Chlorine Dioxide Resource Book for Food Safety Professionals

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PureLine Solutions – Food Safety Group

TREAT. SANITIZE. DISINFECT. ELIMINATE.

Expert chlorine dioxide (ClO2) decontamination designed for the food processing industry

Charles Lloyd Osborne, II



PureLine Solutions – Food Safety Group

TREAT. SANITIZE. DISINFECT. ELIMINATE.

Charles Lloyd Osborne, II



For more information on this book or PureLine Solutions services:

PureLine Solutions, LLC. 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106

Corporate Headquarters

847 963 8465 info@pureline.com Website

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PureLine Solutions offers a complete line of chlorine dioxide products, solutions and accessories.

Experts in the manufacture, generation and application of chlorine dioxide


Copyright Š 2019 PureLine Solutions, LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of PureLine Solutions, LLC., except in uses permitted by copyright law. For permission requests, contact PureLine Solutions at info@pureline.com or the address below. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, 2019 PureLine 1241 N Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 www.pureline.com


TREAT. SANITIZE. DISINFECT. ELIMINATE.

Table of Contents Learn About Chlorine Dioxide

1

What is Chlorine Dioxide?

2

The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

8

Disinfection Properties

15

Chlorine Dioxide Efficacy

16

Microbial Biofilms

17

Proving Efficacy

18

Light, Temperature, and Humidity Considerations

19

Concentration Monitoring

20

PureLine Solutions Services

23

MobileCleanTM

24

PureVistaTM

25

pHlorSanTM

27

Customer Responsibilities

29

PureLine Post Treatment Reporting

41

Appendices 61 Safety Data Sheets

61

State Regulations for Chlorine dioxide

155

PureLine Solutions Services Agreement

219

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Foreword The purpose of this book is to illustrate the use of chlorine dioxide in the food industry to safely and effectively manage the persistent presence or suspected presence of pathogens within a food processing plant. Food safety and sanitation is an essential part of the food industry. While it is important to be able to deliver food quickly and profitably, the importance of food safety and sanitation cannot be underestimated. The FDA has extensive regulations for food processing and safety, including the type of conveyor or processing surfaces where food items can be placed and how those surfaces should be cleaned. Maintenance and cleaning intervals must be closely monitored to make sure surfaces are kept sanitary, and that no debris accumulates in crevices where bacteria can grow and spread. OSHA requires food processing plants to meet or exceed their guidelines for employee safety, including exposure to hazardous chemicals, bacteria, dust and allergens. PureLine Solutions has over 20 years of experience in the safe and effective use of chlorine dioxide. Our expertise in food safety science combined with our team of dedicated professionals can assure you that a treatment by PureLine Solutions will be delivered safely, quickly and with guaranteed results.

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TREAT. SANITIZE. DISINFECT. ELIMINATE. PureLine Solutions walks you through every step of the process. This document is designed to educate those with food safety, food quality & food manufacturing sanitation responsibilities on the use of chlorine dioxide as a food process sanitizing and disinfecting agent, and on PureLine Solutions treatment processes and services. Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) in the food industry is important for many critical processes that include fruit and vegetable, cheese, bakery, and meat processing: Disinfectant sprays, packaging and container disinfection, a-septic filler disinfection, piping disinfection, ductwork disinfection, Clean in Place Applications (CIP), disinfection treatments for the recycling of process water, treatment of source water, carcass wash, and flume disinfection. The food industry relies heavily on chlorine dioxide for many treatment applications. Approved by the EPA for potable water applications and the FDA for use as a disinfectant in the processing of foods and beverages, ClO2 is the perfect solution to many of the problems food and beverage companies encounter in their plants. PureLine’s patented equipment and precursor chemicals are also NSF certified. The unique properties of chlorine dioxide, that enable it to be extremely effective without affecting taste are just a couple reasons that chlorine dioxide is the preferred choice for multiple applications in the food processing industry. PureLine Solutions makes ClO2 an even better choice with their patented generators, products and services that deliver a 99.5% pure, pH neutral solution with no reaction by-products passed through to your systems.

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MEET OUR EXPERTS Steve Flieder Vice President, Food Safety Group PureLine Treatment Systems BS Electrical Engineering; BS Biology, Kellogg MBA 30 years’ experience executive and general management.

Andrew Brinkdopke Vice President, Engineering & Technology PureLine Treatment Systems BS Chemical Engineering & Chemistry 16 years’ experience in chlorine dioxide, sanitary design and water treatment.

Dr. Zack Li Chief Scientist PureLine Treatment Systems BS, MS, PhD Environmental Engineering 20 years’ experience in water & wastewater treatment, including chlorine dioxide related work. Registered Professional Engineer, member Water Environment Federation and Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Dr. Greg Simpson Manager, Research & Development PureLine Treatment Systems BS, MS Chemistry, PhD Physical Chemistry 30 years’ experience in corrosion, scale/deposition and microbiological control in a variety of industries. Over 100 technical papers and 20 patents; authored two books on chlorine dioxide.

Joseph Stout Consultant President & Founder – Commercial Food Sanitation, LLC BS, Food Science 30+ years’ experience in Food Plant Sanitation, Sanitary Design and Food Safety, including Global Director for Kraft Foods

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Dr. John Thangaraj Consultant BS, MS Inorganic Chemistry; PhD Chemistry 18 years’ experience with chlorine dioxide technologies and their applications Awarded several US and international patents on chlorine dioxide technologies.

Dr. Bhadriraju (Subi) Subramanyam University Distinguished Professor Kansas State University Department of Grain Science & Industry BS Agriculture; MS, PhD Entomology 30+ years’ experience biology, ecology, and management of insects in grain and grain products, and in food safety of dry durable products. Conducts inspections of grain processing facilities internationally for sanitation and pest management. www.grains.k-state.edu/spirel

Dr. Xinyi E Consultant Fellow, Kansas State University Department of Grain Science & Industry BS Food Science; MS Grain Science; PhD Biosystem & Agricultural Engineering 8 years’ experience including chlorine dioxide research focused on insect pests and pathogens control in grains and food plants.

Dr. Neal Sleszynski Consultant Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University BS, MS Physical Organic Electrochemistry; PhD Analytical Electrochemistry. 20 years’ experience biomedical and biotechnology, including process scale electrochemistry and electrochemical synthesis.

Dr. Paul Sturman Consultant Research Professor/Industrial Coordinator, Montana State University Center for Biofilm Engineering BS, Forestry; MS, PhD Environmental Engineering 20 years’ experience including biofilm research and engineering.

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LEARN ABOUT CHLORINE DIOXIDE Learn About Chlorine Dioxide The food industry relies heavily on chlorine dioxide for many treatment applications. Approved by the EPA for potable water applications and by the FDA for use as a disinfectant in the processing of foods and beverages, chlorine dioxide is the perfect solution to many of the problems food and beverage companies encounter on equipment, in drains and floor areas and in their air and water supplies. PureLine Solutions patented equipment options and pre-cursor chemicals are also NSF certified. The unique properties of chlorine dioxide, including it being extremely effective without affecting taste and the ability to immediately resume plant operations upon cessation of a gas or aqueous phase sterilization process, are just a couple reasons that chlorine dioxide is the preferred choice for multiple applications in the food and beverage processing industry. PureLine Solutions makes chlorine dioxide an even better choice with their patented chlorine dioxide generation systems, producing a 99.5% pure, pH neutral solution with no reaction by-products passed through to your air and water systems. With experienced, expert engineers, chemists, and technicians, PureLine Solutions stands ready to assist you with plant decontamination needs, resetting of your environment upon completion of new construction, and assisting you and/or your existing water treatment partner in every aspect of the evaluation, design, implementation, and long-term support of your custom chlorine dioxide solutions.

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What is Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)?

About Chlorine Dioxide

General

WHAT IS

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) in the food industry is important for many critical processes that include baked goods, fruit and vegetable, milk and cheese, and meat processing. Applications include gas and aqueous disinfection, disinfectant sprays, packaging and container disinfection, a-septic filler disinfection, piping disinfection, ductwork disinfection, clean in place applications (CIP), disinfection treatments for the recycling of process water, treatment of source water, carcass wash, and flume disinfection. The food industry relies heavily on chlorine dioxide for many treatment applications. Approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a disinfectant in the processing of foods and beverages, chlorine dioxide is the perfect solution to many of the problems food and beverage companies encounter on equipment, in drains and floor areas and in their air and water supplies. PureLine Solutions’ patented equipment options and precursor chemicals are also NSF certified. The unique properties of chlorine dioxide, including it being extremely effective without affecting taste and the ability to immediately resume plant operations upon cessation of a gas or aqueous phase sterilization process, are just a couple reasons that chlorine dioxide is the preferred choice for multiple applications in the food and beverage processing industry. PureLine Solutions makes chlorine dioxide an even better choice with their patented chlorine dioxide generation systems, producing a 99.5% pure, pH neutral solution with no reaction by-products passed through to your air and water systems.

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About Chlorine Dioxide

At 124 picometers (0.000124 micrometers), a chlorine dioxide gas molecule is much smaller than any microorganism. Chlorine dioxide is a real gas and by definition expands and conforms to the shape of the area in which it is held and acquires a uniform density inside that area, even in the presence of gravity and also regardless of the amount of equipment in the area. This property of chlorine dioxide gas allows it to easily penetrate and disinfect locations where other fumigant applications such as dry fog is not able to effectively reach.

Pin Head 1,500 µm (1.5 millimeters)

“vapor mist” Droplet 10 – 100 µm

“dry fog” Droplet 1.0 – 10 µm

What is Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)?

Physical Properties

Mold Spores 3.0 – 100 µm

Bacterial Spores 1.0 – 20 µm E Coli 1.0 – 2.0 µm Salmonella 2.0 – 5.0 µm Listeria 0.5 – 2.0 µm Chlorine dioxide molecule 0.000124 µm (100 picometers)

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Virus 0.02 – 0.4 µm

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What is Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)?

About Chlorine Dioxide

Chemical Properties Chlorine dioxide is a visible yellow-green gas with a swimming pool-like odor allowing it to be detected well below its 8-hour human habitation ‘safety’ level of 0.1 parts-per-million. Chlorine dioxide is a strong, yet selective oxidizing agent that does not produce harmful or environmentally hazardous by-products. When reacting with other substances, chlorine dioxide is selective, allowing it to be a more efficient and effective sterilizer than many other options. Chlorine dioxide is not a carcinogen nor is it a poisonous gas. Furthermore, chlorine dioxide does not leave any residues and there is no need for post-application clean up prior to resuming plant operations. Once the gas has dissipated to a safe level of < 0.1 ppm, typically within 60 minutes of cessation of gas generation, personnel may enter the area and plant operations can resume normal processing immediately.

Chlorine dioxide is a selective oxidant and reacts with several components of microbial cells. It breaks the molecular bonds in cell membranes and directly interferes with, and destroys the metabolic process, therefore permanently disabling and killing bacteria, virus and mold very quickly. Because it is selective, the oxidizing action is retained longer than other treatment agents and therefore allowing for maximum kill.

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About Chlorine Dioxide

In microbiology the probability that an object that has been subjected to a sterilization process may nevertheless remain nonsterile is called the sterility assurance level (SAL). The SAL is used to measure the probability of microorganism survival and measured in orders of magnitude reduction, also called a “log” reduction. The sanitization standard for contamination reduction of non-food contact surfaces is generally accepted as 99.9% (3-log reduction) and for food contact surfaces, as 99.999% (a 5-log reduction). For sterilization, the standard is generally accepted as 99.9999% (a 6-log reduction). Chlorine dioxide, when applied correctly, provides for sterilization (6-log reduction). Chlorine dioxide is therefore defined as a chemical sterilant and is a selective oxidant that effectively destroys several components of microbial cells. It destroys the DNA in cells and, therefore microorganisms such as bacteria, virus and mold are unable to build up a resistance. Because chlorine dioxide is selective, the oxidizing action is retained longer than other fumigation agents such as peracetic acid or hydrogen peroxide, therefore allowing for maximum kill.

What is Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)?

Antimicrobial Properties – Sanitation, Disinfection and Sterilization

Bacterial spores (available from several scientific sources) have long been considered the gold standard for proving an effective sterilization process. Spores are extremely difficult to kill and therefore a sterilizing agent must be able to destroy spores and therefore considered as the most rigorous decontamination method. Although a 99.999% (5-log reduction) sanitation standard is accepted in the food industry, chlorine dioxide is classified as a sterilant and therefore much more powerful in the fight against presumptive or persistent pathogen problems.

Sterilization versus Disinfection Sterilization is defined as the process of all microbial life being eliminated, which may be accomplished by chemical or physical means. A chemical sterilant must completely eliminate and inactivate spores, and therefore is verified to mean that it can eliminate and destroy all microbial life. A 6-log reduction (99.9999%) is defined as the level required to achieve sterilization. Sterilization is meant to convey an absolute, however; sometimes various commercial documents may make references to a ‘partial sterilizing’ agent. To be clear, and based upon the definition of sterilization, a chemical or other decontamination method cannot ‘partially sterilize’ and can only be classified as a sterilant if it is proven to destroy spores and thus eliminate all microbial life.

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What is Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)?

About Chlorine Dioxide

Disinfection is defined as the process of many or all pathogenic microorganisms being eliminated, except bacterial spores. In the food plant setting, floors and equipment are often routinely washed and cleaned by hand with various chemicals, with the goal of sanitizing food contact surfaces to eliminate pathogen contamination and meet the 5-log reduction (99.999%) sanitation standard for food contact surfaces and the 3-log (99.9%) standard for non-food contact surfaces, however; these methods seldom reach the level of disinfection. Many factors influence the efficacy of disinfection and sterilization methods. These include the frequency of routine equipment cleaning; organic load or inorganic load on surfaces; the type of microbial contaminants present; biofilm presence; temperature; ambient light, relative humidity and the level to which equipment has been designed and installed to meet accepted sanitary design standards. Unlike sterilization, disinfection may sometimes, but does not always kill spores. A ‘highlevel’ disinfectant is defined as the ability to kill all microorganisms except large numbers of bacterial spores. Intermediate-level disinfectants kill most vegetative bacteria, most viruses, and most fungi but are unlikely to kill bacterial spores. Low-level disinfectants can kill most vegetative bacteria, some fungi, and some viruses, but will not kill spores.

Solubility in Water Chlorine dioxide is used in many public drinking water supplies and in water supplies used for industrial settings such as water purification in pharmaceutical companies and oil well drilling. Chlorine dioxide does not react with water and therefore retains its sterilization capabilities when dissolved in water. A 5-ppm chlorine dioxide solution is effective as a sanitizer (5-log or 99.999% reduction) with a contact time of at least 1 minute. Further, disinfection is achieved with 100 ppm using a contact time of 10 minutes. (Pfunter, 2011). Pureline Solutions offers a unique chlorine dioxide floor wash service, that is often combined with a chlorine dioxide gas treatment to initially disinfect floors and drains and subsequently offering a complete sterilization process.

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About Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is an ideal choice to minimize impact on our environment. It is often the preferred alternative to other options such as ozone, chlorine bleach, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. Compared to these other options, a chlorine dioxide application is far less corrosive. While many people may confuse the use of chlorine with chlorine dioxide, they are very different. As an example, when chlorine reacts with organic matter, undesirable pollutants such as dioxins and bio-accumulative toxic substances are produced. Chlorine dioxide eliminates the production of these pollutants and does not chlorinate organic material, eliminating the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), halo acetic acids (HAAs) and other chlorinated organic compounds.

What is Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)?

Safe for the Environment

The Many Uses of Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide is a widely used antimicrobial in drinking water, process water, swimming pools, and mouthwash preparations. It is frequently used to treat fruit and vegetables and to decontaminate equipment for the food and beverage processing industry and is widely used in pharmaceuticals and life science research laboratories. The health care industry uses chlorine dioxide to decontaminate rooms and for equipment and component sterilization. For years, chlorine dioxide has been used extensively in the paper-pulp, flour, leather, fats & oils, and textile sectors.

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The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

About Chlorine Dioxide

The Facts about Chlorine Dioxide Over the past several years, the food and beverage industry has increasingly embraced chlorine dioxide as the preferred method for resetting the microbial environment and ensuring the safety of foods being prepared for humans and animals alike. There has been confusion and sometimes conflicting information regarding its properties, behavior and capabilities. The following will further clarify why chlorine dioxide has become the choice for safe elimination of harmful bacteria and other microbial contaminants in the food and beverage industry.

Effective as a Biological Sterilant

THE FACTS ABOUT CHLORINE DIOXIDE

Chlorine dioxide is classified as a sterilant. Sterilants are defined by their ability to destroy bacterial spores, thus confirming that all other microbial life present in the treatment area has been eliminated. Chlorine dioxide works by penetrating the cell wall of microorganisms and disrupting the pathogen’s metabolic functions, thus immediately and permanently eliminating the problem at its source. It is a powerful biocide at concentrations as low as 0.1 parts-permillion over a wide pH range, does not produce hazardous by-products, and is more effective than hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, quaternary ammonia and sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach). Studies from the FDA and EPA show that chlorine dioxide is effective in eliminating over 20 of the most common harmful pathogens, including Salmonella, Listeria, E Coli, Clostridia, B anthracis (anthrax), and several species of fungal molds and yeasts. Chlorine dioxide is a real gas at room temperature. As a real gas, it expands to uniformly fill the space it is contained within, regardless of the effect of gravity. This gives it the natural ability to contact all surfaces within a space in equal concentrations, guaranteeing an even level of kill throughout the space. Its small molecular size coupled with this distributive ability allows the gas to penetrate even the smallest cracks and crevices in walls and floors and reach all surfaces of food processing equipment.

No Residue - Immediately Resume Production Unlike some other fumigants such as hydrogen peroxide which leaves a residue and is also a human carcinogen, chlorine dioxide gas does not leave a residue, is not a carcinogen, nor is it a poisonous gas. Some chemical fumigants are applied using a dry fog and/or vapor decontamination method which leave a residue, necessitating a post-treatment cleaning, and often requiring an extended period of time prior to resuming plant operations to allow the chemical concentrations to dissipate and reach levels safe for human habitation. This residue is attributed to the nature of these products and their composition. Chlorine dioxide does not leave a residue and does not require post-treatment cleaning. Processing plants can immediately be re-occupied and begin production once gas levels have 8 |

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About Chlorine Dioxide

The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

reached the safe human habitation level of 0.1 parts-per-million, typically within 60 minutes of gas cessation.

NOT Explosive When Fumigating The concentration at which chlorine dioxide gas is used for fumigation is more than 1,000 times less than the explosive threshold. This makes the risk of explosion ZERO as explosive concentrations cannot be achieved during the fumigation process. There is some truth to the notion that chlorine dioxide can be explosive. Chlorine dioxide, if compressed, may be explosive and this is the reason why it must be created at its point of use. Pureline creates pure chlorine dioxide gas on-site using two different and distinct safe methods and does not incorporate any compressed gasses in any form, in the fumigation process.

NOT a Carcinogen There is no evidence that chlorine dioxide is a carcinogen. Chlorine dioxide can be found in toothpastes and mouthwashes. It is used to treat municipal drinking water supplies and to rinse various fruits, vegetables, and meats. Both the EPA and FDA have approved the use of chlorine dioxide for use in these instances.

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The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

About Chlorine Dioxide

Corrosivity A typical chlorine dioxide decontamination treatment exposure is often in the range of 1,000 – 1,500 ppm-hours (concentrations of ~200 ppm for five to eight hours). Pureline has performed rigorous testing of stainless-steel exposure to chlorine dioxide and has shown no signs of corrosion with concentrations as high as 900,000 ppm-hours (50,000 ppm for a period of 18 hours). The exception to any evidence of corrosion on stainless-steel would be due to poorly passivated welds, and/or other deposits resident on the stainless steel which may show signs of oxidation. Chlorine dioxide itself has been shown to be compatible with stainless steel and many other metals through exposure studies using the pure, gaseous form. The concern about chlorine dioxide corrosion is most likely due to confusing it with chlorine or chlorine gas. Also, some liquid chlorine dioxide solutions are produced by mixing a sodium chlorite base with an acid (most commonly citric acid) which creates a liquid acidified chlorine dioxide solution as well as chlorous acid and acidified sodium chlorite. It is these acidic by-products which can cause corrosion of metals. PureLine Solutions creates a 99.5% pure chlorine dioxide treatment with zero acidifcation or acidified by-products. Commonly used food plant chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are much more corrosive than chlorine dioxide. The following chart illustrates that chlorine dioxide is far less corrosive than the other microbial fumigants listed below.

Corrosion Potential

Corrosion Potential (V)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0 Chlorine Dioxide

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Sodium Hypochlorite (chlorine bleach)

Hydrogen Peroxide

Peracetic Acid

Ozone

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About Chlorine Dioxide

Stainless Steel:

50,000 ppm for 18 hours 900,000 ppm-hours Pre-Treatment

Post-Treatment

Unpainted Mild Steel: 208 ppm for 8 hours 1,664 ppm-hours Pre-Treatment

Post-Treatment

The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

Other than unpainted mild steel, which may show signs of light oxidation, no other metals will be affected by chlorine dioxide. Below are photographs of stainless steel exposed to 50,000 ppm over an 18-hour period (900,000 ppm-hours), and also unpainted mild steel exposed to a typical microbial treatment exposure of ~200 ppm over 8 hours (~1,600 ppm-hours)

All Chlorine Dioxide is not Created Equal Chlorine dioxide gas cannot be safely compressed and therefore it is required that it be produced on-site at the point of use. There are several methods of producing chlorine dioxide. PureLine Solutions uses methods that create a safe and effective 99.5% pure chlorine dioxide gas that DOES NOT require humidity controls and produces guaranteed sterilization results. Some companies use methods that utilize highly corrosive chlorine gas in their process, requiring humidification of the area being treated. The chlorine gas is filtered through a chemical matrix, which under humidity control of 65 – 75% will produce chlorine dioxide gas, however; if humidity is not high enough then highly corrosive chlorine gas may be present in the treatment area, increasing the possibility of corrosion on metals and other materials.

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The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

About Chlorine Dioxide

Remains Active in Water Chlorine dioxide does not react with water, has a neutral pH in water, and stays as chlorine dioxide within the water. This enables it to kill organisms within the water, as well as any on the surface beneath the water. This trait is unique to chlorine dioxide among decontaminating agents. When mixed with water, chlorine bleach (sodium hypochlorite) forms hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen peroxide, by contrast, will dilute in water and cannot kill organisms within or beneath the water.

Chlorine Dioxide versus Other Treatment Agents Pureline uses a 99.5% pure chlorine dioxide gas, which is scientifically and statistically less corrosive than hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, ozone and sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Chlorine dioxide gas is used safely every day to decontaminate rooms, suites, and other spaces. Hydrogen peroxide is most often injected as a vapor into the space being decontaminated. Unlike consumer use of 3% hydrogen peroxide, decontamination services using this chemical typically deploy a 35% hydrogen peroxide / 65% water composition. When the hydrogen peroxide vapor condenses, the condensate’s hydrogen peroxide concentration can increase from 35% to almost 80%. This increase in concentration adds to hydrogen peroxide’s corrosive nature, as noted in its incompatibility with some epoxy finishes on walls and flooring as well as other materials. Chlorine dioxide has a 0.1 part-per-million (ppm) 8-hour safety level for human exposure. Chlorine dioxide gas has an odor similar to a swimming pool and can be sensed (smelled) below the 0.1ppm threshold, acting as an alert in case of a leak, as personnel are aware of the leak at very low levels below the safe human habitation level, allowing them to act upon it as they deem fit (either aborting the process or fixing the leak). By contrast, hydrogen peroxide is odorless, and any leakage cannot be easily identified by nearby personnel, allowing for leakage and exposure to personnel to continue and worsen. A benefit of chlorine dioxide is that it is a real gas and therefore will expand to uniformly fill the space it is contained within, regardless of the effect of gravity. This allows the gas to contact all surfaces within a space in equal concentrations, guaranteeing an even level of decontamination throughout. It’s small molecular size coupled with this distributive property allows the gas to easily penetrate microscopic cracks and crevices. To contain the gas during treatment, the treatment area can be isolated from the HVAC system and from other nontreatment areas when sealed with common polyethylene plastic and tape. Another property which aids in the safety of the chlorine dioxide process is its status as a

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About Chlorine Dioxide

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The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

real gas. Chlorine dioxide does not condense on surfaces; therefore, in case of emergency the gas can be aerated down to safe levels quickly. Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid at room temperature and therefore condenses on surfaces. This condensate takes much longer to dry and aerate from a space, needing hours if not overnight before it is safe for human habitation. This means that in the event of leakage, chlorine dioxide gas can be removed making the area safe quickly, while hydrogen peroxide may take until the next day.

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The Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

About Chlorine Dioxide

Summary Chlorine dioxide gas and chlorine dioxide aqueous solutions, when applied safely and effectively, are more effective in killing harmful bacteria, mold and spores and far less corrosive than most other microbial fumigants. Due to its nature as a gas that does not condense on surfaces, a plant can be re-occupied, and operations can resume immediately upon aeration and reducing gas level to the 8-hour safety level of 0.1 ppm or less, often within no more than a few hours of cessation of gas production. A significant added value in using Pureline is our capability to safely and cost effectively deploy a chlorine dioxide decontamination engagement for areas ranging from small electric cabinets to entire plants up to several million cubic feet. Additionally, Pureline can train your operators in the safe deployment of PureVistaTM, our 99.5% pure chlorine dioxide product, for areas up to several thousand cubic feet, helping you cost-effectively manage your sanitation and decontamination needs.

Chlorine Dioxide and Its Disinfecting Properties Since the 1920s, chlorine dioxide has been known for its disinfecting properties. It was recognized as a chemo-sterilizing agent in 1984; and in 1988, it was registered with the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for use as a sterilant. The USDA has deemed chlorine dioxide as certified for organic use in crop production, as an algicide, disinfectant

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About Chlorine Dioxide

DISINFECTION PROPERTIES

Both gaseous and aqueous phase chlorine dioxide has been proven to be an effective sterilizing agent that has broad and high biocidal effectiveness. Both forms of chlorine dioxide have been reported to effectively inactivate bacteria, including pathogens, viruses, bacterial spores and algae.

Gaseous chlorine dioxide has proven to be an effective sterilant. Jeng and Woodworth (1990) reported the sporicidal activity of chlorine dioxide gas. Gaseous chlorine dioxide has successfully been used to decontaminate B. anthracis (anthrax) contaminated areas of the Hart Senate Office Building and the Brentwood postal sorting facility in Washington, DC. Hans et al. also reported high efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas in reducing Bacillus spores on paper, plastic, epoxy-coated stainless steel and wood surfaces. Additionally, much research has demonstrated that chlorine dioxide gas is highly effective in eliminating foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria and Salmonella.

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The Use of Chlorine Dioxide and it’s Disinfecting Properties

and sanitizer. In addition, no corrosion is observed when using materials such as stainless steel, Lexan, and various other plastics such as Delrin, Teflon, and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). With appropriate delivery equipment and care, chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective means of decontamination. A significant safety feature of chlorine dioxide is that it has a distinct odor much like a swimming pool, making even minor leaks self-alerting, well below the human habitation safety limit.

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Chlorine Dioxide Kill Efficacy (Gaseous and Aqueous)

About Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine Dioxide Efficacy The following chart illustrates the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in the treatment of microbial growth problems.

MICROBE

CIO2 State

CIO2 Concentration

Time

ppm - hours

Log Reduction

Salmonellaxv

Gaseous

362 ppm

30 minutes

181

Log 5.15

E. Coli 0157:H7xxii

Gaseous

362 ppm

30 minutes

181

Log 5.62

Listeria Monocytogenesxxii

Gaseous

362 ppm

30 minutes

181

Log 5.88

1,000

Log 6

N/A

100% inactivation

CHLORINE DIOXIDE EFFICACY

Fungus

(molds and yeasts, including mycotoxins and spores)xvi

Gaseous

~

125 ppm

8 hours

Anyxv

Aqueous

100 ppm

10 minutes

~

Chlorine dioxide is very reactive and completely destroys the cell by disrupting the DNA and thus microorganisms such as bacteria, mold and viruses cannot build up a resistance.

Image source: 2015 http://news.mit.edu

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About Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide has been shown to be an effective antimicrobial agent capable of destroying biofilms. Biofilm forms when bacteria adhere to surfaces in moist environments by excreting a slimy, glue-like substance. Sites for biofilm formation include all kinds of surfaces and can be a major concern in food processing plants. Wherever you find a combination of moisture, nutrients and a surface, you are likely to find biofilm. Microbes like to grow on surfaces, whether natural or manmade. When it comes to industrial surfaces, bacteria are just doing “what comes naturally” by attaching to the surfaces with which they come into contact. However, their propensity for attachment may cause many problems for the food processing facility.

Microbial Biofilms

Microbial Biofilms

A biofilm community almost always consist of rich mixtures of many species of bacteria and other microorganisms. Biofilms are held together by a matrix of sugary molecular strands, collectively termed “extracellular polymeric substances” or “EPS.” The cells are held together by these strands, allowing them to develop complex three-dimensional, resilient, attached communities. Many studies have shown that the multicellular construction of biofilms affords protection for cells, making them less susceptible to antimicrobial agents. This protection is the result of intrinsic shifts in genetic expression when floating bacterial cells attach to surfaces and begin to form biofilms.

MICROBIAL BIOFILMS

In biofilms, the matrix material (EPS) that holds cells in proximity allows concentrations of signal molecules to build up in enough quantity to effect changes in cellular behavior. Bacterial populations will activate some genes only when they are able to sense, via cell signaling, that their population is numerous enough to make it advantageous and/ or “safe” to initiate that genetic activity. For example, some bacterial pathogens will not produce toxins until they sense that an adequate population has been established to survive host defenses. Chlorine dioxide is effective at eradicating biofilms. In rigorous studies performed by Montana State University Center for Biofilm Engineering, chlorine dioxide gas concentrations of approximately 250 parts-per-million on a log 8 biofilm (108 CFU/cm2) resulted in a log 6 kill after 4 hours. It should be noted that a log 8 biofilm is a substantial biofilm, that would be far in excess of what would be expected on a regularly cleaned surface or a partially wetted surface in any environment. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Environmental Testing to Prove Efficacy

About Chlorine Dioxide

Environmental Testing to Prove Efficacy For any cleaning process, it is important to quantify the results. PureLine Solutions utilizes three separate and distinct methodologies to measure microorganism presence to help you confirm a clean break has been achieved post chloride dioxide sanitization process. This threepronged validation process provides you with the confidence of a clean break. A. ATP-based microbiologic monitoring methods were developed to monitor the cleaning and sanitization of equipment and materials, and immediately detect the presence or absence of organic material (live or dead) on solid surfaces. xvii, xix ATP monitoring systems are used in food production facilities, state health laboratories, and drug companies xx, xxi. PureLine Solutions uses the NEOGEN AccuPoint Advanced ATP detection device, which uses bioluminescence to indicate the level of residual ATP present on swabbed surfaces. The amount of ATP present on the surfaces tested are then quantified by the amount of light emitted during the enzymatic reaction (relative light units, RLU). The NEOGEN recommended scale is used in PureLine Solutions sanitization treatment processes: <150 = pass, 151 – 299 = caution/marginal, and > 300 = fail.

PROVING EFFICACY

B. Swab testing in the food industry has long been a standard process in measuring the level of micro-organisms present on surfaces. PureLine Solutions uses pre- and post- treatment sterile swabs which are cultured to quantify the number of colony forming units (CFUs/ml). C. Biological indicators; a spore forming bacterium that is widely distributed in soil, hot springs, ocean sediment, and is a cause of spoilage in food products, are used to determine log kill. The capability to form endospores makes these organisms resistant to extreme conditions such as pressure, extreme heat or cold, drought, starvation, biocides, and UV irradiationxxii (Moeller et al., 2008). Because the spores used in biological indicators are the most resistant spores to the chlorine dioxide sterilization process, a biological indicator that does not survive the treatment process indicates that other potential spores or bacteria in the sterilization load have also been killed. PureLine Solutions uses biological indicators affixed at each of several environmental test sites, which are incubated post-treatment, and used to determine effective log kill of microorganisms in the treated facility to achieve a clean break. Environmental test sites are prepared as follows: 4” x 4” sterile swab and ATP templates are placed on the floor at designated locations. Biological Indicators are placed in proximity to these templates. A swab sample and ATP reading are taken for each site prior to, and immediately after the chlorine dioxide application(s). ATP readings are available immediately. Swab samples are sent to an accredited third-party lab and results reported in colony forming unit (CFU/ml). Biological Indicators are cultured for a specified time and results reported in “log kill”.

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About Chlorine Dioxide

During the disinfectant treatment, chlorine dioxide gas is exposed to varying environmental factors of light, temperature, and humidity which influence it’s disinfectant efficiency.

Light, Temperature, and Humidity Considerations

Light, Temperature, and Humidity Considerations

LIGHT, TEMPERATURE, AND HUMIDITY CONSIDERATIONS

In several studies, including research by Lee et al.xxiv, the effect of UV-A and fluorescent lamp on chlorine dioxide gas degradation was observed. The degradation of gas under these conditions followed a first order reaction. In this research, gas degradation using a 40-Watt UV-A lamp was approximately four orders of magnitude larger than with a 34Watt fluorescent lamp. In dark conditions, less than three percent degradation in gas was observed over a period of six hours. Therefore, while not a necessary requirement for chlorine dioxide treatment efficacy, a no-light or low-light environment is optimal. In the same study, the effect of temperature on the degradation of chlorine dioxide gas was observed at 5°, 23°, and 40°C. In all cases, the effect of temperature was negligible indicating that treatment efficacy is not dependent on environmental temperature gradients in this range. When treatments are performed in spiral freezers or other areas that typically operate at freezing or below temperatures, the cooling units should be shut off such that the temperatures are at 5° C or higher during the treatment process.

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Chlorine Dioxide Concentration Monitoring

About Chlorine Dioxide

Concentration Monitoring

CONCENTRATION MONITORING

During the disinfectant treatment, it is important to monitor chlorine dioxide gas concentrations to assure an effective dosage is being applied to the treatment area. PureLine Solutions utilizes concentration monitoring devices specifically designed and calibrated for chlorine dioxide gas. Monitors capable of reading concentrations between 0 and 1,000 parts-per-million (ppm) are used in the treatment areas to measure gas levels and report the total ppm-hours delivered. As a safety precaution, low level monitoring devices capable of detecting 0 – 2.0 ppm are placed in areas where no gas is expected to leak. The chart on page 14 identifies the various dosing requirements to effectively kill the varieties of bacteria and fungus most typically found in a food processing plant. The monitoring devices are placed in several locations within the treatment area prior to engagement of the gassing process and measurements are recorded throughout the process, including demarcation of when gas exhaust starts and when the “all clear” is given identifying the gas levels to be at or below the 0.1 ppm level when personnel are allowed to re-enter the area and respirators are no longer required to be worn.

60 Minutes After Start of Treatment

2 Hours After Start of Treatment 20 |

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About Chlorine Dioxide

When considering how to describe the efficacy of any fumigation treatment, the important treatment parameters are: temperature over the duration of the treatment; relative humidity over the duration of the treatment; the extent to which the target organisms were exposed to chlorine dioxide; and the concentration of exposure. The extent of exposure to the gas is described as “concentration over time� or CT. Usually the CT product is expressed in terms of hours of exposure multiplied by parts-per-million (ppm) or milligrams-per-liter (mg/l). The shorthand version of this calculation is ppm-hours or mg/l-hours. The concentration target for a chlorine dioxide treatment is in the range of 1,000-1,500 parts-per-million hours over a six to eight-hour exposure in a typical food processing plant treatment.

Fumigant concentration (ppm)

200

150

100

Chlorine Dioxide Concentration Monitoring

Concentration Calculations

50

0 Duration at fumigant exposure (hours)

The formula given for use under leak proof conditions is: Ctn,n+1 = (Tn+1-Tn) x (Cn+Cn+1) 2.0

ppm-hours

Where: Tn is the time the first reading was taken in hours. Tn+1 is the time the second reading was taken in hours. Cn is the concentration reading at Tn in ppm. Cn+1 is the concentration reading at Tn+1 in ppm. Ctn,n+1 is calculated CT product between Tn and Tn+1 in ppm. Half the sum of two consecutive gives the average concentration between the two. These two formulae disregard the first rectangle (i.e. between the time of initial fumigant injection and the first reading due to the uncertainty of adequate mixing of the fumigant in the air surrounding the treated article and within the treated area). www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PURELINE SOLUTIONS SERVICES

PureLine Solutions Services

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PureLine Solutions Delivery Methods For Chlorine Dioxide 24 |

MobileCleanTM Chlorine Dioxide Generation System PureLine’s MobileCleanTM is an effective and comprehensive large-scale chlorine dioxide gas sanitation service. The MobileCleanTM service resets the clock on the micro-biological load and provides the customer with a clean break. Gas concentrations are digitally monitored and logged throughout an eight-hour gas generation process, assuring target concentrations are achieved, and a successful treatment has been completed. After gas generation is ceased, the treatment area is evacuated of residual gases, most often facilitated by the customer’s HVAC system. Whether its post-construction sanitation, concerns about a widespread bacterial outbreak, or simply updating hygienic design of your facility, the MobileCleanTM service offers the most effective solution to treat your entire facility. MobileCleanTM is the most costeffective solution for areas ranging from 100,000 cubic feet up to several million cubic feet.

MOBILECLEANTM

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PureVistaTM is a portable, water-activated, disinfection system that has the power to clean surfaces, equipment, and facility air with unmatched effectiveness. Gas concentrations are digitally monitored and logged throughout the six-hour gas generation process, and residual gas is then exhausted from the treatment area. PureVistaTM chlorine dioxide generation system creates pure chloride dioxide gas on-site making it perfect for routine or emergency cleaning for smaller areas. PureVistaTM is inexpensive, safe, and can be scaled to the specifications of any facility to deliver an effective disinfection. PureVistaTM is available in sizes ranging from 2-gram capsules for use in small cabinets, up to 100-gram canisters that can be used in a specified quantity for rooms or entire facilities.

PUREVISTA

TM

PureLine Solutions Delivery Methods For Chlorine Dioxide

PureVistaTM (PV) Chlorine Dioxide Generation System

PureVistaTM 2

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PureLine Solutions Delivery Methods For Chlorine Dioxide

PureVistaTM Do It Yourself Applications Hundreds of customers purchase and deploy PureVistaTM themselves for routine and/or targeted applications. From electrical cabinet applications to entire rooms or facilities, the PureVistaTM product is designed for customer deployed utility. Whether using PureVistaTM as a PureLine Solutions delivered service solution or buying and deploying the PureVistaTM themselves, customers across the country are using PureVistaTM as an economical and safe means of sanitation that achieves a log6 kill and allows your operations to resume quickly without any residue clean up. See our instructional materials to learn more at purevista.info.

PureVistaTM available in 2, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 gram sizes.

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pHlorSanTM is the first and only large-scale liquid chlorine dioxide floor, wall and drain treatment service on the market, providing entire plant or large production area treatment. Using PureLine’s Pure3000 chlorine dioxide solution, the pHlorSanTM treatment has the capability to kill bacteria, bio-film and other biological contaminants causing sanitation challenges. The chlorine dioxide solution contact duration of the target areas is approximately 30 minutes. The sanitation standard for nonfood contact surfaces is accepted as a reduction of 99.9% (3 logs) within 30 seconds. For chlorine dioxide solution, a 5-ppm solution is effective as a sanitizer with a contact time of at least 1 minute. Further, disinfection is achieved with 100 ppm using a contact time of 10 minutes. pHlorSanTM is often used in conjunction with a full-service MobileCleanTM or PureVistaTM treatment.

PHLORSAN

TM

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PureLine Solutions Delivery Methods For Chlorine Dioxide

pHlorSanTM Floor & Drain Sanitation

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CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES Customer Responsibilities Upon confirmation of a treatment engagement, PureLine Solutions operations management will reach out to the customer and follow up with a draft project plan that contains the necessary information required to deliver an effective treatment. The project plan is a critical step in assuring a complete and professional treatment is performed at the customer plant. The draft project plan will be reviewed on-line with customer, then edited and finalized after customer discussion and agreement. A plant layout map will be requested so concentration monitoring and environmental sites can be mapped, location of utilities (power and electric) can be identified, and for MobileCleanTM application, the treatment hose requirements and layout can be identified. During the treatment process, PureLine Solutions team will routinely update customer on progress of work, including walking the perimeter of the treatment area to check for any potential gas leaks.

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Cleaning, Sealing and Gas Exhaust Plan

The following information will be included in the project plan: • LOCATION AND START TIMES: ¤¤ Customer name and plant address, including PureLine Solutions team arrival times and project start times. • CONTACT INFORMATION: ¤¤ Customer contacts including names, email and phone numbers including a customer shipping contact to confirm delivery of any materials being sent ahead of time. ¤ ¤ PureLine Solutions project team contacts including names, email and phone numbers including PureLine Solutions shipping contact. • ROOM DIMENSION AND DELIVERED SERVICES: ¤¤ The dimensions of all rooms being treated (length, width & height), and the treatments being delivered to each room. ¤¤ Diagram of the rooms being treated including location of environmental test sites and gas concentration monitoring locations. For MobileCleanTM treatments, diagram will include trailer location and hose drop locations. • CUSTOMER READINESS: ¤¤ Customer responsibilities for cleaning, sealing and de-gassing planning, and for the necessary utilities required for the treatment. De-gassing is accomplished by safely exhausting residual gas to outside atmosphere where it quickly dissipates or via capturing and neutralizing the residual gas. This section includes confirmation and agreement with the plan that will be signed off at the job site by PureLine Solutions and Customer representative prior to beginning the treatment. Customer sign-off is a necessary step in the execution of the plan. • PROJECT EXECUTION PLAN: ¤¤ A complete timeline including the days and hour-by-hour plan for the entire treatment from set up through final “all clear” and safe for customer personnel to return to treatment area. • CHEMICAL AND EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST: ¤¤ A detailed description of all chemicals, equipment, tools and environmental test specimens being used for the treatment. Safety Data Sheets, and other relevant safety procedure documentation is provided. For materials being shipped, the PureLine Solutions shipping contact will reach out to the customer shipping contact to coordinate and confirm receipt and to coordinate material return after the treatment has been completed.

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Proper cleaning by the customer is necessary to assure the chlorine dioxide gas effectively contacts the treatment area walls, floors, ceiling and equipment. Surfaces that have dirt, dust, oil/grease, food residue, or other substances may not result in an effective treatment due to inability for the chlorine dioxide gas to reach the target surfaces. pHlorSanTM solution treatment to floors or other areas will displace most dirt and dust, however; heavy dirt, oil/ grease and food residue may not allow effective surface contact and may result in poor results. It is therefore incumbent upon the customer to thoroughly clean the treatment area prior to a gas or liquid chlorine dioxide application.

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Cleaning, Sealing and Gas Exhaust Plan

Cleaning Prior to Treatment

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Cleaning, Sealing and Gas Exhaust Plan 32 |

Sealing Requirements for Containment of Chlorine Dioxide Gas To assure maximum effectiveness, the treatment area must be sealed to assure concentration of the chlorine dioxide gas during treatment. Sealing is the responsibility of the customer, and during the initial walk-through with the customer, PureLine Solutions will confirm that all sealed areas appear to be satisfactory and will assist in any final sealing that is deemed necessary. Due to the customer’s unique knowledge of their building environment, including high and low-pressure zones, HVAC ducting, electrical conduit ducting and passthrough between rooms, it is imperative that the customer undertake the task of sealing the treatment area. This is accomplished with the use of polyethylene plastic (of any thickness) that is draped over large openings and vents, and firmly sealed on all sides to assure no gas can escape. Non-residue duct tape is recommended, and if possible, all opening should be sealed from inside the treatment area to minimize the seals from breaking open during the process. In some cases, when larger pressure gradients exist between the inside and outside of the treatment area, a double seal – one on each side of the opening – is recommended. For man doors, the seams of the door, including hinges, need to be taped. For these seams, a blue painter’s tape will meet the need.

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Upon termination of chlorine dioxide gas generation, the residual gases are removed from the building. The project plan will include specifics on the process. A customer’s HVAC system is designed to maximize air flow, and thus is the most often used approach to remove residual gas and return the plant environment to the 8-hour safety level of 0.1 ppm or less. In some cases, customers provide mobile fans to aid in the exhaust process. IMPORTANT: In all cases, exhaust systems must be switched on from OUTSIDE the treatment area. In some cases, remote starters may be required to turn on exhaust system power from outside the treatment area(s). Exhaust through roof venting is ideal. If exhaust through doorway(s) leading to outside is required, red danger tape will be set up outside the doors for a perimeter of no less than 50 feet to prevent accidental inhalation of chlorine dioxide gas. Chlorine dioxide is highly reactive, and the gas will quickly dissipate in the atmosphere. For inside rooms without direct access to a rooftop vent, the gas can be safely exhausted via a door leading to the outside using industrial fans. For tented equipment, the level of residual gas will be low enough such that removing the tenting material will allow gas concentrations to drop to safe levels quickly as the gas dissipates quickly within the larger area. For situations where the customer wishes to eliminate chlorine dioxide gas release to outside air, a charcoal air scrubber can be utilized to clean the air upon exhaust, however, this option is rarely chosen due to the additional time required for the gas-scrubbing process.

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Cleaning, Sealing and Gas Exhaust Plan

De-Gassing Post-treatment

| 33


Customer Responsibilities

Preparation for MobileClean TM Application The utilities described below are responsibility of the customer and will be specified in the project plan:

MobileCleanTM truck location identified on plant layout map Power provided by customer for MobileCleanTM 3-phase w/ ground 208 – 240 Volts 100 Amp Electrical connection < 100 ft from MobileCleanTM truck Water supply to MobileCleanTM truck ž inch cold-water standard garden hose connection(s) identified on layout map Hose connection < 150 ft from MobileCleanTM truck

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There is very little specific preparation required for a PureVistaTM application. The PureVistaTM launchers are placed and filled with water by PureLine Solutions team immediately prior to the treatment process. Upon completion of the process, PureLine Solutions will neutralize the PureVistaTM modules and request the customer provide the following:

Customer Responsibilities

Preparation for PureVista TM application

___ open top buckets (45 gallons or larger) – will be filled ¾ with water and used for neutralization of PureVistaTM modules at the end of treatment process. Customer will be responsible for disposal of same – solution will be pH neutral, non-hazmat within 60 minutes of neutralization process.

Preparation for pHlorSan TM (Floor and Drain Wash) Application The following checklist provides the required items to be provided by the customer:

110 Volts, 15 Amp power source location for the pHlorSanTM delivery system Water source (cold water preferred) with ¾” garden hose connection and 100 feet of hose available

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Treatment Delivery Timeline Review 36 |

Treatment Delivery Timeline Review The following timeline depicts a typical MobileCleanTM job. For PureVistaTM jobs, the timeline can be achieved in a single day starting at 6:00AM. For the addition of pHlorSanTM treatment, the time frame will be extended by one hour for areas of 5,000 square feet or less, up to several hours for jobs approaching 100,000 square feet.

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TIME

ACTION

MobileClean™ truck arrives; connect electric and water. Run treatment hoses, set Day 1

12:00 - 6:00 PM

concentration monitors, temperature and relative humidty monitors and environmental test sites.

6:00 - 7:00 AM

Site walkthrough, final review of sealing and review/ agree on any last-minute adjustment.

Treatment Delivery Timeline Review

DATE

Safety meeting with customer and confirm 7:00 - 8:00 AM

building is all clear of human habitation and treatment process can safely begin. Sign-off by customer and PureLine Solutions.

Day 2

8:00 AM - 4:00 PM

4:00 - 6:00 PM

Chlorine dioxide treatment process engaged.

Evacuate gas from building to safe level of 0.1ppm or less

Remove treatment hoses and monitoring equipment; finalize environmental test sites 6:00 PM - 8:00 PM

and final signoff to declare “all clear” and safe for personnel return to building. PureLine Solutions team exits site.

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Process Sign Off Sheets

Process Sign Off Sheets (signed on-site by PureLine Solutions and Customer representative) ¤¤ Facility Cleaning Confirmation ■■ This confirms the customer has cleaned the treatment area and that it is free of dirt and food residue. Chlorine dioxide is a powerful oxidizer, but will not penetrate dirt, grease or food residue. Therefore, it is critical that the treatment area is thoroughly cleaned and inspected prior to gas treatment engagement. ¤¤ Sealing Confirmation ■■ The customer is required to properly seal the treatment area to prevent gas from escaping during the treatment. Gas leakage is a concern for safety as well as assuring treatment efficacy by allowing gas concentrations to build to effective levels in the treatment area. Sealing is the customer’s responsibility for reasons that include an inability for PureLine Solutions to know the physical plant layout and limitations, specifically any potential conduits for gas leakage and also due to the need for sealing to begin prior to the PureLine Solutions team arriving onsite. PureLine Solutions will accompany customer representatives during the pre-treatment walkthrough to review sealing and assist in any final sealing required. If able to be performed safely, PureLine Solutions will remediate any poorly sealed or ‘blown’ sealing during the treatment process. ¤¤ No Human Habitation ■■ The customer must signoff prior to gas engagement, that the treatment area has been inspected and there is no human habitation in any part of the plant. A PureLine Solutions employee will walk the facility with a customer representative to affix “Do Not Enter” signage at all entry points to the treatment area, as well as outside doorways, including affixing red “danger” tape across all entry ways. If exceptions are noted, the plant areas with human habitation must be clearly marked and the exceptions must be agreed upon by PureLine Solutions operations lead (on-site). The customer person(s) responsible for said exception locations must carry a personal chlorine dioxide monitor and keep in routine communication with the PureLine Solutions operations lead. PureLine Solutions will remotely monitor a limited number of areas for gas leakage, but due to the size and configuration of most plants, not all areas can be remotely monitored for gas leakage. Customer must agree that these exception areas will be evacuated of all customer personnel should gas leakage be detected in those areas that are approaching the 0.1 part- per-million eight-hour safety limit for chlorine dioxide gas.

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■■ A final sign-off will be required upon confirmation by PureLine Solutions that gas concentrations in all parts of the treatment area are at or below the 0.1 part-per- million eight-hour safety limit. At that time (and only after that time), customers will be able to resume activity in the treatment area. Chlorine dioxide leaves no residue, and therefore production can begin immediately upon the All-Clear sign off.

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Process Sign Off Sheets

¤¤ Facility All-Clear Confirmation

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PURELINE POST PureLineTREATMENT Solutions Post Treatment Reporting REPORTING Table of Contents Treatment Objective

44

Treatment Team & Customer Contacts

45

Timeline 46 Treatment Areas

47

Environmental Test Results

49

pHlorSanTM Floor and Drain Treatment

50

MobileCleanTM Chlorine Dioxide Treatment

51

Corrosion Coupon

52

Discussion 53 Treatment Summary

56

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Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) Services Delivered by PureLine Solutions

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

42 |

MobileCleanTM Chlorine Dioxide Generator System PureLine’s MobileCleanTM is the most effective and comprehensive large-scale chlorine dioxide gas sanitation service on the market. The MobileCleanTM service resets the clock on the micro-biological load and provides the customer with a clean break. Gas concentrations are digitally monitored and logged throughout the process, assuring you target concentrations are achieved, and a successful treatment has been completed.

847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

pHlorSanTM is the first and only large-scale liquid chlorine dioxide floor and drain treatment service on the market, providing entire plant or large production area treatment. Using PureLine’s Pure3000 chlorine dioxide solution, pHlorSanTM treatment has the capability to kill bacteria, bio-film and other biological contaminants causing sanitation challenges. pHlorSanTM is often used in conjunction with a full-service MobileCleanTM or PureVistaTM treatment.

Validating Treatment Efficacy PureLine uses three different biological testing methods to validate the effectiveness of your treatment. ATP swabbing is performed to establish a bio-load baseline; biological indicators to confirm the log reduction and pre and post treatment swabs to identify the CFU reduction. This three-pronged validation process provides you with the confidence of a clean break.

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Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) Services Delivered by PureLine Solutions

pHlorSanTM Floor & Drain Sanitation

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Treatment Objective

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

44 |

Treatment Objective

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Name 1

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 2

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Treatment Team & Customer Contacts

Name 3

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 4

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 5

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 6

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Treatment Team & Customer Contacts

Customer Name Contacts

PureLine Solutions Project Team Contacts

Name 1

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 2

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 3

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 4

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 5

Title

Email Address

Phone #

Name 6

Title

Email Address

Phone #

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Project Timeline

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Timeline

12:00 PM

Electric and water connections secured to MobileCleanTM unit. PureLine Solutions safety meeting with customer team – review plan and timetable.

1:00 - 1:30 PM

All clear walkthrough of building with customer and PureLine Solutions team. Environmental test sites set.

1:30 - 4:00 PM

Deliver and complete pHlorSanTM floor treatment

4:00 - 6:00 PM

PureLine Solutions team lays treatment hoses throughout building & sets up concentration monitoring equipment.

Timeline

December 8

6:00 - 7:00 AM

7:00 AM - 3:00 PM

Engage chlorine dioxide gas process, including concentration monitoring and routine updates to customer contacts.

3:00 - 5:00 PM

Exhaust of any residual chlorine dioxide gas from treatment area to achieve the eight-hour safety level of 0.1 ppm or less.

5:00 - 7:00 PM

PureLine Solutions team removes treatment equipment and performs final swabbing of environmental test sites. PureLine Solutions provides “all clear” to customer allowing for personnel safe to return to plant.

December 9

46 |

Team back on site; building walkthrough and “all clear” to confirm personnel are not in building and ready for treatment to begin.

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

The following areas were treated:

Sq. Ft.

Cu. Ft.

Mobile CleanTM

pHlorSanTM

Large Pack Room

3422

37642

Small Pack Room

558

9486

Room Name

Cooler

Treatment Ar✓ ✓ eas 372

6324

Process Room

5840

64240

Cooked Meat Cooler

783

8613

Drum Wash Room

418

4598

Bone Grinding Room

260

-

11,653

130,903

TOTAL ALL ROOMS

Treatment Areas

Room Dimensions and Treatment Applications

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Treatment Areas

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Treatment Areas Facility and location of markers are identified in Figure 1:

Concentration Monitor Sites Hose drops/Environmental Test Sites B1

Warehouse

Process Room

B2

B3

Drum Wash Room

Office Area

B7 Cooler

B4

B8

Large Pack Room Cooked Meat Cooler B5

B9

Bone Small Pack Grinding Room B10 PureLine Truck

B6

3/4� Cold Water Garden Hose Connection

Treatment Hose(s) Exit Location from Trailer

208 - 240V, 3-phase with Ground - Electric

Freezer

Loading Dock Area

Version 5.1

Figure 1 48 |

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Environmental test sites were prepared as follows: Environmental test site templates were placed on the floor at designated locations. Biological Indicators were placed in proximity to the templates. A sterile swab sample and ATP reading were taken for each site prior to, and immediately after the chlorine dioxide application(s). ATP readings were available immediately. Sterile swab samples were sent to an accredited third-party lab and results reported in colony forming unit (CFU/ml). Biological Indicators were cultured for a specified time and results reported in “log kill�. Note: A log6 kill is defined as 99.9999% reduction in biological activity. See Table 1:

Site #

Environmental Test Results ATP Results (RLU)

Swab Results (CFU/ml)

Bi Results

Pre Treatment

Post Treatment

Pre Treatment

Post Treatment

Log Kill

162

0

1,432

<10

Log 6

156

4

50

<10

Log 6

B3

124

21

<10

<10

Log 6

B4

172

17

3,236

<10

Log 6

B5

93

0

401

<10

Log 6

B6

168

0

898

<10

Log 6

B7

472

52

3,754

<10

Log 6

B8

33

0

202

<10

Log 6

B9

346

49

6,587

<10

Log 6

B10

135

33

125

<10

Log 6

B1 B2

<151 = Pass

Environmental Test Results

Environmental Test Results

Table 1

151-299 = Caution >299 = Fail

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pHlorSan Floor and Drain Treatment

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

50 |

pHlorSanTM Treatment Results

PHLORSAN FLOOR AND DRAIN TREATMENT

TM

A 100-ppm chlorine dioxide solution was applied to the floor. The process was managed to maintain an effective time-contact of the solution. The chlorine dioxide solution contact duration of the target areas was approximately 30 minutes. The sanitization standard for nonfood contact surfaces is accepted as a reduction of 99.9% (3 logs) within 30 seconds. For chlorine dioxide solution, a 5-ppm solution is effective as a sanitizer with a contact time of at least 1 minute. Further, disinfection can be achieved with 100 ppm using a contact time of 10 minutes. After the contact time was achieved, the solution was thoroughly drained from the floors, and the floors were allowed to dry.

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

MobileCleanTM unit was energized at 7:00AM on Wednesday, December 9th. Chlorine dioxide levels were monitored at several locations, including the office adjacent to the process room. After eight hours of concentrated dosing, chlorine dioxide generation was ceased, and the entire building exhaust process began. When safe concentration levels were reached at 5:00PM, environmental swabs were taken, and biological indicators were removed for further lab testing. Chlorine dioxide gas concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were monitored throughout the process as shown in Figure 2.

MobileCleanTM Chlorine Dioxide Treatment

MobileCleanTM Treatment Results

MobileCleanTM Chlorine Dioxide Treatment

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Corrosion Coupon

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Corrosion Coupon A corrosion coupon was placed in the treatment area and photographed before and immediately after treatment. The coupon consisted of the following metals: 304 stainless steel, 316 stainless steel, zinc, copper, brass, mild steel, and galvanized steel. Images for before and after treatment are provided to the customer.

Corrosion Coupon

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Since the 1920s, chlorine dioxide has been known for its disinfecting properties. It was recognized as a chemo-sterilizing agent in 1984 and in 1988, it was registered with the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for use as a sterilant. In addition, no corrosion is observed when using pharmaceutical-type materials such as high-grade stainless steel, Lexan, and various other plastics such as Delrin, Teflon, and UHMWPii. With appropriate equipment and care, chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective means of sanitization. It has a distinct odor, making even minor leaks self-alerting, which is a significant safety feature.

Discussion

Discussion

Chlorine Dioxide Use in Sanitization Processes

Both gaseous and aqueous phase chlorine dioxide has been proven to be an effective sanitizing agent that has broad and high biocidal effectiveness. Aqueous chlorine dioxide has been reported to effectively inactivate bacteria iii,iv, including pathogensv, vi, vii, virusesviii, ix, bacterial sporesx,xi, and algaexii. Gaseous chlorine dioxide has proven to be an effective disinfectant. Jeng and Woodworth reported the sporicidal activity of chlorine dioxide gas. Gaseous chlorine dioxide has successfully been used to decontaminate B. anthracis contaminated areas of the Hart Senate Office Building and the Brentwood postal sorting facility in Washington, DC. Hans et al. also reported high efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas in reducing Bacillus spores on paper, plastic, epoxy-coated stainless steel and wood surfacesxiv. Additionally, numerous research has demonstrated that chlorine dioxide gas is highly effective (greater than log 4 reductions) in reducing foodborne pathogens (E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella) xv

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Discussion

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Biological/Environmental Testing Discussion PureLine Solutions utilizes three separate and distinct methodologies to measure microorganism presence to help you confirm a clean break has been achieved post chloride dioxide sanitization process. 1. ATP-based microbiologic monitoring methods were developed to monitor the cleaning and sanitization of equipment and materials, and immediately detect the presence or absence of organic material (live or dead) on solid surfaces. ATP monitoring systems are used in food production facilities, state health laboratories, and drug companies. PureLine Solutions uses the NEOGEN AccuPoint Advanced ATP detection device, which uses bioluminescence to indicate the level of residual ATP present on swabbed surfaces. The amount of ATP present on the surfaces tested are then quantified by the amount of light emitted during the enzymatic reaction (relative light units, RLU). The NEOGEN recommended scale is used in PureLine Solutions sanitization treatment processes: < 150 = pass, 151 – 299 = caution/marginal, and >300 = fail. 2. Swab testing in the food industry has long been a standard process in measuring the level of micro-organisms present on surfaces. PureLine Solutions use a pre- and post- treatment swabs which are cultured to quantify the number of colony forming units (CFUs). 3. The third test procedure utilizes G stearothermophilus and B atrophaeus biological indicators; spore forming bacteria that are widely distributed in soil, hot springs, ocean sediment, and is a cause of spoilage in food products. The capability to form endospores makes these organisms resistant to extreme conditions such as pressure, extreme heat or cold, drought, starvation, biocides, and UV irradiation. Because the spores used in biological indicators are the most resistant spores to a particular sterilization process, a biological indicator that does not survive the treatment process indicates that other potential spores or bacteria in the sterilization load have also been killed. PureLine Solutions uses biological indicators affixed at each of several environmental test sites, which are incubated post-treatment for a specified time, and used to determine effective log kill of micro-organisms in the treated facility to achieve a clean breakxxi.

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

35.3 pounds of chlorine dioxide were produced over a period of eight hours, which resulted in a measured concentration of 1,598 ppm-hours. Upon ceasing chlorine dioxide generation, ventilation was started, and based on final room concentrations at that time, 1.8 pounds of chlorine dioxide was released to outside atmosphere at the termination point of the controlled treatment process.

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Treatment Summary

Treatment Summary

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Treatment Summary

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Treatment Summary ATP results pre-treatment indicated various levels of organic matter, and post-treatment indicated negligible levels of organic matter, based upon the relative light unit scale. Sterile swab samples pre-treatment showed a varied level of microorganism activity. Sterile swab samples post-treatment resulted in acceptable levels of CFU/ml for all sites. Results of the Biological Indicators resulted in log6 kill at all test sites.

Treatment Summary

The following chart illustrates the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in the treatment of MICROBE

CIO2 State

CIO2 Concentration

Time

ppm - hours

Log Reduction

Salmonellaxv

Gaseous

362 ppm

30 minutes

181

Log 5.15

E. Coli 0157:H7xxii

Gaseous

362 ppm

30 minutes

181

Log 5.62

Listeria Monocytogenesxxii

Gaseous

362 ppm

30 minutes

181

Log 5.88

1,000

Log 6

N/A

100% inactivation

Fungus (molds and yeasts, including mycotoxins and spores)xvi

Gaseous

~

125 ppm

8 hours

Anyxv

Aqueous

100 ppm

10 minutes

~

microbial growth problems. To kill the Salmonella a direct dose of 12 ppm can be applied for 30 minutes. In studies by Hyobi Kim et. al. Salmonella was eradicated at levels from 20 ppm to 80ppm. PureLine Solutions 22-year experience in ClO2 has demonstrated many times that Salmonella will not exist in this environment. As a result, PureLine Solutions states with confidence that no bacteria survived in the treated areas. In summary, a sanitation clean breakxx was achieved upon termination of the treatment process at approximately 7:00PM, on Wednesday, December 9. PureLine Solutions recommends that customer conduct their own environmental testing post-treatment to confirm results.

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) in the food industry is important for many critical processes that include fruit and vegetable, cheese, and meat processing: Disinfectant sprays, packaging and container disinfection, a-septic filler disinfection, piping disinfection, clean in place applications (CIP), disinfection treatments for the recycling of process water, treatment of source water, carcass wash, and flume disinfection. The food industry relies heavily on chlorine dioxide for many treatment applications. Approved by the EPA for potable water applications and the FDA for use as a disinfectant in the processing of foods and beverages, ClO2 is the perfect solution to many of the problems beverage companies encounter in their use of water. PureLine’s patented equipment and pre-cursor chemicals are also NSF certified.

Treatment Summary

About PureLine Solutions in the Food Industry

The unique properties of chlorine dioxide, that enable it to be extremely effective without affecting taste are just a couple reasons that chlorine dioxide is the preferred choice for multiple applications in the food processing industry. PureLine makes ClO2 an even better choice with their patented HP series generators. HP is the only technology that utilizes a single, non-hazardous pre-cursor to deliver a 99.5% pure, pH neutral solution with no reaction by-products passed through to your water systems. PureLine generators have multiple safety interlocks that make them easy and safe for employees to operate. Because the generators create ClO2 on demand, there is no need to store excess amounts of chlorine dioxide enhancing safety even further. With experienced, expert engineers, chemists, and technicians, PureLine Solutions stands ready to assist you and/or your existing water treatment partner in every aspect of the evaluation, design, implementation, and long-term support of your custom chlorine dioxide solutions. Some of the applications we’ve successfully used chlorine dioxide in the food industry are listed below: • • • • • • • •

Disinfectant sprays Packaging and container disinfection A-septic filter disinfection Piping disinfection Carcass wash Clean in place applications (CIP) Treatment of water source Flume disinfection

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Treatment Summary

PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

References i

Pfunter, A. “Sanitizers and Disinfectants: The Chemicals of Prevention.” Food Safety Magazine, Aug/Sept 2011.

ii

Kowalski, JB. Sterilization of Medical Devices, Pharmaceutical Components, and Barrier Isolator Systems with Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide. In Sterilization of Medical Products. Morrissey, RF; Kowalski, JB, Editors; 1998, Polyscience Publications Inc.; Champlain, NY, pp. 313–323.

iii

G.M. Ridenour, E.H. Armbruster, “Bactericidal effects of chlorine dioxide,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc.,” Vol. 41 (1949), p 537

iv

M.A. Benarde, B.M. Israel, V.P. Oliveri, M.L. Granstrom. “Efficacy of chlorine dioxide as a bactericide,” Appl. Microbiol.,” Vol. 13, No. 776 (1965).

v

M.S. Harakeh, J.C. Berg, A. Matin. “Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,” Vol 49, No. 1, (1985) pp. 69 – 72.

vi

D.G. Korich et al. “Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine and monochloramine on cryptosporidium parvum oocsyst viability,” Appl Environ. Microbiol.,” Vol 56, (1990) pp 1423 – 1428.

vii

R.G. Roberts, S.T. Reymond. “Chlorine dioxide for reduction of postharvest pathogen inoculum during handling of tree fruits,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,” Vol. 60, (1994) p 2864.

viii

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C.I. Noss, V.P. Oliver. “Disinfecting capabilities of oxychlorine compounds,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,” Vol. 50, (1985) pp. 1162 – 1164.

ix

Y. Chen, J.M. Vaughn. “Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,” Vol. 56, (1990) pp. 1363 – 1366.

x

G.M. Ridenour, R.S. Ingols, E.H. Armbruster. “Sporicidal properties of chlorine dioxide.” Water Sewage Works, Vol. 96 (1949) p. 279.

xi

P.M. Foegeding, V. Hernstapat, F.G. Giesbrecht. “Chlorine dioxide inactivation of Bacillus and Clostridum spores,” J. Food Sci. Vol. 51, (1986) pp. 197 – 201.

xii

G. C. White, Handbook of Chlorination, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York (1972) p. 596.

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PureLine Solutions Post Treatment Report

xiv

D.K. Jeng. A.G. Woodworth. “Chlorine dioxide gas sterilization under squarewave conditions,” Appl. Environ. Microbiology. Vol. 56, (1990) pp. 514-519. Vipin K. Rastogi, Shawn P. Ryan, Lalena Wallace, Lisa S. Smith, Saumil S. Shah, G. Blair Martin. “Systematic Evaluation of the Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide in Decontamination of Building Interior Surfaces Contaminated with Anthrax Spores,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, May 2010, p. 3343–3351

xv

J.L. Banach, H. van Bokhorst-van de Veen, L.S. van Overbeek, P.S. van der Zouwen, H.J. van der Fels-Klerx, M.N. Nierop Groot. “The efficacy of chemical sanitizers on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Eschegallatia coli affected by bacterial cell history and water quality,” Food Control. Volume 81, (November 2017), Pages 137-146

xvi

Colquhoun KO, Timms S, Fricker CR. 1998. A simple method for the comparison of commercially available ATP hygiene-monitoring systems. J Food Prot 61:499– 501 [PubMed]

xvii

Green TA, Russell SM, Fletcher DL. 1999. Effect of chemical cleaning agents and commercial sanitizers on ATP bioluminescence measurements. J Food Prot 62:86–90 [PubMed]

xviii

Davidson CA, Griffith CJ, Peters AC, Fielding LM. 1999. Evaluation of 2 methods for monitoring surface cleanliness—ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing. Luminescence 14:33–38 [PubMed]

xix

Lappalainen J, Loikkanen S, Havana M, Karp M, Sjoberg AM, Wirtanen G. 2000. “Microbial testing methods for detection of residual cleaning agents and disinfectants—prevention of ATP bioluminescence measurement errors in the food industry,” J Food Prot 63:210–215 [PubMed]

xx

Moeller R., Horneck G., Rabbow E., Reitz G., Meyer C., Hornemann U., et al. (2008). Role of DNA protection and repair in resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to ultrahigh shock pressures simulating hypervelocity impacts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74 6682–6689

xxi

Chapman, Benjamin., Danyluk, Michelle (2XXX). Establishing Lot Size through Sanitation Clean Breaks in Produce Packing Facilities. University of Florida, Publication #FSHN13-10

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Treatment Summary

xiii

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems

APPENDICES SAFETY DATA SHEETS Safety Data Sheets

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems

Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA HCS (29) CFR 1910.1200)

Reviewed on 05/29/2015

1 Identification • Product identifier • Trade name: PureVistaTM • Article number: 88228-1 • Recommended use and restriction on use • Recommended use: Biocide • Restrictions on use: Contact manufacturer. • Details of the supplier of the Safety Data Sheet • Manufacturer/Supplier: Pureline Treatment Systems, LLC 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 (847) 963-8465 INFO@PURELINE.COM • Emergency telephone number: ChemTel Inc. (800)255-3924, +1 (813)248-0585

2 Hazard(s) Identification • Classification of the substance or mixture GHS02 Water-react. 3 H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas. GHS03 Flame over circle Ox. Liq. 1

H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer.

GHS08 Health hazard STOT RE 2 exposure.

H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated

GHS05 Corrosion Met. Corr.1 Skin Corr. 1B Eye Dam. 1 62 |

H290 May be corrosive to metals. H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage H318 Causes serious eye damage. 847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems

GHS07 Acute Tox. 4 Acute Tox. 4

H302 Harmful if swallowed. H332 Harmful if inhaled.

Combustible Dust May form combustible dust concentrations in air. • Additional information: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. There are no other hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified. 0 percent of the mixture consists of ingredient(s) of unknown toxicity. • Label elements • GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS). • Hazard pictograms

GHS02 GHS03 GHS05 GHS07 GHS08 • Signal word Danger • Hazard-determining components of labeling: sodium chlorite sodium hydrogensulphate • Hazard statements H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas. H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer. H290 May be corrosive to metals. H302+H322 Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. May form combustible dust concentrations in air. • Precautionary statements P221 Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles. P210 Keep away from heat. P231+P232 Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture. P260 Do not breathe dust. P220 Keep/Store away from clothing/combustible materials. P264 Wash thoroughly after handling. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. P234 Keep only in original container. P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems P305+P351+P338 If in eyes: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. P310 Immediately call a poison center/doctor. P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. P301+P330+P331 If swallowed: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell. P370+P378 In case of fire: Use for extinction: Water. P390 Absorb spillage to prevent material damage. P405 Store locked up. P406 Store in corrosive resistant container with a resistant inner liner. P402+P404 Store in a dry place. Store in a closed container. P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/ national/international regulations. • Additional information: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. • Hazard description: • WHMIS-symbols: As of 11 February 2015, the current WHMIS system is being replaced by the GHS system. This is the classification under the older system. C - Oxidizing materials D1B - Toxic material causing immediate and serious toxic effects D2B - Toxic material causing other toxic effects E - Corrosive material

• Classification system: • NFPA ratings (scale 0 - 4) Health = 2 3 Fire = 3 Reactivity = 2 • HMIS-ratings (scale0-4) Health = *2 3 Fire = 3 Reactivity = 2 • • • •

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Other hazards Results of PBT and vPvB assessment PBT: Not applicable. vPvB: Not applicable.

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems

3 Composition/information on ingredients • Chemical characterization: Mixtures • Description: Mixture of the substances listed below with on hazardous additions. • Dangerous components: 7681-38-1 sodium hydrogensulphate 25-40% Eye Dam. 1, H318 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite

15-30%

Ox. Sol. 1, H271 STOT RE 2, H373 Skin Corr. 1B, H314; Eye Dam. 1, H318 Acute Tox. 4, H302 9003-67-5 methylcellulose 9004-04-7 sodium polyacrylate

10-20% 7-20%

• Additional information: For the listed ingredients, the identity and exact percentages are being withheld as a trade secret.

4 First-aid measures • Description of first aid measures • General information: Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product. Symptoms of poisoning may even occur after several hours; therefore medical observation for at least 48 hours after the accident. In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration. Take affected persons out into the fresh air. • After inhalation: Supply fresh air; consult doctor in case of complaints. Provide oxygen treatment if affected person has difficulty breathing. In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration. • After skin contact: Brush off loose particles from skin. Treat affected skin with cotton wool or cellulose. Then wash and rinse thoroughly with water and a mild cleaning agent. If skin irritation continues, consult a doctor. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use. Seek immediate medical help for blistering or open wounds. • After eye contact: Protect unharmed eye. Remove contact lenses if worn, if possible. Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor. • After swallowing: www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems

• •

Rinse out mouth and then drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help. Information for doctor: Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed Breathing difficulty Coughing Cyanosis Methaemoglobinaemia Irritant to skin and mucous membranes Strong irritant with the danger of severe eye injury. Nausea in case of ingestion. Gastric or intestinal disorders when ingested. Danger Danger of gastric perforation. Causes serious eye damage. Danger of impaired breathing. Danger of pulmonary edema. Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking. Coughing and wheezing from inhalation of large quantities of dust. May cause respiratory irritation. Harmful if swallowed. Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed Medical supervision for at least 48 hours. If necessary oxygen respiration treatment. Later observation for pneumonia and pulmonary edema. If blue coloring appears (lips, ear-lobes, finger-nails), give oxygen treatment as quickly as possible. If necessary oxygen respiration treatment.

5 Fire-fighting measures • Extinguishing media • Suitable extinguishing agents: Water in flooding quantities. • For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: Foam Carbon dioxide Gaseous extinguishing agents Extinguishing powder • Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture During heating or in case of fire poisonous gases are produced. May intensify fire; oxidizer. • Advice for firefighters • Protective equipment: Wear self-contained respiratory protective device. Wear fully protective suit. Do not inhale explosion gases or combustion gases. Wear fully protective suit • Additional information Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so. 66 |

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems Cool endangered receptacles with water in flooding quantities. Evacuate area and fight fire from the upwind side.

6 Accidental release measures • Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Use respiratory protective device against the effects of fumes/dust/aerosol. Ensure adequate ventilation. Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away. Avoid formation of dust. Do not breathe dust. • Environmental precautions: Avoid release to the environment. • Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: Pick up mechanically. Dispose contaminated material as waste according to item 13. Send for recovery or disposal in suitable receptacles. • Reference to other sections See Section 7 for information on safe handling. See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment. See Section 13 for disposal information.

7 Handling and storage • Handling: • Precautions for safe handling Use only in well ventilated areas. Keep away from heat and direct sunlight. Prevent formation of dust. Any deposit of dust which cannot be avoided must be regularly removed. • Information about protection against explosions and fires: May intensify fire; oxidizer. Dust can combine with air to form an explosive mixture. During heating or in case of fire poisonous gases are produced. • Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities • Storage: • Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: Store in a cool location. Store only in the original receptacle. Provide ventilation for receptacles. Protect from humidity and water • Information about storage in one common storage facility: Store away from foodstuffs. Store away from reducing agents. Do not store together with acids. Do not store together with alkalis (caustic solutions). • Further information about storage conditions: Keep receptacle tightly sealed. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems Store under dry inert gas. Photoreactive. Specific end use(s) No further relevant information available.

8 Exposure controls/personal protection • Additional information about design of technical systems: No further data; see item 7. • Control parameters • Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: The product does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values that have to be monitored at the workplace. • Additional information: The lists that were valid during the creation were used as basis. • Exposure controls • Personal protective equipment: • General protective and hygienic measures: The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Immediately remove all soiled and contaminated clothing. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work. Do not inhale gases / fumes / aerosols. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. • Engineering controls: No further relevant information available. • Breathing equipment: Wear appropriate NIOSH respirator when ventilation is inadequate and occupational exposure limits are exceeded. Use suitable respiratory protective device when high concentrations are present. For spills, respiratory protection may be advisable. Particulate mask should filter at least 99% of airborne particles. • Protection of hands: Protective gloves The glove material has to be impermeable and resistant to the product/ the substance/ the preparation. Selection of the glove material on consideration of the penetration times, rates of diffusion and the degradation • Material of gloves Nitrile rubber, NBR Butyl rubber, BR Neoprene gloves PVC gloves The selection of the suitable gloves does not only depend on the material, but also on further marks of quality and varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. As the product is a preparation of several substances, the resistance of the glove material can not be calculated in advance and has therefore to be checked prior to the application. 68 |

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems • Penetration time of glove material The exact break through time has to be found out by the manufacturer of the protective gloves and has to be observed. • Not suitable are gloves made of the following materials: PVA gloves • Eye protection: Safety glasses • Body protection: Alkaline resistant protective clothing • Limitation and supervision of exposure into the environment Avoid release to the environment. • Risk management measures See Section 7 for additional information.

9 Physical and chemical properties • Information on basic physical and chemical properties • General Information • Appearance: Form: Granulate Color: White • Odor: Chlorine-like • Odor threshold: Not determined • pH-value at 20 °C (68 °F):

6.0-7.0

• Change in condition Melting point/Melting range Boiling point/Boiling range:

Undetermined Decomposes

• Flash point:

Not applicable.

• Flammability (solid, gaseous):

Contact with combustible material may cause fire.

• Auto-ignition temperature:

Not determined.

• Decomposition temperature:

180 °C (356 °F)

• Auto igniting:

Product is not self-igniting.

• Danger of explosion:

Not determined.

• Explosion limits: Lower: Upper: • Oxidizing properties

Not determined. Not determined. Contains oxidizing agent

• Vapor pressure:

Not applicable.

• Density at 20 °C (68 °F):

1.5 g/cm³ (12.518 lbs/gal)

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems

• • • •

Relative density Not determined. Vapour density Not applicable. Evaporation rate Not applicable. Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Soluble.

• Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined. • Viscosity: Dynamic: Kinematic: • Other information

Not applicable. Not applicable. No further relevant information available.

10 Stability and reactivity • Reactivity • Chemical stability • Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided: Photoreactive. Keep away from heat and direct sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F. • Possibility of hazardous reactions Reacts with reducing agents. Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. Toxic fumes may be released if heated above the decomposition point. Acts as an oxidizing agent on organic materials such as wood, paper and fats. Reacts with peroxides and other radical forming substances. Contact with water releases flammable gases. Reacts with certain metals. • Conditions to avoid • Avoid acids. • Moisture • Incompatible materials: Reducing agents, combustible materials, moisture, contact with metals. • Hazardous decomposition products: Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide Chlorine Chlorine compounds Chlorine dioxide. Sulfur oxides (SOx)

11 Toxicological information • Information on toxicological effects • Acute toxicity: • LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg (rat) (100 ppm chlorine dioxide solution) 70 |

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems

• • • • • •

Inhalative LC50/4h >2.07 mg/l (rat) (200 ppm chlorine dioxide solution) Primary irritant effect: on the skin: Caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. on the eye: Strong irritant with the danger of severe eye injury. Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known. Subacute to chronic toxicity: No further relevant information available. Additional toxicological information: Harmful Irritant Danger through skin absorption. Swallowing will lead to a strong caustic effect on mouth and throat and to the danger of perforation of esophagus and stomach.

• Carcinogenic categories • NTP (National Toxicology Program) None of the ingredients is listed. • OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) None of the ingredients is listed. • Probable Routes of Exposure Inhalation. Eye contact. Skin contact. Ingestion. • Acute effects (acute toxicity, irritation and corrosivity): Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. Harmful if swallowed. Harmful if inhaled. • Repeated Dose Toxicity: May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure.

12 Ecological information • Toxicity • Aquatic toxicity: The product contains materials that are harmful to the environment • Persistence and degradability No further relevant information available • Behavior in environmental systems: • Bioaccumulative potential No further relevant information available • Mobility in soil No further relevant information available. • Ecotoxical effects: • Remark: Toxic for fish Toxic for water fleas. • Additional ecological information:

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems • General notes: Do not allow product to reach ground water, water course or sewage system. Danger to drinking water if even small quantities leak into the ground. • Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.

13. Disposal considerations • Waste treatment methods • Recommendation: Must not be disposed of together with household garbage. Do not allow product to reach sewage system. The user of this material has the responsibility to dispose of unused material, residues and containers in compliance with all relevant local, state and federal laws and regulations regarding treatment, storage and disposal for hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Residual materials should be treated as hazardous.

14. Transport information • UN-Number • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA • UN proper shipping name

UN2813

Limited Quantity for packages less than 30 kg (66 lbs) and inner packagings less than 5 L (1.3 gal).

• DOT Water-reactive solid, n.o.s. (Activated sodium chlorite) • ADR 2813 WATER-REACTIVE SOLID, N.O.S. (Activated Sodium Chlorite) • IMDG WATER-REACTIVE SOLID, N.O.S. (Activated Sodium Chlorite) • IATA Water-reactive solid n.o.s. (Activated Sodium Chlorite • Transport hazard class(es) • DOT

• Class • Label

4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases. 4.3

• ADR

• Class • Label

72 |

4.3 (W2) Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases 4.3

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems • IMDG, IATA

• Class • Label • Packing group • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA • Environmental hazards: • Marine pollutant: • Special marking (ADR): • Special precautions for user • Danger code (Kemler): • EMS Number: • Segregation groups • Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code • Transport/Additional information: • DOT • Quantity limitations • ADR • Excepted quantities (EQ) UN “Model Regulation”:

4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases 4.3 III No Symbol (fish and tree) Warning: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases 423 F-G,S-N Chlorites Not applicable. On passenger aircraft/rail: 25 kg On cargo aircraft only: 100 kg Code: E1 Maximum net quantity per inner packaging: 30 g Maximum net quantity per outer packaging: packaging: 1000 ml UN2813, Water-reactive solid, n.o.s., 4.3, III

15. Regulatory information • Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture • United States (USA) • SARA • Section 355 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients is listed. • Section 313 (Specific toxic chemical listings): None of the ingredients are listed. • TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act): All ingredients are listed. • Proposition 65 (California) • Chemicals known to cause cancer: None of the ingredients are listed. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for females: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for males: None of the ingredients is listed. • Chemicals known to cause developmental toxicity: None of the ingredients is listed. • Carcinogenic categories • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite D, CBD • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite 3 • TLV (Threshold Limit Value established by ACGIH) None of the ingredients is listed. • NIOSH-Ca (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) None of the ingredients is listed. • State Right to Know Listings Contact manufacturer. • Canadian substance listings: • Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL) All ingredients are listed. • Canadian Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 0.1%) None of the ingredients is listed. • Canadian Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 1%) 7681-38-1 sodium hydrogensulphate 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite • Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations This product has been classified in accordance with hazard criteria of the Controlled ProductsRegulations and the SDS contains all the information required by the Controlled Products Regulations. • Chemical safety assessment: A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.

16 Other information This information is based on our present knowledge. However, this shall not constitute a guarantee for any specific product features and shall not establish a legally valid contractual relationship. • Date of preparation / last revision 05/29/2015 / • Abbreviations and acronyms: ADR: Accord européen sur le transport des marchandises dangereuses par Route (European Agreement concerning the 74 |

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PureVistaTM - PureLine Treatment Systems International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road) IMDG: International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods DOT: US Department of Transportation IATA: International Air Transport Association ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists EINECS: European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances ELINCS: European List of Notified Chemical Substances CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society) NFPA: National Fire Protection Association (USA) HMIS: Hazardous Materials Identification System (USA) WHMIS: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada) LC50: Lethal concentration, 50 percent LD50: Lethal dose, 50 percent Water-react. 3: Substances and Mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases, Hazard Category 3 Ox. Sol. 1: Oxidising Solids, Hazard Category 1 Ox. Sol. 2: Oxidising Solids, Hazard Category 2 Met. Corr.1: Corrosive to metals, Hazard Category 1 Acute Tox. 4: Acute toxicity, Hazard Category 4 Skin Corr. 1B: Skin corrosion/irritation, Hazard Category 1B Eye Dam. 1: Serious eye damage/eye irritation, Hazard Category 1 STOT RE 2: Specific target organ toxicity - Repeated exposure, Hazard Category 2 • Sources SDS Prepared by: ChemTel Inc. 1305 North Florida Avenue Tampa, Florida USA 33602-2902 Toll Free North America 1-888-255-3924 Intl. +01 813-248-0573 Website: www.chemtelinc.com

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems

Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA HCS (29) CFR 1910.1200) Reviewed on 01/26/2017 Rev. 1

1 Identification • Product identifier • Trade name: PV-Neutralizer Solution • Article number: N/A • Recommended use and restriction on use • Recommended use: Neutralization of chlorine dioxide solution • Restrictions on use: Contact manufacturer. • Details of the supplier of the Safety Data Sheet • Manufacturer/Supplier: Pureline Treatment Systems, LLC 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 (847) 963-8465 INFO@PURELINE.COM • Emergency telephone number: ChemTel Inc. (800)255-3924, +1 (813)248-0585

2 Hazard(s) Identification • Classification of the substance or mixture GHS05 Corrosion Met. Corr.1 Eye Dam.1

H290 May be corrosive to metals. H318 Causes serious eye damage..

GHS07 Skin Corr. 1A Acute Tox 4 (dermal) Aquatic Acute 3

H303 May be harmful if swallowed H312 Harmful if in contact with skin H402 Harmful to aquatic life

• Additional information: There are no other hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified. 0 percent of the mixture consists of ingredient(s) of unknown toxicity. • Label elements • GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS). 76 |

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems • Hazard pictograms • GHS05 GHS07 • Signal word Danger • Hazard-determining components of labeling: sodium chlorite • Hazard statements H290 May be corrosive to metals. H318 Causes serious eye damage. H303 May be harmful if swallowed H312 Harmful if in contact with skin H318 Causes serious eye damage H335 May cause respiratory irritation. • Precautionary statements P234 Keep only in original container P261 Avoid breathing dust/fumes/gas/mist/vapors/spray P626 Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing P264 Wash thoroughly after handling Move P305+P351+P338 If in eyes: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/ regional/national regulations • Hazard description: • WHMIS-symbols: As of 11 February 2015, the current WHMIS system is being replaced by the GHS system. • Classification System: • NFPA ratings (scale 0-4) Health = 3 Fire = 0 Reactivity = 0 • • • •

Other hazards Results of PBT and vPvB assessment PBT: Not applicable. vPvB: Not applicable.

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems

3 Composition/information on ingredients • Chemical characterization: Mixtures • Description: Mixture of the substances listed below with on hazardous additions. Dangerous components: 7757-83-7 sodium sulfite 10 - 40% 1310-73-2 sodium hydroxide 0-10% • Additional information: For the listed ingredients, the identity and exact percentages are being withheld as a trade secret.

4 First-aid measures Description of first aid measures • General Information • Sulfites may cause allergic-type reaction including anaphylactic symptoms or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulphite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people • Potential Health effects • Inhalation: Breathing of vapor or mist is possible if this material is heated or sprayed. Breathing this material causes irritation of the throat and lungs with cough and difficult breathing. • Skin: Causes severe skin irritation with redness, and itching or burning feeling, and/ or swelling of the skin. May cause skin damage. Note: May cause skin burns and permanent skin damage. • Eye: Causes severe eye irritation with tearing, redness, or a stinging or burning feeling. May cause swelling of the eyes with blurred vision. Can injure eye tissue. Effects may become more serious with repeated or prolonged contact. Note: May cause burns and permanent injury to eye tissue. • Ingestion: Swallowing this material may be harmful or cause death. Harmful effects include burns and permanent damage to the digestive tract, including the mouth, throat, stomach and intestines. Symptoms may include severe abdominal pain and vomiting of blood. Blood loss through damaged tissue can lead to low blood pressure and shock. • Signs and Symptoms of exposure: Depending upon level and duration of exposure, other possible signs and symptoms from breathing, swallowing, and/or entry of this material through the skin may include nosebleeds, hoarseness, sore throat, wheezing, cough with phlegm, bronchitis, tightness of the chest, pulmonary edema (high levels) irritation of the nose, throat, airways, and lungs with cough and difficult breathing, burns or ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract, including stridor, drooling, and vomiting. • After inhalation: Remove individual to fresh air and get immediate attention. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If breathing stops, give artificial respiration. • After skin contact: Wash exposed skin well with plenty of soap and water. Remove contaminated 78 |

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems

• • • •

clothing and shoes. Wash clothing and thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. If symptoms develop, get medical attention. · After eye contact: Hold eyelids apart and flush the eye gently with a large amount of water for at least 15 minutes. Get immediate medical attention. After swallowing: Have person drink a glass of water immediately if able to swallow. Get immediate attention. Do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Information for doctor: Exposure may aggravate acute or chronic asthma, emphysema, and bronchitis. Preexisting disorders of the following organs or systems, which may be aggravated by exposure to this material include : respiratory system (including asthma and other breathing disorders), gastrointestinal system, skin and blood (anemia, G6PD deficiency) Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed: Breathing difficulty Coughing Severe eye irritation, tearing, blurred vision Nausea or vomiting in case of ingestion Danger Danger of gastric perforation Causes serious eye damage Danger of impaired breathing May be harmful in contact with skin May cause respiratory irritation Effects of repeated exposure This material may cause the following effects: respiratory tract damage (nose, throat, airways), lung damage, gastrointestinal damage, and skin damage. Observations in animal studies include: blood disorders and male reproductive effects. The relevance of these observations to humans is not clear at this time.

5 Fire-fighting measures • Extinguishing media • Suitable extinguishing agents: Water in flooding quantities. • For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: None specified • Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture During heating or in case of fire poisonous gases are produced. • Advice for firefighters • Protective equipment: Wear self-contained respiratory protective device with a full face piece operated in pressure-demand or positive pressure mode. Wear fully proactive suit

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems

6 Accidental release measures • Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Ensure adequate ventilation Wear proactive equipment. Keep unprotective persons away. For large spills, use respiratory protective device against the effects of fumes/dust/ aerosol. • Environmental precautions: Sodium sulphite is non-hazardous solution commonly used as a waste water dechlorinating agent. High concentrations will contribute to elevated chemical oxygen demand in aquatic environment. Sodium chlorite in contact with acidic soil could generate chlorine dioxide. • Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: • Leaks or spill may be located by spaying the area with ammonium hydroxide solution which forms a white fume in the presence of sulphur dioxide. Dilute with water and mop up or adsorb with an inert dry material and place in an appropriate waste disposal container. If necessary, neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of acetic acid. • Large spills should be handled by absorbing with DRY earth, sand or other noncombustible material. Do not touch spilled material with bare hands. Use water spray to reduce the chemical. Prevent entry into sewers, basement, or confined area; dike if needed. Call for assistance. Neutralize the residue with dilute solution of acetic acid. • Reference to other sections See Section 7 for information on safe handling. See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment. See Section 13 for disposal information.

7 Handling and storage • Handling: • Precautions for safe handling Do not get in eyes, or on skin, or clothing. Do not taste or swallow. Avoid breathing mists or fumes. Do not handle with bare hands. Remove and wash contaminated clothing. Carefully monitor handling, use and storage to avoid spills and leaks. Follow protective controls set forth in Section 8 when handling this product. Do not eat, drink, or smoke in work area. Wash hands prior to eating, drinking, or using restroom. This solution contains sodium sulfite. It is a strong reducing agent, also, it is strong base. Mix only into water. Do not contaminate with garbage, organic matter, household products, chemicals, soap products, paint products, solvents, acids, vinegar, beverages, oils, pine oil, dirty rags, or any other foreign matter. • Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities • Storage: • Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: Store in a cool location. Do not store at temperatures above 37 C (100 F). Store only in the original receptacle. Do not remove or deface labels or tags. Provide ventilation for receptacles. Avoid contact with combustible or readily oxidizable and reducible materials.

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems • Information about storage in one common storage facility: Store away from foodstuffs. Store away from Acids, reducing agents, combustible material, oxidizers (such as hypochlorites, chlorite, chlorates), paints, sulfur and solvents. • Further information about storage conditions: Keep receptacle tightly sealed. Specific end use(s) No further relevant information available.

8 Exposure controls/personal protection • Additional information about design of technical systems: No further data; see item 7. • Control parameters • Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: 7757-83-7 sodium sulfite TWA None established STEL None established IDHL None established 1310-73-2 sodium hydroxide TLV Ceiling 2 mg/m3 PEL (Vacated) Ceiling 2 mg/m3 TWA 2 mg/m3 IDHL 10 mg/m3 Ceiling 2 mg/m3. • Exposure controls • Personal protective equipment: • General protective and hygienic measures: The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Immediately remove all soiled and contaminated clothing. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work. Do not inhale gases / fumes / aerosols. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. • Engineering controls: Provide adequate ventilation. • Breathing equipment: Not required under normal conditions of use. Use suitable respiratory protective device when high concentrations are present. Use suitable respiratory protective device when aerosol or mist is formed. For large spills, respiratory protection may be advisable. Wear NIOSH/MSHA approved acid gas respirator plus dust/mist pre-filters if any exposure to dust or mist is possible Protective gloves • Protection of hands: The glove material has to be impermeable and resistant to the product/ the substance/ the preparation. Selection of the glove material on consideration of the penetration times, rates of diffusion and the degradation www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems • Material of gloves Neoprene gloves PVC gloves The selection of the suitable gloves does not only depend on the material, but also on further marks of quality and varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. As the product is a preparation of several substances, the resistance of the glove material can not be calculated in advance and has therefore to be checked prior to the application. • Penetration time of glove material The exact break through time has to be found out by the manufacturer of the protective gloves and has to be observed. • Not suitable are gloves made of the following materials: PVA gloves • Eye protection: Safety glasses Chemical Goggles Protective clothing • Body protection: Alkaline resistant protective clothing Neoprene gloves, boots and apron • General Safety shower and eye wash station must be provided in the immediate work area. Protective equipment and clothing should be selected, used, and maintained according to applicable standards and regulations. For further information, contact the clothing or equipment manufacturer • Limitation and supervision of exposure into the environment Avoid release to the environment.

9 Physical and chemical properties Chemical Formula Na2SO3, NaOH and H2O Molecular Weight Not applicable Appearance and Odor Clear, water white to slightly yellow liquid, odorless. Specific Gravity 1.23-1.30 at 25/25 oC Vapor Pressure The highest known value is 2.3 kPa (at 20 oC), water Density 11.0-12.5 lbs./gal @ 25 oC PH @ 25 oC >12 Volatiles, Percent By Volume 50-75% Crystallization Point 5 oC Solubility In Water Complete Other Solubilities Soluble in Glycerin Boiling point The lowest known value is 100oC (212oF), water Melting point Not applicable 82 |

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems

10 Stability and reactivity Reactivity • Chemical stability This chemical is stable under normal conditions • Conditions to avoid Evaporation to dryness • Incompatibility with other materials Acids, reducing agents, combustible materials, oxidizers (such as hypochlorites), soap, solvents, paints. Contamination with acids, chlorine, chlorite, chlorate or organic materials. • Conditions to avoid Avoid contact with heat or flame source. • Hazardous decomposition products May release hazardous sulphur dioxide gas Hazardous polymerization Will not occur

11 Toxicological information • Toxicological information Routes of Entry: Inhalation. Ingestion. • Animal toxicology Inhalation LC50: Not available Dermal LD50: Not available Oral LD50: 820mg/Kg on mouse (for sodium sulfite) LDL: 2825mg/Kg on Rabbit (for sodium sulfite) • Effect following prolonged or repeated exposure Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause dermatitis, and sensitization reactions. Exposed to asthmatic, atopic and sulphite sensitive individuals may result in severe bronchoconstriction and reduced levels in forced expiratory volume. Acidic decomposition of sodium sulfite may release toxic and hazardous fumes of Sulphur oxides, including sulphur dioxide, which may cause permanent pulmonary impairments from acute and chronic exposure. • Carcinogenicity Sodium sulphite or Sodium hydroxide is not listed by NTP, IARC, OSHA, EPA, or any other authority as a carcinogen. • Mutagenicity Sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide has been evaluated for possible mutagenic effects (mutagenic) and may affect genetic material. · • Reproductive/developmental toxicity Not available

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems

12 Ecological information • Ecotoxicological information Sodium sulphite is non-hazardous solution commonly used as a waste water dechlorinating agent. High concentrations will contribute to elevated chemical oxygen demand in aquatic environment. Sodium chlorite in contact with acidic soil could generate chlorine dioxide. • Environmental fate Water: Sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide are soluble in water Soil: Sodium sulfite soil absorption is very low • Ecotoxicity Toxicity of the products of biodegradation: The products of degradation are less toxic than the product itself.

13. Disposal considerations Waste determinations typically consider Sodium Sulfite contaminated materials to be non-hazardous. All disposals of this material must be done in accordance with Federal, state and local regulations. Waste characterization and compliance with disposal regulations are the responsibilities of the waste generator. • Spill residues As a non-hazardous liquid waste, it must be disposed of in accordance with Federal, state, or local regulations in a permitted waste management facility.

14. Transport information Classification: Not a DOT controlled material (United States)

15. Regulatory information • Label required: Not Applicable • US Federal regulations TSCA 8(b) inventory: Sodium sulfite • Reportable quantity (RQ) Not Applicable · • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) • Not Applicable • OSHA regulations • Air contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000) : Not listed • OSHA Specifically regulated Substance: Not listed • EPA regulations Not listed • Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) classification As of 11 February 2015, the current WHMIS system is being replaced by the GHS system. 84 |

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PV-Neutralizer Solution - PureLine Treatment Systems Sodium Sulfite: Sodium Hydroxide: CLASS E:

not controlled by WHMIS (Canada) Class D-28: material causing other toxic effects(TOXIC). Corrosive liquid.

• DSCL (EEC): R22- Harmful if swallowed. R36/37/38- Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. S22- Do not breathe dust. S24/25- Avoid contact with skin and eyes. S26- In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. S36- Wear suitable protective clothing. HMIS (U.S.A.): Health Hazard: 3 Fire Hazard: 0 Reactivity: 0 Personal Protection: E

16 Other information This information is based on our present knowledge. However, this shall not constitute a guarantee for any specific product features and shall not establish a legally valid contractual relationship. • Date of preparation / last revision 01/11/2017 • Abbreviations and acronyms: ADR: Accord européen sur le transport des marchandises dangereuses par Route (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road) IMDG: International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods DOT: US Department of Transportation IATA: International Air Transport Association ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists EINECS: European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances ELINCS: European List of Notified Chemical Substances CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society) NFPA: National Fire Protection Association (USA) HMIS: Hazardous Materials Identification System (USA) WHMIS: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada) LC50: Lethal concentration, 50 percent LD50: Lethal dose, 50 percent Ox. Liq. 1: Oxidising Liquids, Hazard Category 1 Ox. Sol. 1: Oxidising Solids, Hazard Category 1 Met. Corr.1: Corrosive to metals, Hazard Category 1 Acute Tox. 4: Acute toxicity, Hazard Category 4 Skin Corr. 1A: Skin corrosion/irritation, Hazard Category 1A Eye Dam. 1: Serious eye damage/eye irritation, Hazard Category 1 • Sources: This SDS sheet was prepared based on previous MSDS information provided in PureLine PV Neutralizer MSDS sheet dated June 12, 2014 (Revision 1) and information supplied by: Dr. John Thangaraj Ph.D, PureLine Treatment Systems www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems

Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA HCS (29) CFR 1910.1200) Reviewed on 05/29/2015

1 Identification • Product identifier • Trade name: PureCide®E • Article number: 88341-1 • Recommended use and restriction on use • Recommended use: Disinfectant • Restrictions on use: Contact manufacturer. • Details of the supplier of the Safety Data Sheet • Manufacturer/Supplier: Pureline Treatment Systems, LLC 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 (847) 963-8465 INFO@PURELINE.COM • Emergency telephone number: ChemTel Inc. (800)255-3924, +1 (813)248-0585

2 Hazard(s) Identification • Classification of the substance or mixture GHS03 Flame over circle Ox. Liq. 1

H271 May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidizer

GHS08 Health hazard STOT RE 2 exposure.

H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated

GHS05 Corrosion Skin Corr. 1C Eye Dam. 1

H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H318 Causes serious eye damage.

GHS07 Acute Tox. 4 86 |

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • Additional information: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. There are no other hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified. 0 percent of the mixture consists of ingredient(s) of unknown toxicity. • Label elements • GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS). • Hazard pictograms

GHS03 GHS05 GHS07 GHS08 • Signal word Danger • Hazard-determining components of labeling: sodium chlorite • Hazard statements H271 May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidizer. H302 Harmful if swallowed. H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Precautionary statements P221 Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles. P283 Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothing. P260 Do not breathe mist/vapours/spray. P220 Keep/Store away from clothing and other combustible materials P264 Wash thoroughly after handling. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. P305+P351+P338 If in eyes: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. P310 Immediately call a poison center/doctor. P371+P380+P375 In case of major fire and large quantities: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion. P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. P301+P330+P331 If swallowed: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell. P370+P378 In case of fire: Use for extinction: Water. P391 Collect spillage. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems P405 Store locked up. P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/ national/international regulations. • Additional information: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. • Hazard description: • WHMIS-symbols: As of 11 February 2015, the current WHMIS system is being replaced by the GHS system. This is the classification under the older system. C - Oxidizing materials D1B - Toxic material causing immediate and serious toxic effects D2B - Toxic material causing other toxic effects E - Corrosive material

• Classification system: • NFPA ratings (scale 0 - 4) Health = 3 Fire = 3 Reactivity = 0 • HMIS-ratings (scale0-4) Health = 3 3 Fire = 3 Reactivity = 0 • • • •

Other hazards Results of PBT and vPvB assessment PBT: Not applicable. vPvB: Not applicable.

3 Composition/information on ingredients • Chemical characterization: Mixtures • Description: Mixture of the substances listed below with on hazardous additions.

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems

• Dangerous components: 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite

Ox. Sol. 1, H271

15-34%

STOT RE 2, H373 Skin Corr. 1B, H314; Eye Dam. 1, H318 Acute Tox. 4, H302 7647-14-5 sodium chloride 7775-09-9 sodium chlorate

Ox. Sol. 1, H271

1-6% 0-3%

Acute Tox. 4, H302 7757-82-6 sodium sulphate

0-2%

• Additional information: For the listed ingredients, the identity and exact percentages are being withheld as a trade secret.

4 First-aid measures • Description of first aid measures • General information: Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product. Take affected persons out into the fresh air. Symptoms of poisoning may even occur after several hours; therefore medical observation for at least 48 hours after the accident. • After inhalation: Supply fresh air; consult doctor in case of complaints. Provide oxygen treatment if affected person has difficulty breathing. In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration. • After skin contact: Immediately rinse with water. If skin irritation continues, consult a doctor. Seek immediate medical help for blistering or open wounds. • After eye contact: Protect unharmed eye. Remove contact lenses if worn, if possible. Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor. • After swallowing: Rinse out mouth and then drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help. • Information for doctor: • Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed Breathing difficulty Coughing Thirst www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems Cyanosis Methaemoglobinaemia Caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. Nausea in case of ingestion. Gastric or intestinal disorders when ingested. • Danger Danger of gastric perforation. Causes serious eye damage. Danger of impaired breathing. Danger of pulmonary edema. May be harmful in contact with skin. Harmful if swallowed. May cause respiratory irritation. May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed Contains sodium chlorite/chlorate. Consult literature for specific antidotes. Medical supervision for at least 48 hours. If necessary oxygen respiration treatment. Later observation for pneumonia and pulmonary edema. If blue coloring appears (lips, ear-lobes, finger-nails), give oxygen treatment as quickly as possible. In cases of cyanosis, administer vitamin C, oxygen, protect from sunlight.

5 Fire-fighting measures • Extinguishing media • Suitable extinguishing agents: Water in flooding quantities. • For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: Foam Extinguishing powder Carbon dioxide • Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture During heating or in case of fire poisonous gases are produced. May intensify fire; oxidizer. • Advice for firefighters • Protective equipment: Wear self-contained respiratory protective device. Wear fully protective suit. • Additional information Evacuate area and fight fire from the upwind side. Cool endangered receptacles with water fog.

6 Accidental release measures • Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Use respiratory protective device against the effects of fumes/dust/aerosol. Ensure adequate ventilation. Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away. • Environmental precautions: Avoid release to the environment. 90 |

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: Absorb with non-combustible liquid-binding material (sand, diatomite, acid binders, universal binders). Do not allow to dry out Dispose contaminated material as waste according to item 13. Send for recovery or disposal in suitable receptacles. • Reference to other sections See Section 7 for information on safe handling. See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment. See Section 13 for disposal information.

7 Handling and storage • Handling: • Precautions for safe handling Use only in well ventilated areas. Avoid splashes or spray in enclosed areas. Prevent formation of aerosols. Protect from sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 122 °F (50 °C). • Information about protection against explosions and fires: May intensify fire; oxidizer. Emergency cooling must be available in case of nearby fire. • Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities • Storage: • Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: Store only in the original receptacle. Store in a cool location. Provide ventilation for receptacles. • Information about storage in one common storage facility: Store away from foodstuffs. Do not store together with acids. Store away from reducing agents. Store away from flammable substances. • Further information about storage conditions: Keep receptacle tightly sealed. Photoreactive. Specific end use(s) No further relevant information available.

8 Exposure controls/personal protection • Additional information about design of technical systems: No further data; see item 7. • Control parameters • Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: The product does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values that have to be monitored at the workplace. • Additional information: The lists that were valid during the creation were used as basis. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • Exposure controls • Personal protective equipment: • General protective and hygienic measures: The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Immediately remove all soiled and contaminated clothing. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work. Do not inhale gases / fumes / aerosols. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. • Engineering controls: Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles. • Breathing equipment: Not required under normal conditions of use. Use suitable respiratory protective device when high concentrations are present. Use suitable respiratory protective device when aerosol or mist is formed. For large spills, respiratory protection may be advisable. • Protection of hands: Protective gloves

• • •

The glove material has to be impermeable and resistant to the product/ the substance/ the preparation. Selection of the glove material on consideration of the penetration times, rates of diffusion and the degradation Material of gloves Nitrile rubber, NBR Neoprene gloves PVC gloves The selection of the suitable gloves does not only depend on the material, but also on further marks of quality and varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. As the product is a preparation of several substances, the resistance of the glove material can not be calculated in advance and has therefore to be checked prior to the application. Penetration time of glove material The exact break through time has to be found out by the manufacturer of the protective gloves and has to be observed. Not suitable are gloves made of the following materials: PVA gloves Eye protection: Safety glasses

• Body protection: Alkaline resistant protective clothing • Limitation and supervision of exposure into the environment Avoid release to the environment. • Risk management measures See Section 7 for additional information.

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems

9 Physical and chemical properties • Information on basic physical and chemical properties • General Information • Appearance: Form: Solution Color: Light Yellow • Odor: Chlorine-like • Odor threshold: Not determined • pH-value at 20 °C (68 °F):

12.5-13.0

• Change in condition Melting point/Melting range Boiling point/Boiling range:

0 °C (32 °F) 109 °C (228 °F)

• Flash point:

Not applicable.

• Flammability (solid, gaseous):

Not applicable.

• Auto-ignition temperature:

Not determined.

• Decomposition temperature:

Not determined.

• Auto igniting:

Product is not self-igniting.

• Danger of explosion:

Product does not present an explosion hazard.

• Explosion limits: Lower: Upper: • Oxidizing properties

Not determined. Not determined. Oxidizer

• Vapor pressure:

Not determined.

• Density at 20 °C (68 °F):

1.28 g/cm³ (10.682 lbs/gal)

• • • •

Relative density Not determined. Vapour density Not determined. Evaporation rate Not determined. Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Fully miscible.

• Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined. • Viscosity: Dynamic: Kinematic: • · Other information

www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

Not determined. Not determined. No further relevant information available.

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems

10 Stability and reactivity • Reactivity • Chemical stability • Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided: Photoreactive. Keep away from heat and direct sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F. • Possibility of hazardous reactions Reacts with reducing agents. Acts as an oxidizing agent on organic materials such as wood, paper and fats. Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. Reacts with peroxides and other radical forming substances. Reacts with various metals. Toxic fumes may be released if heated above the decomposition point. May produce violent reactions with bases and numerous organic substances including alcohols and amines. • Conditions to avoid: Avoid acids. • Incompatible materials: No further relevant information available. • Hazardous decomposition products: Chlorine Chlorine compounds chlorine dioxide.

11 Toxicological information • Information on toxicological effects • Acute toxicity: • LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:

• • • • • •

94 |

Oral LD50 350 mg/kg (mouse) 165 mg/kg (rat) Dermal LD50 >2000 mg/kg (rabbit) Primary irritant effect: on the skin: Caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. on the eye: Strong caustic effect. Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known. Subacute to chronic toxicity: No further relevant information available. Additional toxicological information: Toxic Harmful Corrosive Danger through skin absorption. Swallowing will lead to a strong caustic effect on mouth and throat and to the danger of perforation of esophagus and stomach.

847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • Carcinogenic categories • NTP (National Toxicology Program) None of the ingredients is listed. • OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) None of the ingredients is listed. • Probable Routes of Exposure Inhalation. Eye contact. Skin contact. Ingestion. • Acute effects (acute toxicity, irritation and corrosivity): Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause gastro-intestinal irritation if ingested. May be harmful in contact with skin. Harmful if swallowed. • Repeated Dose Toxicity: May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure.

12 Ecological information • Toxicity • Aquatic toxicity: Very toxic to aquatic life. LC50

0.29 mg/l (daphnia) 290 mg/l (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

• Persistence and degradability Easily biodegradable • Behavior in environmental systems: • Bioaccumulative potential The product is not expected to bioaccumulate in soil or water organisms. • Mobility in soil No further relevant information available. • Ecotoxical effects: • Remark: Very toxic for fish Very toxic for water fleas. Toxic for algae • Additional ecological information: • General notes: Do not allow product to reach ground water, water course or sewage system. Must not reach bodies of water or drainage ditch undiluted or unneutralized. Danger to drinking water if even small quantities leak into the ground. Rinse off of bigger amounts into drains or the aquatic environment may lead to increased pH-values. A high pH-value harms aquatic organisms. In the dilution of the use-level the pH-value is considerably reduced, so that after the use of the product the aqueous waste, emptied into drains, is only low water- dangerous.

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.

13. Disposal considerations • Waste treatment methods • Recommendation: Must not be disposed of together with household garbage. Do not allow product to reach sewage system. Can be disposed of with household garbage with prior chemical-physical or biological treatment following consultation with the waste disposal facility operator and the pertinent authorities and adhering to the necessary technical regulations. The user of this material has the responsibility to dispose of unused material, residues and containers in compliance with all relevant local, state and federal laws and regulations regarding treatment, storage and disposal for hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Residual materials should be treated as hazardous. • Uncleaned packagings: • Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to official regulations.

14. Transport information • UN-Number • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA • UN proper shipping name • • • • •

UN1908

Limited Quantity for packages less than 30 kg (66 lb) and inner packagings less than 5 L (1.3 gal).

DOT, IATA Chlorite solution ADR 1908 CHLORITE SOLUTION IMDG CHLORITE SOLUTION Transport hazard class(es) DOT

• Class • Label

8 Corrosive substances 8

• ADR

• Class • Label

96 |

8 (C9) Corrosive substances 8

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • IMDG, IATA

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Class Label Packing group DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA Environmental hazards: Marine pollutant: Special marking (ADR): Special precautions for user Danger code (Kemler): EMS Number: Segregation groups Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code

8 Corrosive substances 8 III No Symbol (fish and tree) Warning: Corrosive substances 80 F-A,S-B Chlorites Not applicable.

• Transport/Additional information: • DOT • Quantity limitations

On passenger aircraft/rail: 5 L On cargo aircraft only: 60 L

• ADR • Excepted quantities (EQ)

Code: E1 Maximum net quantity per inner packaging: 30 ml Maximum net quantity per outer packaging: 1000 ml

• IMDG • Limited quantities (LQ) • Excepted quantities (EQ) • UN “Model Regulation”:

100 ml Code: E4 Maximum net quantity per inner packaging: 1 ml Maximum net quantity per outer packaging: 500 ml UN1908, Chlorite solution, 8, III

15. Regulatory information • Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture • United States (USA) • SARA www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • Section 355 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients is listed. • Section 313 (Specific toxic chemical listings): None of the ingredients are listed. • TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act): All ingredients are listed. • Proposition 65 (California) • Chemicals known to cause cancer: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for females: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for males: None of the ingredients is listed. • Chemicals known to cause developmental toxicity: None of the ingredients is listed. • Carcinogenic categories • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite

D, CBD

• Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) EPA Product Registration : 88341-1. This chemical is a pesticide product registered by the Environmental Protection Agency and is subject to certain labeling requirements under federal pesticide law. These requirements differ from the classification criteria and hazard information required for safety data sheets, and for workplace labels of non-pesticide chemicals. Following is the hazard information as required on the pesticide label: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN DANGER FIRST AID IF IN EYES: Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently with water for 15-20 minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present, after the first 5 minutes, then continue rinsing eye. Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice if burning or irritation of skin persists. IF SWALLOWED: Have person sip a glass of water if able to swallow. Call a poison control center or doctor immediately for treatment advice. For emergency information call: 800-255-3924 (24 hours) Have the product container or label with you when calling a poison control center or doctor or going to treatment. NOTE TO PHYSICIAN: Probable mucosal damage may contraindicate the use of gastric lavage. STORAGE AND DISPOSAL PESTICIDE STORAGE: Do not contaminate water, food or feed by storage or disposal. Keep product in tightly closed container when not in use. Don’t drop, roll or skid drum. Keep upright. Always replace cover. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated 98 |

847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


PureCideÂŽ E - PureLine Treatment Systems area away from heat or open flame. EMERGENCY HANDLING: In case of contamination or decomposition, do not reseal container. If possible, isolate container in open and well-ventilated area. Flood with large volumes of water. If fire occurs, extinguish fire by applying large quantities of water. Any unopened drums near the fire should be cooled by spraying with water. PESTICIDE DISPOSAL: Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous. Improper disposal of excess pesticide, spray mixture or rinse is a violation of Federal Law. If these wastes cannot be disposed of by use according to label instructions, contact your State Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous Waste Representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for guidance. CONTAINER HANDLING: For non-refillable solid container smaller than 50 lbs: Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill this container. Triple rinse container (or equivalent) promptly after emptying. Triple rinse as follows: Empty the remaining contents into application equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container 1/4 full with water. Replace and tighten closures. Tip container on its side and roll back and forth, ensuring at least one complete revolution, for 30 seconds. Stand the container on its end and tip it back and forth several times. Turn the container over onto its other end and tip it back and forth several times. Empty the rinsate into application equipment or a mix tank or store rinsate for later use or disposal. Repeat this procedure two more times. Then offer for recycling if available or reconditioning. For non-refillable solid container that are larger than 50 lbs: Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill this container. Offer for recycling if available. Offer reconditioning if appropriate. Triple Rinse container promptly after emptying. Triple rinse as follows: Empty the remaining contents into application equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container 1/4 full with water. Replace and tighten closures. Tip container on its side and roll it back and forth, ensuring at least one complete revolution for 30 seconds. Stand the container on its end and tip it back and forth several times. Empty the rinsate into application equipment or a mix tank or store rinsate for later use or disposal. Repeat the procedure two more times. For refillable containers, all sizes. Refillable container. Refill this container with Technical Sodium Chlorite only. Do not reuse this container for any other purpose. Cleaning or pressure rinsing the container is the responsibility of the person disposing of the container. Cleaning before refilling is the responsibility of the refiller. To clean the container before final disposal, empty the remaining contents from this container into application equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container about 10% full of water. Agitate vigorously or recirculate water with the pump for 2 minutes. Pour or pump rinsate into application equipment or rinsate collection system. Repeat this rinsing process two more times.

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite • TLV (Threshold Limit Value established by ACGIH) None of the ingredients is listed. • NIOSH-Ca (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) None of the ingredients is listed. • State Right to Know Listings Contact manufacturer. • Canadian substance listings: • Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL) All ingredients are listed. • Canadian Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 0.1%) None of the ingredients is listed. • Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 1%) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite

3

• Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations This product has been classified in accordance with hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations and the SDS contains all the information required by the Controlled Products Regulations. • Chemical safety assessment: A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.

16 Other information This information is based on our present knowledge. However, this shall not constitute a guarantee for any specific product features and shall not establish a legally valid contractual relationship. • Date of preparation / last revision 05/29/2015 / • Abbreviations and acronyms: ADR: Accord européen sur le transport des marchandises dangereuses par Route (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road) IMDG: International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods DOT: US Department of Transportation IATA: International Air Transport Association ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists EINECS: European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances ELINCS: European List of Notified Chemical Substances CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society)

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PureCide® E - PureLine Treatment Systems NFPA: National Fire Protection Association (USA) HMIS: Hazardous Materials Identification System (USA) WHMIS: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada) LC50: Lethal concentration, 50 percent LD50: Lethal dose, 50 percent Ox. Liq. 1: Oxidising Liquids, Hazard Category 1 Ox. Sol. 1: Oxidising Solids, Hazard Category 1 Acute Tox. 4: Acute toxicity, Hazard Category 4 Skin Corr. 1B: Skin corrosion/irritation, Hazard Category 1B Skin Corr. 1C: Skin corrosion/irritation, Hazard Category 1C Eye Dam. 1: Serious eye damage/eye irritation, Hazard Category 1 STOT RE 2: Specific target organ toxicity - Repeated exposure, Hazard Category 2 • ·Sources SDS Prepared by: ChemTel Inc. 1305 North Florida Avenue Tampa, Florida USA 33602-2902 Toll Free North America 1-888-255-3924 Intl. +01 813-248-0573 Website: www.chemtelinc.com

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems

Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200)

Reviewed on 05/29/2015

1 Identification • Product identifier • Trade name: PureCide®25 • Article number: 88341-2 • Recommended use and restriction on use • Recommended use: Disinfectant • Restrictions on use: Contact manufacturer. • Details of the supplier of the Safety Data Sheet • Manufacturer/Supplier: Pureline Treatment Systems, LLC 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 (847) 963-8465 INFO@PURELINE.COM • Emergency telephone number: ChemTel Inc. (800)255-3924, +1 (813)248-0585

2 Hazard(s) Identification • Classification of the substance or mixture GHS03 Flame over circle Ox. Liq. 2

H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer

GHS08 Health hazard STOT RE 2 exposure.

H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated

GHS05 Corrosion Skin Corr. 1A Eye Dam. 1

H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H318 Causes serious eye damage.

GHS07 Acute Tox. 4 102 |

H302 Harmful if swallowed. 847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Additional information: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. There are no other hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified. 0 percent of the mixture consists of ingredient(s) of unknown toxicity. • Label elements • GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS). • Hazard pictograms

GHS03 GHS05 GHS07 GHS08 • Signal word Danger • Hazard-determining components of labeling: sodium chlorite sodium chlorate • Hazard statements H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer H302 Harmful if swallowed H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Precautionary statements P221 Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles. P210 Keep away from heat. P260 Do not breathe mist/vapours/spray. P220 Keep/Store away from clothing and other combustible materials P264 Wash thoroughly after handling. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. P305+P351+P338 If in eyes: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. P310 Immediately call a poison center/doctor. P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. P301+P330+P331 If swallowed: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell. P370+P378 In case of fire: Use for extinction: Water. P391 Collect spillage. P405 Store locked up. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/ national/international regulations. • Additional information: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. • Hazard description: • WHMIS-symbols: As of 11 February 2015, the current WHMIS system is being replaced by the GHS system. This is the classifcation under the older system. C - Oxidizing materials D1B - Toxic material causing immediate and serious toxic effects D2B - Toxic material causing other toxic effects E - Corrosive material

• Classification system: • NFPA ratings (scale 0 - 4) Health = 3 3 Fire = 3 Reactivity = 0 • HMIS-ratings (scale 0-4) Health = 3 3 Fire = 3 Reactivity = 0 • • • •

Other hazards Results of PBT and vPvB assessment PBT: Not applicable. vPvB: Not applicable.

3 Composition/information on ingredients • Chemical characterization: Mixtures • Description: Mixture of the substances listed below with on hazardous additions.

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems

• Dangerous components: 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite

Ox. Sol. 1, H271

15-34%

STOT RE 2, H373 Skin Corr. 1B, H314; Eye Dam. 1, H318 Acute Tox. 4, H302 7647-14-5 sodium chloride 7775-09-9 sodium chlorate

Ox. Sol. 1, H271

1-6% 0-3%

Acute Tox. 4, H302 7757-82-6 sodium sulphate

0-2%

• Additional information: For the listed ingredients, the identity and exact percentages are being withheld as a trade secret.

4 First-aid measures • Description of first aid measures • General information: Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product. Take affected persons out into the fresh air. Symptoms of poisoning may even occur after several hours; therefore medical observation for at least 48 hours after the accident. • After inhalation: Supply fresh air; consult doctor in case of complaints. Provide oxygen treatment if affected person has difficulty breathing. In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration. • After skin contact: Immediately rinse with water. If skin irritation continues, consult a doctor. Seek immediate medical help for blistering or open wounds. • After eye contact: Protect unharmed eye. Remove contact lenses if worn, if possible. Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor. • After swallowing: Rinse out mouth and then drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help. • Information for doctor: • Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed Breathing difficulty Coughing Thirst www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems Cyanosis Methaemoglobinaemia Caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. Nausea in case of ingestion. Gastric or intestinal disorders when ingested. • Danger Danger of gastric perforation. Causes serious eye damage. Danger of impaired breathing. Danger of pulmonary edema. May be harmful in contact with skin. Harmful if swallowed. May cause respiratory irritation. May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed Contains sodium chlorite/chlorate. Consult literature for specific antidotes. Medical supervision for at least 48 hours. If necessary oxygen respiration treatment. Later observation for pneumonia and pulmonary edema. If blue coloring appears (lips, ear-lobes, finger-nails), give oxygen treatment as quickly as possible. In cases of cyanosis, administer vitamin C, oxygen, protect from sunlight.

5 Fire-fighting measures • Extinguishing media • Suitable extinguishing agents: Water in flooding quantities. • For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: Extinguishing powder Foam Carbon dioxide • Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture During heating or in case of fire poisonous gases are produced. May intensify fire; oxidizer. • Advice for firefighters • Protective equipment: Wear self-contained respiratory protective device. Wear fully protective suit. • Additional information Evacuate area and fight fire from the upwind side. Cool endangered receptacles with water fog.

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems

6 Accidental release measures • Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Use respiratory protective device against the effects of fumes/dust/aerosol. Ensure adequate ventilation. Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away. • Environmental precautions: Avoid release to the environment. • Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: Absorb with non-combustible liquid-binding material (sand, diatomite, acid binders, universal binders). Do not allow to dry out Dispose contaminated material as waste according to item 13. Send for recovery or disposal in suitable receptacles. • Reference to other sections See Section 7 for information on safe handling. See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment. See Section 13 for disposal information.

7 Handling and storage • Handling: • Precautions for safe handling Use only in well ventilated areas. Avoid splashes or spray in enclosed areas. Prevent formation of aerosols. Protect from sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 122 °F (50 °C). • Information about protection against explosions and fires: May intensify fire; oxidizer. Emergency cooling must be available in case of nearby fire. • Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities • Storage: • Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: Store only in the original receptacle. Store in a cool location. Provide ventilation for receptacles. • Information about storage in one common storage facility: Store away from foodstuffs. Do not store together with acids. Store away from reducing agents. Store away from flammable substances. • Further information about storage conditions: Keep receptacle tightly sealed. Photoreactive. • Specific end use(s) No further relevant information available.

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems

8 Exposure controls/personal protection • Additional information about design of technical systems: No further data; see item 7. • Control parameters • Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: The product does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values that have to be monitored at the workplace. • Additional information: The lists that were valid during the creation were used as basis. • Exposure controls • Personal protective equipment: • General protective and hygienic measures: The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Immediately remove all soiled and contaminated clothing. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work. Do not inhale gases / fumes / aerosols. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. • Engineering controls: Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles. • Breathing equipment: Not required under normal conditions of use. Use suitable respiratory protective device when high concentrations are present. Use suitable respiratory protective device when aerosol or mist is formed. For large spills, respiratory protection may be advisable. • Protection of hands: Protective gloves The glove material has to be impermeable and resistant to the product/ the substance/ the preparation. Selection of the glove material on consideration of the penetration times, rates of diffusion and the degradation • Material of gloves Nitrile rubber, NBR Neoprene gloves PVC gloves The selection of the suitable gloves does not only depend on the material, but also on further marks of quality and varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. As the product is a preparation of several substances, the resistance of the glove material can not be calculated in advance and has therefore to be checked prior to the application. • Penetration time of glove material The exact break through time has to be found out by the manufacturer of the protective gloves and has to be observed. • Not suitable are gloves made of the following materials: PVA gloves

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Eye protection: Safety glasses • Body protection: Alkaline resistant protective clothing • Limitation and supervision of exposure into the environment Avoid release to the environment. • Risk management measures See Section 7 for additional information.

9 Physical and chemical properties • Information on basic physical and chemical properties • General Information • Appearance: Form: Solution Color: Light Yellow • Odor: Chlorine-like • Odor threshold: Not determined • pH-value at 20 °C (68 °F):

12.5-13.0

• Change in condition Melting point/Melting range Boiling point/Boiling range:

0 °C (32 °F) 109 °C (228 °F)

• Flash point:

Not applicable.

• Flammability (solid, gaseous):

Not applicable.

• Auto-ignition temperature:

Not determined.

• Decomposition temperature:

Not determined.

• Auto igniting:

Product is not self-igniting.

• Danger of explosion:

Product does not present an explosion hazard.

• Explosion limits: Lower: Upper: • Oxidizing properties

Not determined. Not determined. Oxidizer

• Vapor pressure:

Not determined.

• Density at 20 °C (68 °F):

1.28 g/cm³ (10.682 lbs/gal)

• Relative density • Vapour density • Evaporation rate

Not determined. Not determined. Not determined.

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Fully miscible. • Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined. • Viscosity: Dynamic: Kinematic: • Other information

Not determined. Not determined. No further relevant information available.

10 Stability and reactivity • Reactivity • Chemical stability • Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided: Photoreactive. Keep away from heat and direct sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F. • Possibility of hazardous reactions Reacts with reducing agents. Acts as an oxidizing agent on organic materials such as wood, paper and fats. Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. Reacts with peroxides and other radical forming substances. Reacts with various metals. Toxic fumes may be released if heated above the decomposition point. May produce violent reactions with bases and numerous organic substances including alcohols and amines. • Conditions to avoid Avoid acids. • Incompatible materials: No further relevant information available. • Hazardous decomposition products: Chlorine Chlorine compounds chlorine dioxide.

11 Toxicological information • Information on toxicological effects • Acute toxicity: • LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: PureCide®E

• • • • 110 |

Oral LD50 350 mg/kg (mouse) 165 mg/kg (rat) Dermal LD50 >2000 mg/kg (rabbit) Primary irritant effect: on the skin: Caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. on the eye: Strong caustic effect. Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known. 847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Subacute to chronic toxicity: No further relevant information available. • Additional toxicological information: Toxic Harmful Corrosive Danger through skin absorption. Swallowing will lead to a strong caustic effect on mouth and throat and to the danger of perforation of esophagus and stomach. • Carcinogenic categories • NTP (National Toxicology Program) None of the ingredients is listed. • OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) None of the ingredients is listed. • Probable Routes of Exposure Inhalation. Eye contact. Skin contact. Ingestion. • Acute effects (acute toxicity, irritation and corrosivity): Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause gastro-intestinal irritation if ingested. May be harmful in contact with skin. Harmful if swallowed. • Repeated Dose Toxicity: May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure.

12 Ecological information • Toxicity • Aquatic toxicity: Very toxic to aquatic life. PureCide®E LC50

0.29 mg/l (daphnia) 290 mg/l (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

• Persistence and degradability Easily biodegradable • Behavior in environmental systems: • Bioaccumulative potential The product is not expected to bioaccumulate in soil or water organisms. • Mobility in soil No further relevant information available. • Ecotoxical effects: • Remark: Very toxic for fish Very toxic for water fleas. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems Toxic for algae • Additional ecological information: • General notes: Do not allow product to reach ground water, water course or sewage system. Must not reach bodies of water or drainage ditch undiluted or unneutralized. Danger to drinking water if even small quantities leak into the ground. Rinse off of bigger amounts into drains or the aquatic environment may lead to increased pH-values. A high pH-value harms aquatic organisms. In the dilution of the use-level the pH-value is considerably reduced, so that after the use of the product the aqueous waste, emptied into drains, is only low water- dangerous. • Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.

13. Disposal considerations • Waste treatment methods • Recommendation: Must not be disposed of together with household garbage. Do not allow product to reach sewage system. Can be disposed of with household garbage with prior chemical-physical or biological treatment following consultation with the waste disposal facility operator and the pertinent authorities and adhering to the necessary technical regulations. The user of this material has the responsibility to dispose of unused material, residues and containers in compliance with all relevant local, state and federal laws and regulations regarding treatment, storage and disposal for hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Residual materials should be treated as hazardous. • Uncleaned packagings: • Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to official regulations.

14. Transport information • UN-Number • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA • UN proper shipping name • • • • •

112 |

UN1908

Limited Quantity for packages less than 30 kg (66 lb) and inner packagings less than 5 L (1.3 gal).

DOT, IATA Chlorite solution ADR 1908 CHLORITE SOLUTION IMDG CHLORITE SOLUTION Transport hazard class(es) DOT

847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Class • Label

8 Corrosive Substances 8

• ADR

• Class • Label

8 (C9) Corrosive substances 8

• IMDG, IATA

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Class Label Packing group DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA Environmental hazards: Marine pollutant: Special marking (ADR): Special precautions for user Danger code (Kemler): EMS Number: Segregation groups Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code • Transport/Additional information: • DOT • Quantity limitations

8 Corrosive substances 8 III No Symbol (fish and tree) Warning: Corrosive substances 80 F-A,S-B Chlorites Not applicable. On passenger aircraft/rail: 5 L On cargo aircraft only: 60 L

• ADR • Excepted quantities (EQ)

Code: E1 Maximum net quantity per inner packaging: 30 ml Maximum net quantity per outer packaging: 1000 ml

• IMDG • Limited quantities (LQ) • Excepted quantities (EQ) • UN “Model Regulation”:

100 ml Code: E4 Maximum net quantity per inner packaging: 1 ml Maximum net quantity per outer packaging: 500 ml UN1908, Chlorite solution, 8, III

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems

15. Regulatory information • Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture • United States (USA) • SARA • Section 355 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients is listed. • Section 313 (Specific toxic chemical listings): None of the ingredients are listed. • TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act): All ingredients are listed. • Proposition 65 (California) • Chemicals known to cause cancer: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for females: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for males: None of the ingredients is listed. • Chemicals known to cause developmental toxicity: None of the ingredients is listed. • Carcinogenic categories • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite D, CBD • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) EPA Product Registration : 88341-2. This chemical is a pesticide product registered by the Environmental Protection Agency and is subject to certain labeling requirements under federal pesticide law. These requirements differ from the classification criteria and hazard information required for safety data sheets, and for workplace labels of non-pesticide chemicals. Following is the hazard information as required on the pesticide label: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN DANGER FIRST AID IF IN EYES: Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently with water for 15-20 minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present, after the first 5 minutes, then continue rinsing eyes. Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice. IF ON SKIN OR CLOTHING: Take off contaminated clothing. Rinse skin immediately with plenty of water for 15-20 minutes. Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice if burning or irritation of skin persists. IF SWALLOWED:

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems Have person sip a glass of water if able to swallow. Call a poison control center or doctor immediately for treatment advice. Do not induce vomiting unless told to do so by a poison control center or doctor. Do not give to an unconscious person. IF INHALED: Move person to fresh air and monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty in breathing develops, consult a physician immediately. If person is not breathing, call 911 or an ambulance then give artificial respiration, preferably mouth-to mouth if possible. Call a poison control center or doctor for further treatment advice. For emergency information call: 800-424-9300 (24 hours) Have the product container or label with you when calling a poison control center or doctor or going to treatment. NOTE TO PHYSICIAN Probable mucosal damage may contraindicate for the use of gastric lavage. STORAGE AND DISPOSAL PESTICIDE STORAGE: Do not contaminate water, food or feed by storage or disposal. Keep product in tightly closed container when not in use. Don’t drop, roll or skid drum. Keep upright. Always replace cover. Store in a cool, dry, wellv entilated area away from heat or open flame. EMERGENCY HANDLING: In case of contamination or decomposition, do not reseal container. If possible, isolate container in open and well-ventilated area. Flood with large volumes of water. If fire occurs, extinguish fire by applying large quantities of water. Any unopened drums near the fire should be cooled by spraying with water. PESTICIDE DISPOSAL: Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous. Improper disposal of excess pesticide, spray mixture or rinsate is a violation of Federal Law. If these wastes cannot be disposed of by use according to label instructions, contact your State Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous Waste Representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for guidance. CONTAINER HANDLING: For non-refillable solid containers smaller than 50 lbs. Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill this container. Triple rinse container (or equivalent) promptly after emptying. Triple rinse as follows: Empty the remaining contents into application equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container ¼ full with water. Replace and tighten closures. Tip container on its side and roll it back and forth, ensuring at least one complete revolution, for 30 seconds. Stand the container on its end and tip it back and forth several times. Turn the container over onto its other end and tip it back and forth several times. Empty the rinsate into application equipment or a mix tank or store rinsate for later use or disposal. Repeat this procedure two more times. Then offer for recycling if available or reconditioning. For non- refillable solid containers that are larger than 50lbs. Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill this container. Offer for recycling if available. Offer for reconditioning if appropriate. Triple Rinse container promptly after emptying. Triple rinse as follows: Empty remaining contents into application equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container ¼ full with water. Replace and tighten closures. Tip container on its side and roll it back and forth, ensuring at least one complete revolution for 30 seconds. Stand the container on its end and tip it back and forth several times. Empty the rinsate into application equipment or mix tank or store rinsate for later use or disposal. Repeat the procedure two more times. For refillable containers, all sizes. Refillable container. Refill this container with PureCide®25 only. Do not reuse www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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PureCide® 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems this container for any other purpose. Cleaning or pressure rinsing the container is the responsibility of the person disposing of the container. Cleaning before refilling is the responsibility of the refiller. To clean the container before final disposal, empty the remaining contents from this container into application equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container about 10% full of water. Agitate vigorously or recirculate water with the pump for 2 minutes. Pour or pump rinsate into application equipment or rinsate collection system. Repeat this rinsing process two more times. • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite • TLV (Threshold Limit Value established by ACGIH) None of the ingredients is listed. • NIOSH-Ca (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) None of the ingredients is listed. • State Right to Know Listings Contact manufacturer. • Canadian substance listings: • Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL) All ingredients are listed. • Canadian Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 0.1%) None of the ingredients is listed. • Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 1%) 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite

3

• Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations This product has been classified in accordance with hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations and the SDS contains all the information required by the Controlled Products Regulations. • Chemical safety assessment: A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.

16 Other information This information is based on our present knowledge. However, this shall not constitute a guarantee for any specific product features and shall not establish a legally valid contractual relationship. • Date of preparation / last revision 05/29/2015 / • Abbreviations and acronyms: ADR: Accord européen sur le transport des marchandises dangereuses par Route (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road) IMDG: International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods DOT: US Department of Transportation 116 |

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PureCideŽ 25 - PureLine Treatment Systems IATA: International Air Transport Association ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists EINECS: European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances ELINCS: European List of Notified Chemical Substances CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society) NFPA: National Fire Protection Association (USA) HMIS: Hazardous Materials Identification System (USA) WHMIS: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada) LC50: Lethal concentration, 50 percent LD50: Lethal dose, 50 percent Ox. Liq. 1: Oxidising Liquids, Hazard Category 1 Ox. Sol. 1: Oxidising Solids, Hazard Category 1 Acute Tox. 4: Acute toxicity, Hazard Category 4 Skin Corr. 1B: Skin corrosion/irritation, Hazard Category 1B Skin Corr. 1C: Skin corrosion/irritation, Hazard Category 1C Eye Dam. 1: Serious eye damage/eye irritation, Hazard Category 1 STOT RE 2: Specific target organ toxicity - Repeated exposure, Hazard Category 2 • Sources SDS Prepared by: ChemTel Inc. 1305 North Florida Avenue Tampa, Florida USA 33602-2902 Toll Free North America 1-888-255-3924 Intl. +01 813-248-0573 Website: www.chemtelinc.com

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems

Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA HCS (29) CFR 1910.1200)

Reviewed on 05/29/2015

1 Identification • Product identifier • Trade name: Pure3000 • Article number: 88341-4 • Recommended use and restriction on use • Recommended use: Disinfectant • Restrictions on use: Contact manufacturer. • Details of the supplier of the Safety Data Sheet • Manufacturer/Supplier: Pureline Treatment Systems, LLC 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 (847) 963-8465 INFO@PURELINE.COM • Emergency telephone number: ChemTel Inc. (800)255-3924, +1 (813)248-0585

2 Hazard(s) Identification • Classification of the substance or mixture GHS05 Corrosion Met. Corr.1 H290 May be corrosive to metals. GHS07 Eye Irrit. 2A H319 Causes serious eye irritation. • Additional information: There are no other hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified. 0 percent of the mixture consists of ingredient(s) of unknown toxicity. • Label elements • GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS).

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Hazard pictograms

GHS05 • Signal word Warning • Hazard statements H290 May be corrosive to metals. H319 Causes serious eye irritation. • Precautionary statements P264 Wash thoroughly after handling. P280 Wear eye protection / face protection. P234 Keep only in original container. P305+P351+P338 If in eyes: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. P337+P313 If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention. P390 Absorb spillage to prevent material damage. P406 Store in corrosive resistant container with a resistant inner liner. • Hazard description: • WHMIS-symbols: As of 11 February 2015, the current WHMIS system is being replaced by the GHS system. This is the classification under the older system. D2B - Toxic material causing other toxic effects

• Classification system: • NFPA ratings (scale 0 - 4) Health = 1 Fire = 0 Reactivity = 0 • HMIS-ratings (scale0-4) Health = 1 Fire = 0 Reactivity = 0 • • • •

Other hazards Results of PBT and vPvB assessment PBT: Not applicable. vPvB: Not applicable.

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems

3 Composition/information on ingredients • Chemical characterization: Mixtures • Description: Mixture of the substances listed below with on hazardous additions. • Dangerous components: 10049-04-4 chlorine dioxide

Acute Tox. 3, H301

0.3%

Skin Corr. 1B, H314

• Additional information: For the listed ingredients, the identity and exact percentages are being withheld as a trade secret.

4 First-aid measures • Description of first aid measures • General information: Take affected persons out into the fresh air. Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product. • After inhalation: Supply fresh air; consult doctor in case of complaints. In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration. Provide oxygen treatment if affected person has difficulty breathing. • After skin contact: Immediately rinse with water. If skin irritation is experienced, consult a doctor. • After eye contact: Protect unharmed eye. Remove contact lenses if worn, if possible. Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult. • After swallowing: Rinse out mouth and then drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help. • Information for doctor: • Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed Breathing difficulty Coughing Irritant to eyes. Nausea in case of ingestion. Gastric or intestinal disorders when ingested. • Danger Danger of impaired breathing. May cause respiratory irritation. 120 |

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed No further relevant information available.

5 Fire-fighting measures • Extinguishing media • Suitable extinguishing agents: The product is not flammable. Use fire fighting measures that suit the environment. • For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: None • Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture Formation of toxic gases is possible during heating or in case of fire. • Advice for firefighters • Protective equipment: Wear self-contained respiratory protective device. Wear fully protective suit. • Additional information No further relevant information available.

6 Accidental release measures • Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Ensure adequate ventilation. Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away. For large spills, use respiratory protective device against the effects of fumes/dust/ aerosol. • Environmental precautions: Avoid release to the environment. • Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: Absorb with liquid-binding material (sand, diatomite, acid binders, universal binders, sawdust). Do not allow to dry out Dispose contaminated material as waste according to item 13. Send for recovery or disposal in suitable receptacles. • Reference to other sections See Section 7 for information on safe handling. See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment. See Section 13 for disposal information.

7 Handling and storage • Handling: • Precautions for safe handling Use only in well ventilated areas. Prevent formation of aerosols. Protect from sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 122 °F (50 °C). • Information about protection against explosions and fires: No special measures required. • Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities • Storage: • Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems Store away from foodstuffs. Store away from reducing agents. Do not store together with acids. Do not store together with alkalis (caustic solutions). • Information about storage in one common storage facility: Store away from foodstuffs. Do not store together with acids. Store away from reducing agents. Store away from flammable substances. • Further information about storage conditions: Prevent from drying out. Photoreactive. Keep receptacle tightly sealed. Specific end use(s) No further relevant information available.

8 Exposure controls/personal protection • Additional information about design of technical systems: No further data; see item 7. • Control parameters • Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: 10049-04-4 chlorine dioxide PEL (USA) REL (USA) TLV (USA) EL (Canada) EV (Canada) LMPE (Mexico)

Long-term value: 0.3 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.9 mg/m³, 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.3 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.83 mg/m³, 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.28 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.9 mg/m³, 0.3 ppm LPLong-term value: 0.3 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.1 ppm

• Additional information: The lists that were valid during the creation were used as basis. • Exposure controls • Personal protective equipment: • General protective and hygienic measures: The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Immediately remove all soiled and contaminated clothing. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work. Do not inhale gases / fumes / aerosols. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. • Engineering controls: Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles.

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Breathing equipment: Wear appropriate NIOSH respirator when ventilation is inadequate and occupational exposure limits are exceeded. Use suitable respiratory protective device in case of insufficient ventilation. Use suitable respiratory protective device when high concentrations are present. For spills, respiratory protection may be advisable. • Protection of hands: Protective gloves

• • •

The glove material has to be impermeable and resistant to the product/ the substance/ the preparation. Selection of the glove material on consideration of the penetration times, rates of diffusion and the degradation Material of gloves Nitrile rubber, NBR Neoprene gloves PVC gloves The selection of the suitable gloves does not only depend on the material, but also on further marks of quality and varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. As the product is a preparation of several substances, the resistance of the glove material can not be calculated in advance and has therefore to be checked prior to the application. Penetration time of glove material The exact break through time has to be found out by the manufacturer of the protective gloves and has to be observed. Not suitable are gloves made of the following materials: PVA gloves Eye protection: Safety glasses

• Body protection: Protective work clothing • Limitation and supervision of exposure into the environment Avoid release to the environment. • Risk management measures See Section 7 for additional information.

9 Physical and chemical properties • Information on basic physical and chemical properties • General Information • Appearance: Form: Liquid Color: Greenish-Yellow • Odor: Chlorine-like • Odor threshold: 0.1 ppm (CIO2 gas) www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems • pH-value at 20 °C (68 °F):

6.0-8.0

• Change in condition Melting point/Melting range Boiling point/Boiling range:

0 °C (32 °F) 100 °C (212 °F)

• Flash point:

Not applicable.

• Flammability (solid, gaseous):

Not applicable.

• Auto-ignition temperature:

Not determined.

• Decomposition temperature:

Not determined.

• Auto igniting:

Product is not self-igniting.

• Danger of explosion:

Product does not present an explosion hazard.

• Explosion limits: Lower: Upper:

Not determined. Not determined.

• Vapor pressure:

Not determined.

• Density at 20 °C (68 °F):

1.03 g/cm³ (8.595 lbs/gal)

• • • •

Relative density Not determined. Vapor density Not determined. Evaporation rate Not determined. Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Fully miscible.

• Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined. • Viscosity: Dynamic: Kinematic: • · Other information

Not determined. Not determined. No further relevant information available.

10 Stability and reactivity • Reactivity • Chemical stability • Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided: Photoreactive. Keep away from heat and direct sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F. • Possibility of hazardous reactions Reacts with reducing agents. Contact with acids releases toxic gases. Toxic fumes may be released if heated above the decomposition point. Reacts with peroxides and other radical forming substances. 124 |

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems • Conditions to avoid Avoid acids. • Incompatible materials: No further relevant information available. • Hazardous decomposition products: Chlorine Chlorine compounds

11 Toxicological information • • • • • • • •

Information on toxicological effects Acute toxicity: LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: None on the skin: Slight irritant effect on skin and mucous membranes. on the eye: Irritating effect Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known. Subacute to chronic toxicity: No further relevant information available. Additional toxicological information: Irritant May cause respiratory irritation.

• Carcinogenic categories • NTP (National Toxicology Program) None of the ingredients is listed. • OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) None of the ingredients is listed. • Probable Routes of Exposure Inhalation. Eye contact. Skin contact. Ingestion. • Acute effects (acute toxicity, irritation and corrosivity): Irritating to eyes. Inhalation may cause irritation to the respiratory system. May cause gastro-intestinal irritation if ingested May be harmful in contact with skin. • Repeated Dose Toxicity: No further relevant information available.

12 Ecological information • • • • • • • •

Toxicity Aquatic toxicity: Very toxic to aquatic life. Persistence and degradability No further relevant information available. Behavior in environmental systems: Bioaccumulative potential No further relevant information available. Mobility in soil No further relevant information available. Ecotoxical effects: Remark: Toxic for fish

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems Toxic for water fleas. • Additional ecological information: • General notes: Do not allow product to reach ground water, water course or sewage system. Danger to drinking water if even small quantities leak into the ground. • Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.

13. Disposal considerations • Waste treatment methods • Recommendation: Must not be disposed of together with household garbage. Do not allow product to reach sewage system. Can be disposed of with household garbage with prior chemical-physical or biological treatment following consultation with the waste disposal facility operator and the pertinent authorities and adhering to the necessary technical regulations. The user of this material has the responsibility to dispose of unused material, residues and containers in compliance with all relevant local, state and federal laws and regulations regarding treatment, storage and disposal for hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Residual materials should be treated as hazardous. • Uncleaned packagings: • Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to official regulations.

14. Transport information • UN-Number • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA • UN proper shipping name

UN1760

Limited Quantity for packages less than 30 kg (66 lb) and inner packagings less than 5 L (1.3 gal).

• DOT Corrosive liquids, n.o.s. (0.3% chlorine dioxide, stabilized) • ADR 1760 CORROSIVE LIQUID, N.O.S. (0.3% chlorine dioxide, stabilized) • IMDG, IATA CORROSIVE LIQUID, N.O.S. (0.3% chlorine dioxide stabilized) • DOT

• Class • Label

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8 Corrosive substances 8

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems • ADR

• Class • Label

8 (C9) Corrosive substances 8

• IMDG, IATA

• • • • • • • • • •

Class Label Packing group DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA Environmental hazards: Marine pollutant: Special precautions for user Danger code (Kemler): EMS Number: Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code • Transport/Additional information: • DOT • Quantity limitations • ADR • Excepted quantities (EQ)

8 Corrosive substances 8 III No Warning: Corrosive substances 80 F-A,S-B Not applicable. On passenger aircraft/rail: 5 L On cargo aircraft only: 60 L Code: E1 Maximum net quantity per inner packaging: 30 ml Maximum net quantity per outer packaging: 1000 ml

15. Regulatory information • Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture • United States (USA) • SARA • Section 355 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients is listed. • Section 313 (Specific toxic chemical listings): None of the ingredients are listed.

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems • TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act): All ingredients are listed. • Proposition 65 (California) • Chemicals known to cause cancer: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for females: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for males: None of the ingredients is listed. • Chemicals known to cause developmental toxicity: None of the ingredients is listed. • Carcinogenic categories • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 10049-04-4 chlorine dioxide

D, CBD

• Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) EPA Product Registration : 88341-4. This chemical is a pesticide product registered by the Environmental Protection Agency and is subject to certain labeling requirements under federal pesticide law. These requirements differ from the classification criteria and hazard information required for safety data sheets, and for workplace labels of non-pesticide chemicals. Following is the hazard information as required on the pesticide label: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN DANGER FIRST AID IF IN EYES: Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently with water for 15-20 minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present, after the first 15 minutes. Call a poison control center or doctor immediately for treatment advice. IF ON SKIN OR CLOTHING: Take off contaminated clothing. Rinse skin immediately with plenty of water for 15-20 minutes. Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice if burning or irritation of the skin persists. IF SWALLOWED: Have person drink a glass of water immediately if able to swallow. Call a poison control center or doctor immediately for treatment advice. Do not induce vomiting unless told to do so by the poison control center or doctor. Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. IF INHALED: Move person to fresh air and monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty in breathing develops, consult a physician immediately. If person is not breathing, call 911 or an ambulance, then give artificial respiration. Call a poison control center or doctor for further treatment advice. STORAGE AND DISPOSAL STORAGE: Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or disposal. Keep product in tightly closed container when not in use. Don’t drop, roll, or skid drum. 128 |

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems Keep upright. Always replace cover. Store in a cool, dry well-ventilated area away from heat or open flame. EMERGENCY HANDLING: In case of contaminatino or decomposition, do not reseal container. If possible, isolate container in open and well ventilated area. Flood with large volumes of water. If fire occurs, extinguish fire by applying large quantities of water. Any unopened drums near the fire should be cooled by spraying with water. PESTICIDE DISPOSAL: Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous. Improper disposal of excess pesticide, spray mixture or rinsate is a violation of Federal law. If these wastes cannot be disposed of by use according to label instructions, contact your State Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous Waste Representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for guidance. CONTAINER DISPOSAL: Refillable Container. Refill this container with Pure3000 only. Do not reuse this container for any other purpose. Cleaning or pressure rinsing the container before final disposal is the responsibility of the person disposing of the container. Cleaning before refilling is the responsibility of the refiller. To clean the container before final disposal, empty the remaining contents from this container into application equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container about 10 percent full with water. Agitate vigorously or recirculate water with pump for 2 minutes. Pour or pump rinsate into application equipment or rinsate collection system. Repeat this rinsing process two more times. To pressure rinse the container before final disposal, empty the remaining contents into application equipment or a mix tank and continue to drain for 10 seconds after the flow begins to drip. Hold container upside down over application equipment or mix tank or collect rinsate for later use or disposal. Insert pressure rinsing nozzle in the side of the container, and rinse at about 40 PSI for at least 30 seconds. Drain for 10 seconds, after the flow begins to drip. • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) None of the ingredients is listed. • TLV (Threshold Limit Value established by ACGIH) None of the ingredients is listed. • NIOSH-Ca (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) None of the ingredients is listed. • State Right to Know Listings Contact manufacturer. • Canadian substance listings: • Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL) All ingredients are listed. • Canadian Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 0.1%) None of the ingredients is listed. • Canadian Ingredient Disclosure list (limit 1%) None of the ingredients is listed. • Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations This product has been classified in accordance with hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations and the SDS contains all the information required by the www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems Controlled Products Regulations. • Chemical safety assessment: A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.

16 Other information This information is based on our present knowledge. However, this shall not constitute a guarantee for any specific product features and shall not establish a legally valid contractual relationship. • Date of preparation / last revision 05/29/2015 / • Abbreviations and acronyms: ADR: Accord européen sur le transport des marchandises dangereuses par Route (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road) IMDG: International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods DOT: US Department of Transportation IATA: International Air Transport Association ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists EINECS: European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances ELINCS: European List of Notified Chemical Substances CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society) NFPA: National Fire Protection Association (USA) HMIS: Hazardous Materials Identification System (USA) WHMIS: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada) LC50: Lethal concentration, 50 percent LD50: Lethal dose, 50 percent Met. Corr.1: Corrosive to metals, Hazard Category 1 Acute Tox. 3: Acute toxicity, Hazard Category 3 Skin Corr. 1B: Skin corrosion/irritation, Hazard Category 1B Eye Irrit. 2A: Serious eye damage/eye irritation, Hazard Category 2A • Sources SDS Prepared by: ChemTel Inc. 1305 North Florida Avenue Tampa, Florida USA 33602-2902 Toll Free North America 1-888-255-3924 Intl. +01 813-248-0573 Website: www.chemtelinc.com

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Pure3000 - PureLine Treatment Systems

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Anolyte Waste- PureLine Treatment Systems

Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA HCS (29) CFR 1910.1200)

Reviewed on 06/01/2016

1 Identification • Product identifier • Trade name: Anolyte Waste • Other product identifiers: No other identifiers • Recommended use and restriction on use • Recommended use: Waste material • Restrictions on use: Contact manufacturer. • Details of the supplier of the Safety Data Sheet • Manufacturer/Supplier: Pureline Treatment Systems, LLC 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 (847) 963-8465 INFO@PURELINE.COM • Emergency telephone number: ChemTel Inc. (800)255-3924, +1 (813)248-0585

2 Hazard(s) Identification • Classification of the substance or mixture Met. Corr.1 H290 May be corrosive to metals. Skin Corr. 1C H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. STOT RE 2 H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Label elements • GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS). • Hazard pictograms:

GHS05 GHSO8

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Anolyte Waste - PureLine Treatment Systems • Signal word Danger • Hazard statements H290 May be corrosive to metals. H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H373 May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Precautionary statements P260 Do not breathe mist/vapors/spray. P264 Wash thoroughly after handling. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection. P303+P361+P353 If on skin (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. P305+P351+P338 If in eyes: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing. P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. P301+P330+P331 If swallowed: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell. P390 Absorb spillage to prevent material damage. P405 Store locked up. P406 Store in corrosive resistant container with a resistant inner liner. P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/ national/international regulations. • Other hazards There are no other hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified.

3 Composition/information on ingredients • Chemical characterization: Mixtures • Components 7775-09-9 sodium chlorate Ox. Sol. 1, H271

0-6%

Acute Tox. 4, H302 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite

Ox. Sol. 1, H271

0-2%

STOT RE 2, H373 Skin Corr. 1B, H314, Eye Dam. 1, H318 Acute Tox. 4, H302 10049-04-4 chlorine dioxide

Acute Tox. 3, H301

0-0.2%

Skin Corr. 1B, H314 • Additional information: For the listed ingredient(s), the identity and/or exact percentage(s) are being withheld as a trade secret. For the wording of the listed Hazard Statements refer to section 16. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Anolyte Waste- PureLine Treatment Systems

4 First-aid measures • Description of first aid measures • After inhalation: Supply fresh air; consult doctor in case of complaints. Provide oxygen treatment if affected person has difficulty breathing. In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration. • After skin contact: Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product. Immediately rinse with water. If skin irritation continues, consult a doctor. Seek immediate medical help for blistering or open wounds. • After eye contact: Protect unharmed eye. Remove contact lenses if worn, if possible. Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor. • After swallowing: Rinse out mouth and then drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help. • Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed Breathing difficulty Coughing Strong caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. Danger of severe eye injury. Cyanosis Methaemoglobinaemia Nausea in case of ingestion. Gastric or intestinal disorders when ingested. Vomiting. Diarrhea. • Danger Danger of gastric perforation. Danger of impaired breathing. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. Danger through skin absorption. May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed Contains chlorates / chlorites. Consult literature for specific antidotes. Medical supervision for at least 48 hours. Later observation for pneumonia and pulmonary edema. If necessary oxygen respiration treatment. (Cont’d. of page 2) If blue coloring appears (lips, ear-lobes, finger-nails), give oxygen treatment as quickly as possible. In cases of cyanosis, administer vitamin C, oxygen, protect from sunlight. If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand.

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5 Fire-fighting measures • • • •

Extinguishing media Suitable extinguishing agents: Water For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: None Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture During heating or in case of fire poisonous gases are produced. Substance/product is oxidizing when dry. • Advice for firefighters • Protective equipment: Wear self-contained respiratory protective device. Wear fully protective suit. • Additional information Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so. Cool endangered receptacles with water spray.

6 Accidental release measures • Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away. For large spills, use respiratory protective device against the effects of fumes/dust/ aerosol. Ensure adequate ventilation. Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles. • Environmental precautions: Do not allow to enter sewers/ surface or ground water. Inform respective authorities in case of seepage into water course or sewage system. • Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: Absorb with non-combustible liquid-binding material (sand, diatomite, acid binders, universal binders). Do not allow to dry out. • Reference to other sections See Section 7 for information on safe handling. See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment. See Section 13 for disposal information.

7 Handling and storage • Handling: • Precautions for safe handling Use only in well ventilated areas. Avoid splashes or spray in enclosed areas. Prevent formation of aerosols. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin • Information about protection against explosions and fires: Keep ignition sources away - Do not smoke. Keep respiratory protective device available. Emergency cooling must be available in case of nearby fire. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Anolyte Waste- PureLine Treatment Systems • • •

Substance/product can reduce the ignition temperature of flammable substances. Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities Storage: Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: Avoid storage near extreme heat, ignition sources or open flame. Provide ventilation for receptacles. Unsuitable material for receptacle: aluminum. Information about storage in one common storage facility: Store away from foodstuffs. Store away from reducing agents. Do not store together with alkalis (caustic solutions). Do not store together with textiles. Store away from organic solvents. Further information about storage conditions: Keep receptacle tightly sealed. Specific end use(s) No relevant information available.

8 Exposure controls/personal protection • Control parameters • Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: 10049-04-4 chlorine dioxide PEL (USA) REL (USA) TLV (USA) EL (Canada) EV (Canada) LMPE (Mexico)

Long-term value: 0.3 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.9 mg/m³, 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.3 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.83 mg/m³, 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.28 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.9 mg/m³, 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.3 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm Short-term value: 0.3 ppm Long-term value: 0.1 ppm

• Exposure controls • Personal protective equipment: • General protective and hygienic measures: The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Immediately remove all soiled and contaminated clothing. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. • Engineering controls: No relevant information available. • Breathing equipment: NIOSH or EU approved mist respirator is recommended in areas where general 136 |

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Anolyte Waste - PureLine Treatment Systems ventilation is poor. Use suitable respiratory protective device when aerosol or mist is formed. • Protection of hands: Protective gloves The glove material has to be impermeable and resistant to the product/ the substance/ the preparation. • Eye protection: Contact lenses should not be worn. Safety glasses Follow relevant national guidelines concerning the use of protective eyewear. • Body protection: Protective work clothing • Limitation and supervision of exposure into the environment Avoid release to the environment. • Risk management measures See Section 7 for additional information.

9 Physical and chemical properties • Information on basic physical and chemical properties • Appearance: Form: Liquid Color: Light Yellow • Odor: Chlorine-like • Odor threshold: Not determined • pH-value at 20 °C (68 °F): • Melting point/Melting range • Boiling point/Boiling range:

2-4 Not determined Not determined

• Flash point:

Not applicable.

• Flammability (solid, gaseous):

Not applicable.

• Auto-ignition temperature:

Not determined.

• Decomposition temperature:

Not determined.

• Auto igniting:

Not determined

• Danger of explosion:

Product does not present an explosion hazard.

• Explosion limits: Lower: Upper:

Not determined. Not determined.

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Anolyte Waste- PureLine Treatment Systems • Oxidizing properties

Not determined

• Vapor pressure:

Not determined.

• Density at 20 °C (68 °F): Relative density Vapor density Evaporation rate

1.1 Not determined. Not determined.

• Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Fully miscible. • Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined. • Viscosity: Dynamic: Kinematic: • Other information

Not determined. Not determined. No relevant information available.

10 Stability and reactivity • Reactivity No relevant information available • Chemical stability Stable under normal temperatures and pressures • Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided: Avoid temperatures above 572 °F / 300 °C. Explosive thermal decomposition. • Possibility of hazardous reactions Reacts with reducing agents. Reacts with alkali (lyes). Reacts with strong acids. Reacts with various metals. Reacts with organic substances. Danger of explosion when dry. Substance/product is oxidizing when dry. • Toxic fumes may be released if heated above the decomposition point. • Conditions to avoid Avoid acids. Excessive heat Prevent from drying out • Incompatible materials: Alkalis • Hazardous decomposition products: Oxygen Chlorine Sulfur oxides (SOx)

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Anolyte Waste - PureLine Treatment Systems

11 Toxicological information • Information on toxicological effects • Acute toxicity: • LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: 7775-09-9 sodium chlorate Oral LD50 1200 mg/kg (rat) • • • •

Primary irritant effect: On the skin: Caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. On the eye: Strong caustic effect. Sensitization: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met.

• Carcinogenic categories • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer): 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite • NTP (National Toxicology Program): None of the ingredients is listed. • OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration): None of the ingredients is listed.

3

• Probable Routes of Exposure Ingestion. Inhalation. Eye contact. Skin contact. • Acute effects (acute toxicity, irritation and corrosivity): Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. Inhalation may cause irritation to the respiratory system. Danger through skin absorption. • Repeated Dose Toxicity: Possible risk of irreversible effects. • CMR effects (carcinogenity, mutagenicity and toxicity for reproduction) • Germ cell mutagenicity: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • Carcinogenicity: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • Reproductive toxicity: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • STOT-single exposure: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • STOT-repeated exposure: May cause damage to the spleen through prolonged or repeated exposure. • Aspiration hazard: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met.

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12 Ecological information • • • • • • • • •

Toxicity Aquatic toxicity: No relevant information available. Persistence and degradability No relevant information available. Bioaccumulative potential No relevant information available. Mobility in soil No further relevant information available. Ecotoxical effects: Remark: Harmful to fish Additional ecological information: General notes: Do not allow product to reach ground water, water course or sewage system. Must not reach bodies of water or drainage ditch undiluted or unneutralized. Rinse off of bigger amounts into drains or the aquatic environment may lead to decreased pH-values. A low pH-value harms aquatic organisms. In the dilution of the use-level the pH-value is considerably increased, so that after the use of the product the aqueous waste, emptied into drains, is only low water- dangerous. Harmful to aquatic organisms. • Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.

13. Disposal considerations • Waste treatment methods • Recommendation: Must not be disposed of together with household garbage. Do not allow product to reach sewage system. The user of this material has the responsibility to dispose of unused material, residues and containers in compliance with all relevant local, state and federal laws and regulations regarding treatment, storage and disposal for hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Residual materials should be treated as hazardous. • Water disposal key: EPA RCRA Code (USA: D002 • Unlceaned Packagings • Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to official regulations.

14. Transport information • UN-Number • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA • • • •

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UN proper shipping name DOT, IATA ADR, IMDG Transport hazard class(es)

UN1908 Chlorite solution CHLORITE SOLUTION

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Anolyte Waste - PureLine Treatment Systems • DOT

• Class • Label

8 Corrosive substances 8

• ADR

• Class • Label

8 (C9) Corrosive substances 8

• IMDG, IATA

• Class • Label

8 Corrosive substances 8

• Packing group • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA

III

• Environmental hazards: • Marine pollutant:

No

• • • •

Warning: Corrosive substances 80 F-A,S-B Chlorites

Special precautions for user Danger code (Kemler): EMS Number: Segregation groups

• Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code

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Not applicable.

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15. Regulatory information • Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture • United States (USA) • SARA • Section 302 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients is listed. • Section 304 (emergency release notification): None of the ingredients are listed. • Section 355 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients are listed. • Section 313 (Specific toxic chemical listings): None of the ingredients are listed. • TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) All ingredients are listed. • Proposition 65 (California) • Chemicals known to cause cancer: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for females: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for males: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause developmental toxicity: None of the ingredients are listed • Carcinogenic categories • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency): 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite 10049-04-4 chlorine dioxide • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer): 7758-19-2 sodium chlorite • NIOSH-Ca (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health): None of the ingredients are listed.

D, CBD D, CBD 3

16 Other information This information is based on our present knowledge. However, this shall not constitute a guarantee for any specific product features and shall not establish a legally valid contractual relationship. • Date of preparation / last revision 06/01/2016 / 142 |

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Anolyte Waste - PureLine Treatment Systems • Abbreviations and acronyms: ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road IMDG: International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods DOT: US Department of Transportation IATA: International Air Transport Association GHS: Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society) DNEL: Derived No-Effect Level (REACH) PNEC: Predicted No-Effect Concentration (REACH) LC50: Lethal concentration, 50 percent LD50: Lethal dose, 50 percent PBT: Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic SVHC: Substances of Very High Concern vPvB: very Persistent and very Bioaccumulative TLV: Threshold Limit Value PEL: Permissible Exposure Limit REL: Recommended Exposure Limit Ox. Sol. 1: Oxidizing solids – Category 1 Met. Corr.1: Corrosive to metals – Category 1 Acute Tox. 3: Acute toxicity – Category 3 Acute Tox. 4: Acute toxicity – Category 4 Skin Corr. 1B: Skin corrosion/irritation – Category 1B Skin Corr. 1C: Skin corrosion/irritation – Category 1C Eye Dam. 1: Serious eye damage/eye irritation – Category 1 STOT RE 2: Specific target organ toxicity (repeated exposure) – Category 2 • Sources Website, European Chemicals Agency (echa.europa.eu) Website, US EPA Substance Registry Services (ofmpub.epa.gov/sor internet/ registry/substreg/home/ overview/home.do) Website, Chemical Abstracts Registry, American Chemical Society (www.cas.org) Patty’s Industrial Hygiene, 6th ed., Rose, Vernon, ed. ISBN: ISBN: 978-0-470-07488-6 Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 8th Ed., Klaasen, Curtis D., ed., ISBN: 978-0-07-176923-5. Safety Data Sheets, Individual Manufacturers SDS Prepared by: ChemTel Inc. 1305 North Florida Avenue Tampa, Florida USA 33602-2902 Toll Free North America 1-888-255-3924 Intl. +01 813-248-0573 Website: www.chemtelinc.com

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Catholyte Waste Solution- PureLine Treatment Systems

Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA HCS (29) CFR 1910.1200) Reviewed on 06/01/2016

1 Identification • Product identifier • Trade name: Catholyte Waste Solution • Recommended use and restriction on use • Recommended use: Waste material • Restrictions on use: Contact manufacturer. • Details of the supplier of the Safety Data Sheet • Manufacturer/Supplier: Pureline Treatment Systems, LLC 1241 N. Ellis Street Bensenville, IL 60106 (847) 963-8465 INFO@PURELINE.COM • Emergency telephone number: ChemTel Inc. (800)255-3924, +1 (813)248-0585

2 Hazard(s) Identification • Classification of the substance or mixture Met. Corr.1 H290 May be corrosive to metals. Skin Corr. 1C H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. • Label elements • GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS). • Hazard pictograms:

GHS05 • Signal word Danger • Hazard statements H290 May be corrosive to metals. H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. • Precautionary statements P260 Do not breathe mist/vapors/spray. P264 Wash thoroughly after handling. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection. 144 |

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Catholyte Waste Solutions - PureLine Treatment Systems P303+P361+P353 If on skin (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. P305+P351+P338 If in eyes: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing 310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor. P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing. P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. P301+P330+P331 If swallowed: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. P390 Absorb spillage to prevent material damage. P405 Store locked up. P406 Store in corrosive resistant container with a resistant inner liner. P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/ national/international regulations. • Other hazards There are no other hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified.

3 Composition/information on ingredients • Chemical characterization: Mixtures • Components 1310-73-2 sodium hydroxide

2-20%

Met. Corr.1, H290; Skin Corr. 1A, H314; Eye Dam. 1, H318 • Additional information: For the listed ingredient(s), the identity and/or exact percentage(s) are being withheld as a trade secret. For the wording of the listed Hazard Statements refer to section 16.

4 First-aid measures • Description of first aid measures • After inhalation: Supply fresh air; consult doctor in case of complaints. • After skin contact: Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product. Immediately rinse with water. If skin irritation continues, consult a doctor. Seek immediate medical help for blistering or open wounds. • After eye contact: Protect unharmed eye. Remove contact lenses if worn, if possible. Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor. • After swallowing: Rinse out mouth and then drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help. • Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed Breathing difficulty www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Catholyte Waste Solution- PureLine Treatment Systems Coughing Strong caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. Danger of severe eye injury. Nausea in case of ingestion. Gastric or intestinal disorders when ingested. Vomiting. Diarrhea. • Danger Danger of gastric perforation. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking. • Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed Medical supervision for at least 48 hours. If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand.

5 Fire-fighting measures • Extinguishing media • Suitable extinguishing agents: The product is not flammable. Use fire fighting measures that suit the environment. • For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: None. • Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture No relevant information available. • Advice for firefighters • Protective equipment: Wear self-contained respiratory protective device. Wear fully protective suit.

6 Accidental release measures • Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Ensure adequate ventilation. Use personal protective equipment as required. Particular danger of slipping on leaked/spilled product. • Environmental precautions: Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities of it to reach ground water, water course or sewage system. • Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: Absorb with liquid-binding material (sand, diatomite, acid binders, universal binders, sawdust). Send for recovery or disposal in suitable receptacles. • Reference to other sections See Section 7 for information on safe handling. See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment. See Section 13 for disposal information.

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Catholyte Waste Solutions - PureLine Treatment Systems

7 Handling and storage • Handling: • Precautions for safe handling Use only in well ventilated areas. Prevent formation of aerosols. Avoid splashes or spray in enclosed areas. Avoid breathing mist, vapors, or spray. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. • Information about protection against explosions and fires: Keep respiratory protective device available. • Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities • Storage: • Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: Use only receptacles specifically permitted for this substance/product. Unsuitable material for receptacle: steel. Unsuitable material for receptacle: aluminium. Unsuitable material for receptacle: glass or ceramic. • Information about storage in one common storage facility: Store away from foodstuffs. Do not store together with acids. Store away from metals. • Further information about storage conditions: Keep receptacle tightly sealed. Specific end use(s) No relevant information available.

8 Exposure controls/personal protection • Control parameters • Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: 1310-73-2 sodium hydroxide PEL (USA) REL (USA) TLV (USA) EL (Canada) EV (Canada) LMPE (Mexico)

Long-term value: 2 mg/m³ Ceiling limit value: 2 mg/m³ Ceiling limit value: 2 mg/m³ Ceiling limit value: 2 mg/m³ Ceiling limit value: 2 mg/m³ Ceiling limit value: 2 mg/m³

• Exposure controls • Personal protective equipment: • General protective and hygienic measures: The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed. Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed. Immediately remove all soiled and contaminated clothing. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work. Avoid contact with the eyes and skin. www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Catholyte Waste Solution- PureLine Treatment Systems • Engineering controls: No relevant information available. • Breathing equipment: Not required under normal conditions of use. NIOSH or EU approved mist respirator is recommended in areas where general ventilation is poor. • Protection of hands: Protective gloves The glove material has to be impermeable and resistant to the product/ the substance/ the preparation. Material of gloves Nitrile rubber, NBR Butyl rubber, BR Neoprene gloves PVC gloves Not suitable are gloves made of the following materials: PVA gloves • Eye protection: Contact lenses should not be worn. Safety glasses Follow relevant national guidelines concerning the use of protective eyewear. • Body protection: Protective work clothing • Limitation and supervision of exposure into the environment Avoid release to the environment. • Risk management measures See Section 7 for additional information.

9 Physical and chemical properties • Information on basic physical and chemical properties • Appearance: Form: Liquid Color: Colorless • Odor: Odorless • Odor threshold: Not determined

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• pH-value at 20 °C (68 °F): • Melting point/Melting range • Boiling point/Boiling range:

14 (for a 5% aqueous solution) -20 °C (-4 °F) 105-110 °C (221-230 °F)

• Flash point:

Not applicable.

• Flammability (solid, gaseous):

Not applicable.

• Auto-ignition temperature:

Not determined.

• Decomposition temperature:

Not determined. 847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


Catholyte Waste Solutions - PureLine Treatment Systems • Danger of explosion:

Product does not present an explosion hazard.

• Explosion limits: Lower: Upper: • Oxidizing properties

Not determined. Not determined. Not determined

• Vapor pressure:

Not determined.

• Density at 20 °C (68 °F): Relative density Vapor density Evaporation rate

1.02-1.15 Not determined. Not determined.

• Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Fully miscible. • Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined. • Viscosity: Dynamic at 20 °C (68 °F): Kinematic: • Other information

1.05-6.5 cP Not determined. No further relevant information available.

10 Stability and reactivity • Reactivity No relevant information available • Chemical stability Stable under normal temperatures and pressures • Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided: No decomposition if used and stored according to specifications. • Possibility of hazardous reactions Strong exothermic reaction with acids. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents. Corrosive action on metals. Reacts with fats and oils. Reacts with halogenated compounds. Attacks materials containing glass and silicate. • Conditions to avoid Avoid acids. • Incompatible materials: Strong Acids • Hazardous decomposition products: Possible in traces

11 Toxicological information • • • • • • •

Information on toxicological effects Acute toxicity: LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: None. Primary irritant effect: On the skin: Caustic effect on skin and mucous membranes. On the eye: Strong caustic effect. Sensitization: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met.

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Catholyte Waste Solution- PureLine Treatment Systems • Carcinogenic categories • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer): None of the ingredients is listed. • NTP (National Toxicology Program): None of the ingredients is listed. • OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration): None of the ingredients is listed. • Probable Routes of Exposure Ingestion. Inhalation. Eye contact. Skin contact. • Acute effects (acute toxicity, irritation and corrosivity): Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. • Repeated Dose Toxicity: From product as supplied: None. • CMR effects (carcinogenity, mutagenicity and toxicity for reproduction) • Germ cell mutagenicity: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • Carcinogenicity: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • Reproductive toxicity: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • STOT-single exposure: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • STOT-repeated exposure: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. • Aspiration hazard: Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met.

12 Ecological information • • • • • • •

Toxicity Aquatic toxicity: No relevant information available. Persistence and degradability No relevant information available. Bioaccumulative potential No relevant information available. Mobility in soil No further relevant information available. Additional ecological information: General notes: Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities of it to reach ground water, water course or sewage system. Must not reach bodies of water or drainage ditch undiluted or unneutralized. Rinse off of bigger amounts into drains or the aquatic environment may lead to increased pH-values. A high pH-value harms aquatic organisms. In the dilution of the use-level the pH-value is considerably reduced, so that after the use of the product the aqueous waste, emptied into drains, is only low water- dangerous. • Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.

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13. Disposal considerations • Waste treatment methods • Recommendation: Must not be disposed of together with household garbage. Do not allow product to reach sewage system. The user of this material has the responsibility to dispose of unused material, residues and containers in compliance with all relevant local, state and federal laws and regulations regarding treatment, storage and disposal for hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Residual materials should be treated as hazardous. • Water disposal key: EPA RCRA Code (USA): D002 • Uncleaned Packagings • Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to official regulations.

14. Transport information • UN-Number • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA • • • • •

UN proper shipping name DOT, IATA ADR, IMDG Transport hazard class(es) DOT

• Class • Label

UN1824 Sodium hydroxide solution SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

8 Corrosive substances 8

• ADR

• Class • Label

8 (C5) Corrosive substances 8

• IMDG, IATA

• Class • Label

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8 Corrosive substances 8

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Catholyte Waste Solution- PureLine Treatment Systems • Packing group • DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA

III

• Environmental hazards: • Marine pollutant:

No

• • • •

Warning: Corrosive substances 80 F-A,S-B Alkalis

Special precautions for user Danger code (Kemler): EMS Number: Segregation groups

• Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code

Not applicable.

15. Regulatory information • Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture • United States (USA) • SARA • Section 302 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients is listed. • Section 304 (emergency release notification): None of the ingredients are listed. • Section 355 (extremely hazardous substances): None of the ingredients are listed. • Section 313 (Specific toxic chemical listings): None of the ingredients are listed. • TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) All ingredients are listed. • Proposition 65 (California) • Chemicals known to cause cancer: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for females: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause reproductive toxicity for males: None of the ingredients are listed. • Chemicals known to cause developmental toxicity: None of the ingredients are listed • Carcinogenic categories • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency): None of the ingredients are listed 152 |

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Catholyte Waste Solutions - PureLine Treatment Systems • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer): None of the ingredients are listed • NIOSH-Ca (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health): None of the ingredients are listed.

16 Other information This information is based on our present knowledge. However, this shall not constitute a guarantee for any specific product features and shall not establish a legally valid contractual relationship. • Date of preparation / last revision 06/01/2016 / • Abbreviations and acronyms: ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road IMDG: International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods DOT: US Department of Transportation IATA: International Air Transport Association CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (division of the American Chemical Society) LC50: Lethal concentration, 50 percent LD50: Lethal dose, 50 percent NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety OSHA: Occupational Safety & Health TLV: Threshold Limit Value PEL: Permissible Exposure Limit REL: Recommended Exposure Limit Met. Corr.1: Corrosive to metals – Category 1 Skin Corr. 1A: Skin corrosion/irritation – Category 1A Eye Dam. 1: Serious eye damage/eye irritation – Category 1 • Sources Website, European Chemicals Agency (echa.europa.eu) Website, US EPA Substance Registry Services (ofmpub.epa.gov/sor internet/ registry/substreg/home/ overview/home.do) Website, Chemical Abstracts Registry, American Chemical Society (www.cas.org) Patty’s Industrial Hygiene, 6th ed., Rose, Vernon, ed. ISBN: ISBN: 978-0-470-07488-6 Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 8th Ed., Klaasen, Curtis D., ed., ISBN: 978-0-07-176923-5. Safety Data Sheets, Individual Manufacturers SDS Prepared by: ChemTel Inc. 1305 North Florida Avenue Tampa, Florida USA 33602-2902 Toll Free North America 1-888-255-3924 Intl. +01 813-248-0573 Website: www.chemtelinc.com

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STATE REGULATIONS State Regulations for FORDioxide CHLORINE Chlorine DIOXIDE

No Permit Needed May Require a Permit

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Alabama Chlorine dioxide is not considered a hazardous air pollutant in the state of Alabama, therefore is not restricted on emission. This allows treatment using chlorine dioxide freely. Regulations Division 335-3

Appendix G List of Hazardous air pollutants

http://www.adem.state.al.us/alEnviroRegLaws/files/Division3.pdf

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Arizona In Arizona, chlorine dioxide is not a “regulated air pollutant” (R18-2-101.122).Where a regulated air pollutant is defined as an air pollutant which is a “conventional air pollutant”(R18-2-101.38), on the national list of hazardous air pollutants, or subject to new source performance standards, or is classified as a class I or II substance based on title 6 of the “clean air act”. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Arizona. Documented Regulations R18-2-101: 122:

Regulated air pollutant” means any of the following: a. Any conventional air pollutant. b. Nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. c. Any pollutant that is subject to a new source performance standard. d. Any pollutant that is subject to a national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants or other requirements established under section 112 of the Act, including sections 112(g), (j), and (r), including the following: i. Any pollutant subject to requirements under section 112(j) of the act. If the administrator fails to promulgate a standard by the date established pursuant to section 112(e) of the act, any pollutant for which a subject source would be major shall be considered to be regulated on the date 18 months after the applicable date established pursuant to section 112(e) of the Act; and ii. Any pollutant for which the requirements of section 112(g) (2) of the Act have been met, but only with respect to the individual source subject to the section 112(g)(2) requirement. e. Any Class I or II substance subject to a standard promulgated under title VI of the Act

38:

“Conventional air pollutant” means any pollutant for which the Administrator has promulgated a primary or secondary national ambient air quality standard. A.R.S. § 49-401.01(12).

http://apps.azsos.gov/public_services/Title_18/18-02.pdf 42 U.S.C. § 7401, et seq. Title VI 7412

List of Hazardous Air pollutants

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Arkansas Chlorine dioxide is not a nationally regulated air pollutant, therefore according to chapter 2 of the “Regulations of the Arkansas Plan of implementation for Air pollution control, the definition of a stationary source is restricted solely to a facility/ structure which emits a federally regulated air pollutant, and therefore the amount of chlorine dioxide that may be emitted would not be restricted. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Arkansas. Referenced laws Regulation Number 19 chapter 2: definition Stationary Source:

means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any federally regulated air pollutant.

Federally Regulated Air Pollutant

a. Nitrogen oxides or any volatile organic compounds; b. Any pollutant for which a National Ambient Air Quality Standard has been promulgated; c. Except as provided in (E), any pollutant that is subject to any standard promulgated under 42 U.S.C. § 7401, et seq., as of the effective date of this regulation; d. Any Class I or II substance subject to a standard promulgated under or established by Title VI of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7401, et seq. as amended as of July 1,1997.2-3 e. GHGs, except that GHGs shall not be a Federally Regulated Air Pollutant unless the GHG emissions are: 1. from a stationary source emitting or having the potential to emit 75,000 tpy CO2e emissions or more; 2. regulated under Chapter 9 of this Regulation 19

https://www.adeq.state.ar.us/regs/files/reg19_final_160314.pdf 42 U.S.C. § 7401, et seq. (Does not Regulate chlorine dioxide) https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm

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California Air Pollutant Limit? Site Address Location on Site Excerpt Exemption? Exemption Code Exception Excepts Page Address Referenced Laws

Government Regulations

https://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/cattable.htm#Category%20IIb Category IIb “substances NOT identified as Toxic Air Contaminants

District Rule (Each District is subject to its own pollution control policies

Air Pollutant? Limit Site Address Location on Site Excerpt

NO

Amador APCD List of Current Rules No N/A https://www.arb.ca.gov/drdb/ama/curhtml/r500.htm Definition of objects which need to be covered Sources subject to Rule 500 include major sources, acid rain units subject to Title IV of the CAA, solid waste incinerators subject to section 111 or 129 of the CAA, and any other sources specifically designated by rule of the U.S. EPA. New Source Performance Standards (40 CFR Part 60) National Ambient Air Quality Standards, increments, and visibility requirements as they apply to portable sources required to obtain a permit pursuant to section 504(e) of the CAA National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR Part 61 Maximum Achievable Control Technology or Generally Available Control Technology Standards (40 CFR Part 63) Solid Waste Incineration requirements (sections 111 or 129 of the CAA) Consumer and Commercial Product requirements (section 183 of the CAA) District prohibitory rules that are approved into the state implementation plan Standards or regulations promulgated pursuant to a Federal Implementation Plan Enhanced Monitoring and Compliance Certification requirements (section 114(a)(3) of the CAA)

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Colorado Chlorine dioxide is not regulated in the state of Colorado, based on the definition of a regulated air pollutant (5 CCR 1001-5.I.B.39) which states regulated air pollutants as nitrogen oxides, VOCS, any federally regulated air pollutant, and Hazardous Air Pollutants (25-7-109.3(5) which serves only to reiterate the federal regulations). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Colorado. Regulations 5 CCR 1001-5 Nitrogen oxides or any volatile organic compounds, except as listed in the definition of negligibly reactive volatile organic compounds in the Common Provisions regulation; any pollutant for which a national or state ambient air quality standard has been promulgated; any pollutant that is subject to any standard promulgated under Section 111 of the Federal Act (Regulation Number 6); any class I or II substance subject to a standard promulgated under or established by Title VI of the Federal Act; any pollutant subject to a standard promulgated under Section 112 or other requirements established under Section 112 of the Federal Act, including Sections 112(g), (j), and (r) of the Federal Act; and any pollutant subject to a standard promulgated pursuant to Colorado Revised Statutes Section 25- 7-109.3(5)(a), (state-only hazardous air pollutants listed in Section 25-7-109.3(5)(a) are subject to state enforcement only and do not trigger enforcement by the Administrator or by citizens under Section 304 of the Federal Act.)

I.B.39:

https://www.sos.state.co.us/CCR/GenerateRulePdf.do?ruleVersionId=7032&fileName=5%20CCR%201001-5 42 U.S.C. ยง 7401, et seq. Title VI (Does not Regulate chlorine dioxide) 7412 (Section 112): 7412 (Section 112):

List of Hazardous Air pollutants Standards of performance for new stationary sources

https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm Title 25 Article 7 Chapter 109.3 The substances listed in or pursuant to section 112(b) of the federal act, and the following substances, are declared to be hazardous air pollutants and are subject to regulation by the commission under this section https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/Title25Article7.pdf 160 |

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Connecticut In Connecticut chlorine dioxide is classified a Hazardous air pollutant (22a-174-29-3) with an ambient air concentration of 6Âľg/m^3 when measured over an 8 hour period. During a PureLine treatment a facility is initially filled with approximately .03 tons (60 pounds) of chlorine dioxide per million square feet of a facility, of which less than .01 tons (10-20 pound) per million feet is emitted into the atmosphere at the termination point of the treatment. In Connecticut, non-major stationary sources which emit less than 15 tons per year of a hazardous air pollutant fall below the necessary level at which a permit is required (22a-174-3a). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Connecticut. Regulations 22a-174 Table 29-3 3a(a)(1)

Table of Hazardous Air Pollutants Prior to beginning actual construction of any stationary source or modification not otherwise exempted in accordance with subdivision (2) (A) to (C) of this subsection, the owner or operator shall apply for and obtain a permit to construct and operate under this section for any: a. New major stationary source; b. Major modification; c. New or reconstructed major source of hazardous air pollutants subject to the provisions of subsection (m) of this section; d. New emission unit with potential emissions of fifteen (15) tons or more per year of any individual air pollutant; e. Modification to an existing emission unit which increases potential emissions of any individual air pollutant from such unit by fifteen (15) tons or more per year; f. Stationary source or modification that becomes a major stationary source or major modification solely by virtue of a relaxation in any enforceable limitation which was established after August 7, 1980, on the capacity of the source or modification otherwise to emit a pollutant g. Incinerator for which construction commenced on or after June 1, 2009, except if such incinerator is used: i. for the primary purpose of reducing, controlling or eliminating air pollution, or ii. as a solid waste incineration unit subject to an emission guideline issued pursuant to Section 129 of the Act. Section 129 Act

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Connecticut (Continued) 42 U.S.C. ยง 7401, et seq. (the act) (Does not Regulate chlorine dioxide) 7429e (Section 129)

Not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall publish a schedule for the promulgation of standards under section 7411 of this title and this section applicable to other categories of solid waste incineration units.

7411 Standards of performance for new stationary sources. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm

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Delaware A permit is required in the state of Delaware, as all potential air contaminant emissions are controlled in Delaware (7 DE Admin. Code 1101.2.1.0). During a PureLine treatment, approximately 10-20 pounds of chlorine dioxide are emitted into the air at the termination point of the treatment, the limit of which is 0.2 pounds per day. Because the PureLine process emits more than 0.2 pounds, it is above the allowable amount which would otherwise allow a simple registration with the state. Since the PureLine process does not qualify for an exemption or is not allowed to simply register with the state. The PureLine treatment process may require a permit in Delaware. Regulations 7 DE Admin. Code 1102 2.1.0. Except as exempted in 2.2 of this regulation, no person shall initiate construction, install, alter or initiate operation of any equipment or facility or air contaminant control device which will emit or prevent the emission of an air contaminant prior to receiving approval of his application from the Department or, if eligible, prior to submitting to the Department a completed registration form. 2.2.

Provided that 7 DE Admin. Code 1125 does not apply, a permit for installation, alteration, or operation pursuant to this regulation shall not be required for the following equipment or air contaminant control device. Note however that other State and Federal requirements may apply. 2.2.1. Equipment without an air contaminant control device that has actual emissions to the atmosphere of any air contaminant or contaminants, in the aggregate, during each and every day that are less than 0.2 pound per day. 2.2.2. Equipment with an air contaminant control device that has actual emissions to the inlet of the air contaminant control device of any air contaminant or contaminants, in the aggregate, during each and every day that are less than 0.2 pound per day. 2.2.3. The equipment listed in Appendix A of this regulation. 2.2.4. For operation, any equipment or air contaminant control device that is specifically identified in an operation permit issued pursuant to 7 DE Admin. Code 1130. 2.2.5. Equipment that is registered pursuant to 9.0 of this regulation.

2.1.1. For equipment that meets all applicable emission rate (or rates) or standard (or standards) specified in 11.8.1 and 11.8.2 of this regulation without an air contaminant control device, and that meets the following conditions, the www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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Delaware (Continued) person shall submit to the Department a registration form pursuant to 9.0 of this regulation. 2.1.1.1. For equipment without an air contaminant control device, the equipment has actual emissions to the atmosphere of any air contaminant or contaminants, in the aggregate, during any day that are equal to or greater than 0.2 pound per day and, during each and every day, that are less than 10 pounds per day; and 2.1.1.2. For equipment with an air contaminant control device, the equipment has actual emissions to the inlet of the air contaminant control device of any air contaminant or contaminants, in the aggregate, during any day that are equal to or greater than 0.2 pound per day and, during each and every day, that are less than 10 pounds per day; and 2.1.1.3. DE Admin. Code 1125 does not apply. 2.1.2. For equipment, a facility or an air contaminant control device that is not subject to 2.1.1 of this regulation and that is subject to a source category permit, the person shall submit to the Department an application for a source category permit pursuant to 10.0 of this regulation. A list of established source category permits is available from the Department 2.1.3. For equipment, a facility or an air contaminant control device that is not subject to 2.1.1 or 2.1.2 of this regulation, the person shall submit to the Department an application for a permit pursuant to of this regulation. 11 Permit application http://regulations.delaware.gov/AdminCode/title7/1000/1100/1102.shtml#TopOfPage

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Florida Chlorine dioxide is not a regulated air pollutant in the state of Florida, despite that all air pollutants (62- 210.200(15)) are required to obtain a permit unless exempted (62-210.300). During the PureLine treatment process, approximately (10-20 pounds) of gas are released into the atmosphere, at the termination point of the process, which is below the minimum amount for a title V permit of 10 tons. Also there are no specific regulations on the use of Chlorine Dioxide in Florida, therefore classifying it as a “Generic Emission Unit”(62- 210.300(3)(b)1). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Florida. Regulations 62-210 .200

(15)“Air Pollutant” (216)”Regula ted Air Pollutant” (153) “Major source or Title V source”

.300

Unless exempted from permitting pursuant to this rule or rule 62-4.040, F.A.C., the owner or operator of any facility or emissions unit which emits or can reasonably be expected to emit any air pollutant shall obtain appropriate authorization from the Department prior to undertaking any activity at the facility or emissions unit for which such authorization is required.

.300(3)(b) 1

Generic Emissions Unit or Activity Exemption. Except as otherwise provided at subsection 62- 210.300(3), F.A.C., above, an emissions unit or pollutant-emitting activity that is not entitled to a categorical or conditional exemption pursuant to paragraph 62210.300(3)(a), F.A.C., shall be exempt from any requirement to obtain an air construction permit or non-Title V air operation permit, or to use an air general permit pursuant to rule 62-210.310, F.A.C., if it meets all of the following criteria. a. It would not be subject to any unit-specific limitation or requirement. b. Its emissions, in combination with the emissions of other units and activities at the facility, would not cause the facility to emit or have the potential to emit any pollutant in such amount as to create a Title V source. c. It would neither emit nor have the potential to emit 500 pounds per year or more of lead and lead compounds expressed as lead, 1,000 pounds per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant, 2,500 pounds per year or more of total hazardous air pollutants, or 5.0 tons per year or more of any other regulated

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Florida (Continued) air pollutant as defined at rule 62-210.200, F.A.C. d. In the case of a proposed new emissions unit at an existing facility, the emissions of such unit, in combination with the emissions of any other proposed new or modified units and activities at the facility, would not result in a modification subject to the pre-construction review requirements of subparagraph 62-204.800(11)(d)2., rule 62-212.400 or 62212.500, F.A.C. e. In the case of a proposed new pollutant-emitting activity, such activity would not constitute a modification of any existing nonexempt emissions unit at a non-Title V source or any existing non-insignificant emissions unit at a Title V source. https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=62-210

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Georgia Although Chlorine dioxide is not directly regulated, all sources of any air contaminant (391-3-1-.01(c)) are limited in the state of Georgia. Within the permit requirements, there is a list of exemptions (391-3-.03.6(e)(3)) in which miscellaneous non-production surface cleaning, and preparation is covered, therefore allowing treatment without a permit in Georgia, as long as records of our sources emissions are documented, which may be demonstrated upon request (391-3-1.02). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Georgia. Regulations 391-3-1-.01 (c) “Air contaminant” means solid or liquid particulate matter, dust, fumes, gas, mist, smoke, or vapor, or any matter or substance either physical, chemical, biological, or radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and by-product material); or any combination of any of the above. http://rules.sos.ga.gov/GAC/391-3-1 391-3-.03 6(e)(3) Unless otherwise required by the Director, SIP permits shall not be required for the following source activities. These exemptions may not be used to avoid any emission limitations or standards of the Rules for Air Quality Control Chapter 391-3-1-.02, lower the potential to emit below “major source” thresholds or to avoid any “applicable requirement” (i.e., NSPS, NESHAP, etc.) as defined in 40 CFR Part 70.2. http://rules.sos.ga.gov/GAC/391-3-1-.03 391-3-.02 Provisions. Amended http://rules.sos.ga.gov/GAC/391-3-1-.02

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Hawaii Chlorine dioxide is not a regulated air pollutant (342B-1) in Hawaii. There is no prohibition from emitting chlorine dioxide into the atmosphere in Hawaii (342B-11). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Hawaii. Regulations 342B-1 Regulated Air Pollutant

“Regulated air pollutant� means: 1. Nitrogen oxides or any volatile organic compound; 2. Any air pollutant for which a national or state ambient air quality standard has been adopted; and 3. Any air pollutant that is established by rule pursuant to this chapter pertaining to standards of performance for new stationary sources and emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants.

http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol06_Ch0321-0344/HRS0342B/ HRS_0342B-0001.htm 342B-11 Prohibition

No person, including any public body, shall engage in any activity which causes air pollution or causes or allows the emission of any regulated air pollutant without first securing approval in writing from the director

http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol06_Ch0321-0344/HRS0342B/ HRS_0342B-0011.htm

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Idaho Chlorine dioxide is considered a toxic air pollutant (IDAPA 58.01.01.585) in Idaho and therefore PureLine is restricted to only emitting less than .02 pounds/hour without a permit. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Idaho. Regulations IDAPA 58.01.01 585

TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS NON-CARCINOGENIC INCREMENTS.

220

Section 220-223 may be used by owners or operators to exempt certain sources from the requirement to obtain a permit to construct. Nothing in these sections shall preclude an owner or operator from choosing to obtain a permit to construct. For purposes of Sections 220 through 223, the term source means the equipment or activity being exempted. For purposes of Sections 220 through 223, fugitive emissions shall not be considered in determining whether a source meets the applicable exemption criteria unless required by federal law. No permit to construct is required for a source that satisfies all of the following criteria, in addition to the criteria set forth at Sections 221 and 223 or 222 and 223 (as required)

223

No permit to construct for toxic air pollutants is required for a source that satisfies any of the exemption criteria below, the record keeping requirements at Subsection 220.02, and reporting requirements as follows: (4-5-00) 01. Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) Exemption. The source qualifies for a BRC exemption if the uncontrolled emission rate (refer to Section 210) for all toxic air pollutants emitted by the source is less than or equal to ten percent (10%) of all applicable screening emission levels listed in Sections 585 and 586.

210.02.b

The uncontrolled emissions rate of a toxic air pollutant from a source or modification is calculated using the maximum capacity of the source or modification under its physical and operational design without the effect of any physical or operational limitations.

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Illinois Emission of all air contaminants (201.102) is regulated in the state of Illinois. But under the exemptions listed in 201.146 of the air permits sections, treatment is allowable in Illinois based on the fact that the activity performed is associated with the maintenance of a building which itself does not constitute as an emission unit/source. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Illinois.

201.102

201.146.tt

Regulations Title 35 Subtitle B chapter 1 Subchapter a part 201 “Air Contaminant”: any solid, liquid or gaseous matter, any odor or any form of energy, that is capable of being released into the atmosphere from an emission source. “Emission Source”: any equipment or facility of a type capable of emitting specified air contaminants to the atmosphere. Activities associated with the construction, on-site repair, maintenance or dismantlement of buildings, utility lines, pipelines, wells, excavations, earthworks and other structures that do not constitute emission units;

https://pcb.illinois.gov/SLR/IPCBandIEPAEnvironmentalRegulationsTitle35

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Indiana In the state of Indiana, chlorine dioxide is not a regulated air pollutant, therefore the PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Indiana. Regulations 326 IAC 1-2 66

Any pollutant for which a rule establishing emission limitations or requirements has been promulgated by the board.

http://www.in.gov/legislative/iac/iac_title?iact=326 Air Pollutant? Limit Site Address Location on Site Excerpt

N n/a https://www.in.gov/idem/airquality/2532.htm Location on site

Exemption? Exemption Code Exception Excerpts

326 IAC 2-1.1-3 (e)(21) Applicability Except for modifications subject to 326 IAC 2-2 or 326 IAC 2-3, the new source requirements of 326 IAC 2-5.1-2 for registrations and 326 IAC 2-5.1-3 for permits, the modification approval requirements under 326 IAC 2-7-10.5, and the permit revision requirements under 326 IAC 2-6.1-6 and 326 IAC 2-8-11.1, including the requirement to submit an application, do not apply to the following New sources or modifications of existing sources that consist of only routine maintenance and repair of buildings, structures, or vehicles at the source where air emissions from those activities would not be associated with any production process, as follows:

This website lists that the regulated air pollutants are the same as those for the federal government, chlorine dioxide is not a regulated government pollutant

A. Purging of gas lines. B. Purging of vessels Page Address Referenced Laws Notes 2-2 2-3 2-5.1-2

A00020 (1)

deals with major sources(We are not a major source) deals with major sources(We are not a major source) do not emit any of the things listed (PM, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, VOC, carbon monoxide, lead, hydrogen sulfide, reduced sulfide, sulfur compounds, fluorides.

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Indiana (Continued) 2-5.1-3 2-6.1-6 2.8-11.1

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same reason as 2-5.1-3 does not classify since we are not a major source does not classify since we are not a major source

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Iowa In the state of Iowa, all air pollutants are regulated depending the amount emitted. It is not necessary to apply for a permit because the PureLine treatment process is exempt as it falls under plant maintenance that is not conducted as a part of the manufacturing process. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Iowa. Regulations 567-22(455B) 2.x(8)

Plant maintenance and upkeep activities and repair or maintenance shop activities (e.g., groundskeeping, general repairs, cleaning, painting, welding, plumbing, retarring roofs, installing insulation, and paving parking lots), provided that these activities are not conducted as part of manufacturing process, are not related to the source’s primary business activity, and do not otherwise trigger a permit modification. Cleaning and painting activities qualify if they are not subject to control requirements for volatile organic compounds or hazardous air pollutants as defined in rule 567—22.100 https://www.legis.iowa.gov/docs/iac/rule/03-14-2018.567.22.1.pdf 567—22

100

Definition of Hazardous Air Pollutant https://www.legis.iowa.gov/docs/iac/rule/567.22.100.pdf

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Kansas Chlorine dioxide does not fall under the category of a regulated air pollutant in Kansas (KAR 29-19.200 (ddd)), therefore the emission of chlorine dioxide would not classify the PureLine process as a stationary source (KAR 29-19.200), as the definition states that only facilities which emit regulated substances. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Kansas. Regulations KAR 29-19 200 500

(ddd) Regulated Air pollutant Definition (iii) Stationary Source Operating Permit Applicability

http://www.kdheks.gov/bar/regs/KS_AQ_REGS.pdf

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Kentucky Chlorine dioxide is not a regulated pollutant in the State of Kentucky. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Kentucky. Regulations 401 KAR Chapter 52-020 1

This administrative regulation shall apply to sources required to obtain a Title V permit, including: 1. Major sources; 2. Affected sources subject to the Acid Rain Program; 3. Sources subject to new source review under 401 KAR 51:017 or 401 KAR 51:052; 4. (4) Sources that are: a. Subject to a federal standard promulgated under 42 U.S.C. 7411 (NSPS) or 42 U.S.C. 7412 (NESHAP); b. Not exempted or deferred from Title V permitting by the U.S. EPA http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/kar/401/052/020.pdf 401 KAR Chapter 52-040

1

This administrative regulation shall apply to: 1. Sources that emit or have the potential to emit (PTE): a. More than twenty-five 25 and less than 100 tons per year (tpy) of a nonhazardous regulated air pollutant; and b. Less than 10 tpy of a HAP and less than 25 tpy of combined HAPS 2. Except as exempted in Section 2(1)(h) of this administrative regulation, minor source incinerators that are subject to an applicable requirement in: a. 401 KAR Chapter 59 or 61; b. 40 C.F.R. Part 60 or 63; or c. A federal regulation promulgated under 42 U.S.C. 7429. http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/kar/401/052/040.pdf 401 KAR Chapter 52-070

1

Applicability. This administrative regulation shall apply to:

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Kentucky (Continued) 1. Sources that emit or have the potential to emit (PTE): a. 5 tpy or more but less than ten (10) tpy of a HAP; b. 5 tpy or more but less than twenty-five (25) tpy of combined HAPs; c. For other regulated air pollutants: 2. 10 tpy or more but less than 25 tpy of a pollutant subject to an applicable requirement that does not specify the method for achieving compliance; 3. 10 tpy or more but less than 100 tpy of a pollutant subject to an applicable requirement that clearly specifies the method of compliance; 4. Ten (10) tpy or more but less than 100 tons per year of a pollutant for which there is no applicable requirement; or (2) Sources that emit less than the cutoffs in subsection (1) of this section but are subject to an applicable requirement in 40 C.F.R. Parts 60, 61, or 63 http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/kar/401/052/070.pdf

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Louisiana When the PureLine treatment is operated in a facility, approximately 10-20 pounds of chlorine dioxide is released into the air (1.8 pounds per million cubic feet in the facility). This falls below the states 25 pound/year limit. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Louisiana. Regulations Title 33 part 3 section 5112 Minimum emission rates for air pollutants http://deq.louisiana.gov/assets/docs/Air/Asbestos/AsbestosRegulations.pdf

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Maine In the state of Maine, all gases that can be emitted into the air are considered an air contaminant (Title 38 chapter 4 section 582), and air contaminants are prohibited from being emitted without a permit if they are listed in the respective class regions ambient air standards list(Title 38 chapter 4 section 591). But Chlorine dioxide is not listed in any of the three class regions, therefore no permit is required for it to be emitted. Even though chlorine dioxide is not regulated, as it may be considered a Hazardous Air Contaminant, and therefore is required to register with the state so that that the state can keep track of general emission (Title 38 chapter 4 section 585 C). The PureLine treatment process may require a permit in Maine. Regulations Title 38 chapter 4 1

Air contaminants. “Air contaminants� includes, but is not limited to, dust, fumes, gas, mist, particulate matter, smoke, vapor or any combination thereof.

http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec582.html 591 Prohibitions

No person may discharge air contaminants into ambient air within a region in such manner as to violate ambient air quality standards established under this chapter or emission standards established pursuant to section 585, 585-B or 585-K. http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec591.html Establishment of standards http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec585-A. html

585 B

Hazardous air Regulation on Mercury pollutants http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec585-B. html

585 K

Greenhouse gas emission standards moratorium http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec585-K. html

585 C

Hazardous air pollutant emissions inventory http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec585-C. html

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584

Establishment of ambient air quality standards http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec584.html

584 B

Establishment of ambient increments – Class I regions http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec584-B. html

585 C

Establishment of ambient increments – Class II regions http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec584-C. html

585 D

Establishment of ambient increments – Class III regions http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/38/title38sec584-C. html Title 6 Chapter 06-96

c100 149

Definition of Regulated Air Pollutant

https://www.maine.gov/sos/cec/rules/06/chaps06.htm 42 U.S.C. § 7401, et seq. Title VI (The Act) 7429e (Section 129)

Not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall publish a schedule for the promulgation of standards under section 7411 of this title and this section applicable to other categories of solid waste incineration units.

Standards of performance for new stationary sources. 7411 (Section 111) https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm

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Maryland Chlorine dioxide is considered a class II Toxic Air pollutant in the state of Maryland (26.11.16.09) with an ambient air level of 5 microgram/cubic meter for an 8 hour test cycle. It is still allowable to operate in the state because the PureLine treatment process is exempted from the conditions of a construction permit due to the fact that the emissions for a job is approximately 10-20 pounds of chlorine dioxide which is below the one ton level (26.11.02.10) at which a permit would be required to construct. PureLine is not listed on the states list of operations required to obtain a permit before operating (26.11.02.11). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Maryland. Regulations 26.11.16 .09 .10x(3)(c)

.13

Levels Used to Review Ambient Impacts. (3) The pre-control potential-to-emit from the proposed installation, combined with any potential increase in emissions from other installations that could be caused by the proposed installation, is less than 1 ton per calendar year for: Each Class II toxic air pollutant, as defined in COMAR 26.11.15.01 Sources Subject to State Permits to Operate.

http://www.dsd.state.md.us/comar/SubtitleSearch.aspx?search=26.11.02.*

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Massachusetts In the state of Massachusetts, all stationary sources, unless exempted, are required to receive a permit in order to operate. But as Chlorine dioxide is not a regulated air pollutant in the Federal Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C 7400). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Massachusetts. Regulations 310 CMR 7 Appendix A Stationary Source means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or which may emit any air pollutant subject to regulation under the Act. a. A stationary source may consist of one or more emissions units and: 1. may be a land-based point or area source; or 2. may be located in, or on, the OCS or other submerged lands beneath navigable waters (lakes, rivers, and coastal waters adjacent to Outer Continental Shelf lands); or 3. may be any internal combustion engine, or engine combination, greater than 175 horsepower (hp) used for any stationary application; or 4. may be any internal combustion engine regulated under Sec. 111 (NSPS) of the Act, regardless of size; or 5. may be any internal combustion engine of less than 175 horsepower (hp) not actually controlled to meet a regulation under Sec. 213 (Nonroad Engines and Vehicles) of the Act. b. A stationary source does not include: 1. emissions resulting directly from an internal combustion engine for transportation purposes; 2. tailpipe emissions from any source regulated under title II of the Act or any emissions from in- transit, non-OCS marine vessels. https://www.mass.gov/files/documents/2018/06/05/310cmr7.pdf 42 U.S.C 7400 (The Act) https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm

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Michigan Chlorine dioxide is used for the PureLine treatment process as the active ingredient to the cleaning of surfaces. In the state of Michigan, chlorine dioxide emission is limited to an ambient air concentration of 0.2 micrograms per cubic meter (Page 34 of the list of air toxics). The PureLine treatment process is exempt from requiring a permit because the nature of the process is confined to the use of cleaning materials without any volatile organic contaminants (VOC) or use of mercury (R336 1281(e)), as well as less than .01 tons (10-20 pounds) of chlorine dioxide per million cubic feet of facility is emitted, which is below the .12 tons per year (240 pounds) allowed for toxic air contaminants with limits ranging between .04 micrograms and 2 micrograms. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Michigan. Regulations Air Toxics List page 34

Air Quality Division List of Screening Levels

https://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/deq-aqd-toxics-ITSLCAS_244172_7.pdf R336 1281(e)

Equipment used for washing or drying materials, where the material itself cannot become an air contaminant, if no volatile organic compounds that have a vapor pressure greater than 0.1 millimeter of mercury at standard conditions are used in the process and no oil or solid fuel is burned.

1291(a)

The combined potential emissions of all toxic air contaminants with screening levels greater than or equal to 0.04 micrograms per cubic meter and less than 2 micrograms per cubic meter shall not exceed 0.12 tons per year.

http://dmbinternet.state.mi.us/DMB/ORRDocs/AdminCode/1494_2014-154EQ_ AdminCode.pdf#page=57

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Minnesota In the state of Minnesota, emissions from any emission unit is regulated, where an emission unit is a source that emits any air contaminant (MAR 7005.0100 subpart 10b). However, if these regulations, if the source type is not listed under the requirements for either a part 70 application (MAR 7007.200), or the state permit requirement (7007.250), then it is not required to obtain a permit (7007.300). As PureLine is neither a major source (7007.200 subpart 2), an affected source (7007.100), a solid waste incinerator/combustor, or regulated by title 40 part 70 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) it is not required to receive a part 70 permit.The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Minnesota. Regulations MAR 7007.150 1.A

No person may construct, modify, reconstruct, or operate an emissions unit, emission facility, or stationary source until plans for it have been submitted to the agency and a written permit for it has been granted by the agency. Exceptions to the requirement to obtain a permit are located in part 7007.0300. Exceptions to the requirement to obtain a permit amendment are located in parts 7007.1250 and 7007.1350.

https://www.revisor.mn.gov/rules/?id=7007.0150 MAR 7007.300

Subpart 1.A

No permit required. The owners and operators of the following stationary sources are not required to obtain a permit under parts 7007.0100 to 7007.1850: A. any stationary source that is not described in part 7007.0200, subparts 2 to 5, or 7007.0250; https://www.revisor.mn.gov/rules/?id=7007.0300 MAR 7007.200 List of sources which require a part 70 permit https://www.revisor.mn.gov/rules/?id=7007.0200 MAR 7007.250 List of Sources which require a state permit

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Minnesota (Continued) https://www.revisor.mn.gov/rules/?id=7007.0250 MAR 7007.100 List of Key Definitions https://www.revisor.mn.gov/rules/?id=7007.0100 MAR 7005.0100 List of Definitions https://www.revisor.mn.gov/rules/?id=7005.0100

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Mississippi Since Chlorine dioxide is not a regulated air pollutant (11 Miss. Admin code Pt. 2) and only regulated air pollutants are considered when considering sources requiring a permit (11 Miss. Admin code Pt. 2). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Mississippi. Regulations 11 Miss. Admin Code Pt. 2 Ch. 2

“Stationary source”. For purposes of this regulation, any building, structure, facility, or “Regulated air pollutant”. Any regulated NSR pollutant, any air pollutant subject to a standard promulgated under Section 112 or other requirements established under Section 112 of the Federal Act, and any other air pollutant for which there is a duly adopted state ambient air quality standard. “Regulated NSR pollutant”. An air pollutant defined as a regulated NSR pollutant in 40 CFR

https://www.mdeq.ms.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/11-Miss.-Admin.-Code-Pt.-2Ch.-2..pdf 40 CFR 52.21 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fccded3271de1ea830f1f45e00d92c97&mc=tr ue&node=se40.3.52_121&rgn=div8 42 U.S.C 7400 List of Hazardous Air Pollutants 7412 (Section 112) https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm

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Missouri In the state of Missouri, all air pollutants, any agent emitted into the air (10 CSR 106.020(3)(A)(E)(29)(B)), have the potential to be regulated based on emission limits. Operation limits are required for emissions which classify as a part 70 installation (.065(1)(A) Applicability) and intermediate installations (.020(3)(A)(I)(23) Intermediate Installations). Where the minimum emission required to be considered either of those classifications is 10 tons per year (tpy) of an air pollutant emission. As the PureLine treatment process only emits .01 tons (10-20 pounds) of chlorine dioxide at the termination point of the process. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Missouri. Regulations 10 CSR 10-6 .020(3)(A) (E)(29)(B) Emissions unit

For all other purposes, any part or activity of an installation that emits or has the potential to emit any regulated air pollutant or any pollutant listed under section 112(b) of the Act. This term is not meant to alter or affect the definition of the term unit for the purposes of Title IV of the Act

.065(1)(A) Applicability .020(3)(A)(P) ( 6)(B) Part 70 Installations

Part 70, Intermediate and Basic State Installations. This rule shall apply to existing, modified, reconstructed, and new installations, whether part 70 intermediate or basic state throughout Installations that emit or have the potential to emit one hundred (100) tpy or more of any air pollutant, including all fugitive air pollutants. The fugitive emissions of an installation shall not be considered unless the installation belongs to one (1) of the source categories listed in subsection (3)(B) of this rule;

.020(3)(A)(I)(23) Intermediate Installations

Part 70 installations that become basic state installations based on their potential to emit by accepting the imposition of voluntarily agreed to federally enforceable limitations on the type of materials combusted or processed, operating rates, hours of operation, or emission rates more stringent than those otherwise required by rule or regulation.

.020(3)(A)(I)(17) Intermediate Installations

All source operations including activities that result in fugitive emissions, that belong to the same industrial grouping (that have the same two (2)-digit code as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987), and any marine vessels while docked at the installation, located on one (1) or more contiguous or adjacent properties and under the control of the same person (or persons under common control)

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Air pollutant—Agent, or combination of agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and by-product material) substance, or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. Such term includes any precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or the administrator’s duly authorized representative has identified such precursor(s) for the particular purpose for which the term air pollutant is used. https://www.sos.mo.gov/cmsimages/adrules/csr/current/10csr/10c10-6a.pdf

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Montana In the state of Montana, the right to decide what sources need a permit or not is left up to the board. But in Montana’s section on operational permits, the state restricts the sources that need a permit to those regulated by federal regulations, and does not mention chlorine dioxide. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Montana. Regulations 75-2 217

The board shall provide by rule for the issuance, expiration, modification, amendment, suspension, revocation, and renewal of operating permits as part of an operating permit program to be administered by the department under this chapter. The board shall promulgate rules that are consistent with the operating permit framework and guidelines outlined in Subchapter V of the federal Clean Air Act and implementing regulations. (2) This section applies to all sources of air pollutants that are subject to the provisions of Subchapter V of the federal Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7661, et seq

https://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca/75/2/75-2-217.htm

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Nebraska In the state of Nebraska, chlorine dioxide is not included on the list of Hazardous Air pollutants, and is therefore not regulated. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Nebraska. Regulations Title 129

Appendix II List of hazardous air pollutants http://deq.ne.gov/RuleAndR.nsf/RuleAndReg.xsp?documentId=2342B281EC0B4350862565

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Nevada Chlorine dioxide is not considered a hazardous air pollutant or a toxic regulated air pollutant in the state of Nevada, therefore a permit is not required to operate in the state of Nevada. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Nevada. Regulations 445B.220 2201-283

Hazardous air pollutants and toxic regulated air pollutants: Identification https://www.leg.state.nv.us/NAC/NAC-445B.html#NAC445BSec2201

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New Hampshire Chlorine dioxide is a regulated air pollutant in the state of New Hampshire, with an emission limit of 3.3 pounds/yr. Since chlorine dioxide is a regulated air pollutant, but not considered a major source (ENV-A 607.01(t)). The PureLine treatment process may require a temporary permit in New Hampshire. Regulations ENV-A 1450.01 1004-04-4

Table of Toxic Air Contaminants

https://www.des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/legal/rules/documents/env-a1400. pdf ENV-A 600 607.01(t)

The owner or operator of a new or modified stationary source, area source, or device shall obtain a temporary permit as specified in this chapter prior to the construction or installation of the source or device if the source or device is any of the following: (t) A stationary source, area source, or device where a permit is required under the rules governing regulated toxic air pollutants specified in Env-A 1400

https://www.des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/legal/rules/documents/env-a600. pdf

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New Jersey The state of New Jersey has a list of air toxins for which they prohibit the emission of without a permit. Chlorine dioxide is not las an air toxin in New Jersey. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in New Jersey. Regulations Table 1

Table of Toxic Air in New Jersey

http://www.nj.gov/dep/aqm/currentrules/Sub17.pdf

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New Mexico In the state of New Mexico, chlorine dioxide is recognized as a toxic air pollutant without a given limit for emission. Chlorine dioxide does not meet the definition of a regulated air pollutants (20.2.70 AC) nor does it fall under the category of a substance that is subject to regulation (20.2.70 AL), The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in New Mexico. Regulations 20.2.70 AC

Table of Air pollutants “Regulated air pollutant” means the following: 1. nitrogen oxides, total suspended particulate matter, or any volatile organic compounds; 2. any pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard has been promulgated; 3. any pollutant that is subject to any standard promulgated under Section 111 of the federal act; 4. any class I or II substance subject to any standard promulgated under or established by Title VI of the federal act; 5. any pollutant subject to a standard promulgated under Section 112 or any other requirements established under Section 112 of the federal act, including Sections 112(g), (j), and (r), including the following; a. any pollutant subject to requirements under Section 112(j) of the federal act; if the administrator fails to promulgate a standard by the date established pursuant to Section 112(e) of the federal act, any pollutant for which a subject source would be a major shall be considered to be regulated on the date 18 months after the applicable date established pursuant to Section 112(e) of the federal act; and b. any pollutant for which the requirements of Section 112(g) (2) of the federal act have been met, but only with respect to the individual source subject to a Section 112(g)(2) requirement; or

AL

6. any other pollutant subject to regulation as defined in Subsection AL of this section. “Subject to regulation” means, for any air pollutant, that the pollutant is subject to either a provision in the act, or a nationally-applicable regulation codified by the administrator in subchapter C of 40 CFR Chapter I, that requires actual control of the quantity of emissions of

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New Mexico (Continued) that pollutant, and that such a control requirement has taken effect and is operative to control, limit or restrict the quantity of emissions of that pollutant released from the regulated activity http://164.64.110.239/nmac/parts/title20/20.002.0070.htm Regulations 42 U.S.C. ยง 7401, et seq. Title VI (Does not Regulate chlorine dioxide) List of Hazardous Air pollutants https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm

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New York In the state of New York, chlorine dioxide itself is not regulated, however, all sources that emit an air pollutant are regulated as a stationary source ((6 CRR 200-1(cd))). The PureLine process is performed as a stationary source, however, only emits .03 tons (10-20 pounds) of a non regulated air pollutant, therefore it does not fall in the category of either a state (6 CRR 201-5.1) or title V permit (6 CRR 201-6.1), but it is still necessary to register with the state as a minor facility (6 CRR 201-4.1). The PureLine treatment process may require a registration with the state of New York proper to engaging a treatment. Regulations 6 CRR-200 .1cd

Stationary source. Any building, structure, facility or installation, excluding nonroad engines, that emits or may emit any air pollutant.

https://govt.westlaw.com/nycrr/Document/I4e8c1ca4cd1711dda432a117e6e0f345?viewType=FullText&originationContext=documenttoc&transitionType=CategoryPageItem&contextData=(sc.Default) 6 CRR-201 4.1

Owners or operators of facilities with emission sources that are not considered to be exempt or trivial pursuant to Subpart 201-3 of this Part and not otherwise required to obtain a permit pursuant to Subpart 201-5 or 201-6 of this Part are required to register with the department as specified in this Subpart.

5.1

State Permit requirements

6.1

Title V requirements

https://govt.westlaw.com/nycrr/Document/I4e8c91c8cd1711dda432a117e6e0f345?viewType=FullText&originationContext=documenttoc&transitionType=CategoryPageItem&contextData=(sc.Default)

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North Carolina Chlorine dioxide is not listed under the Toxic Air Pollutant guidelines, which lists all of the air toxics which are regulated in the state. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in North Carolina. Regulations 15 NCAC 02D.1104

Toxic Air pollutant Guidelines https://files.nc.gov/ncdeq/Air%20Quality/rules/rules/D1104.pdf

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North Dakota In the state of North Dakota, chlorine dioxide is considered an air toxic with an ambient air quality limit of .017 micrograms per cubic meter (POLICY FOR THE CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NORTH DAKOTA). Upon termination of the PureLine process approximately .01 tons (10-20 pounds) of chlorine dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere and therefore does not qualify as a major source (NDAC 33-151406.q), nor does it emit any federally regulated air pollutants (U.S.C 7401), and is not considered a designated air contaminant source (NDAC 33-15-14.01). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in North Dakota. Regulations POLICY FOR THE CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NORTH DAKOTA Appendix A. Guideline Concentrations https://deq.nd.gov/publications/aq/Policy/modeling/Air_Toxics_Policy.pdf NDAC 33-15-14 .03(a)

Except as provided in subdivisions c and d, no person may operate or cause the routine operation of an installation or source designated in section 33-15-14-01 without applying for and obtaining, in accordance with this section, a permit to operate. Application for permit to operate a new installation or source must be made at least thirty days prior to startup of routine operation. Those sources that received a permit to construct under section 33-15-14-02, need only submit a thirty-day prior notice of proposed startup to satisfy the requirement to apply for a permit to operate under this subdivision.

.01

Designated air contaminant sources.

.06.q

Major source definition

https://www.legis.nd.gov/information/acdata/pdf/33-15-14.pdf 42 U.S.C. ยง 7401, et seq. Title VI (Does not Regulate chlorine dioxide) 7412 (Section 112): List of Hazardous Air pollutants https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42-

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Ohio The PureLine treatment process releases approximately 10-20 pounds of chlorine dioxide gas at the termination of the treatment. The PureLine treatment process may require a permit in Ohio. Regulations 3704 .01(B)

“Air contaminant� means particulate matter, dust, fumes, gas, mist, radionuclides, smoke, vapor, or odorous substances, or any combination thereof, but does not mean emissions from agricultural production activities, as defined in section 929.01 of the Revised Code, that are consistent with generally accepted agricultural practices, were established prior to adjacent nonagricultural activities, have no substantial, adverse effect on the public health, safety, or welfare, do not result from the negligent or other improper operations of any such agricultural activities, and would not be required to obtain a Title V permit. For the purposes of this chapter, agricultural production activities do not include the installation and operation of off-farm facilities for the storage or processing of agricultural products, including, but not limited to, alfalfa dehydrating facilities, rendering plants, and feed and grain mills, elevators, and terminals.

.011

In addition to any other exemption provided in this chapter or rules adopted under it, an air contaminant source is exempt from this chapter and rules adopted under it if the emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, organic compounds, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead, or any other air contaminant from that source do not exceed ten pounds per day, as verified in accordance with division (C) of this section, provided that the exemption does not apply to any air contaminant source if any of the following applies

http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/3704

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Oklahoma In the State of Oklahoma, chlorine dioxide is not listed as a regulated air pollutant among the substances considered as air pollutants that have restriction on how much can be emitted. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Oklahoma. Regulations 3704 Table of regulated Air pollutants http://www.deq.state.ok.us/rules/100.pdf

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Oregon Chlorine dioxide is not considered an air toxin in the state of Oregon. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Oregon. Regulations 340-246 0090

Ambient benchmarks for air toxics

https://secure.sos.state.or.us/oard/displayDivisionRules.action?selectedDivision=1556

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Pennsylvania In the state of Pennsylvania, emission of any air contaminant is regulated, however a permit is not needed. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Pennsylvania. Regulations Plant maintenance and upkeep activities (such as, grounds-keeping, general repairs, cleaning, painting, welding, plumbing, re-tarring roofs, installing insulation, and paving parking lots) provided these activities are not conducted as part of a manufacturing process, are not related to the source’s primary business activity, and not otherwise triggering a permit modification. http://www.depgreenport.state.pa.us/elibrary/ GetDocument?docId=7858&DocName=AIR%20QUALITY%20PERMIT%20EXEMPTIONS. PDF%20

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Rhode Island Chlorine dioxide is regulated to 9 pounds/year as an emission limit from one source (250.RICR-120-05-9.17). A permit is required for any emission that surpasses this limit. The PureLine process emits approximately 10-20 lbs of chlorine dioxide for every million cubic foot of space. Therefore, unless the process is performed in a facility that is less than 500,000 cubic ft of space a permit may be required in the state of Rhode Island. Regulations 250-RICR-120-05-9 9.17 Minimum Quantity table 9.7.1.6

Any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by greater than the minimum quantity for that contaminant, as specified in ยง9.17 of this Part

http://sos.ri.gov/documents/archives/regdocs/released/pdf/DEM/9656.pdf

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South Carolina In the state of South Carolina chlorine dioxide is not considered a Toxic Air Pollutant (r61-62.5 standards number 8 Section II). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in South Carolina. Regulations r61-62.5 9.17 Minimum Quantity table Standards Number 8

Toxic Air Emissions List

Section II http://www.scdhec.gov/Agency/docs/air-regs/R61-62_5S8.PDF#page=2

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South Dakota In the state of South Dakota, Chlorine dioxide is not considered an air pollutant (47.36.01:01(A)), and therefore not regulated in the state, meaning that it is not necessary to obtain a permit in order to fumigate in the state. Regulations 74.36.01 :01(7)

“Air pollutant,” one or a combination of the regulated air pollutants listed in § 74:36:01:15

:15

Regulated air pollutant defined. A regulated air pollutant is one of the following: 1. Nitrogen oxides or any volatile organic compounds; 2. Nitrogen dioxide, PM10, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead, ozone, or any pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard has been promulgated in the Clean Air Act; 3. Any pollutant that is addressed by any standard promulgated under § 111 of the Clean Air Act; 4. Any Class I or II substance subject to a standard promulgated under or established by Title VI of the Clean Air Act; 5. Any pollutant subject to a standard promulgated under § 112 of the Clean Air Act or other requirements established under §§ 112(g), (j), and (r) of the Clean Air Act, including the following: a. Any pollutant subject to a standard promulgated under § 112(j) of the Clean Air Act. If the administrator of the EPA fails to promulgate a standard by the date established in § 112(e) of the Clean Air Act, any pollutant for which a subject source would be major shall be considered to be regulated on that date; and b. Any pollutant for which the requirements of § 112(g)(2) of the Clean Air Act have been met, but only for the individual source subject to § 112(g)(2) requirement; or 6. Any of the six greenhouse gases designated by EPA as regulated air pollutants: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.

http://www.sdlegislature.gov/rules/DisplayRule.aspx?Rule=74:36:01 42 U.S.C 7400(The act) List of Hazardous Air Pollutants the Act) https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm 204 |

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Tennessee In the state of Tennessee all air contaminant emission is regulated, regardless of the substance. Despite the regulation on all air contaminants, it is not necessary to obtain a permit in Tennessee. The PureLine process is in the miscellaneous non-production related cleaning of surfaces allows operation under exemption (1200-03-09-.04(04) (f).45). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Tennessee. Regulations 1200-03-09 .04(04)(d).16

Repair and maintenance, cleaning and degreasing operations which do not exceed more than 145 gallons in any twelve (12) month period, and do not exceed 1,000 pounds per year of each hazardous air pollutant

.04(04)(f).45

Maintenance activities, such as: machining of metals and plastic curing for non-production related operations, vehicle repair shops, carpenter shops, spraying, grinding and polishing operations, maintenance shop vents, and miscellaneous non-production surface cleaning, preparation, and painting operations. Repairs not involving structural changes where no new or permanent stationary source is installed. Internal combustion (IC) engine driven welders not part of a production process. Any maintenance activity is not insignificant if it is part of a manufacturing process.

https://publications.tnsosfiles.com/rules/1200/1200-03/1200-03-09.20180408.pdf

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Texas Based on 30 TAC chapter 106.13 the state of Texas uses the term “Permit by rule� to classify a source or activity as exempt from needing a permit to build or operate. The emission of chlorine dioxide itself is not directly regulated, however, there is a 25 tons per year (tpy) limit in place for release of any air contaminant into the atmosphere (30 TAC chapter 106.4 Permit by rule applicability). At the termination point of the PureLine treatment process, approximately 10-20 pounds of chlorine dioxide are released into the atmosphere. Pursuant to 30 TAC 106.263(c)(3)(A) the PureLine treatment process is considered a temporary maintenance facility defined as a facility constructed in conjunction with maintenance facility defined as a facility constructed in conjunction with maintenance activities. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Texas. 1. 2. 3. 4.

the type and reason for the activity or facility construction; the processes and equipment involved; the date, time, and duration of the activity or facility operation; and the air contaminants and amounts which are emitted as a result of the activity or facility operation. Regulations

106.13:

The authorizations formerly known as standard exemptions and exemptions from permitting are referred to as permits by rule in this title. Types of facilities and changes within facilities authorized by those standard exemptions and exemptions from permitting continue to be authorized unless modifications or changes to those facilities has caused them to no longer meet the conditions of the former standard exemption or exemption from permitting and the general requirements of this subchapter. http://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext. TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_ tac =&ti=30&pt=1&ch=106&rl=13

Rule

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Title 30 Part 1 chapter 106.4: Permit by Rule Authorization (PBR) If the operation emits less than: 250 tons per year (tpy) of carbon monoxide (CO) or nitrogen oxides (NOX ); or 25 tpy of volatile organic compounds (VOC) or sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) or inhalable particulate matter (PM); or 15 tpy of particulate matter with diameters of 10 microns or less (PM10 ); or 10 tpy of particulate matter with diameters of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5 ); or 25 tpy of any other air contaminant except carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, ethane, hydrogen, oxygen, and, unless there is a specific provision in an individual PBR to the contrary, greenhouse gases 847.963.8465 | www.pureline.info


(GHGs), then the operation may qualify for permit-by-rule (PBR) requirements. The general requirements and specific PBRs are found in 30 TAC Chapter 106. There are 108 individual PBRs that may be claimed. Note that the facility must meet all the established PBR requirements to claim a PBR.

106.263:

https://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/permitting/air/factsheets/ permit_factsheet.pdf

c.3(A): Temporary maintenance facilities which are constructed in conjunction with maintenance activities. Temporary maintenance facilities include only the following: facilities used for abrasive blasting, surface preparation, and surface coating on immovable fixed structures g: Facility owners or operators must retain records containing sufficient information to demonstrate compliance with this section and must include information listed in paragraphs (1) - (4) of this subsection. Documentation must be separate and distinct from records maintained for any other air authorization. Records must identify the following for all maintenance, start-up, or shutdown activities and temporary maintenance facilities: 1. the type and reason for the activity or facility construction; 2. the processes and equipment involved; 3. the date, time, and duration of the activity or facility operation; and 4. the air contaminants and amounts which are emitted as a result of the activity or facility operation. http://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext. TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_ tac=&ti=30&pt=1&ch=106&rl=263

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Utah The state of Utah maintains the same definition of an air pollutant as the federal government (r307-101) which includes chlorine dioxide. Beyond that there are no further state limits placed specifically on chlorine dioxide. This, in addition to fact that approximately only 10-20pounds of chlorine dioxide is emitted into the air, allows operation in Utah using the small source exemption. The PureLine treatment process does no require a permit in Utah. Regulations r307-101 “Air pollutant� means a substance that qualifies as an air pollutant as defined in 42 U.S.C. Sec. 7602. 9(c) https://rules.utah.gov/publicat/code/r307/r307-101.htm#T2 r307-101 small source exemption a. its actual emissions are less than 5 tons per year per air pollutant of any of the following air pollutants: sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, PM10, ozone, or volatile organic compounds; b. its actual emissions are less than 500 pounds per year of any hazardous air pollutant and less than 2000 pounds per year of any combination of hazardous air pollutants; c. its actual emissions are less than 500 pounds per year of any air pollutant not listed in (a) or (b) above and less than 2000 pounds per year of any combination of air pollutants not listed in (a) or (b) above https://rules.utah.gov/publicat/code/r307/r307-401.htm#T9

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Vermont Chlorine dioxide is considered a hazardous air contaminant in the state of Vermont (Air Pollution Code Regulation Appendix B), however, but despite that PureLine is still free to operate without a permit in the state because it is not a source that falls within the usage requirements of the operating permit (5-1002(5)), so long as viable records are kept to demonstrate that this is true to Air Pollution Control Officer (5-401). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Vermont. Regulations Air Pollution Control Regulation Appendix B 5-1002(5) Applicability

Hazardous Air Contaminants Any owner/operator of an air contaminant source listed in Air Pollution Control Regulations Section 5-401 is subject to the requirement to secure an operating permit under this subchapter if the stationary source is: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5-401

A Subchapter X major source; A Title V subject source; A Title IV affected source; A stationary source subject to Air Pollution Control Regulation Section 5-261, at the discretion of the Secretary, upon determining that the toxicity and quantity of hazardous air contaminants emitted may adversely affect susceptible populations;

Classification of Air contaminant sources http://dec.vermont.gov/sites/dec/files/documents/AQCD%20Regulations%20FINAL%20misc%20amendments%20ADOPTED_clean.pdf

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Virginia In the state of Virginia Building maintenance which does not pertain with the primary business activity of the company is classified as a insignificant activity for emissions. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Virginia. Regulations 9VAC5-80-720 A.11 Insignificant Activities

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Repair or maintenance shop activities not related to the source’s primary business activity, not including emissions from surface coating or degreasing (solvent metal cleaning) activities, and not otherwise triggering a permit modification.

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Washington

`

In the state of Washington chlorine dioxide is limited to an emission rate of just 0.026 pound/day (WAC 173-460- 150).The PureLine treatment process does not utilize volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the chlorine dioxide concentrations are approximately 10 to 100 parts per million (ppm) (approximately 0.01%) where the limit of toxic air contaminant concentration is 1% (173-400-111 (4)(h)(xxxv)). The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Washington. Regulations WAC 173-460 150

Table of ASIL, SQER and de minimis emission values.

http://apps.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=173-460-150 173-400-111 (4)(h)(xxxv)

Cleaning and stripping activities and equipment using solutions having ≤ 1% VOCs (by weight) or ≤ 1% (by weight) toxic air pollutants. Acid solutions used on metallic substances are not exempt.

http://apps.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=173-400-110

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Washington D.C. Chlorine dioxide is not considered a regulated air pollutant (20-1400) in Washington D.C. This coupled with the fact that PureLine is not considered a major source (20199), means that a permit (20-300) is not necessary in order to fumigate. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Washington, D.C. Regulations 20-1400 0.1

The requirements of 40 C.F.R. part 63, subparts A, B, C, D, E, and appendix A (Test Methods) (40 C.F.R. §§ 63.1 – 63.99), as amended, together with the terms used and defined, are hereby adopted by reference for the purpose of implementing the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for source categories pursuant to the requirements of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7412, except that the word “Administrator” as used in the C.F.R. sections shall be taken to mean Director of the District Department of Energy and Environment.

https://www.dcregs.dc.gov/Common/DCMR/RuleList.aspx?ChapterNum=2014&ChapterId=3056 42 U.S.C 7400(The Act) 7412 (Section 112) 7411 (Section 111)

List of Hazardous Air pollutants

https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42chap85.htm 40 C.F.R. part 63 63.1-63.9 General Provisions https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/xml/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-part63.xml 40 C.F.R. part 70 .3 Applicability of part 70 https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol15sec70-3.pdf

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20-3 300

Except as exempted from the requirement to obtain a permit under ยง 300.2 and elsewhere herein, the following sources shall be subject to the permitting requirements under this chapter. In the event that this chapter conflicts or is inconsistent with other requirements of this subtitle, this chapter shall supersede for sources subject to its provisions: a. Any major source; b. Any source, including an area source, subject to a standard, limitation, or other requirement under ยง111 of the Act; c. Any source, including an area source, subject to a standard or other requirement under ยง 112 of the Act, except that a source is not required to obtain a permit solely because it is subject to regulations or requirements under ยง 112(r) of the Act; d. Any affected source; and e. Any source in a source category designated by the Administrator pursuant to 40 CFR ยง 70.3.

https://www.dcregs.dc.gov/Common/DCMR/RuleList.aspx?ChapterNum=20-3&ChapterId=463 20-199 20-199 MSS Definition of a Major Stationary Source https://www.dcregs.dc.gov/Common/DCMR/RuleList.aspx?ChapterNum=20-1&ChapterId=461

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West Virginia

PureLine falls under the category of a de minimus source (45-13-2.6) which means that the emissions from the facilities that are cleaned during our process are considered insignificant (45-13 table 45-12B) The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in West Virginia. Regulations 45-13 2.6

“De minimis source” means any emissions unit listed in Table 4513B below, whether individual or a part of a common plan (i.e., a common set of new sources or physical changes in or changes in the method of operation of any existing stationary source). A “de minimis source” is deemed to have insignificant emissions and/ or is not usually a source of quantifiable emissions which can be practically regulated in determining potential to emit or actual emissions for the purpose of determining whether a permit is required under this rule. Emissions to the extent quantifiable from emissions units listed in Table 45-13B do not need to be added together by the source unless otherwise required by the Secretary.

table 45-13B

On-site plant maintenance and upkeep activities, including lawn care, weed control, pest control, general repairs, cleaning, painting, surface coating, welding, plumbing, grinding, cutting, woodworking, janitorial activities, re-tarring roofs, installing insulation, and paving parking lots, provided that these activities are not conducted as part of a manufacturing process and are not related to the source’s primary business activity; provided further, that for cleaning, surface coating and painting activities, the source is not subject to VOC or HAP control requirements and the source minimizes the generation of fugitive emissions of any regulated air pollutants; and provided further, that the source complies with the asbestos requirements in 45CSR34.

http://apps.sos.wv.gov/adlaw/csr/readfile.aspx?DocId=49358&Format=PDF

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Wisconsin

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In the state of Wisconsin, chlorine dioxide is a regulated air pollutant with an emission limit of 0.447 pounds per year emission limit. PureLine’s treatment proceess falls under the category of a minor source, under NR 408 or 405. The PureLine treatment process does not require a permit in Wisconsin. Regulations NR 445 Table A Emission thresholds, standards and control Requirements for all sources of hazardous Air contaminants http://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/code/admin_code/nr/400/445. pdf#page=5407 .03s

1s Natural minor source exemption. Eligibility. A facility that is a natural minor source is exempt from the requirement to obtain an operation permit.

.024m

a. Is not a major stationary source under ch. NR 405, and is not a major source under this chapter or under ch. NR 408. b. Is not a synthetic minor source under this chapter and does not have a permit containing conditions that allow the source to avoid being either a major stationary source under the definition in s. NR 405.02 (22) or a major source under the definition in s. NR 408.02 (21). c. Is not a part 70 source.

.02(9)

any stationary source that has its potential to emit limited by federally-enforceable permit conditions so that it is not a major source. http://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/code/admin_code/nr/400/407 408

.02 21

Definition of a major source http://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/code/admin_code/nr/400/407 405

.02

Definition of a major source http://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/code/admin_code/nr/400/405

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Wyoming

Air pollutant? Limit Site Address Location on site

n/a Limit n/a (They do not have de minimus values) (phone call) call Josh Noll at (307) 777-7816

Excerpt

they review everything on a case by case basis so we would need to apply for a permit, but depending on the job, and when we would like to do it, we may just be able to phone in and get a temporary permit at the number listed above

Exemption? Exemption Code Exception Excerpts Page Address Referenced laws Notes

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PURELINE SOLUTIONS SERVICES PureLine Solution’sAGREEMENT Services Agreement THIS SERVICES AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”) is made this _________ day of ________________, 20____, and is by and between Pureline Solutions LLC, whose address is 1241 N Ellis St, Bensenville, IL 60106; (“PS”) and ________________ whose address is ___________________________________________ (“Client”). RECITALS A. Client is the owner or lessee, of certain real property and the improvements located thereon (collectively, the “Property”), commonly known as ________________________ located at ________________________ B. Client and PS desire to set forth the terms and conditions under which (i) Client will retain PS to provide the “Services” (as such term is defined below) as an independent contractor; and (ii) PS will provide such Services. AGREEMENT NOW, THEREFORE, for good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, and in further consideration of the mutual promises made in this Agreement, Client and PS agree as follows: 1. Scope of Services/Authorization to Proceed. Client hereby retains and hires PS to provide the professional services more particularly described in attached Exhibit A (collectively, the “Services”). PS will perform the Services to the satisfaction of Client and shall be solely responsible for coordinating all portions of the Services. Subject to the limitations set forth in this Agreement, PS shall be responsible to Client for the acts and omissions of PS’s employees, subcontractors, material suppliers, and their agents and employees, and other persons performing portions of the Services under this Agreement.

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2. Changes and Modifications. Client, without invalidating this Agreement, may order changes in the Services consisting of additions, deletions or modifications. Any change to the Services must be set forth in a written “Change Order” signed by Client and PS. PS shall promptly notify Client in writing of any change in the Services that PS reasonably determines is necessary. Such notice shall specify (a) the elements of the Services for which PS is seeking a change, (b) the reason for the requested change, and (c) the impact, if any, that the requested change will have on (i) compensation, (ii) project schedule or (iii) any other terms of conditions of this Agreement. Changes in compensation and the project schedule may only be made by a fully executed Change Order. 3. Warranty/Safety Measures. PS warrants that all work and Services performed under this Agreement shall be done in a professional, good and workmanlike manner. PS shall be responsible for taking all necessary safety measures with respect to the performance of the Services; provided, however, that Client shall be responsible for insuring that the Property is properly vacated during the Services and that the Property remains secure and vacant as directed by PS. 4. Compensation. The cost of the Services is __________ (the “Base Fee”), plus Expenses, payable as follows: a. A 50% down payment shall be made upon the earlier of 5 days following the execution of this Agreement or 3 days prior to the commencement of the Services; and b. A final payment of the 50% balance plus any additional but approved Expenses shall be made within 30 days following presentation of applicable Invoice after completion of the Services. All payments shall be made via wire transfer. 5. Project Schedule. Time is of the essence for complete performance of the Services (and all interim milestone dates) under this Agreement. PS agrees to punctually and diligently perform all parts of the Services according to the Project Schedule described on Exhibit A. 6. Independent Contractor. This Agreement is intended to create a relationship of owner and independent contractor. Accordingly, PS is not, and will not become by reason of its 220 |

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performance hereunder, an agent or employee of Client, for any purpose, and no joint enterprise or partnership is intended by this Agreement. PS, its agents and employees, and the agents and employees of its subcontractors, subsidiaries and affiliates shall not be or become agents, servants or employees of Client for any purpose by virtue of this Agreement or any performance hereunder. 7. Insurance. PS shall, at its expense, obtain and maintain during the term of this Agreement liability and workmen’s compensation insurance satisfactory to Client. 8. Limitation on Damages. a. Under no circumstances shall PS have any liability to Client or any person or entity deriving rights through Client for any amount in excess of the paid Base Fee, whether such liability is based on contract, tort, or any other theory, including, but not limited to, PS’s negligence, except as follows: i. In the case of a personal injury due solely to the acts or omissions of PS, and such acts or omissions are covered by insurance maintained by PS (and such insurance carrier accepts said claim without reservation), PS’s liability, if any, shall not exceed the available limits of such insurance (provided, however, that this subsection (i) shall not apply to a personal injury which arises as a consequence of any alleged failure of the efficacy of the Services). ii. In the case of damage to the real and personal property of the Client due solely to the acts or omissions of PS, and such acts or omissions are covered by insurance maintained by PS (and such insurance carrier accepts said claim without reservation), PS’s liability, if any, shall not exceed the available limits of such insurance (provided, however, that this subsection (ii) shall not apply to a damage claim which arises as a consequence of any alleged failure of the efficacy of the Services). b. Without limiting subsection (a), under no circumstances shall PS have any liability for any punitive, consequential, incidental or special damages. c. To the fullest extent permitted by law, Client waives any right of contribution against and agrees to defend (by counsel satisfactory to PS), indemnify and hold harmless PS, its www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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officers, directors, employees, agents, subsidiaries and affiliates and their partners, officers, directors, employees, and agents (collectively, the “Indemnitees”) from and against any and all damages, claims, demands, liens, losses, costs and expenses (including, without limitation, reasonable attorneys’ fees), recoveries, and liabilities of any kind or nature whatsoever incurred by or threatened or asserted against the Indemnitees by any tenant of the Property or any other third party not affiliated with the Indemnitees. d. The provisions of this Section 8 shall survive the expiration or earlier termination of this Agreement and shall survive completion of the Services. 9. Force Majeure. Neither party shall be liable for its failure to perform under this Agreement (a) to the extent the non-performance is caused by Acts of God, fire, war, riots, labor disputes, strikes, delivery issues, pandemics, epidemics, acts of terrorism or governmental action, and (b) provided that party gives prompt notice to the other party of such cases of delay and their probable extent, and makes all reasonable efforts to perform. 10. Termination. Either party may terminate this Agreement upon not less than ten (10) days’ prior written notice to the other party should the other party fail to perform in accordance with the terms of this Agreement through no fault of the party initiating the termination. It shall be a default if a party breaches any term or condition of this Agreement or otherwise fails to fulfill any of its obligations hereunder, and such breach or failure is not cured within ten (10) days after receipt of notice from the other party of such breach or failure. In the event of an uncured default hereunder, the non-defaulting party shall have all actions available at law or in equity, including whatever rights it may have to specific performance, damages (as limited by this Agreement), or both and, further, shall have the right to terminate this Agreement. The non-defaulting party may pursue one or more of its remedies without waiving any other remedy available hereunder. 11. Notice. Any notice required or permitted to be given under this Agreement shall be in writing and will be deemed given and received (i) upon personal delivery or upon transmission by telecopier or similar facsimile transmission device; (ii) when such notice is delivered to an overnight express service, with a signed receipt evidencing delivery to such service, addressed to the proper party at the addressees given on page 1; or (iii) two days after such notice is deposited in the United States mail, with adequate postage prepaid, and sent by certified mail, with return receipt requested, to the proper party at the addresses 222 |

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given on page 1. Any party, by notice given as above, may change the addresses and/or tele copier numbers to which its future notices shall be sent. Rejection or refusal to accept delivery of any notice, or the inability to deliver any notice because of a changed address of which no notice was given, shall be deemed to be receipt of any such notice. 12. Assignment; Successors and Assigns. The Agreement is personal between Client and PS. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the successors and permitted assigns of the parties. 13. Entire Agreement. This Agreement and all exhibits attached hereto (which are incorporated herein) constitute the entire agreement between the parties pertaining to the subject matter contained herein and supersedes all prior and contemporaneous negotiations, arrangements, representations, understandings or agreements either written or oral. No supplement, modification or amendment (including a Change Order) to this Agreement or any assurance, statement or representation shall be binding unless executed in writing by the party to be charged therewith. No waiver of any term or provision or condition of this Agreement, in anyone or more instances, shall be deemed to be or shall be construed as a further or continuing waiver of any other term, provision or condition of this Agreement. In the event of any express conflict or inconsistency between this Agreement and any Authorization to Proceed or other exhibit the terms of this Agreement will control. 14. Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of Illinois. Further, the parties expressly consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue in the Federal Courts for the Northern District of Illinois or the State Courts of Cook County, Illinois. Accordingly, any action or proceeding brought by either party which is based on, or derives from, this Agreement must be brought solely in such courts. 15. Attorneys’ Fees and Litigation Costs. In the event of any litigation between the parties regarding enforcement of this Agreement, the prevailing party shall be entitled to its reasonable attorneys’ fees, plus court costs, expert costs, and other expenses of litigation. 16. Severability. In the event any provision of this Agreement is held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction under any rule of law or public policy, (i) such holding shall not invalidate or render unenforceable any other provision of this Agreement; and (ii) the provision of this Agreement held to be invalid or unenforceable www.pureline.info | 847.963.8465

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shall be modified, in good faith and as necessary, to be valid and enforceable and such modification shall be, to the greatest extent possible, consistent with the parties’ intent as evidenced by the original language of the invalid or unenforceable provision. 17. Authority. Each party represents and warrants to the other that the execution of this Agreement, and their respective performance hereunder, has been authorized by all necessary corporate action and does not violate any law, regulation or agreement binding on such party. 18. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in one or more counterparts each of which is deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Further, each party agrees to accept telefax signature pages as originals. 19. Waiver of Jury Trial. EACH PARTY WAIVES ANY RIGHT TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY ACTION OR PROCEEDING TO ENFORCE OR DEFEND ANY RIGHTS (i) UNDER THIS AGREEMENT OR ANY RELATED DOCUMENT OR UNDER ANY AMENDMENT, INSTRUMENT, DOCUMENT OR AGREEMENT WHICH MAY IN THE FUTURE BE DELIVERED IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT OR RELATED DOCUMENT OR (ii) ARISING FROM ANY RELATIONSHIP EXISTING IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT, AND AGREE THAT ANY SUCH ACTION OR PROCEEDING WILL BE TRIED BEFORE A COURT AND NOT BEFORE A JURY. This Agreement is entered as of the day and year first written above.

PureLine Solutions, LLC

[Insert Company Name Here]

By:_______________________________

By:_______________________________

Name: ____________________________

Name: ____________________________

Its:_______________________________

Its:_______________________________

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EXHBIT A TO PROFESSIONAL SERVICES AGREEMENT Scope of Professional Services

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TREAT.

This book is designed to educate those with food safety, food quality & food manufacturing sanitation responsibilities on the use of chlorine dioxide as a food process sanitizing and disinfecting agent, and on PureLine Solutions treatment processes and services.

SANITIZE. DISINFECT. ELIMINATE.

The PureLine Solutions – Food Safety Group walks you through every step of the process.

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in the food industry is important for many critical processes that include microbial disinfection of processing equipment, and entire facilities, including specific applications for fruit and vegetable, cheese, bakery, and meat processing. Additional uses include disinfectant sprays, packaging and container disinfection, a-septic filler disinfection, piping disinfection, ductwork disinfection, clean in place applications (CIP), disinfection treatments for the recycling of process water, treatment of source water, carcass wash, and flume disinfection.

MobileCleanTM | pHlorSanTM | PureVistaTM

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