of water and to stop flow completely when

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It must be noted that if a drinker system is already heavily contaminated with bio-film and nipples are leaking badly, this simple hydrogen peroxide flush will likely not be sufficient to get the system back to optimum working order. If this is the case, it is suggested that the grower contact a representative for their specific drinker system for directions on how to clean an extremely dirty system. Care must also be taken when running other additives through the drinker system, such as vitamins or iodine. Some of these additives can cause build-up in the drinker lines and contribute to leakage problems. Some can encourage the formation of bio-films in the drinker line, especially sugary substances. These bio-


FEATURE ARTICLE films cause pressure problems and leaky nipples and can pose health problems for the birds. Flushing the drinker lines with clean water after any additive is run in the system will help avoid these problems.

may allow some contaminants to start passing through, clogging up drinker regulators and causing nipples to get hung open and leak water onto the litter.

Drinker system nipples can also leak from wear after an extended life in the house. Most drinker system nipples should last five to 10 years before replacement or refitting is needed. Most modern systems now have removable nipples that can be replaced individually without having to replace the entire line or system. Some drinker systems have rebuildable nipples. Either way, if your system is in this five- to 10year age range or beyond and your nipples tend to leak, it is time to consider replacing them with new or rebuilt nipples. Cleaning will not solve an age and wear problem.

DRINKER LINE HEIGHT Different systems’ nipples may be triggered differently and this will change the height the lines need to be in relation to the bird at varying ages. Growers should check with their integrator’s service representative and make sure they know how the the drinker system’s nipples operate and how to match that to the birds’ age.

Not necessarily in the category of nipple management but definitely having the potential to impact nipple performance is proper drinker system filter management. Filters must be changed on a regular basis, preferably after every flock. It may become necessary

Having the drinker lines too high or too low will impact how much water the birds get as well as how much water the birds waste. The most common problem is growers not making the appropriate adjustments in a timely manner.The speed at which the modern broiler grows is remarkably fast and the height relationship to the drinker system changes daily. Fluctuations in litter can affect the bird/drinker height relationship daily, as well. Therefore, the drinker system height needs to be adjusted daily. If a grower goes a week without making drinker height adjustments, he can be as much as several inches below the birds’ optimal drinker height. This can not only result in water wastage, but will impact bird performance. Having the drinkers too high can be equally detrimental. Having to reach too high for water will cause birds to waste more water as they can only peck at the nipple instead of activating it properly.

If allowed to go on too long, leaking nipples can cause a significant wet litter problem in a poultry house. These nipples have gone too long without proper attention and should be cleaned, rebuilt or replaced. Once leaking reaches this extent, ventilation is no longer effective.

to change a filter during a flock if a grower’s water supply tends to be fouled with contaminants. If filters are left unattended and become full of contaminants, they can not only restrict water flow, but

Furthermore, making large height adjustments, two to three inches at a time, will cause the birds stress as they get accustomed to the drastically changed height. This may cause some birds not to drink, negatively affecting performance. It is always better to adjust drinkers daily in small increments. A grower should also monitor the results of each drinker adjustment to see how the birds relate to the new nipple height and make further adjustments if needed. Growers should also monitor the levelness of the drinker lines daily and make adjustments as needed. Any major dips or humps in the line can cause leaks or a lack of water in those areas.

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Is Poor Drinker Management Costing You Money? DRINKER LINE PRESSURE Line pressure, much like height, needs to be adjusted often throughout the flock. Daily adjustments may not be necessary but are encouraged. Adjusting pressure once a week is usually sufficient for most of the flock. However, as the birds approach market age, more frequent attention should be paid to line pressures. In general, line pressures should always be increasing as the birds age. Too much pressure typically contributes to water waste and leaky nipples. Too much pressure causes the birds to waste water when they trigger a nipple as well as making it harder for the nipple to properly shut off the flow. Too little pressure will effectively starve birds for water the further away from the regulator you go. Careful monitoring of the sight tube balls at each end of the line is needed to assure that pressure is equal the entire length of the drinker system. If the sight balls are not at the same height within the tubes, this could indicate a pressure issue or a levelness issue. Clogged drinker lines could also contribute to this problem. Hence, proper flushing and cleaning procedures also help a grower effectively manage their drinker pressure.

Birds should be able to stand comfortably and easily activate the nipple to maximise the amount of water getting into the birds and minimise the water being wasted.

THE BOTTOM LINE Proper drinker management takes very little additional time, yet offers quite a few benefits. In addition to the $110 increased fuel cost shown in the authors’ conservative example, operating additional fan runtime and removing additional cake has costs, as well. Performance losses from poor drinker management can also be very expensive.  Proper environment will always be a key factor in successful broiler production, and drinker management plays a key role in ensuring optimal bird growth in a proper environment.  Do not let poor drinker management force you to increase your ventilation rates, add de-caking time, and add more overall cost to your flocks this winter. 

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If birds can drink while sitting down, that is a sure sign that your drinker lines are too low. A high percentage of the water this bird is activating is getting into the litter.


FEATURE ARTICLE

Feature Article

Selection for Improved Leg Health in Purebred Broiler Lines and Underlying Genetic Parameters As a result of genetic selection, the prevalence of four leg conditions in purebred broiler lines has declined over the last 20 to 25 years, new research from Scotland shows. Leg health is an important component of broiler welfare and the economics of broiler production, according to Dr Dagmar Kapell and co-authors with Aviagen Ltd in Newbridge and the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. In the journal, Poultry Science, recently, they describe a study of the development of leg health in three purebred commercial broiler lines over 25 years of selection as well as an investigation of the genetic background of leg health traits in current populations of these lines. Leg health traits examined were deformities of the long bones and crooked toes, recorded since 1985, and tibial dyschondroplasia and hock burn, recorded since 1990. The prevalence of crooked toes and hock burn decreased mainly in the first decade (range among lines -1.2 to -2.3 per cent and -1.3 to -1.5 per cent per year, respectively), after which it stabilised at low levels. The prevalence of long bone deformities and tibial dyschondroplasia decreased by -0.6 to -0.9 per cent and -0.4 to -1.2 per cent per year, respectively.

burn from 8.6 to 12.9 per cent, 0.6 to 2.6 per cent, 4.6 to 8.0 per cent, and 4.0 to 12.2 per cent, respectively. Estimates of heritability were 0.04 to 0.07 for long bone deformities, 0.01 to 0.10 for crooked toes, 0.10 to 0.27 for tibial dyschondroplasia and 0.06 to 0.09 for hock burn (all SE<0.01). Estimates of the genetic correlations between long bone deformities and crooked toes were 0.11 to 0.43 (all SE<0.09), between these traits and hock burn were negligible, and of tibial dyschondroplasia with long bone deformities, crooked toes and hock burn were -0.26 to 0.16 (all SE<0.11). Estimates of genetic correlations between the leg health traits and bodyweight were slightly to moderately unfavourable, ranging from 0.09 to 0.37 (all SE<0.06). The differences between the lines suggest that strategies for simultaneous improvement of all traits tailored for each line individually have been effective, according to Kapell and co-authors. They added that their research demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of selection for improving leg health in broilers and highlights that, despite somewhat unfavourable genetic correlations with bodyweight, these traits can be improved simultaneously in a balanced breeding programme.

Genetic parameters were estimated using data from four recent generations. The bodyweight ranged from 2.0kg to 2.4kg at five weeks of age; the prevalence of long bone deformities, crooked toes, tibial dyschondroplasia and hock

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Poultry Industry News BBSRC WELCOMES GOVERNMENT SCIENCE FUNDING UK - BBSRC has welcomed news of government funding that will benefit world-leading bioscience. In a speech at the Policy Exchange, Minister for Universities and Science, David Willetts, gave further details of the allocation of the additional ÂŁ600M of funding, mainly for capital investment in science and technology that was announced by the Chancellor George Osborne, in the Autumn Statement in December 2012. The speech highlighted excellence in UK agricultural research and noted the role of The Roslin Institute, which receives BBSRC strategic-funding, in breeding the world's chickens - of the ÂŁ85Bn global poultry market, 80 per cent of breeding chickens come from genetic stock developed in the UK. The details of the funding included investment in BBSRC's world-leading ... Read More...


Breeding & Genetics

How Will Genetics Feed the World? US - As soon as the phrases "genetic improvement" and "new technology" are used in the same breath, the image that many laymen create is one of monsters and Frankenstein food, writes Chris Harris. However, are the two really mutually exclusive or can they live together happily? This year's Oxford Faming Conference brought the questions on genetics, new technology, genetic modification and improvements in agriculture into sharp focus.

ciency-enhancing technology. FAO also says that by 2050, the world population will grow to 9.1 billion, per-capita income will rise by 150 per cent and global consumption of meat, milk and eggs will double. How that increase in production can be met sustainably and economically is the big question taxing scientists, politicians, farmers, processors and consumers alike.

At a time when the global population is growing and growing largely in underdeveloped and developing countries, the need to produce more food, more efficiently is unquestioned.

The problems of feeding a growing population have raised the question among some lobby groups over whether there should be any livestock farming at all and whether a vegetarian diet is the most sustainable way forward.

It is predicted that by 2050, the world's population will need 100 per cent more food and, according to the UN FAO, 70 per cent of it must come from effi-

However, not only is the global population growing in numbers but it is also growing in wealth and with that growth in wealth comes a desire and need for a

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Poultry Industry News more refined diet that includes meat and eggs. But as this wealthier population demands more animal protein, the agricultural sector must find ways of meeting that demand. As the Oxford Farming Conference heard this year, genetics has a big role to play in the improvements of yield - whether it is in crops or in animal protein - but genetic improvement is not the sole solution. Increases in yields of both crops and milk over the last 50 years have been 50 per cent down to improvements in breeding.The other half of the answer has come down to improved feed and feeding, improved housing and an improved environment and care of both crops and livestock. Mark Smith (pictured), the global bovine product development and production director at Genus, said that in the last 50 years, improvements in pig litters had seen a growth from 14 piglets per sow to around 23 and the improvements in the animal and the conformation while partly coming from genetic selection

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had also come from improved production management. This had also led to better feed conversion rates, better conformation and more lean meat and less manure, producing less impact on the environment. The improvements between 1962 and 2009 had seen 71 per cent more pigs, 38 per cent less feed used, 39 per cent more lean meat and 50 per cent less manure produced. The improvements are 60 per cent down to genetic improvement. In dairy herds, genetic improvements in the herd over the last 40 years have contributed to increased milk yields through genetic selection, by looking at more traits than in the past to ensure the production of a dairy cow that is more fertile and more productive. "We are now looking at selection for production and fitness and we are even looking at the vet costs in production as well," he said. Read More...


Breeding & Genetics HOT TOPICS TO BE ADDRESSED AT WPSA MEETING

AVIAGEN LAUNCHES NEW LITERATURE DURING 60TH ANNIVERSARY AT IPPE US - Aviagen recently celebrated 60 years of participation at the International Production & Processing Expo (IPPE) in Atlanta with CEO, Randall Ennis, accepting an award from the US Poultry & Egg Association on behalf of the company. Aviagen first exhibited in 1948 at the Ansley Hotel, where the show originally began, when there were just 200 poultry men in attendance. The 2013 IPPE had 1,100 exhibitors and 21-plus acres of exhibition space. Today, the show is an international industry event that draws over 20 per cent of its attendees from more than 100 different countries. Clear proof that times have changed and that the poultry industry is one that is always looking to move forward and improve were evident at the show. It is a dynamic world and Aviagen recognises that good regional technical expertise and support is the best commitment breeding companies... Read More...

UK - The Annual Meeting of the national branch of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) will be held on 16 and 17 April at Nottingham University. Key topics in the programme are the future for therapeutic use of antibiotics and unexpected consequences of genetic selection in broilers and turkeys. The highlight of the year will again be the Annual Meeting, this year held on 16 and 17 April 2013, says Branch Secretary, Steve Lister. Despite some suggestions of a change in venue, the 2013 Meeting will again be held at the Jubilee Campus of Nottingham University, which offers a range of accommodation and meeting rooms and the opportunity to network and renew acquaintances with WPSA colleagues. As in previous years the Meeting will run alongside the BSAS and AVTRW symposia, will incorporate a joint session, the Hammond... Read More...

WE DON’T JUST G R O W CHICKENS. WE BREED SUCCESS. Aviagen leads with better birds and better products, investing aggressively to ensure you are getting the best chicken today and tomorrow. By committing 10% of annual revenue to our breeding program we produce genetic improvements in feed efficiency, growth, fertility and bird health that can be quantified in our three leading commercial brands, year after year. When you partner with Aviagen you share in unrivalled innovation, the largest network of 15 global supply locations and the expertise of accessible, regional teams serving 130 markets worldwide. Aviagen is the future of chicken. 

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Poultry Industry News ANTIBIOTICS IN AGRICULTURE: NEED FOR ONE HEALTH APPROACH US - For progress to be made in resolving the issues surrounding antibiotic use in livestock production, leaders in animal, human and environmental health must find common ground. That is among the conclusions in a White Paper from the 2012 Antibiotics Conference. The conference, 'A One Health Approach to Antimicrobial Use & Resistance: A Dialogue for a Common Purpose' was held in Columbus, Ohio in November 2012, organised by the US the National Institute for Animal Agriculture (NIAA). Antibiotics improve human, animal and plant health, and increase life expectancy, according to the Executive Summary of the report.While a majority of individuals acknowledge the positive role antibiotics play in the health of humans, animals and plants, the topic of antimicrobial resistance - when antibiotics can no longer cure bacterial infections - is frequently misunderstood, misappropriated and polarizing. Read More...

AVIAN HEPATITIS E VIRUS INFECTION DETECTED IN FINLAND FINLAND - Avian hepatitis E virus infection has been detected in Finland for the first time at an individual egg-laying henhouse. The infection was confirmed in tests carried out by the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira in January 2013. It has not been detected that avian hepatitis E virus infection would spread to mammals or humans. The eggs may be small in size, but are completely edible. Hepatitis E virus may cause raised mortality rates and reduced egg production. The egg quality is normal. If young birds are infected, it may delay the start of egglaying and reduce peak production. Hepatitis E virus is transmitted via faeces that have entered the birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gastrointestinal tract. Good production hygiene is also important, as is cleaning and disinfection of the halls and equipment between bird batches in addition to preventative disease protection. Read More...


Health & Welfare News NEST MATTING, LITTER IMPACT LAYER PLUMAGE CONDITION FRANCE - Layer performance was unaffected by the lining material used in nests and the pecking/scratching area or litter provision in furnished cages (colony cages), according to new research at ANSES. However, artificial turf mats in the pecking/scratching area resulted in less feather loss than rubber mats, and plastic mesh in the nests increased mortality. A new study at the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES) in Ploufragan shows the importance of choosing the most suitable linings and litter to obtain the best possible compromise between the behavioural needs of laying hens, zootechnical performance and animal health. The provision of litter and the lining of the pecking/scratching area and nests to improve the welfare of caged laying hens had effects on mortality, plumage quality and some measures of performance, Maryse Guinebretière and colleagues report in the current issue of Poultry Science. Read More...

STUDY REVEALS REDUCED EFFICACY OF H5N1 VACCINES IN EGYPT EGYPT - Researchers are calling for a review of the prevention and control strategy for the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in Egypt. In light of their findings, Ghazi Kayali of St Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis in the US and colleagues there and at Egypt's National Research Center in Giza recommend that the H5N1 prevention and control strategy in Egypt be updated and reinforced. Special consideration should be given to the vaccination strategy, they say, and the use of vaccines based on currently circulating viruses is advisable. In a paper published in Poultry Science, they explain that, after emerging in Egypt in 2006, HPAI H5N1 viruses continued to cause outbreaks in Egyptian poultry and sporadic human infections. The strategy used by Egyptian authorities relied on vaccinating poultry, depopulating infected areas, and increasing awareness... Read More...

VACCINATION RESPONSIBLE FOR FALL IN SALMONELLA INFECTIONS

INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

UK - Mass poultry vaccination programmes introduced to combat Salmonella infections have led to a dramatic fall in the number of cases since the late 1990s, according to a researcher at the University of Liverpool.

US - The term 'antibiotic resistance' has several definitions, and when it is described as a phenotypic trait, there are different cut-off points for determining whether an organism is susceptible to an antibiotic or completely resistant. Misunderstandings also surround questions such as how resistance develops, where it comes from, and when or if it will disappear.

Salmonella are important food-borne pathogens worldwide, causing diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, fever and abdominal pain.There are currently around 6 million cases of illness from Salmonella across the EU each year, the majority of which are linked to food items such as eggs, chicken, beef, pork, salad vegetables and dairy products. Between 1981 and 1991, the number of Salmonella infections rose by 170 per cent in the UK, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella Enteritidis which peaked in 1993. Read More...

Dr Randy Singer, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, attempted to answer these questions during the first day of the 'Antibiotic Conference - Current Issue for the Poultry and Egg Industry', held during the 2013 International Production & Processing Expo (IPPE). He noted that the lack of harmonization across countries, regions, and times regarding the cut-off point for resistance is a challenge ... Read More...

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Poultry Industry News NEED TO FEED PROGRAMMES CAMPYLOBACTERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S 'SAT NAV' UK - A rumbling tummy is our body's way of telling us "it's time for lunch". Likewise, bacteria need to know when it's time to eat. Researchers at the Institute of Food Research on the Norwich Research Park have uncovered how the food-borne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni can change its swimming behaviour to find a location with more food. Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the UK, with more than 371,000 cases annually. When people get infected, the bacteria need to find their way from the source of contamination, most often undercooked poultry, to the cells lining the gut, passing through thick layers of mucus. In these different locations, Campylobacter must find enough food to sustain itself as well as a suitable environment to carry out respiration, the process of generating energy. Read More...

FAO URGES STRONGER MEASURES ON GLOBAL HEALTH THREATS GLOBAL - The world risks a repeat of the disastrous 2006 bird flu outbreaks unless surveillance and control of this and other dangerous animal diseases is strengthened globally, FAO warns. "The continuing international economic downturn means less money is available for prevention of H5N1 bird flu and other threats of animal origin.This is not only true for international organizations but also countries themselves," says FAO Chief Veterinary Officer Juan Lubroth. "Even though everyone knows that prevention is better than cure, I am worried because in the current climate governments are unable to keep up their guard." According to FAO, continued strict vigilance is required, however, given that large reservoirs of the H5N1 virus still exist in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, in which the disease has become endemic. Read More...


Biosecurity & Hygiene FOUR MILLION BIRDS A YEAR NOW TREATED WITH RED MITE CONTROL

WITH HOT AIR TREATMENT, BACTERIA FLY THE COOP

UK - The unique FossilShield + PCS professional onsite electrostatic application is now used on farms with a combined capacity for four million birds nationwide. The treatment is predominantly applied to free-range and breeder farms on repeat turnaround cycles of 11 to 13 months.

US - Poultry producers can reduce bacterial crosscontamination in poultry cages by treating the cages with forced air that has been heated to 122F, according to a study by US Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists.

FOSSILSHIELD is a non-toxic diatomaceous powder. As the mite attempt to remove FOSSILSHIELD from their skin, the powder begins to scratch away their waxy outer layer, exposing the fatty tissue underneath. The powder then dries this tissue, killing the insect naturally. The application allows the powder to grip and wrap around different surfaces and materials, vertical or horizontal, and provides an easier treatment solution to areas that are awkward to reach by hand. Seventy per cent of customers have...

While being transported in coops on trucks, poultry that have bacteria such as Campylobacter can contaminate, through their feces, other poultry that are free of pathogens.Those disease-causing bacteria can then be passed on to the next group of birds during the next trip, and so forth, unless the cycle is broken. Campylobacter is a food-borne pathogen that can be present in raw or undercooked poultry. Since the bacteria are commonly found in the digestive tracts of poultry, they're readily deposited onto coops and trucks when contaminated animals are transported to processing plants. Read More...

Read More...

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Poultry Industry News OMEGA-3 CAN HELP LAYING HENS AVOID BONE DAMAGE UK - Most of us are aware of the potential health benefits of omega-3 found in fish oil and flax seed. Now researchers have found that omega-3 could help laying hens avoid bone damage, which affects millions of hens each year, and the research may also help human patients suffering from osteoporosis The three-year research project, led by Dr John Tarlton and colleagues from the University of Bristol's School of Veterinary Sciences, investigated the benefits of omega-3 supplemented diets in laying hens. They looked at the full biochemical and cellular mechanisms through which omega-3 is able to improve bone health.This study, published in the journal, 'BONE', could also have potential benefits for human osteoporosis, a disease that affects almost three million people in the UK. Free range hens housed in full scale commercial systems were provided diets supplemented with omega3 alpha linolenic acid... Read More...

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Feeding & Nutrition NUTRECO ON TRACK TOWARDS 'AMBITION 2016'

HIGH COST OF COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILERS

GLOBAL - Feed company Nutreco has reported a strong year for 2012. Revenue increased by 10.8 per cent to â&#x201A;Ź5,229.1 million, compared to 2011. Of this increase, 1.8 per cent is due to organic volume growth.

US - Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease affecting the US broiler industry. An estimated $90 million is spent in the US, and over $3 billion spent worldwide, for coccidiosis prevention annually.

The company also noted that full year earnings increased by 13.2 per cent to â&#x201A;Ź262.1 million. Knut Nesse, CEO of Nutreco, stated: "2012 was a record year for Nutreco. In challenging economic times, we have continued to support our customers through innovative and sustainable feed solutions that contribute to their productivity and profitability. I'm pleased that we realised the strongest operational results in our growth segments Fish Feed and Premix & Feed Specialties. "We made significant progress in the first year of our strategy 'Ambition 2016 - driving...

The global impact of coccidiosis due to decreased performance, morbidity, and mortality is an estimated $300 million US dollars. Coccidia infect every poultry house worldwide. Eradication is nearly impossible. The parasites are very prolific, and capable of developing resistance to antibiotics, chemicals and ionophores. To further complicate the situation, limited industry resources are dedicated to new product development for coccidia control. Therefore, it is beneficial to understand the disease, recognize its impact on bird health and performance, and have an effective anti-coccidial rotation program implemented. Read More...

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Poultry Industry News TOWARDS GLOBAL FEED LCA GUIDELINES

OMEGA-3: IT’S A QUESTION OF BALANCE!

EU - The European Feed Manufacturer's Association (FEFAC) and AFIA are joining forces to harmonize the methodology for environmental footprinting of compound feed and to publish the first Feed LCA recommendations in 2013.

UK - Most modern livestock diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and have excessive levels of omega-6 fatty acids due to increased use of vegetable proteins and reduced levels or removal of fishmeal.

The FEFAC and AFIA consortium currently gathers seven feed companies (Agrifirm, Cargill, De Heus, Denkavit, For Farmers, Nutreco,Van Drie Group) and seven feed associations (AFIA, AIC, Bemefa, Dakofo, FEFAC, Nevedi, SNIA) which share a common interest in the development of methodologies for the assessment of the environmental impact linked to feed production and consumption and LCA database. The consortium expects to reach a first milestone in 2013 with the publication of the first version of the Feed LCA Recommendations and guidance document. This initiative takes place in the framework of the UN FAO-led Partnership on benchmarking and monitoring the environmental performance of livestock supply chains, which... Read More...

These high levels of omega-6’s cause excessive inflammatory responses which can result in reduced performance and profitability. The inclusion of relatively low levels of omega-3 fatty acid supplements can help to redress the balance by helping to reduce excess inflammation and helping support improved performance. They are known to improve reproductive performance and much data has been published showing improved hatchability and increased chick numbers. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in high levels in spermatozoa and increased dietary levels have shown improved sperm volume and quality in male breeders. In house trials have shown improved growth rates and feed conversion in broilers together with improved bone strength and histology. Read More...

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Feeding & Nutrition POULTRY PRODUCERS NEED ACCESS TO SUSTAINABLE PROTEIN SOURCE UK - "Feed costs are a key element to the profitability of a poultry unit. The price of wheat and soya has rocketed and we need to reach a point where poultry producers can have access to a sustainable source of protein," said Dr Michael Lee, IBERS, at the NFU Cymru Annual Poultry conference held at the NFU Cymru headquarters in Builth. Dr Lee said, "Research into alternative protein sources â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not just for the poultry sector â&#x20AC;&#x201C;but for all ruminants and aquaculture, is well underway at IBERS. Last year IBERS started a couple of projects looking at the nutritional value and improving yields of lupin, pea and bean crops in collaboration with industry and other research partners. The main aim of the projects is to give farmers more control on the sourcing of protein by providing alternative homegrown solutions." Read More...

THE NEW NORMAL: $5-PLUS CORN, $300-PLUS SOYBEAN MEAL US - The new normal for animal feed costs will be at least $5 corn and $300 soybean meal, according to Thomas Elam of FarmEcon during his presentation on 'The Economic State of the Industry'. Mr Elam was speaking at the 'Meat and Poultry Research Conference' held at the 2013 International Production & Processing Expo (IPPE).The conference was co-sponsored by the American Meat Institute, US Poultry & Egg Association, the American Meat Science Association and the Poultry Science Association. "Will we see $10 corn and $650 soybean meal?" Mr Elam questioned. "It's very possible. Also, $5 corn and $300 soybean meal is equally probable." But, he believes those are minimums in the future. "We will continue to see volatile feed costs for the next 1820 months," Elam continued. "There will be no significant change through March and April. Then, it will depend on the weather this summer. If there is no rain again this year, we're... Read More...

CHINA SAYS GRAIN SECURITY TOP PRIORITY CHINA - Ensuring grain security and the supply of major farm products will always be a top priority in China's development of modern agriculture, Chinese authorities said in its first policy document for 2013. China should never slacken agricultural production, said the document, adding that works should be done to accelerate the development of modern agricultural industry and strengthen both material and technical support for agricultural development. The first policy document, issued by the central committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council every year, is dubbed the No.1 central document.This is the 10th consecutive year in which the document focused on rural issues. The country will continue to stabilize and increase grain output by keeping the area of land sown to grain crops stable, improving farm production structure and raising per-unit yields, said the document. Read More...

FEED SURVEY: GLOBAL PRODUCTION 959 MILLION TONS US - The world is producing 959 million tons of feed and has increased its production by at least four per cent in the last year, according to the 2013 Global Feed Tonnage Survey. The survey was released by Alltech, which assessed the compound feed production of 134 countries in December 2012, through information obtained in partnership with local feed associations and its sales team, who visit more than 26,000 feed mills annually. "The 2013 publication of the annual year-end assessment by Alltech is being released as an industry outlook resource for the new calendar year and will hopefully allow governments, non-governmental organisations and the greater public to appreciate the value that the feed industry is generating globally," said Aidan Connolly, vice president... Read More...

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Poultry Industry News REGISTRATION OPEN FOR EUROPEAN POULTRY NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM GERMANY - Registration is now open for the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, to be held in August; abstract submissions close on 15 February. If you are interested in attending the 19th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, which will be held in Potsdam, Germany on 26 to 29 August 2013, registration is now possible through the symposium home page [click here]. The deadline for abstract submission is 15 February 2013. The organisers are looking forward to meeting you in Potsdam in August.

EVALUATING CORN, SOYBEAN CONSUMPTION PROJECTIONS US - USDA has released new projections for marketing year consumption of US corn and soybeans. Prices will now be at least partially influenced by how closely the rate of consumption tracks these projections, writes Darrel Good. For corn, the projection of marketing year exports was reduced by 50 million bushels, to a 41-year low of 900 million bushels. Through the first 23 weeks of the marketing year, export inspections totaled 327 million bushels. The Census Bureau export estimate for the first four months of the year was 14 million bushels larger than the inspections estimate. Assuming that margin persists, exports during the remainder of the year need to total 559 million bushels, or an average of 19.1 million bushels per week, to reach the USDA projection. The average pace to date is 14.9 million. As of 31 January, only 218 million bushels had been sold for export, but not yet shipped, compared to outstanding sales of 351 million bushels a year earlier.

GOOD PRACTICE FEED MANUAL TO BE PUBLISHED IN CHINESE CHINA - The International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF) together with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) have launched the Chinese language version of the “Feed Manual of Good Practices for the Feed Industry”. The Feed Manual, the first of its kind, was published by IFIF and FAO to increase safety and feed quality at the production level, and was officially presented in Rome at FAO Headquarters to the Chinese Feed Manufacturers Association (CFIA). Alexandra de Athayde, IFIF Executive Director, explains, “The Feed Manual is designed to increase safety and feed quality at the production level both for industrial production and on farm mixing.” Ms de Athayde added, “We are very pleased that we have launched the Chinese language version of the Feed Manual. China is the number one producer of animal feed today and only by working together can we continue to ensure feed... Read More...

FEED INGREDIENTS CONSORTIUM SETS UP SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL BELGIUM - The International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF) and the EU Association of Specialty Feed Ingredients and their Mixtures (FEFANA), have announced the launch of a Scientific Council of distinguished world-class experts who will serve as the expert advisory body of the IFIF/FEFANA Specialty Feed Ingredients Sustainability Project (SFIS). The Scientific Council includes experts on ISO LCA methodology and animal nutrition/feed from Asia-Pacific, North America, Europe and South-America.

With prospects for a much larger corn harvest in Argentina and another large crop in Brazil this year, there is some chance that exports will fall short of the current projection.

The SFIS project is designed to measure and establish the role of specialty feed ingredients on the environmental impact of livestock production and the Scientific Council will provide independent expert advice on the project during the course of the work in order to ensure scientifically robust inputs in the analysis and prepare the ground for...

Read More...

Read More...

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Poultry Industry News AGRILAMP WILL EXHIBIT AT VIV ASIA THAILAND - Over the last few years, Agrilamp has become known for its innovative approach to lighting solutions for the agricultural sector, as well as its industry leading research programs. Agrilamp is now a recognised brand throughout Europe and America, with tried and trusted products that provide real-world benefits such as reduced power consumption and increased animal welfare, as well as increased production rates. With its recent success in its continued expansion, Agrilamp has now set its sights on also offering these benefits to the Asian markets. Agrilamp will be attending VIV Asia, Bangkok, between 13 and 15 March 2013, where all potential new distributors for this region can view and discuss the company's full range of products. To set up a meeting to discuss distribution, please contact john.matcham@agrilamp.com... Read More...

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Housing & Equipment EXHAUST FAN RESOLVES THE CAPACITY GAP

SANTREV ON SHOW IN NORTH AMERICA

GLOBAL - Pericoli has now closed the capacity gap with their new EOS/EWS42" range, replacing the traditional 36-inch fans, which have been designed and engineered to create a seamless and efficient transition of your ventilation programme.

US - Santrev have pushed on with their global expansion by exhibiting in North America for the first time at the International Production and Processing Expo in Atlanta, Georgia.

With innovative design and engineering, a small increase in the outer dimensions (Âą 5 per cent), resulted in an increase in capacity of 23 per cent and an increase in efficiency of 17 per cent. The new EOS/EWS42" fan range incorporates: â&#x20AC;˘ aerodynamic shutters â&#x20AC;˘ plastic shutter socket eliminating air and light â&#x20AC;˘ updated motor plate and new propeller hub for greater rigidity â&#x20AC;˘ improved aerodynamic drive pulley with increased air flow, and â&#x20AC;˘ new safety net access system. Read More...

The expo, now in its 65th year, played host to South American Santrev representatives Aralli Villanueva and Jason Kelly as well as Santrev Director Luke Trevanion, Australian Business Development Manager Deran Weale, Australian Project Manager Chris Bishop and Technical Veterinarian Support with Dr Stephen McGoldrick. The results look promising, with Santrev Director Luke Trevanion fielding queries from a high volume of potential international clients, building on their already solid reputation as poultry house construction specialists. "We encountered huge support and interest from around the globe, particularly South America, Africa and the South Pacific, which is a great sign that the Santrev name is out... Read More...

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35


Poultry Industry News CEVA STRESSES NEED FOR FURTHER INNOVATION IN HATCHERY VACCINATION US - Ceva teams used year’s International Poultry Expo, the world's largest poultry exhibition, to promote the latest technological advances in hatchery vaccination. For the first time, a single, combined dose of vaccine given in the hatchery can produce life-long protection against Newcastle and Gumboro diseases. Ceva calls this significant step forward, using Vectormune® ND and Transmune® IBD – The "Perfect Pair." Every month the world’s population grows by a city the size of London and to meet this demand poultry production is predicted to rise 60 per cent by 2030. Ceva has a complete line of vector vaccines, the largest registered in the USA. These new technology vaccines in addition to equipment and expert services combine to provide the most innovative offer to the hatchery. Each small advance will contribute to making poultry production more efficient and sustainable, therefore contributing to the challenge of feeding a growing world population.

FUND OFFERS EGG INCUBATOR LOANS KENYA - Young Kenyans interested in poultry farming can now apply for egg hatching incubators on credit from the Youth Enterprise Development Fund . "There is a ready market for chicken in the country, and the youth can be self dependent if they take up poultry," said the state agency’s chief executive, Mr Juma Mwatata. DailyNation reports that the incubators, to be distributed by Comnette Technologies, are fully computerised and can hatch up to 528 eggs at a go.


Incubation & Hatching DECUYPERE TO WORK EXCLUSIVELY FOR PETERSIME

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS USES EGGANALYZER IN RESEARCH

BELGIUM - On 24 October 2012, Professor Eddy Decuypere, world authority in the field of incubation, retired from the University of Leuven, where he worked at the department of Biosystems, Division of Livestock-Nutrition-Quality at the Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Dr Decuypere and his department have been sharing their expertise in hatching egg and embryonic physiology with Petersime since 2005.

US - The University of Illinois has reported that it recently purchased EggAnalyzer manufactured by ORKA Food Technology (better known as "EggTester.Com") and used it intensively for its research purposes.

Since his retirement, Dr Decuypere is working for Petersime on an exclusive basis, contributing substantially to the incubation expertise within Petersime. He is involved in the research at the departments of R&D and Hatchery Development. In addition, he performs as a guest speaker for Petersime at seminars worldwide, providing our customers and partners with insight in the world of embryology and incubation.

"We are doing a LARGE layer trial for which we need to perform Haugh Unit tests on about 1000 eggs each month. We are also doing A LOT of other egg parameter measurements during the same time period we are running the Haugh Units (such as specific gravity, egg grading by size, average egg weights, egg per cent solids, not to mention feeding and feed weigh back).

Ms. Pam Utterback, Research Specialist at University of Illinois (1207 W. Gregory Dr. Urbana, IL 61801) gave the following report:

Read More... "Having Professor Decuypere on board is invaluable. Since our cooperation started in 2005, huge progress was made in terms of incubation research, leading to a number of successful new products that not only contribute to our customers’ return on investment, but also to animal welfare," says Pascal Garain, Petersime’s R&D Manager

NCSU HATCHERY MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP US - 22 and 23 May 2013 are the dates for the next NCSU Hatchery Management Workshop. The workshop is intended for those hatchery personnel interested in learning more about the developing embryo and how a hatchery can influence the embryo’s development and hatchlings performance in the field. It is held in Scott Hall at NC State University. Contact mike_wineland@ncsu.edu for additional information.

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www.EggTester.com 37


Poultry Industry News STUDY HIGHLIGHTS LINK BETWEEN POOR WELFARE, MEAT QUALITY UK - A recent scientific study has shown that prestun shocks in commercial broiler processing significantly affect carcass and meat quality as well as bird welfare. A report of a study into the incidence and effect of pre-stun shocks in a commercial broiler processing plant using an electrical waterbath stunning system (the most commonly used system in the UK) has been published in Animal Welfare, the journal of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW). The study identified a significant level of pre-stun shocks, particularly in lighter, more active birds, correlated with a significant level of adverse effect on carcase and meat quality. Pre-stun shocks were also seen to be a contributor to the incidence of misstuns (by causing birds to 'fly' the waterbath).The results of the study indicate not only a serious welfare problem but also a significant financial burden for producers of broiler chickens stunned using the electrical waterbath. Read More...

CHINA KFC PUBLICITY HIT YUM!'S RESULTS CHINA - In its fourth quarter and full-year results, Yum! Brands reports an eight per cent increase in global annual sales but notes that adverse publicity over its poultry supply continues to impact China KFC sales significantly with a six per cent decline in sales there during the fourth quarter. Yum! Brands Inc. has reported results for the fourth quarter ended 29 December 2012 including earning per share (EPS) of $0.83, excluding Special Items. Reported EPS was $0.72 for the quarter and $3.38 for the year. Worldwide system sales grew five per cent, prior to foreign currency translation. Worldwide system sales growth was eight per cent, excluding the 2011 divestiture of Long John Silverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (LJS) and A&W All American Restaurants (A&W), the 53rd-week impact and the... Read More...


Processing & Packaging TYSON'S YEAR OFF TO GOOD START US - US meat and food processing giant,Tyson Foods, has seen sales for the first quarter of the 2013 financial year rise from $8.3 billion last year to $8.4 billion this year and operating income rose from $278 million to $300 million. Net income was up to $178 million from $156 million in the first quarter of 2012. "Fiscal 2013 is off to a good start," said Donnie Smith, president and chief executive officer of Tyson Foods. "With earnings of $0.48 per share in the first quarter, we are on our way to producing earnings this year better than fiscal 2012. We knew we'd face headwinds, and that has certainly been the case; however, we're not simply holding our own. We're producing solid results while preparing for growth. "We are being both methodical and innovative in our approach to managing the challenges that come in this business, and our approach is working.

AUTOMATIC BROILER FOOT HEALTH SYSTEM NEEDS FURTHER REFINEMENT BELGIUM - A prototype system for automatic dermatitis assessment needs to be improved on several points if it is to replace expert assessment of footpad dermatitis although there was good agreement between the two systems in average flock score. Average flock scores did not differ greatly between automatic and expert scores, according to new research at the Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO) in Melle. However, the prototype system for automatic dermatitis assessment needs to be improved on several points if it is to replace expert assessment of footpad dermatitis. Those are the conclusions of R.F. Vanderhasselt of ILVO and co-authors there and at Ghent University in a paper published this month in Poultry Science. They said that footpad dermatitis... Read More...

Read More...

ISU TO EXAMINE IMPROVED CAMPYLOBACTER CONTROL US â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A team of researchers led by veterinary medicine faculty at Iowa State University (ISU) has received a $2.5 million grant to study food-borne bacteria responsible for thousands of hospitalizations in the United States every year. The grant from the US Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture will help the researchers develop new methods to manage Campylobacter, a pathogen carried primarily by poultry that has proven difficult to contain. Campylobacter is a leading cause of food-borne illness in the United States, said Qijing Zhang, an associate dean in the ISU College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr Zhang, the lead researcher on the team, said the bacteria are difficult to track and contain because infected poultry show no signs of illness. Read More...

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Poultry Industry News

í Noticias y Análisis

Articulos

Multimedia

Directorio de Empresas Eventos Acerca de

América produce la quinta parte de todo el huevo en el mundo Durante tres años hemos publicado la serie de artículos Tendencias Avícolas Mundiales, escrita por el observador de la industria Terry Evans. Evans analiza los diferentes mercados avícolas por región geográfica. En su serie más reciente, Evans analiza el sector de huevo en el Hemisferio Occidental. América produce casi el 20% de todos los huevos en el mundo. Sin embargo, el crecimiento de la industria desde 2005 no ha igualado al logrado en Asia.

Bienvenido

Las cifras oficiales de la FAO muestran que en 2010 solo cinco países de América produjeron un 84% del total regional: Estados Unidos (EUA), México, Brasil, Colombia y Argentina.

Chris Wright Editor principal, Elsitioavicola.com chris.wright@5mpublishing.com Algunos de los temas más importantes que se han presentado en el sitio recientemente incluyen: • El sector de huevo de las Américas • Control de micoplasmosis en reproductoras • Bioseguridad

En los EUA, el principal productor de lejos, la producción entre 2000 y 2010 aumentó menos de 1% anual, en contraste con los incrementos entre 2.6% y 2.9% en Brasil y México. Las industrias de los países que siguen en la tabla de clasificación de producción, Colombia y Argentina, crecieron unos 4.4% y 4.7% al año respectivamente. La industria del huevo en México logró un desarrollo mayor al 3% anual entre el 2000 y el 2010. En 2011, el aumento de producción no fue tan rápido, de 2.5%, a pesar de los mayores costos de producción. Sin embargo, la región de Los Altos del estado de Jalisco fue golpeada en junio de 2012 por un brote de influenza aviar H7N3 que resultó en la pérdida de unos 22 millones de ponedoras, lo que representa un 15% de la producción nacional de huevo. Mientras que el consumo de huevo en Brasil actualmente es de unos 8.5 kg/persona/año, está por debajo del promedio de América. Como en la mayoría de los otros países, mientras que es probable que el complicado clima financiero eche freno a la tasa de crecimiento, la tendencia al alza en la producción debe continuar.

Lea más aquí

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ElSitioAvicola.com RESISTENCIA A ANTIBIÓTICOS: FALTAN DATOS Uno de los temas más controversiales en cuanto a la producción de animales para consumo humano es el de la resistencia a antibióticos. La duda es si el uso de antibióticos en la producción animal es lo que ha creado la resistencia a estos fármacos en los humanos. La realidad es que falta mucha información acerca de la resistencia a antibióticos y sus verdaderas causas. Esto lo resaltaron varios conferencistas durante la Conferencia de Antibióticos que tomó lugar como parte de la Expo Avícola Internacional (IPPE) celebrada en Atlanta, EUA, a fines de enero. Parte del problema tiene que ver con la falta de datos. Eso lo mencionó la Dra. Martha Pulido, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Si queremos saber el papel de los animales en la resistencia a antibióticos, particularmente en Latinoamérica, el tema se tiene que estudiar mucho más a fondo. Lea más aquí

VACUNACIÓN HACE CAER DRÁSTICAMENTE INFECCIONES POR SALMONELA Los programas de vacunación masiva de aves introducidos en el Reino Unido para combatir las infecciones por salmonela han provocado una caída drástica en el número de casos desde finales de los años 90, según un estudio de la Universidad de Liverpool. En la actualidad, se dan alrededor de 6 millones de casos de salmonela en la UE cada año, la mayoría de los cuales se asocian al consumo de alimentos como huevos, pollo, ternera, cerdo, verduras de ensalada y productos lácteos. Entre 1981 y 1991, el número de casos infecciones por salmonela aumentaron en un 170% en el Reino Unido, sobre todo por una epidemia de Salmonela enteritidis que tuvo un repunte en 1993. Se han introducido muchas medidas de control en la industria avícola que incluyen... Lea más aquí

LA INFLUENZA AVIAR EN LOS TITULARES, DE NUEVO La reaparición de la influenza aviar H7N3 en México y el fin de la moratoria voluntaria en las investigaciones de influenza aviar H5N1 han sido noticias titulares que han atraído mucha atención. En México seguramente existe frustración al ver reaparecer el brote de influenza aviar H7N3 que hizo mucho daño en la región de Los Altos de Jalisco en el verano de 2012. El Gobierno y sector avícola se esforzaron mucho para detener el brote que resultó en la muerte de más de 22 millones de gallinas ponedoras. En 8 de enero se reportaron dos casos en granjas de ponedoras en el estado de Aguascalientes, a 85 km de donde ocurrió el brote en Los Altos. El 16 de enero Senasica informó que se había detectado un nuevo brote de influenza aviar de alta patogenicidad H7N3, en dos granjas... Lea más aquí

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Poultry Industry News

Bioseguridad: interrogantes válidos para avicultura En términos de la salud animal, he aquí una muestra de los muchos interrogantes que se pueden formular para explicar el origen de un brote de influenza aviar u otra enfermedad contagiosa en un establecimiento avícola en explotaciones vecinas, en una provincia o a nivel nacional, escribe el Dr. Oscar Rivera García de Colombia. INTERROGANTES Cuando sale un brote de enfermedad aviar contagiosa, en particular la influenza aviar, siempre se pregunta, ¿de dónde vino? La siguiente serie de preguntas en relación a la bioseguridad es muy válida, no solo después de un brote, pero también antes, para verificar que se están siguiendo los protocolos de bioseguridad a la letra.

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¿Alguien vinculado a una explotación avícola o porcícola ha realizado faenas de caza y pesca en lagos, lagunas, ciénagas, frecuentadas por aves migratorias? ¿Alguien vinculado a una granja avícola o porcícola posee en su casa aves exóticas silvestres? ¿Se confundió el brote inicial con una enfermedad respiratoria tipo laringotraqueítis o bronquitis infecciosa? ¿Se mantuvo oculto el brote por temor a críticas de los vecinos o a sanciones penales a sabiendas que en estos casos por Ley la Declaración del mismo tiene carácter obligatorio? ¿Se movilizaron aves para ser sacrificas en un matadero o vendidas vivas en una plaza de mercado?


ElSitioAvicola.com ¿Alguien ingresó a un galpón un celular u otro equipo electrónico que ha utilizado en visitas realizadas en otras granjas? ¿Alguien es propietario de un almacén de venta de mascotas? ¿Alguien que regresó del Asia estuvo visitando granjas avícolas, porcícolas o mercados de animales vivos y zoológicos? ¿Alguien al regresar en su equipaje ingresó cuellos y plumas de producción artesanal, sin desinfectar, bien para utilizarlas como adorno o para fabricar señuelos para pesca de trucha? ¿Existen en las zonas afectadas unas verdaderas, uniformes, completas y permanentes normas de bioseguridad, máxime cuando se trata de regiones de altas concentraciones avicolas o porcicolas? ¿La mortalidad está siendo técnicamente eliminada? CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO El cambio climático y el calentamiento global con sus diferentes manifestaciones también en la actualidad y en el futuro cada vez tendrán más participación directa con los diversos fenómenos naturales que vive la humanidad. Especialmente toca hacer referencia a los fuertes vientos, vendavales, huracanes que pueden movilizar a grandes distancias diversos patógenos. Un típico ejemplo se encuentra en la presencia del mosquito “tigre” en Portugal y algunas regiones de España transportados por el viento desde el Continente africano. Significa lo anterior que la zona de Centroamérica por los fuertes vientos originados por las tormentas tropicales se deben igualmente tener en cuenta.

OTROS FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LABIOSEGURIDAD Adicional a estos interrogantes vale la pena considerar otros factores que, involuntariamente, pueden hacer olvidar la importancia de la bioseguridad, ellos hacen referencia al gigantismo. En efecto por el afán de construir nuevos galpones, en una granja de aves o cerdos ya establecida o nuevas granjas en una misma región, no se tiene en cuenta el aumento de la movilización de todo tipo de vehículos que transportan materiales de construcción desde las ciudades al campo y el aumento de personal técnico y trabajador que a lo mejor no han recibido con antelación la enseñanza sobre este específico tópico. Otro punto hace relación a las concentraciones avícolas o porcícolas: ¿Se ha reflexionado sobre la multiplicidad de riesgos de contaminación que se contraen a través de todos los vehículos que se movilizan permanentemente para llevar gas, materiales de cama, alimentos, movilizar a los mataderos aves o cerdos , transportar a los sitios de distribución en diferentes ciudades huevos, cerdos y demás productos, los cuales circulan en un medio ambiente cargado de toda clase de agentes infecciosos? Esta multiplicidad de riesgos sumados a otros que vale la pena que cada industrial avícola, criador de cerdos, funcionario oficial o privado, analicen y tengan en cuenta para evitar casos desastrosos sanitaria y económicamente hablando y se convenzan que en ningún momento la bioseguridad puede ser omitida y desconocida. En otras palabras nunca se piensa que en cualquier momento, un grave problema por un virus de alta patogenicidad puede reaparecer de ahí que siempre, en estos casos específicos, debe tenerse presente la bioseguridad. REFLEXIÓN

Como pueden sacar en conclusión son válidos toda clase de interrogantes que tienen que ver justamente con la ausencia o disminución de las normas de bioseguridad.

La bioseguridad no puede ser vista y considerada por ningún avicultor, empresa o grupo avícola como un secreto individual o comercial, así se encuentre lo más lejano y aislado posible de otras instalaciones.

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INDUSTRY EVENTS

Agricultural Outlook Forum 2013 Arlington, Virginia, US 21st to 22nd February

USDA has hosted the Agricultural Outlook Forum since 1923 to provide farmers and ranchers, government, and agribusinesses with sound information for decision-making. Attendees are expected to include members of farm organizations, food and fiber firms, academia, foreign governments, and the news media.

Northern Broiler Conference 2013 Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, UK, 5th March

The Northern Broiler Conference will be held at Bolholt Hotel, Bury on the Tuesday 5th March 2013. The purpose of the conference is to support broiler growers in the North of England. The cost of the conference will be covered by sponsorship from ABN, Aviagen, Cobb Europe, Elanco, MSD Animal Health and PD Hooks and the event will be free to register to all members of the Poultry Industry who wish to attend.

INDUSTRY EVENTS Each month we bring you the most important poultry industry events taking place around the world For more events please visit www.thepoultrysite.com/events

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INDUSTRY EVENTS

VIV Asia 2013 Bangkok, Thailand, 13th to 15th March

Professionals in animal production and processing of meat, eggs fish and milk with healthy growth ambitions will all head to Bangkok for the 11th edition of VIV Asia. No other trade show in Asia offers such a broad pallet of opportunities. From Feed to Meat, VIV Asia 2013 challenges professionals to invest in bringing the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most promising animal protein markets a big step further. With exhibitors from 40 countries, reaching almost 700 in number, spread over 6 full halls,VIV Asia 2013 offers a unique selection, compromising global market leaders and regional as well as national Asian players of growing importance.With Aquatic Asia 2013 co-located prominently with VIV Asia, professionals active in the production of pig meat, poultry meat, eggs, fish and dairy all have numerous reasons to meet up in Bangkok this coming March. Visitors are expected, some 25,000 in total, from Asia, Australia/New Zealand, The Middle East, Africa and Japan.

Australian Poultry Science Symposium (APSS) 2013 Sydney, Australia, 17th to 20th February

APSS is the premier avian science conference in Australia and attracts delegates from Asia, Australasia, the Americas and Europe. The 2013 meeting has a strong line-up of invited speakers, relevant content and an enjoyable social programme.

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BUSINESS DIRECTORY LISTINGS HEALTH & WELFARE Ceva Animal Health Tel: +33 (0) 557 554 040 Fax: +33 (0) 557 554 198 info@ceva.com www.ceva.com

Areas: Pharmaceuticals Vaccines Equipment:Vaccination and Medical) Feed: Additives

CEVA SantĂŠ Animale is a global veterinary health company focused on the research, development, production and marketing of pharmaceutical products and vaccines for pets, livestock, swine and poultry.

MSD Animal Health Tel: +31 485 587961 Fax: +31 485 587643 Fredric.David@merck.com marc.Coulier@merck.com www.msd-animal-health.com

Areas: Feed: Safety Products Feed: Additives Feed Cleaning/Disinfectants Pharmaceuticals

MSD Animal Health offers veterinarians, farmers, pet owners and governments the widest range of veterinary pharmaceuticals, vaccines and health management solutions and services

Pfizer Animal Health Tel: +1 919 941 5185 pgp.marketing@pfizer.com www.animalhealth.pfizer.com

Areas: Pharmaceuticals

Pfizer Animal Health had developed and launched 18 new veterinary drugs since 2000, including several flagship products today considered indispensible.

BREEDING & GENETICS Aviagen Tel: +1 256 890 3800 Fax: +1 256 890 3919 info@aviagen.com www.aviagen.com

Areas: Breeding Genetics

The Aviagen Group is the global market leader in poultry genetics. As the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s premier poultry breeding company, Aviagen develops pedigree lines for the production of commercial broilers and turkeys.

BUSINESS DIRECTORY LISTINGS To feature your business in here please contact alex.guy@5mpublishing.com For more businesses please visit www.thepoultrysite.com/directory

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BUSINESS DIRECTORY LISTINGS Areas: Breeding Genetics

Cobb broiler breeding stock has the sustained advantage of the most efficient feed conversion and highest potential for profitability for the company’s global customers.

Grimaud Frères Sélection Areas: Tel: +33 (0)2 41 70 36 90 Breeding Fax: +33 (0)2 41 70 31 67 Genetics grimaudfreres@ grimaudfreres.com www.grimaudfreres.com

Grimaud Frères are a multi-species selection and breeding operator in the service of the watefowls and festive poultry field.

Hubbard Tel: +33 296 79 63 70 Fax: +33 296 74 04 71 contact.emea@ hubbardbreeders.com www.hubbardbreeders.com

Areas: Breeding Genetics

Hubbard provides solutions that focus on the economic performance, health and well-being of breeding stock. Hubbard specializes in state-of-the-art selection programs to improve the performance of their pure lines.

Hy-Line Tel: +1 515 225 6030 Fax: +1 515 225 6030 info@hyline.com www.hyline.com

Areas: Breeding Genetics

Hy-Line International is a world leader in poultry layer genetics with a rich history of innovation. Hy-Line was the first poultry breeding company to apply the principles of hybridization to commercial layerbreeding.

Novogen Tel: +33 296 58 12 60 Fax: +33 296 58 12 61 contact.novogen@ novogen-layers www.novogen-layers.com

Areas: Breeding Genetics

NOVOGEN offers a new alternative giving the egg producers more choice and possibilities to fit their specific market requirements.

Indbro Poultry Tel: +91 (40) 241 5594 drkotaiah@ indbropoultry.com www.indbro.com

Areas: Breeding Genetics

Started off as a Broiler breeding company, with pure line birds developed and bred under Indian Climate, feed & management since 1990.

Cobb Vantress Tel: +1 479 524 3166 Fax: +1 479 524 3043 info@cobb-vantress.com www.cobb-vantress.com

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BUSINESS DIRECTORY LISTINGS BIOSECURITY & HYGIENE CID LINES Tel: +32 5721 7877 Fax: +32 5721 7879 info@cidlines.com www.cidlines.com

Areas: Biosecurity Cleaning Feed: Additives Health and Safety Pest Control Welfare

CID LINES offers VIROCID, the most powerful disinfectant, which is part of a hygiene program for poultry, written by hygiene specialists.VIROCID has a proven record in preventing and fighting disease outbreaks for many years.

PCS Poultry Services Tel: +44 (0) 1386 701 812 Fax: +44 (0) 1386 701 376 admin@pcspoultry.com www.pcspoultry.com

Areas: Biosecurity Hygiene Cleaning Services Pest Control

FOSSIL SHIELD + PCS Poultry, the solution to your red mite problem. Unique professional on-site electrostatic application with Fossil shield, a non-toxic natural diatomaceous powder.

FEEDING & NUTRITION

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AB Vista Tel: +44 (0) 1672 517650 Fax: +44 (0) 1672 517660 info@abvista.com www.abvista.com

Areas: Feed Feed: Additives Feed: Nutrition

AB Vista is an integrated international supplier of new generation micro-ingredients for animal feeds providing visionary solutions for your agribusiness.

Biomin Tel: +43 2782 803 0 Fax: +43 2782 803 30 office@biomin.net www.biomin.net

Areas: Feed Feed: Additives Feed: Nutrition

BIOMIN offers sustainable animal nutrition products such as quality feed additives and premixes, which include solutions for mycotoxin risk management, a groundbreaking natural growth promoting concept as well as other specific solutions

Danisco Tel: +44 (0) 1672 517777 Fax: +44 (0) 1672 517778 info.animalnutrition@ danisco.com www.danisco.com/ animalnutrition

Areas: Feed: Additives

Danisco’s ingredients are used globally in a wide range of industries – from bakery, dairy and beverages to animal feed, laundry detergents and bioethanol – to enable functional, economic and sustainable solutions

Evonik Tel: +49 6181 59 6765 Fax: +49 6181 59 6734 feed-additives@evonik.com www.evonik.com

Areas: Feed Feed: Additives Feed: Safety

Evonik is fully committed to be a reliable partner in delivering feed additives for animal nutrition turning the knowledge of its global team into intelligent solutions.


BUSINESS DIRECTORY LISTINGS Kerry Ingredients & Flavours EMEA Tel: +31 36 523 3100 Fax: +31 36 523 3110 clive.girdler@kerry.com www.kerry.com

Areas: Feed Feed: Additives Feed: Safety

Kerry Animal Nutrition aims to identify and commercialise existing Kerry ingredients and technologies to create potential world beaters in animal nutrition and health

Novus International Tel: +1 314 576 8886 Fax: +1 314 576 2148 contact@novusint.com www.novusint.com

Areas: Feed Feed: Additives Feed: Nutrition

Novus International is a global leader of animal health and nutrition programs for the poultry, pork, beef, dairy aquaculture and companion animal industries.

Optivite Tel: +44 (0) 1909 537 380 Fax: +44 (0) 1909 478 919 info@optivite.com www.optivite.com

Areas: Feed: Additives Feed: Nutrition

Optivite specialises in the design, development, manufacture and distribution of nonhazardous, drug free ingredients and additives for the maintenance and enhancement of feed quality.

HOUSING & EQUIPMENT Agrilamp Tel: +44 (0) 1332 547 118 Fax: +44 (0) 208 439 1538 info@agrilamp.com www.agrilamp.com

Areas: Equipment: Lighting & Electrical

AgriLampâ&#x201E;˘ is a leading LED manufacturer with years of experience in designing and manufacturing the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most innovative LED (light-emitting diode) lighting solutions for the agricultural industry.

Big Dutchman Tel: +49 4447 801 0 Fax: +49 4447 801 237 big@bigdutchman.de www.bigdutchman.com

Areas: Equipment: Breeding Equipment: Drinking Equipment: Egg Equipment: Feeding Equipment: Weighing

The poultry equipment supplier for layer management, breeder management, poultry growing and poultry climate control.

Space-Ray Heaters Tel: +44 (0) 1473 830 551 Fax: +44 (0) 1473 832 055 info@spaceray.co.uk www.spaceray.co.uk

Areas: Equipment: Heaters

SPACE-RAY manufactures high efficiency infra-red radiant heating solutions (also known as direct gas fired radiant heating), for industrial, commercial, agricultural or leisure purposes

Termotechnica Pericoli Tel: +39 0182 589006 Fax: +39 0182 589005 termotecnica@pericoli.com www.pericoli.com

Areas: Climate Control Climate Management Heating, Cooling and Ventilation

A global market leader specializing in climate technology since 1967 in design, manufacture and distribution of efficient/quality heating, cooling and ventilation equipment and systems for the poultry industry with a full range of products to meet all specification and applications.

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BUSINESS DIRECTORY LISTINGS Vencomatic Tel: +31 (0) 497 517380 Fax: +31 (0) 497 517364 info@vencomatic.com www.vencomatic.com

Areas: Equipment: Breeding Equipment: Drinking Equipment: Egg handling and grading Equipment: Nesting

Vencomatic is a global supplier of innovative and welfare friendly housing solutions for the poultry sector.The flexible and turn key solutions of Vencomatic offer large possibilities for a wide range of poultry production concepts.

INCUBATION & HATCHING Orka Food Technology Tel: +852 8120 9245 Fax: +852 2802 7112 info@orkatech.com www.eggtester.com

Areas: Equipment: Egg Equipment: Hatching Equipment: Incubation

EggTester.com (officially known as â&#x20AC;&#x153;Orka Food Technologyâ&#x20AC;?) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of egg-quality testing equipment to be used extensively in QC laboratories operated by egg producers, packers, universities, regulatory authorities, and primary breeders.

Pas Reform Tel: +31 314 659 111 Fax: +31 314 652 572 info@pasreform.com www.pasreform.com

Areas: Equipment: Incubation Equipment: Egg Equipment: Environment Equipment: Hatching Waste Handling

Pas Reform is an international company, which has specialized in the development of innovative hatchery technologies for the poultry sector since 1919. Products and Services: Incubators, Hatchery Automation Systems, Hatchery Climate Control Systems and Hatchery Management Training.

Petersime Tel: +32 9 388 96 11 Fax: +32 9 388 84 58 info@petersime.com www.petersime.com

Areas: Equipment: Hatching Equipment: Incubation

Petersime is a world leader in the development of incubators. hatchery equipment and turnkey hatcheries.

EVENTS & EXHIBITIONS VIV Tel: +31 30 295 28 98 viv@vnuexhibitions.com www.viv.net

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Areas: Events & Exhibitions

With 7 VIV exhibitions all over the world VIV trade exhibitions are recognized for high trade quality in the professional industry.With over a 1,000 international companies exhibiting and visitors from over 140 countries the VIV-shows are also considered as very international.


The Poultry Site Digital  

Feb. 2013 issue.