Page 1

Q U E S T R O YA L   F I N E   A RT, L L C Important American Paintings


vo lu m e x

fall 2009

Important American Paintings Entries by gallery

w i t h a d d i t i o n a l a s s i s ta n c e b y

Louis M. Salerno, Owner

Brent L. Salerno, Co-owner

Jessica L. Waldmann, Gallery Associate

Chloe A. Richfield, Director

g u e s t c o n t r i bu to r s

Isabelle M. Havet Ashley G. Rye Sarah Jean Selzer

Matthew T. Andress, Gallery Associate Erin L. Boyle, Administrator André Salerno, Gallery Assistant Rita Walker, Controller

Q U E S T R O YA L   F I N E   A RT, L L C 903 Park Avenue (at 79th Street), Suites 3 a & b, New York, NY 10075 t :(212) 744-3586 f :(212) 585-3828 h o u r s : Monday–Friday 10–6, Saturday 10–5 and by appointment e m a i l : gallery @ questroyalfineart.com

www.questroyalfineart.com


vo lu m e x

fall 2009

Important American Paintings Entries by gallery

w i t h a d d i t i o n a l a s s i s ta n c e b y

Louis M. Salerno, Owner

Brent L. Salerno, Co-owner

Jessica L. Waldmann, Gallery Associate

Chloe A. Richfield, Director

g u e s t c o n t r i bu to r s

Isabelle M. Havet Ashley G. Rye Sarah Jean Selzer

Matthew T. Andress, Gallery Associate Erin L. Boyle, Administrator André Salerno, Gallery Assistant Rita Walker, Controller

Q U E S T R O YA L   F I N E   A RT, L L C 903 Park Avenue (at 79th Street), Suites 3 a & b, New York, NY 10075 t :(212) 744-3586 f :(212) 585-3828 h o u r s : Monday–Friday 10–6, Saturday 10–5 and by appointment e m a i l : gallery @ questroyalfineart.com

www.questroyalfineart.com


Foreword The Well-dressed Hunter: A Dealer’s Story Letter from the Director

Contents

design:

Malcolm Grear Designers

printing:

Meridian Printing

photography :

editing:

Timothy Pyle, Light Blue Studio

Amanda Sparrow

front cover and inside front cover

( d e ta i l )

Thomas Moran (1837–1926), A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1905, pl. 31 back cover and inside back cover

( d e ta i l )

Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823 –1880), Mountain Lake, pl. 17

pa i n t i n g s

p l at e

pa i n t i n g s

p l at e

Avery, Milton

1

Metcalf, Willard L.

29

Bierstadt, Albert

2

Moore, Nelson A.

30

Blakelock, Ralph A.

3, 4, 5

Moran, Thomas

31, 32

Bricher, Alfred T.

6

O’Keeffe, Georgia

33

Brown, John G.

7

Palmer, Walter L.

34

Buttersworth, James E.

8

Redfield, Edward W.

35

Carlson, John F.

9

Richards, William T.

36, 37, 38

Church, Frederic E.

10

Silva, Francis A.

39

Cole, Thomas

11

Whittredge, T. Worthington

40, 41, 42

Colman, Samuel

12

Wiggins, Guy C.

43

Cropsey, Jasper F.

13

Williamson, John

44

De Haas, Mauritz F. H.

14

Wyeth, Andrew

45, 46

Doughty, Thomas

15

Gay, Edward

16

Gifford, Sanford R.

17

d o c u m e n ts

Guy, Seymour J.

18

Bates, Katharine Lee

47

Hart, James M.

19

Brown, John

48

Heade, Martin J.

20

Clemens, Samuel L. (Mark Twain)

49

Kensett, John F.

21, 22, 23

Crockett, David

50

Kronberg, Louis

24

Eisenhower, Dwight D.

51

Laurence, Sydney M.

25

Jackson, Andrew

52

Lucioni, Luigi

26

Jackson, Thomas “Stonewall”

53

Martin, Homer D.

27

Jefferson, Thomas

54, 55

Maurer, Alfred H.

28

Lincoln, Abraham

56

Introduction to Historical Documents


Foreword The Well-dressed Hunter: A Dealer’s Story Letter from the Director

Contents

design:

Malcolm Grear Designers

printing:

Meridian Printing

photography :

editing:

Timothy Pyle, Light Blue Studio

Amanda Sparrow

front cover and inside front cover

( d e ta i l )

Thomas Moran (1837–1926), A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1905, pl. 31 back cover and inside back cover

( d e ta i l )

Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823 –1880), Mountain Lake, pl. 17

pa i n t i n g s

p l at e

pa i n t i n g s

p l at e

Avery, Milton

1

Metcalf, Willard L.

29

Bierstadt, Albert

2

Moore, Nelson A.

30

Blakelock, Ralph A.

3, 4, 5

Moran, Thomas

31, 32

Bricher, Alfred T.

6

O’Keeffe, Georgia

33

Brown, John G.

7

Palmer, Walter L.

34

Buttersworth, James E.

8

Redfield, Edward W.

35

Carlson, John F.

9

Richards, William T.

36, 37, 38

Church, Frederic E.

10

Silva, Francis A.

39

Cole, Thomas

11

Whittredge, T. Worthington

40, 41, 42

Colman, Samuel

12

Wiggins, Guy C.

43

Cropsey, Jasper F.

13

Williamson, John

44

De Haas, Mauritz F. H.

14

Wyeth, Andrew

45, 46

Doughty, Thomas

15

Gay, Edward

16

Gifford, Sanford R.

17

d o c u m e n ts

Guy, Seymour J.

18

Bates, Katharine Lee

47

Hart, James M.

19

Brown, John

48

Heade, Martin J.

20

Clemens, Samuel L. (Mark Twain)

49

Kensett, John F.

21, 22, 23

Crockett, David

50

Kronberg, Louis

24

Eisenhower, Dwight D.

51

Laurence, Sydney M.

25

Jackson, Andrew

52

Lucioni, Luigi

26

Jackson, Thomas “Stonewall”

53

Martin, Homer D.

27

Jefferson, Thomas

54, 55

Maurer, Alfred H.

28

Lincoln, Abraham

56

Introduction to Historical Documents


The Well-dressed Hunter: A Dealer’s Story

Foreword

Looks can be deceiving: this is our tenth anniversary catalogue— the tenth edition of our Important American Paintings series—yet Questroyal Fine Art has discovered and sold important American paintings for nearly two decades. It is on this occasion that we not only celebrate our tenth consecutive major publication, but also our established

He was an obnoxious client with a nearly toxic

expensive. He looked at me from his bed and

attitude. There was not a race, color, creed, or ide-

said, “I hope your miserable face is not the last

ology that escaped his condemnation. His wrath

thing I see before I die. If I gasp, get out and turn

was evenhanded, perhaps one might say fair. He

on the Playboy channel.” “That’s your sage ad-

never met a man, a place, a country he liked. He

vice?” I replied. “Young man, some people put

loved his dog. He took pleasure in ridiculing the

their money in banks that have locks on the

paintings I showed him and the value I placed

wrong side of their doors; others enjoy the status

on them. He had no regard for my ideas or opin-

attained by having a professional lose their

ions and would only listen to them to harvest the

money. But I have mine on the wall where I can

fodder to criticize me with later. I loved this man!

see it.” I regret that he did not live long enough

“You visit me because I buy your paintings, the

to see the scope of his wisdom.

ones I hate the least” was his favorite comment.

There was something about this man’s re-

success as a gallery that continues to proudly specialize in and support America’s

It was not true — I loved this guy ! This was a man who could see the lie in

raised in the suburbs, where differences were

artistic heritage.

things. A bad guy born with a good soul, he com-

neither easy to find nor tolerated. Our yards were

Our art is a treasure not yet discovered by a society nurtured on neon.We will someday grow tired of toys and become as voracious for truth and beauty.

mitted some acts, just shy of criminal, that you

strikingly alike; we wore similar clothes and fol-

would not tell your kids about. Time tempered

lowed rules. The streets were our concrete play-

his behavior but never his thoughts. How this

grounds from which we were all summoned to

character came to love art will always remain a

dinner at the same time. I discovered a dirt road

mystery — a collector whose principal criterion

that weaved through towering trees and thick

was to acquire what he hated least — but, take

brush with a sky unmarked by telephone lines.

— l m s , fa l l 2003

my word, his was a collection I will never forget.

I had never seen anything like it. This was the

It included stunning examples by Cole, Church,

fertile ground that fostered my young imagina-

Inness, and Cropsey — and that was just what

tion, and it was visible only in the little painting

hung in his bedroom. He liked to boast that he

that hung in my grandmother’s home. I would

spent a lot of quality time there.

stare at the painting and daydream: Where would

We are especially confident in this year’s anniversary edition. It presents forty-six extraordinary paintings as well as ten outstanding historical documents. In order to give you, the reader, a different perspective, we have selected compelling quotes from nineteenth- to twenty-first-century critics, curators, periodicals, and artists to accompany each painting. We have also included a brief statement about the artist that relates a little-known detail or anecdote about his or her work and life. We hope you will enjoy our special tenth edition of Important American Paintings. To start, we invite you to read “The Well-dressed Hunter: A Dealer’s Story” written by Questroyal’s owner, Louis M. Salerno. This introductory essay will share our favorite stories, insights, and humor as well as the ideas that set Questroyal apart from the rest.

Educated in the finest schools in the nation, he distinguished himself in his chosen occupa-

bellious nature that struck a chord with me. I was

that dirt road take me? What would I discover? I would never forget how potent art could be.

tion. Occasionally, some genuine insight would mix with his venom: “Buy the best junk when all you can own is junk. If you want to exceed the

Passionate Collectors

speed limit, drive a Ferrari, dummy ! Never take

Many of the collectors I have known share my

advice from anyone unless that person stands

passion. They have each discovered it in different

to lose as much money as you. You’re never as

ways, but these individuals are alike in the very

smart as the day you were born.” But he saved

personal need they have for art.

the best for last.

A recently married couple visited my booth

Months before he died, I told him that I was

at an art fair. They appreciated American art but

hesitating to buy a painting I loved because it was

were not in any position to acquire a painting, as

An economy to be infused with nearly $10 trillion is an economy destined to turn inflationary. We know that quality tangible assets fare well in such an environment. Trust in what you know and love and consider the age-old wisdom of buying when others are selling. — l m s , w i n t e r 2009

This is a pilgrimage everyone should make. I have come to understand that American landscape paintings are a reminder of a self to be found and understood. A call to the wild, a signpost—a warning! Truth is whispered in these paintings. — l m s , “Hiking in the Catskills,” fa l l 2006


The Well-dressed Hunter: A Dealer’s Story

Foreword

Looks can be deceiving: this is our tenth anniversary catalogue— the tenth edition of our Important American Paintings series—yet Questroyal Fine Art has discovered and sold important American paintings for nearly two decades. It is on this occasion that we not only celebrate our tenth consecutive major publication, but also our established

He was an obnoxious client with a nearly toxic

expensive. He looked at me from his bed and

attitude. There was not a race, color, creed, or ide-

said, “I hope your miserable face is not the last

ology that escaped his condemnation. His wrath

thing I see before I die. If I gasp, get out and turn

was evenhanded, perhaps one might say fair. He

on the Playboy channel.” “That’s your sage ad-

never met a man, a place, a country he liked. He

vice?” I replied. “Young man, some people put

loved his dog. He took pleasure in ridiculing the

their money in banks that have locks on the

paintings I showed him and the value I placed

wrong side of their doors; others enjoy the status

on them. He had no regard for my ideas or opin-

attained by having a professional lose their

ions and would only listen to them to harvest the

money. But I have mine on the wall where I can

fodder to criticize me with later. I loved this man!

see it.” I regret that he did not live long enough

“You visit me because I buy your paintings, the

to see the scope of his wisdom.

ones I hate the least” was his favorite comment.

There was something about this man’s re-

success as a gallery that continues to proudly specialize in and support America’s

It was not true — I loved this guy ! This was a man who could see the lie in

raised in the suburbs, where differences were

artistic heritage.

things. A bad guy born with a good soul, he com-

neither easy to find nor tolerated. Our yards were

Our art is a treasure not yet discovered by a society nurtured on neon.We will someday grow tired of toys and become as voracious for truth and beauty.

mitted some acts, just shy of criminal, that you

strikingly alike; we wore similar clothes and fol-

would not tell your kids about. Time tempered

lowed rules. The streets were our concrete play-

his behavior but never his thoughts. How this

grounds from which we were all summoned to

character came to love art will always remain a

dinner at the same time. I discovered a dirt road

mystery — a collector whose principal criterion

that weaved through towering trees and thick

was to acquire what he hated least — but, take

brush with a sky unmarked by telephone lines.

— l m s , fa l l 2003

my word, his was a collection I will never forget.

I had never seen anything like it. This was the

It included stunning examples by Cole, Church,

fertile ground that fostered my young imagina-

Inness, and Cropsey — and that was just what

tion, and it was visible only in the little painting

hung in his bedroom. He liked to boast that he

that hung in my grandmother’s home. I would

spent a lot of quality time there.

stare at the painting and daydream: Where would

We are especially confident in this year’s anniversary edition. It presents forty-six extraordinary paintings as well as ten outstanding historical documents. In order to give you, the reader, a different perspective, we have selected compelling quotes from nineteenth- to twenty-first-century critics, curators, periodicals, and artists to accompany each painting. We have also included a brief statement about the artist that relates a little-known detail or anecdote about his or her work and life. We hope you will enjoy our special tenth edition of Important American Paintings. To start, we invite you to read “The Well-dressed Hunter: A Dealer’s Story” written by Questroyal’s owner, Louis M. Salerno. This introductory essay will share our favorite stories, insights, and humor as well as the ideas that set Questroyal apart from the rest.

Educated in the finest schools in the nation, he distinguished himself in his chosen occupa-

bellious nature that struck a chord with me. I was

that dirt road take me? What would I discover? I would never forget how potent art could be.

tion. Occasionally, some genuine insight would mix with his venom: “Buy the best junk when all you can own is junk. If you want to exceed the

Passionate Collectors

speed limit, drive a Ferrari, dummy ! Never take

Many of the collectors I have known share my

advice from anyone unless that person stands

passion. They have each discovered it in different

to lose as much money as you. You’re never as

ways, but these individuals are alike in the very

smart as the day you were born.” But he saved

personal need they have for art.

the best for last.

A recently married couple visited my booth

Months before he died, I told him that I was

at an art fair. They appreciated American art but

hesitating to buy a painting I loved because it was

were not in any position to acquire a painting, as

An economy to be infused with nearly $10 trillion is an economy destined to turn inflationary. We know that quality tangible assets fare well in such an environment. Trust in what you know and love and consider the age-old wisdom of buying when others are selling. — l m s , w i n t e r 2009

This is a pilgrimage everyone should make. I have come to understand that American landscape paintings are a reminder of a self to be found and understood. A call to the wild, a signpost—a warning! Truth is whispered in these paintings. — l m s , “Hiking in the Catskills,” fa l l 2006


These are paintings that stimulate us in a most profound way, adorn our homes, educate our children, and ignite conversations we might never have had. They provide historical perspective as markers from which we may measure how far we have drifted from a more natural existence. — l m s , fa l l 2006

they were using their savings to buy a first home.

keep the painting safe until we can afford a

A small but exquisite oil by Frederic Church

proper home.” They finally acquired that “proper

inspired their interest. An uninhibited dialogue

home,” and the little Church was the centerpiece

ensued, and each of us expressed our affection

of their small but aspiring collection.

for the work without any reservation or hesita-

Another collector acquired a magnificent

tion. We felt no need to mask our enthusiasm

coastal view by one of the best American nine-

the way we might if negotiation were likely. A sale

teenth-century painters of the sea. It was a com-

was not possible — or so I thought. Eventually,

manding work, and this man was thrilled to

appetite took precedent over interest, and the

own it. However, about three months after he

couple left in search of lunch. Moments later,

acquired it, he called to say that he had a prob-

the young wife returned and asked if I would put

lem. He loved the painting and had hung it on

the Church on hold for them. She said the look

virtually every wall in his home, but he could

of shock on my face best described their own

not find a location that worked. He said he knew

emotions. She promised to explain later.

just how potent the painting could be and there-

I had an ethical dilemma: the painting was

fore could not bear to put it in a place that less-

valuable and the sale would be significant, but

ened its visual impact. I told him that I would

this couple was simply not in the position to pur-

take the work back in trade, and he could select

chase it. I decided that I would persuade them

another painting that would be easier to hang.

to abandon the idea.

That idea was quickly rejected, yet he remained

They returned with a proposal. Their first

determined.

home could wait. They offered the down pay-

He called again six months later. He was

ment and monthly mortgage payments to pur-

excited, and I could sense that he had found a

chase the Church. The painting would remain in

resolution to his dilemma. He announced that

my possession until paid in full. What transpired

the problem was solved and that the painting

next was a conversation one might expect to

was placed and its potency fully expressed; how-

have in a bizarro world or mental institution. All

ever, he complained that it was the single most

my skills of persuasion were used to unsell the

expensive asset he had ever acquired. I asked if

painting. I argued a practical logic that proved to

he believed I overcharged him. “Well,” he said,

be futile. I attempted a veritable alchemy of

“it cost me over two million dollars !” I thought

words to alter the couple’s thinking. Eventually, I

my client had been driven to insanity as a result

delicately suggested that they seek professional

of his efforts to best display his prized painting,

help and then with obvious sarcasm, I said, “You

as I had sold it to him for about one hundred

cannot live in a painting.” But the battle was

thousand dollars. “I don’t understand,” I stam-

lost, and the painting was theirs.

mered. “I had to buy a new house, and it’s on a

Months later, after several consecutive on-

bluff that overlooks the ocean ! My wife wants

time payments, I asked if they would like to have

me to consider therapy, my daughter misses her

the painting. They replied, “Mr. Salerno, we live in

friends, my banker now has gray hair— but the

a tiny apartment in a tough part of town. Please

painting is spectacular !”

A Fatal Mistake Many clients have inquired as to how I became an art dealer. Like many, I began as a collector. I I looked out on the vast expanse of mountain over valley and had no thoughts of what was or what will be. I could think of only what is. There was a vague sense of something perpetual that does not require fuel or engineering. It does not need any device or man-made design. I relaxed: nothing was required of me, no choices or decisions. I was an intruder in these woods, never to be a landowner. My checkbook was useless. — l m s , “Hiking in the Catskills,” fa l l 2006

Open the pages of this catalogue and assimilate the only known antidote to modernity. One hundred and fifty years of what was thought to be progress is erased and layers of complexity unraveled to reveal long-obscured truth. Welcome to the American nineteenth century, a more transparent time, one in which we are confident that our understanding is not diluted or distorted. We are far from the machinations of financial institutions and the word “subprime” refers only to a lesser grade of beef. — l m s , fa l l 2008

became reacquainted with my interest in paintings by a chance introduction to an international businessman. He was the chief economist of a South American country, and he told me about his important painting collection. I asked why he committed so much capital to the acquisition of art. He said his country was unstable, and his assets could be seized at any time. Real estate, stocks, and bonds were all vulnerable, but his art was stored in various countries far from the reach of his government. I had not thought of art as an asset, and my business instincts motivated me to act: I began to search for works that had investment potential. My first acquisition was a French postmodern painting, a choice based solely on monetary calculations without any

compelling. They were simple views of a place without ruin or monument, and—as best as I could discern—no great event had taken place on their grounds. These were honest works of a land long insulated from civilization. Artists, unencumbered by academic training or convention, painted the landscape in truthful awe and yielded to the Creator with the brilliance found in restraint. This is our nation’s most indigenous art, now known as the Hudson River school, and it became the foundation of my collection. Much of my free time was spent in galleries and museums. I worked to refine my eye and gain knowledge. What began as a twice-yearly acquisition plan quickly accelerated, and I was soon on pace to acquire five or six paintings within the first year. My interest escalated, and I was on the path to addiction. But this was an addiction that I have never regretted.

personal considerations. This was a fatal mistake

If there were such a thing as American

and destined my aspiring collection to instant

Collectors Anonymous, I would be the poster

failure. I could not live with art that I didn’t love, regardless of the financial potential. Those who believe art has no tangible or practical value may change their opinion if they

boy. This is an addiction worth having, and I do not feel guilty encouraging you, nor would I feel any remorse should you need to go to support meetings. — l m s , w i n t e r 2 0 0 4

consider how agonizing the sale of a family trea-

The collection grew and the paintings hung

sure could be. The dedicated collector cherishes

—in the living room, dining room, halls, and,

his paintings and will fiercely resist selling any

before long, guest rooms and then bathrooms.

of them, no matter how significant the financial

Finally, my wife issued a challenge, perhaps an

necessity. This rare characteristic, seldom seen

ultimatum. She said, “You’re good at buying

with other assets, impacts the determination of

these paintings. Why don’t you see if you can sell

worth. The laws of economics conflict with the

them?” And then, as if on command, I became

passionate human being. It is this counterpoint

an art dealer.

that will forever sustain the value of art.

I wanted to prove that my ability to sell paint-

With just a small fragment of this wisdom,

ings was equal to my skills as a check writer, so

I set out to discover the art that had real mean-

my three stunning landscapes by Frederic Church

ing for me. I found American landscapes most

were placed on my sales list. I was criticized for

However, here the present was overwhelming! All I saw had been seen last year and last century. I might have been one thousand years removed from those before me, but in this almighty present, my sentiment, my experience as a man in the wilderness, could not be differentiated… I am just a man alone: there is no measure of my worth, no need to judge or be judged. This is a nature that does not deliberate or mitigate. It knows no pretense, politic, or convention. It is for me as it is for you and as it will be for all who come later. We live insulated in cities of brick and mortar. Where is the raw scent of earth? Our air is conditioned and our windows are closed. So I wonder, how much have I really lived? — l m s , “Hiking in the Catskills,” fa l l 2006


These are paintings that stimulate us in a most profound way, adorn our homes, educate our children, and ignite conversations we might never have had. They provide historical perspective as markers from which we may measure how far we have drifted from a more natural existence. — l m s , fa l l 2006

they were using their savings to buy a first home.

keep the painting safe until we can afford a

A small but exquisite oil by Frederic Church

proper home.” They finally acquired that “proper

inspired their interest. An uninhibited dialogue

home,” and the little Church was the centerpiece

ensued, and each of us expressed our affection

of their small but aspiring collection.

for the work without any reservation or hesita-

Another collector acquired a magnificent

tion. We felt no need to mask our enthusiasm

coastal view by one of the best American nine-

the way we might if negotiation were likely. A sale

teenth-century painters of the sea. It was a com-

was not possible — or so I thought. Eventually,

manding work, and this man was thrilled to

appetite took precedent over interest, and the

own it. However, about three months after he

couple left in search of lunch. Moments later,

acquired it, he called to say that he had a prob-

the young wife returned and asked if I would put

lem. He loved the painting and had hung it on

the Church on hold for them. She said the look

virtually every wall in his home, but he could

of shock on my face best described their own

not find a location that worked. He said he knew

emotions. She promised to explain later.

just how potent the painting could be and there-

I had an ethical dilemma: the painting was

fore could not bear to put it in a place that less-

valuable and the sale would be significant, but

ened its visual impact. I told him that I would

this couple was simply not in the position to pur-

take the work back in trade, and he could select

chase it. I decided that I would persuade them

another painting that would be easier to hang.

to abandon the idea.

That idea was quickly rejected, yet he remained

They returned with a proposal. Their first

determined.

home could wait. They offered the down pay-

He called again six months later. He was

ment and monthly mortgage payments to pur-

excited, and I could sense that he had found a

chase the Church. The painting would remain in

resolution to his dilemma. He announced that

my possession until paid in full. What transpired

the problem was solved and that the painting

next was a conversation one might expect to

was placed and its potency fully expressed; how-

have in a bizarro world or mental institution. All

ever, he complained that it was the single most

my skills of persuasion were used to unsell the

expensive asset he had ever acquired. I asked if

painting. I argued a practical logic that proved to

he believed I overcharged him. “Well,” he said,

be futile. I attempted a veritable alchemy of

“it cost me over two million dollars !” I thought

words to alter the couple’s thinking. Eventually, I

my client had been driven to insanity as a result

delicately suggested that they seek professional

of his efforts to best display his prized painting,

help and then with obvious sarcasm, I said, “You

as I had sold it to him for about one hundred

cannot live in a painting.” But the battle was

thousand dollars. “I don’t understand,” I stam-

lost, and the painting was theirs.

mered. “I had to buy a new house, and it’s on a

Months later, after several consecutive on-

bluff that overlooks the ocean ! My wife wants

time payments, I asked if they would like to have

me to consider therapy, my daughter misses her

the painting. They replied, “Mr. Salerno, we live in

friends, my banker now has gray hair— but the

a tiny apartment in a tough part of town. Please

painting is spectacular !”

A Fatal Mistake Many clients have inquired as to how I became an art dealer. Like many, I began as a collector. I I looked out on the vast expanse of mountain over valley and had no thoughts of what was or what will be. I could think of only what is. There was a vague sense of something perpetual that does not require fuel or engineering. It does not need any device or man-made design. I relaxed: nothing was required of me, no choices or decisions. I was an intruder in these woods, never to be a landowner. My checkbook was useless. — l m s , “Hiking in the Catskills,” fa l l 2006

Open the pages of this catalogue and assimilate the only known antidote to modernity. One hundred and fifty years of what was thought to be progress is erased and layers of complexity unraveled to reveal long-obscured truth. Welcome to the American nineteenth century, a more transparent time, one in which we are confident that our understanding is not diluted or distorted. We are far from the machinations of financial institutions and the word “subprime” refers only to a lesser grade of beef. — l m s , fa l l 2008

became reacquainted with my interest in paintings by a chance introduction to an international businessman. He was the chief economist of a South American country, and he told me about his important painting collection. I asked why he committed so much capital to the acquisition of art. He said his country was unstable, and his assets could be seized at any time. Real estate, stocks, and bonds were all vulnerable, but his art was stored in various countries far from the reach of his government. I had not thought of art as an asset, and my business instincts motivated me to act: I began to search for works that had investment potential. My first acquisition was a French postmodern painting, a choice based solely on monetary calculations without any

compelling. They were simple views of a place without ruin or monument, and—as best as I could discern—no great event had taken place on their grounds. These were honest works of a land long insulated from civilization. Artists, unencumbered by academic training or convention, painted the landscape in truthful awe and yielded to the Creator with the brilliance found in restraint. This is our nation’s most indigenous art, now known as the Hudson River school, and it became the foundation of my collection. Much of my free time was spent in galleries and museums. I worked to refine my eye and gain knowledge. What began as a twice-yearly acquisition plan quickly accelerated, and I was soon on pace to acquire five or six paintings within the first year. My interest escalated, and I was on the path to addiction. But this was an addiction that I have never regretted.

personal considerations. This was a fatal mistake

If there were such a thing as American

and destined my aspiring collection to instant

Collectors Anonymous, I would be the poster

failure. I could not live with art that I didn’t love, regardless of the financial potential. Those who believe art has no tangible or practical value may change their opinion if they

boy. This is an addiction worth having, and I do not feel guilty encouraging you, nor would I feel any remorse should you need to go to support meetings. — l m s , w i n t e r 2 0 0 4

consider how agonizing the sale of a family trea-

The collection grew and the paintings hung

sure could be. The dedicated collector cherishes

—in the living room, dining room, halls, and,

his paintings and will fiercely resist selling any

before long, guest rooms and then bathrooms.

of them, no matter how significant the financial

Finally, my wife issued a challenge, perhaps an

necessity. This rare characteristic, seldom seen

ultimatum. She said, “You’re good at buying

with other assets, impacts the determination of

these paintings. Why don’t you see if you can sell

worth. The laws of economics conflict with the

them?” And then, as if on command, I became

passionate human being. It is this counterpoint

an art dealer.

that will forever sustain the value of art.

I wanted to prove that my ability to sell paint-

With just a small fragment of this wisdom,

ings was equal to my skills as a check writer, so

I set out to discover the art that had real mean-

my three stunning landscapes by Frederic Church

ing for me. I found American landscapes most

were placed on my sales list. I was criticized for

However, here the present was overwhelming! All I saw had been seen last year and last century. I might have been one thousand years removed from those before me, but in this almighty present, my sentiment, my experience as a man in the wilderness, could not be differentiated… I am just a man alone: there is no measure of my worth, no need to judge or be judged. This is a nature that does not deliberate or mitigate. It knows no pretense, politic, or convention. It is for me as it is for you and as it will be for all who come later. We live insulated in cities of brick and mortar. Where is the raw scent of earth? Our air is conditioned and our windows are closed. So I wonder, how much have I really lived? — l m s , “Hiking in the Catskills,” fa l l 2006


overpaying when I acquired these small but bril-

wife, he walked into a little antique shop and

the higher price. His response was that he always

I would be quickly relegated to an underling. These

liant twilights; however, quality always prevails.

noticed a small painting propped against the

honors the price quoted and that if I delivered

dealers could best be identified by the incredible

I had paid about $50,000 for each and sold them

wall. It was a view of Venice, and it was a gem. He

a check to his gallery by six o’clock that very eve-

arrogance they displayed. It was so pervasive that

ning, we would have a deal. It was four fifteen

I could not decide if this was a character flaw com-

in the afternoon — if the traffic was absolutely

mon to art dealers or a trait deliberately adopted.

perfect, I might just make it. So I suggested, I

Perhaps they believed that such an attitude

thought reasonably, that I would deliver the check

would mask otherwise transparent shortcomings

first thing in the morning, as the banks would be

or that it held some peculiar appeal to the elite

closed by the time I arrived anyway. But this was

they wanted to court. I am most proud of the

not acceptable to him. He said that it was now a

effort I have made, in unison with my staff, to

sporting event: I would have a fair chance to

eliminate any semblance of a client hierarchy;

make the deadline, and he could rescind the deal

however, in a profit-seeking enterprise, we can

with dignity if I missed it. Not one to back down

never really be perfect. Sometimes it is necessary

from a challenge, I fired up the BMW , fastened

to give the most attention to a buyer considering

my seat belt, and looked at the clock. I had one

a seven-figure painting. But without a doubt, the

in the $60,000 range. Today, twenty years later, I

asked the dealer if he knew who painted it. The

Consider this your treasure map. There is a great deal to be discovered within these pages and much more at the gallery.

would not hesitate to pay a million dollars to have

dealer pointed to the signature and said he did

any one of them back. Time is a great friend to

not recognize the name. He thought it might be

the discerning collector. I will not deny a twinge

Mc Chase and assumed it was no one special. The

of regret, but on the whole I have no complaint.

plumber asked the price and immediately wrote

I am engaged in the pursuit of treasure, and the

a check for four hundred dollars. He got into his

dealer must often sacrifice treasure found for

car and drove around the corner. My cell phone

— l m s , fa l l 2003

treasure yet to be discovered.

rang, and I could hear the enthusiasm in his voice: “Lou, I have a little painting of Venice, and

Hunting

it’s signed Wm Chase. He is one of the greats, isn’t he ?” He drove three hours to get it to the gallery.

It is wise to discount my ideas in proportion to the degree of salesmanship you suspect, but do not miss a truth in plain sight. This is a defining moment in which many will look back and say, “If only I invested then.” — l m s , s p r i n g 2009

The Park Avenue address, the sophisticated staff,

It wasn’t just a Chase—it was a great one. I asked

and the title “art dealer” provide an incomplete

my highly cultured plumber what he would accept

hundred minutes, which was about five less than

satisfaction earned assisting the new or struggling

description of what I do and what my gallery is

for the painting. He said that he would rely on

what I would need if I had a perfect trip. How

collector is the very spice of life!

my sense of fairness. “If I give you one hundred

much risk could I take ? A ticket and I lose. This

times more than what you paid and I sold it for

was becoming a defining moment, a revelation

twice that amount, would that be fair ?” The only

of character. I thought it better to be defeated by

part of the deal he was confused about was how

the law than by my own ineptitude as a driver.

Even the most inspired collectors need encour-

to release me from his giant bear hug.

So, on that day, I was one with the road and the

agement. We all lead busy lives, and it is not easy

phone rang. It was a “picker,” someone who hunts

Sometimes you can find treasure at other

car and the little boy who always longed for a

to remain vigilant. This is the responsibility of the

in far corners of the countryside in search of that

galleries, and sometimes you have to fight for the

good reason to drive too fast. I arrived with about

dealer. Opportunities arise randomly, and deci-

special painting dealers will pay dearly for. He

prize. It was early January and many of the New

a minute to spare, perhaps a better driver than

sions must be made and action taken swiftly to

had found one, and, by his description, it was

York dealers had gone south to the Miami and

an art dealer. My friend honored his promise,

gain the prize. This is yet another advantage of

rare and of a type I had longed for. He would not

Palm Beach fairs. I ventured into a local major gal-

and I left with another treasure.

working with dealers who purchase their inven-

arrive until midnight, and I was to meet him on

lery and instantly noticed a fascinating Hudson

the corner of Madison Avenue and Seventy-sixth

River school painting. I knew the dealer quite

Street. There was nothing that I would not sus-

well, but he was in Miami so I asked his assistant

pend, delay, or cancel to see this painting. And

to quote a price. It was fair, and I accepted at

As both a collector and dealer, I have come to

the market—not just the most valuable paint-

when midnight came, I saw the work illuminated

once. She asked me to come back the next day to

know a great many art dealers. Most have been

ings, but those that represent the best values in

by street lamp. I wrote the check and, with the

complete the sale because she wanted to review

willing to share their knowledge and have given

various price ranges. Dealers whose primary

painting securely under my arm, walked back to

it with the owner. Late the next afternoon, I was

heartfelt advice. But there was a type of dealer I

source of inventory is consigned paintings often

the gallery wondering which of my clients would

at my upstate office when I received a phone call

never sought to emulate. Some dealers would

do not secure the works they would most like to

hang it in their home.

offer to clients.

about. In many ways, I am like a hunter, masked in a suit and armed with currency, in search of beauty. Let me give you a sense of just how exciting it can be. — lms, fall 2007

One October evening at nearly ten o’clock, the

Motivation

tory. It is not only evidence of conviction and the

The Dealer I’m Not

most reliable form of vetting, it is the best way to secure those few paintings that briefly appear on

from the dealer. He said his assistant misquoted

make every effort to assess my means without any

Then there was the plumber who out-

the price, and it was actually $50,000 higher. I

attempt to discover my interests. If they believed

Sometimes I wish that I had some way to

guessed the antique dealer. Seeking a gift for his

said that I understood and would consider it at

my net worth was not deserving of their attention,

sound an alarm to alert my collectors to specific

Those with the confidence to act at this fleeting moment of deflation and cash preservation will secure a distinct advantage. — l m s , s p r i n g 2009


overpaying when I acquired these small but bril-

wife, he walked into a little antique shop and

the higher price. His response was that he always

I would be quickly relegated to an underling. These

liant twilights; however, quality always prevails.

noticed a small painting propped against the

honors the price quoted and that if I delivered

dealers could best be identified by the incredible

I had paid about $50,000 for each and sold them

wall. It was a view of Venice, and it was a gem. He

a check to his gallery by six o’clock that very eve-

arrogance they displayed. It was so pervasive that

ning, we would have a deal. It was four fifteen

I could not decide if this was a character flaw com-

in the afternoon — if the traffic was absolutely

mon to art dealers or a trait deliberately adopted.

perfect, I might just make it. So I suggested, I

Perhaps they believed that such an attitude

thought reasonably, that I would deliver the check

would mask otherwise transparent shortcomings

first thing in the morning, as the banks would be

or that it held some peculiar appeal to the elite

closed by the time I arrived anyway. But this was

they wanted to court. I am most proud of the

not acceptable to him. He said that it was now a

effort I have made, in unison with my staff, to

sporting event: I would have a fair chance to

eliminate any semblance of a client hierarchy;

make the deadline, and he could rescind the deal

however, in a profit-seeking enterprise, we can

with dignity if I missed it. Not one to back down

never really be perfect. Sometimes it is necessary

from a challenge, I fired up the BMW , fastened

to give the most attention to a buyer considering

my seat belt, and looked at the clock. I had one

a seven-figure painting. But without a doubt, the

in the $60,000 range. Today, twenty years later, I

asked the dealer if he knew who painted it. The

Consider this your treasure map. There is a great deal to be discovered within these pages and much more at the gallery.

would not hesitate to pay a million dollars to have

dealer pointed to the signature and said he did

any one of them back. Time is a great friend to

not recognize the name. He thought it might be

the discerning collector. I will not deny a twinge

Mc Chase and assumed it was no one special. The

of regret, but on the whole I have no complaint.

plumber asked the price and immediately wrote

I am engaged in the pursuit of treasure, and the

a check for four hundred dollars. He got into his

dealer must often sacrifice treasure found for

car and drove around the corner. My cell phone

— l m s , fa l l 2003

treasure yet to be discovered.

rang, and I could hear the enthusiasm in his voice: “Lou, I have a little painting of Venice, and

Hunting

it’s signed Wm Chase. He is one of the greats, isn’t he ?” He drove three hours to get it to the gallery.

It is wise to discount my ideas in proportion to the degree of salesmanship you suspect, but do not miss a truth in plain sight. This is a defining moment in which many will look back and say, “If only I invested then.” — l m s , s p r i n g 2009

The Park Avenue address, the sophisticated staff,

It wasn’t just a Chase—it was a great one. I asked

and the title “art dealer” provide an incomplete

my highly cultured plumber what he would accept

hundred minutes, which was about five less than

satisfaction earned assisting the new or struggling

description of what I do and what my gallery is

for the painting. He said that he would rely on

what I would need if I had a perfect trip. How

collector is the very spice of life!

my sense of fairness. “If I give you one hundred

much risk could I take ? A ticket and I lose. This

times more than what you paid and I sold it for

was becoming a defining moment, a revelation

twice that amount, would that be fair ?” The only

of character. I thought it better to be defeated by

part of the deal he was confused about was how

the law than by my own ineptitude as a driver.

Even the most inspired collectors need encour-

to release me from his giant bear hug.

So, on that day, I was one with the road and the

agement. We all lead busy lives, and it is not easy

phone rang. It was a “picker,” someone who hunts

Sometimes you can find treasure at other

car and the little boy who always longed for a

to remain vigilant. This is the responsibility of the

in far corners of the countryside in search of that

galleries, and sometimes you have to fight for the

good reason to drive too fast. I arrived with about

dealer. Opportunities arise randomly, and deci-

special painting dealers will pay dearly for. He

prize. It was early January and many of the New

a minute to spare, perhaps a better driver than

sions must be made and action taken swiftly to

had found one, and, by his description, it was

York dealers had gone south to the Miami and

an art dealer. My friend honored his promise,

gain the prize. This is yet another advantage of

rare and of a type I had longed for. He would not

Palm Beach fairs. I ventured into a local major gal-

and I left with another treasure.

working with dealers who purchase their inven-

arrive until midnight, and I was to meet him on

lery and instantly noticed a fascinating Hudson

the corner of Madison Avenue and Seventy-sixth

River school painting. I knew the dealer quite

Street. There was nothing that I would not sus-

well, but he was in Miami so I asked his assistant

pend, delay, or cancel to see this painting. And

to quote a price. It was fair, and I accepted at

As both a collector and dealer, I have come to

the market—not just the most valuable paint-

when midnight came, I saw the work illuminated

once. She asked me to come back the next day to

know a great many art dealers. Most have been

ings, but those that represent the best values in

by street lamp. I wrote the check and, with the

complete the sale because she wanted to review

willing to share their knowledge and have given

various price ranges. Dealers whose primary

painting securely under my arm, walked back to

it with the owner. Late the next afternoon, I was

heartfelt advice. But there was a type of dealer I

source of inventory is consigned paintings often

the gallery wondering which of my clients would

at my upstate office when I received a phone call

never sought to emulate. Some dealers would

do not secure the works they would most like to

hang it in their home.

offer to clients.

about. In many ways, I am like a hunter, masked in a suit and armed with currency, in search of beauty. Let me give you a sense of just how exciting it can be. — lms, fall 2007

One October evening at nearly ten o’clock, the

Motivation

tory. It is not only evidence of conviction and the

The Dealer I’m Not

most reliable form of vetting, it is the best way to secure those few paintings that briefly appear on

from the dealer. He said his assistant misquoted

make every effort to assess my means without any

Then there was the plumber who out-

the price, and it was actually $50,000 higher. I

attempt to discover my interests. If they believed

Sometimes I wish that I had some way to

guessed the antique dealer. Seeking a gift for his

said that I understood and would consider it at

my net worth was not deserving of their attention,

sound an alarm to alert my collectors to specific

Those with the confidence to act at this fleeting moment of deflation and cash preservation will secure a distinct advantage. — l m s , s p r i n g 2009


Through the Dark Ages, the great famines, the plagues, world wars, and the Great Depression, art has been shown, sold, stolen, collected, criticized, condemed, and cherished. In 2003, worldwide art sales were estimated at $20 billion. Nothing is certain but death, taxes, and art–the third certainty.

Due to aggressive acquisitions by institutions and collectors, the supply of works by Hudson River school artists is declining rapidly. Failure to take action may precipitate feelings of severe regret that cannot be treated by modern therapy or medications.

—LOUIS M. SALERNO, Owner, Questroyal Fine Art

—LOUIS M. SALERNO, Owner, Questroyal Fine Art

8/19/09

fig. 1 The Magazine Antiques, December 2004

fig. 3 The Magazine Antiques, September 2004

3:29 PM

291092_ADS.indd

opportunities. Other times, I have attempted to reach a deeper part of their psyches, to awaken an interest in art that tends to hibernate when life becomes too stressful. This is exactly when we most need art ! It’s a challenge that gives me an opportunity to be creative. measurable in inches, in variations of 12 by 20, 16 by 24, 18 by 30, and thereabout. Stolen over 100 years ago by a mischievous band of men known as the Hudson River Boys. I know where they hid them. —LOUIS M. SALERNO, Owner, Questroyal Fine Art

291092_ADS.indd

6

8/19/09

3:30 PM

8/19/09

The Great Show Every year I have a Hudson River school show at the gallery. It continues to grow, and at the most recent exhibit (March 2009), one hundred quality examples by the most significant painters of the

I have tried to demonstrate that art perse-

period were on view. It has become the most com-

veres; it has survived the ages and always will. It

prehensive dealer show of Hudson River school

is the Third Certainty (f i g . 1).

paintings in the nation. The March 2009 opening

I have taken a more humorous approach to

attracted the most collectors in our history. We

warn clients of the limited supply of important

doubled the attendance of the previous year. This

paintings across all price categories. I revealed a

was especially impressive given that we were in

great scientific discovery (f i g . 2).

the heart of a recession. Collectors remained cau-

I have gone further, alerting clients that

fig. 2 The Magazine Antiques, May 2004

4

tious, but their resistance was obviously waning.

medical science does not have a prescription

In November 2005, we opened an exhibition

to treat the depression that accompanies lost

titled Blakelock, the Great Mad Genius. This was

opportunities (f i g . 3).

the most extensive gallery show for the artist in

I intend to keep beating the drum and to

several decades. He was principally responsible

find new ways to express my enthusiasm for

for American art’s transition to modernism at the

great American art.

turn of the century. His fame grew to proportions

3:30 PM


Through the Dark Ages, the great famines, the plagues, world wars, and the Great Depression, art has been shown, sold, stolen, collected, criticized, condemed, and cherished. In 2003, worldwide art sales were estimated at $20 billion. Nothing is certain but death, taxes, and art–the third certainty.

Due to aggressive acquisitions by institutions and collectors, the supply of works by Hudson River school artists is declining rapidly. Failure to take action may precipitate feelings of severe regret that cannot be treated by modern therapy or medications.

—LOUIS M. SALERNO, Owner, Questroyal Fine Art

—LOUIS M. SALERNO, Owner, Questroyal Fine Art

8/19/09

fig. 1 The Magazine Antiques, December 2004

fig. 3 The Magazine Antiques, September 2004

3:29 PM

291092_ADS.indd

opportunities. Other times, I have attempted to reach a deeper part of their psyches, to awaken an interest in art that tends to hibernate when life becomes too stressful. This is exactly when we most need art ! It’s a challenge that gives me an opportunity to be creative. measurable in inches, in variations of 12 by 20, 16 by 24, 18 by 30, and thereabout. Stolen over 100 years ago by a mischievous band of men known as the Hudson River Boys. I know where they hid them. —LOUIS M. SALERNO, Owner, Questroyal Fine Art

291092_ADS.indd

6

8/19/09

3:30 PM

8/19/09

The Great Show Every year I have a Hudson River school show at the gallery. It continues to grow, and at the most recent exhibit (March 2009), one hundred quality examples by the most significant painters of the

I have tried to demonstrate that art perse-

period were on view. It has become the most com-

veres; it has survived the ages and always will. It

prehensive dealer show of Hudson River school

is the Third Certainty (f i g . 1).

paintings in the nation. The March 2009 opening

I have taken a more humorous approach to

attracted the most collectors in our history. We

warn clients of the limited supply of important

doubled the attendance of the previous year. This

paintings across all price categories. I revealed a

was especially impressive given that we were in

great scientific discovery (f i g . 2).

the heart of a recession. Collectors remained cau-

I have gone further, alerting clients that

fig. 2 The Magazine Antiques, May 2004

4

tious, but their resistance was obviously waning.

medical science does not have a prescription

In November 2005, we opened an exhibition

to treat the depression that accompanies lost

titled Blakelock, the Great Mad Genius. This was

opportunities (f i g . 3).

the most extensive gallery show for the artist in

I intend to keep beating the drum and to

several decades. He was principally responsible

find new ways to express my enthusiasm for

for American art’s transition to modernism at the

great American art.

turn of the century. His fame grew to proportions

3:30 PM


his trip from Nebraska was an extraordinary act of generosity. He dedicated most of his life to the study of the artist and had just completed his Blakelock monograph, the culmination of twenty years’ work. Interest in his lecture was incredible, and I faced another dilemma: there was not enough room to accommodate the number of guests who wished to attend. To complicate matters further, a film crew wanted to record the lecture for inclusion in a documentary about

Ralph Albert Blakelock

Dr. Geske’s life. I explained the problem, and he

The Great Mad Genius November 15 – December 15, 2005

immediately offered a solution: he would deliver the first lecture, take a short break, and lecture again. Both lectures were at capacity, and he only

OPENING NIGHT November 15, 2005 RSVP required

Q U E S T R O YA L   F I N E   A RT,  L L C 903 Park Avenue, Suite 3 A & B, New York, NY 10021 T: (212) 744-3586 F:(212) 585-3828 Hours: Monday–Friday 10 – 6, Saturday 10– 5 and by appointment EMAIL : gallery @ questroyalfineart.com www.questroyalfineart.com

25.1803

75 paintings for exhibition and sale

F E AT U R I N G

The most important show in 100 years

Music of the night and

Exhibition catalogue free upon request

got progressively stronger.

fig. 4 ArtNews, November 2005

a glimpse of Mr. Blakelock

I am planning future exhibitions and considering the possibility of another Blakelock show. It would be interesting to call attention to other

2-3

8/20/09

great artists that are just below the radar. This is

2:41:52 PM

an approach that will present good opportunities for our collectors.

never before seen, and two of his paintings set

Guests just kept coming. I asked the caterers to

American records at auction. I spent countless

offer drinks in the rotunda to delay entrance to

hours devising a promotional strategy and placed

the exhibition rooms. Three of my staff spent

ads in virtually every major art publication

the evening directing traffic in the hallways.

(figs. 4 and 5). It was my intention to rekindle a

Every window in the gallery was opened to let in

I have pondered various ideas and ways to inform

bit of the nearly century-old fame. I had no idea

some fresh air. Collectors arrived from virtually

and inspire the many collectors who consider

that it had never really subsided; a mere spark

every state in the country. Most of the extended

American paintings. It used to be a taboo to even

awakened an interest that almost caused me to

Blakelock family were in attendance and shared

be evicted from my gallery.

many personal anecdotes. It was midnight before

Innovations

suggest that the acquisition of paintings should fig. 5 American Art Review, September/October 2005

also be evaluated as an investment. I found this

The opening was scheduled for Tuesday,

the last guest departed. Of the eighty paintings

November 15, on the eve of the full moon. Per-

exhibited, thirty-nine were offered for sale and

been cognizant of appreciation. A few years ago,

haps this was not one of my best ideas. The

thirty-seven sold on opening night; the remainder

we received permission from two prominent New

guests began to arrive, and the gallery soon

sold the next morning. In fact, some collectors

York University professors to produce a report

became crowded. All six showrooms were at

were offered substantial profits, and paintings

based on their proprietary research. They studied

capacity within the first hour. The doorman

resold throughout the duration of the show.

the performance of paintings that sold at public

to be absurd, as most collectors have always

called to say that he would activate the service

The following Friday, eminent Blakelock

auction at least twice over a period of time. They

elevator, as the main elevator was jammed and

scholar Dr. Norman Geske was scheduled to lec-

devised graphs and equations that compared

the building’s residents were complaining.

ture at the gallery. He was in his early nineties, so

art in various categories as well as to stock and

We all know collectors who are thankful that at least some of their capital was preserved by their painting collections and did not find its way to the stock market. — l m s , s u m m e r 2009


his trip from Nebraska was an extraordinary act of generosity. He dedicated most of his life to the study of the artist and had just completed his Blakelock monograph, the culmination of twenty years’ work. Interest in his lecture was incredible, and I faced another dilemma: there was not enough room to accommodate the number of guests who wished to attend. To complicate matters further, a film crew wanted to record the lecture for inclusion in a documentary about

Ralph Albert Blakelock

Dr. Geske’s life. I explained the problem, and he

The Great Mad Genius November 15 – December 15, 2005

immediately offered a solution: he would deliver the first lecture, take a short break, and lecture again. Both lectures were at capacity, and he only

OPENING NIGHT November 15, 2005 RSVP required

Q U E S T R O YA L   F I N E   A RT,  L L C 903 Park Avenue, Suite 3 A & B, New York, NY 10021 T: (212) 744-3586 F:(212) 585-3828 Hours: Monday–Friday 10 – 6, Saturday 10– 5 and by appointment EMAIL : gallery @ questroyalfineart.com www.questroyalfineart.com

25.1803

75 paintings for exhibition and sale

F E AT U R I N G

The most important show in 100 years

Music of the night and

Exhibition catalogue free upon request

got progressively stronger.

fig. 4 ArtNews, November 2005

a glimpse of Mr. Blakelock

I am planning future exhibitions and considering the possibility of another Blakelock show. It would be interesting to call attention to other

2-3

8/20/09

great artists that are just below the radar. This is

2:41:52 PM

an approach that will present good opportunities for our collectors.

never before seen, and two of his paintings set

Guests just kept coming. I asked the caterers to

American records at auction. I spent countless

offer drinks in the rotunda to delay entrance to

hours devising a promotional strategy and placed

the exhibition rooms. Three of my staff spent

ads in virtually every major art publication

the evening directing traffic in the hallways.

(figs. 4 and 5). It was my intention to rekindle a

Every window in the gallery was opened to let in

I have pondered various ideas and ways to inform

bit of the nearly century-old fame. I had no idea

some fresh air. Collectors arrived from virtually

and inspire the many collectors who consider

that it had never really subsided; a mere spark

every state in the country. Most of the extended

American paintings. It used to be a taboo to even

awakened an interest that almost caused me to

Blakelock family were in attendance and shared

be evicted from my gallery.

many personal anecdotes. It was midnight before

Innovations

suggest that the acquisition of paintings should fig. 5 American Art Review, September/October 2005

also be evaluated as an investment. I found this

The opening was scheduled for Tuesday,

the last guest departed. Of the eighty paintings

November 15, on the eve of the full moon. Per-

exhibited, thirty-nine were offered for sale and

been cognizant of appreciation. A few years ago,

haps this was not one of my best ideas. The

thirty-seven sold on opening night; the remainder

we received permission from two prominent New

guests began to arrive, and the gallery soon

sold the next morning. In fact, some collectors

York University professors to produce a report

became crowded. All six showrooms were at

were offered substantial profits, and paintings

based on their proprietary research. They studied

capacity within the first hour. The doorman

resold throughout the duration of the show.

the performance of paintings that sold at public

to be absurd, as most collectors have always

called to say that he would activate the service

The following Friday, eminent Blakelock

auction at least twice over a period of time. They

elevator, as the main elevator was jammed and

scholar Dr. Norman Geske was scheduled to lec-

devised graphs and equations that compared

the building’s residents were complaining.

ture at the gallery. He was in his early nineties, so

art in various categories as well as to stock and

We all know collectors who are thankful that at least some of their capital was preserved by their painting collections and did not find its way to the stock market. — l m s , s u m m e r 2009


ART

v s. S TO C KS AND BONDS

A Comprehensive Analysis of the Investment Potential of American Art

fig. 6 Art vs. Stocks and Bonds, 2007

fig. 7 Collector’s Series, 2008

bond performance. Our publication Art vs. Stocks

and several institutions and museums have

and Bonds was widely distributed and stimulated

requested extra copies for distribution.

I discovered that both new and experienced

perhaps, the value and collectability of various

collectors were reluctant to ask questions about

paintings. We selected three paintings of equal

collecting. Many did not feel comfortable reveal-

value and submitted images to one hundred of

ing what they did not know, and I understood the

our most active and experienced collectors. They

feeling. Others were simply not aware of what

were asked to select the painting that represented

they didn’t know. In order to address these issues

the best value. The results were posted on our

and to have a resource for first-time collectors,

Web site, and the percentage of the vote each

we produced The Collector’s Series (fig. 7). Issued

painting received could be viewed by collectors.

in six parts, it covered topics related to begin-

Interestingly, the second-place painting sold

ning and maintaining a collection. Each of the

almost immediately. This is an amusing and

six brochures explored a specific theme and pro-

unusual approach but one that may provide

vided opinions and advice from leading indus-

valuable clues to connoisseurship. Several more

It’s not wise to lose faith in this nation’s great resiliency. This is America—survivor of the Revolution, Civil War, Great Depression, social injustice, and two world wars—and through each crisis, no matter what the magnitude, we have risen and prospered. Recovery is inevitable; let’s not be paralyzed in the present but commence a course of action to be best positioned for the future.

try professionals and experienced collectors. It

surveys are scheduled, and we are seeking ways

— l m s , s p r i n g 2009

considered the most basic question: Why collect?

to provide even more valuable insight.

thought and conversation about including art in a diversified portfolio (fig. 6).

Most recently, we developed the concept of a survey as a means to assess the desirability and,

would be offered for sale, but there has been no

mation. If you buy a painting and it’s authentic

surge in supply. The clear decrease in both supply

and in your possession, you will know the most

and quality is a positive indicator no less signifi-

about it. The playing field is equal. Isn’t it wiser to

cant than record prices during robust times. Art’s

own what you understand and what you believe

The concept that scarcity of quality is the principal driver of valuation is held sacred. We have escaped a phenomenon unique to the contemporary art world that necessitates the suspension of the laws of supply and demand so that a buyer’s place within the social hierarchy is improved in proportion to the degree in which he most defies economic logic. Price itself ultimately becomes the primary motivation for acquisition.

status as a cherished asset continues to prevail.

in, and aren’t we all relieved that some of our capi-

This very determination not to sell has served to

tal has been preserved by our painting collection?

effectively rebalance the ratio of demand to sup-

There is seldom any sound reason to follow

ply, resulting in a remarkably resilient market

the crowd. The time to buy is when most are sell-

for American nineteenth- and early twentieth-

ing. These are the principles that have endured

century paintings.

the rigorous test of time.

— l m s , fa l l 2008

There is certainly pressure on the market,

Long before there was a tradition to restrict

and those who must sell may have to be patient

and an academic mandate to inhibit, the fiercely

or accept a lower price. Most collectors have

individual spirit of the American artist was born.

faith in the asset value of their paintings and

The European elites shunned their work, refusing

have regretted the commitment of so much

to recognize its merit and preferring to vent an

capital for the acquisition of stocks. All of their

animosity instigated by history. Today, more than

lives they’ve been conditioned to believe in the

150 years have come and gone, and our art has

stock market — that’s what they read about in

risen above bias and prejudice. It is an art that is

the newspapers and what’s discussed at dinner

still within the reach of its people. I will continue

parties. As they accumulate funds, they parti-

to buy compelling examples by America’s most

cipate in the stock market, but few, if any, take

inspired artists, no matter how great or meager

the time to fully research their investments.

their fame, and will sound that “alarm” when

Most either don’t know how or are unwilling to

collectors grow weary. If they retreat from the

read a balance sheet, and those who can and do

latest gloomy headline, I will remind them to give

are often misled or deceived.

equal credence to positive news. Auction records

Some of these very same people are collectors with a tremendous passion for art, and they

have been broken on numerous occasions during this recession.

spend a great amount of time in pursuit of that passion. They go to art museums, visit galleries, read books, attend auctions, and process and

A Wager

consider a great deal of information. Yet only the

Ten years from today, as I prepare for the next

smallest portion of their portfolios is allocated to

milestone catalogue, I am willing to bet that

The gallery world was discussed and the fine

what they know best: art. This does not seem very

those of you who failed to acquire a work pre-

points of connoisseurship evaluated. Technical

logical, particularly when you consider how well

sented here will wish that you had and those

art has performed throughout the last century.

of you who did will be very thankful. Dinner is

aspects, such as condition and conservation as

The Worst of Times or the Best Time ?

well as framing, were covered. The final issue

So, here we are in the throes of a great recession,

Art is exactly as represented. No one person

focused on the value of American art. Collectors

an economic plague nearly two years in duration.

necessarily knows more about it than anyone

continue to comment on the utility of the series,

Most dealers assumed an abundance of paintings

else. Inevitably, stock insiders have the most infor-

wagered, any takers ? louis m. salerno

It is important to clearly distinguish the market for paintings from the economy that antagonizes us and sets our mood. If we are compelled to read headlines, why not give as much weight to auction records and results that exceed estimates as we do to the latest news from Wall Street? — l m s , s u m m e r 2009

There will be no forthcoming variations, improved models, or new versions. They are as they were 150 years ago and as they will be 150 years from now. The opportunity is at hand. A great collector once said, “I regret only the painting I did not buy.” — l m s , fa l l 2005


ART

v s. S TO C KS AND BONDS

A Comprehensive Analysis of the Investment Potential of American Art

fig. 6 Art vs. Stocks and Bonds, 2007

fig. 7 Collector’s Series, 2008

bond performance. Our publication Art vs. Stocks

and several institutions and museums have

and Bonds was widely distributed and stimulated

requested extra copies for distribution.

I discovered that both new and experienced

perhaps, the value and collectability of various

collectors were reluctant to ask questions about

paintings. We selected three paintings of equal

collecting. Many did not feel comfortable reveal-

value and submitted images to one hundred of

ing what they did not know, and I understood the

our most active and experienced collectors. They

feeling. Others were simply not aware of what

were asked to select the painting that represented

they didn’t know. In order to address these issues

the best value. The results were posted on our

and to have a resource for first-time collectors,

Web site, and the percentage of the vote each

we produced The Collector’s Series (fig. 7). Issued

painting received could be viewed by collectors.

in six parts, it covered topics related to begin-

Interestingly, the second-place painting sold

ning and maintaining a collection. Each of the

almost immediately. This is an amusing and

six brochures explored a specific theme and pro-

unusual approach but one that may provide

vided opinions and advice from leading indus-

valuable clues to connoisseurship. Several more

It’s not wise to lose faith in this nation’s great resiliency. This is America—survivor of the Revolution, Civil War, Great Depression, social injustice, and two world wars—and through each crisis, no matter what the magnitude, we have risen and prospered. Recovery is inevitable; let’s not be paralyzed in the present but commence a course of action to be best positioned for the future.

try professionals and experienced collectors. It

surveys are scheduled, and we are seeking ways

— l m s , s p r i n g 2009

considered the most basic question: Why collect?

to provide even more valuable insight.

thought and conversation about including art in a diversified portfolio (fig. 6).

Most recently, we developed the concept of a survey as a means to assess the desirability and,

would be offered for sale, but there has been no

mation. If you buy a painting and it’s authentic

surge in supply. The clear decrease in both supply

and in your possession, you will know the most

and quality is a positive indicator no less signifi-

about it. The playing field is equal. Isn’t it wiser to

cant than record prices during robust times. Art’s

own what you understand and what you believe

The concept that scarcity of quality is the principal driver of valuation is held sacred. We have escaped a phenomenon unique to the contemporary art world that necessitates the suspension of the laws of supply and demand so that a buyer’s place within the social hierarchy is improved in proportion to the degree in which he most defies economic logic. Price itself ultimately becomes the primary motivation for acquisition.

status as a cherished asset continues to prevail.

in, and aren’t we all relieved that some of our capi-

This very determination not to sell has served to

tal has been preserved by our painting collection?

effectively rebalance the ratio of demand to sup-

There is seldom any sound reason to follow

ply, resulting in a remarkably resilient market

the crowd. The time to buy is when most are sell-

for American nineteenth- and early twentieth-

ing. These are the principles that have endured

century paintings.

the rigorous test of time.

— l m s , fa l l 2008

There is certainly pressure on the market,

Long before there was a tradition to restrict

and those who must sell may have to be patient

and an academic mandate to inhibit, the fiercely

or accept a lower price. Most collectors have

individual spirit of the American artist was born.

faith in the asset value of their paintings and

The European elites shunned their work, refusing

have regretted the commitment of so much

to recognize its merit and preferring to vent an

capital for the acquisition of stocks. All of their

animosity instigated by history. Today, more than

lives they’ve been conditioned to believe in the

150 years have come and gone, and our art has

stock market — that’s what they read about in

risen above bias and prejudice. It is an art that is

the newspapers and what’s discussed at dinner

still within the reach of its people. I will continue

parties. As they accumulate funds, they parti-

to buy compelling examples by America’s most

cipate in the stock market, but few, if any, take

inspired artists, no matter how great or meager

the time to fully research their investments.

their fame, and will sound that “alarm” when

Most either don’t know how or are unwilling to

collectors grow weary. If they retreat from the

read a balance sheet, and those who can and do

latest gloomy headline, I will remind them to give

are often misled or deceived.

equal credence to positive news. Auction records

Some of these very same people are collectors with a tremendous passion for art, and they

have been broken on numerous occasions during this recession.

spend a great amount of time in pursuit of that passion. They go to art museums, visit galleries, read books, attend auctions, and process and

A Wager

consider a great deal of information. Yet only the

Ten years from today, as I prepare for the next

smallest portion of their portfolios is allocated to

milestone catalogue, I am willing to bet that

The gallery world was discussed and the fine

what they know best: art. This does not seem very

those of you who failed to acquire a work pre-

points of connoisseurship evaluated. Technical

logical, particularly when you consider how well

sented here will wish that you had and those

art has performed throughout the last century.

of you who did will be very thankful. Dinner is

aspects, such as condition and conservation as

The Worst of Times or the Best Time ?

well as framing, were covered. The final issue

So, here we are in the throes of a great recession,

Art is exactly as represented. No one person

focused on the value of American art. Collectors

an economic plague nearly two years in duration.

necessarily knows more about it than anyone

continue to comment on the utility of the series,

Most dealers assumed an abundance of paintings

else. Inevitably, stock insiders have the most infor-

wagered, any takers ? louis m. salerno

It is important to clearly distinguish the market for paintings from the economy that antagonizes us and sets our mood. If we are compelled to read headlines, why not give as much weight to auction records and results that exceed estimates as we do to the latest news from Wall Street? — l m s , s u m m e r 2009

There will be no forthcoming variations, improved models, or new versions. They are as they were 150 years ago and as they will be 150 years from now. The opportunity is at hand. A great collector once said, “I regret only the painting I did not buy.” — l m s , fa l l 2005


Letter from the Director It is with great pride that I write this letter commemorating the tenth anniversary of Important

PA I N T I N G S

American Paintings. In perusing this volume’s pages, memories come flooding back to me. During my six-year tenure, I have had the experience of calling clients to tell them that “the one that got away” was for sale again. I have had the satisfaction of suggesting our newest acquisition to a client, which would in turn become their latest. And quite memorably, I have had the pleasure

These are paintings that stimulate us in a most profound way,

of soaking up the exquisite, arresting, sublime, and poignant brushstrokes, color palettes, compo-

adorn our homes, educate our children, and ignite conversations

sitions, and visions of the artists whose works fill our walls.

we might never have had. They provide historical perspective

In kindergarten, I began a thirteen-year ritual of Saturday art classes in the subterranean work-

as markers from which we may measure how far we have drifted

rooms of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Although it was thrilling to concoct giant papier-

from a more natural existence. —l m s

mâché dragons, it was in the galleries where I felt most in awe. I remember standing in front of John Singer Sargent’s The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit and being dwarfed by the porcelain vases (props Sargent used to paint the work) displayed alongside it. While, at that age, I think I preferred to be spooked in the dark room of Egyptian mummies, the MFA ’s American collection created vivid memories for me, a foundation in my visceral attraction to art, and perhaps an early career compass. I would like to thank our entire staff for their constant efforts and outstanding work in creating this catalogue, and to Lou and Brent in particular for cultivating a gallery that brings much honor, life, and humor to the art business. I am grateful to you, our valued clients, for your enthusiasm, knowledge, and ongoing passion. It is an honor to work with and among those who have an instinctual appreciation for art, as it is with them that I most easily identify. I hope that you enjoy this catalogue and the carefully chosen words and images that comprise it. Sincerely, Chloe A. Richfield

Plate 3 Daybreak, detail


Letter from the Director It is with great pride that I write this letter commemorating the tenth anniversary of Important

PA I N T I N G S

American Paintings. In perusing this volume’s pages, memories come flooding back to me. During my six-year tenure, I have had the experience of calling clients to tell them that “the one that got away” was for sale again. I have had the satisfaction of suggesting our newest acquisition to a client, which would in turn become their latest. And quite memorably, I have had the pleasure

These are paintings that stimulate us in a most profound way,

of soaking up the exquisite, arresting, sublime, and poignant brushstrokes, color palettes, compo-

adorn our homes, educate our children, and ignite conversations

sitions, and visions of the artists whose works fill our walls.

we might never have had. They provide historical perspective

In kindergarten, I began a thirteen-year ritual of Saturday art classes in the subterranean work-

as markers from which we may measure how far we have drifted

rooms of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Although it was thrilling to concoct giant papier-

from a more natural existence. —l m s

mâché dragons, it was in the galleries where I felt most in awe. I remember standing in front of John Singer Sargent’s The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit and being dwarfed by the porcelain vases (props Sargent used to paint the work) displayed alongside it. While, at that age, I think I preferred to be spooked in the dark room of Egyptian mummies, the MFA ’s American collection created vivid memories for me, a foundation in my visceral attraction to art, and perhaps an early career compass. I would like to thank our entire staff for their constant efforts and outstanding work in creating this catalogue, and to Lou and Brent in particular for cultivating a gallery that brings much honor, life, and humor to the art business. I am grateful to you, our valued clients, for your enthusiasm, knowledge, and ongoing passion. It is an honor to work with and among those who have an instinctual appreciation for art, as it is with them that I most easily identify. I hope that you enjoy this catalogue and the carefully chosen words and images that comprise it. Sincerely, Chloe A. Richfield

Plate 3 Daybreak, detail


Milton Avery (1885–1965) Plate 1

Bather, 1952

Design Stripped Bare

Gouache and watercolor on paper

Milton Avery was a singular yet highly influential figure in modern Ameri-

29 1 /4 x 21 inches (sight size)

can art. He developed a unique vision, adopting the philosophy that every

Signed and dated lower right: Milton Avery 1952

painting should be begun as if it were the first. This desire to approach

provenance

each new subject with a freshness of vision is best articulated in his mature

3

work. Inspired by Henri Matisse, Avery pushed his formal experiments to a

Felix Landau Gallery, Los Angeles Private collection, Montecito, California Private collection, by descent

new level, seeking pure, unmediated expression through color and form. As his technique evolved, his images became increasingly abstract and compressed. Avery embraced visual instability, prompting the viewer to

exhibited

acknowledge the paradox of painting, a practice that presents the illusion

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California, Recent Watercolors by Milton Avery Courtesy of the Landau Gallery, Los Angeles, June 5–July 8, 1956

of a three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional picture plane. Avery’s works, such as Bather, playfully acknowledge this contradiction, simultaneously suggesting and denying space. While form is built up through interlocking shapes of different hues, it is also undermined, as

This conviction of greatness, the feeling that one was in the presence of great events, was immediate on encountering [Avery’s] work. . . .

figure and setting seem to hover at the surface of the visual field. Refusing entrenched methods such as chiaroscuro and linear perspective, the artist favored subtle variations of line and a limited color palette with a range of

There have been several others in our generation who have celebrated

hues. Avery exploited the flexibility of watercolor as a medium, varying the

the world around them, but none with that inevitability where the

thickness of paint and facture from dry dabs to liquid, diaphanous layers.

poetry penetrated every pore of canvas to the very last touch of the brush. For Avery was a great poet-inventor who invented sonorities never

artist, “Today I design a canvas very carefully before I begin to paint it. The two-dimensional design is important, but not so important as the design in depth. I do not use linear perspective, but achieve depth by color — the

seen or heard before. mark rothko, artist, 1965

Form and color, however, remained in service of the idea. According to the

function of one color within another. I strip the design of essentials: the 1

4

facts do not interest me as much as the essence of nature.” For Avery, color served a dual purpose: it was both a technical tool to define space and abandon the artificiality of engrained artistic techniques, and a carefully

Avery has the finest eye for color in the entire history of

honed expressive device. — imh

American painting.

Avery’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

hilton kramer, art critic, 1982

2

Museum of Modern Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, National Portrait Gallery, Phillips Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Cleveland Art Museum.

1 Mark Rothko, “Commemorative Essay,” memorial address delivered at the New York Society for Ethical Culture, 2 West Sixty-fourth Street, January 7, 1965. 2 Hilton Kramer, The New York Times Magazine, August 29, 1982. 3 Milton Avery, quoted in Dore Ashton, “Milton Avery,” Milton Avery: Avery in Mexico and After, exh. cat. (New York: Rapoport Print. Corp., 1981), p. 16. 4 Ibid.


Milton Avery (1885–1965) Plate 1

Bather, 1952

Design Stripped Bare

Gouache and watercolor on paper

Milton Avery was a singular yet highly influential figure in modern Ameri-

29 1 /4 x 21 inches (sight size)

can art. He developed a unique vision, adopting the philosophy that every

Signed and dated lower right: Milton Avery 1952

painting should be begun as if it were the first. This desire to approach

provenance

each new subject with a freshness of vision is best articulated in his mature

3

work. Inspired by Henri Matisse, Avery pushed his formal experiments to a

Felix Landau Gallery, Los Angeles Private collection, Montecito, California Private collection, by descent

new level, seeking pure, unmediated expression through color and form. As his technique evolved, his images became increasingly abstract and compressed. Avery embraced visual instability, prompting the viewer to

exhibited

acknowledge the paradox of painting, a practice that presents the illusion

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California, Recent Watercolors by Milton Avery Courtesy of the Landau Gallery, Los Angeles, June 5–July 8, 1956

of a three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional picture plane. Avery’s works, such as Bather, playfully acknowledge this contradiction, simultaneously suggesting and denying space. While form is built up through interlocking shapes of different hues, it is also undermined, as

This conviction of greatness, the feeling that one was in the presence of great events, was immediate on encountering [Avery’s] work. . . .

figure and setting seem to hover at the surface of the visual field. Refusing entrenched methods such as chiaroscuro and linear perspective, the artist favored subtle variations of line and a limited color palette with a range of

There have been several others in our generation who have celebrated

hues. Avery exploited the flexibility of watercolor as a medium, varying the

the world around them, but none with that inevitability where the

thickness of paint and facture from dry dabs to liquid, diaphanous layers.

poetry penetrated every pore of canvas to the very last touch of the brush. For Avery was a great poet-inventor who invented sonorities never

artist, “Today I design a canvas very carefully before I begin to paint it. The two-dimensional design is important, but not so important as the design in depth. I do not use linear perspective, but achieve depth by color — the

seen or heard before. mark rothko, artist, 1965

Form and color, however, remained in service of the idea. According to the

function of one color within another. I strip the design of essentials: the 1

4

facts do not interest me as much as the essence of nature.” For Avery, color served a dual purpose: it was both a technical tool to define space and abandon the artificiality of engrained artistic techniques, and a carefully

Avery has the finest eye for color in the entire history of

honed expressive device. — imh

American painting.

Avery’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

hilton kramer, art critic, 1982

2

Museum of Modern Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, National Portrait Gallery, Phillips Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Cleveland Art Museum.

1 Mark Rothko, “Commemorative Essay,” memorial address delivered at the New York Society for Ethical Culture, 2 West Sixty-fourth Street, January 7, 1965. 2 Hilton Kramer, The New York Times Magazine, August 29, 1982. 3 Milton Avery, quoted in Dore Ashton, “Milton Avery,” Milton Avery: Avery in Mexico and After, exh. cat. (New York: Rapoport Print. Corp., 1981), p. 16. 4 Ibid.


Albert Bierstadt (1830–1902) Plate 2

Wooded Hillside Oil on canvas 18 11/ 16 x 27 3/8 inches Signed lower left: ABierstadt (artist’s monogram) provenance Private collection, New York

Of the romantic landscapists of the late nineteenth century, few are

Capturing the Beauty of the American West

more closely identified with the American scene than Albert Bierstadt.

Albert Bierstadt’s landscapes are legendary. His large canvases exempli-

mitchell a. wilder, founding director of the Amon Carter Museum, 1972

1

fied the romantic grandeur of the American countryside and inspired a nation that was embracing its Manifest Destiny. The public was so taken by Bierstadt’s sun-dappled scenery that the New York Daily News declared that Bierstadt’s canvases were painted “in an Eldorado, in a distant land of 3

gold; heard of in a song and story; dreamed of, but never seen.” Praise for

Mr. Bierstadt was perhaps more popular and widely known among people at large than is any American painter of the present generation. The London Outlook, 1902

2

Bierstadt extends to contemporary critics, who claim that he “was a skillful, 4

compelling magician with palette and paintbrush” who “often elevated and exhilarated them [the public] and made them proud of their country 5

and its West.” — sjs Bierstadt’s paintings are found in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, and Fogg Art Museum.

1 Mitchell A. Wilder, “Acknowledgments,” in A Bierstadt (Fort Worth, Tex.: Amon Carter Museum, 1972), p. 3. 2 The London Outlook, March 1, 1902. 3 New York Daily News, May 25, 1865. 4 Gerald L. Carr, “Albert Bierstadt: A Larger Perspective,” in Bierstadt’s West (New York: Gerald Peters Gallery, 1997), p. 7. 5 Gordon Hendricks, Albert Bierstadt: Painter of the American West (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1974), p. 9.


Albert Bierstadt (1830–1902) Plate 2

Wooded Hillside Oil on canvas 18 11/ 16 x 27 3/8 inches Signed lower left: ABierstadt (artist’s monogram) provenance Private collection, New York

Of the romantic landscapists of the late nineteenth century, few are

Capturing the Beauty of the American West

more closely identified with the American scene than Albert Bierstadt.

Albert Bierstadt’s landscapes are legendary. His large canvases exempli-

mitchell a. wilder, founding director of the Amon Carter Museum, 1972

1

fied the romantic grandeur of the American countryside and inspired a nation that was embracing its Manifest Destiny. The public was so taken by Bierstadt’s sun-dappled scenery that the New York Daily News declared that Bierstadt’s canvases were painted “in an Eldorado, in a distant land of 3

gold; heard of in a song and story; dreamed of, but never seen.” Praise for

Mr. Bierstadt was perhaps more popular and widely known among people at large than is any American painter of the present generation. The London Outlook, 1902

2

Bierstadt extends to contemporary critics, who claim that he “was a skillful, 4

compelling magician with palette and paintbrush” who “often elevated and exhilarated them [the public] and made them proud of their country 5

and its West.” — sjs Bierstadt’s paintings are found in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, and Fogg Art Museum.

1 Mitchell A. Wilder, “Acknowledgments,” in A Bierstadt (Fort Worth, Tex.: Amon Carter Museum, 1972), p. 3. 2 The London Outlook, March 1, 1902. 3 New York Daily News, May 25, 1865. 4 Gerald L. Carr, “Albert Bierstadt: A Larger Perspective,” in Bierstadt’s West (New York: Gerald Peters Gallery, 1997), p. 7. 5 Gordon Hendricks, Albert Bierstadt: Painter of the American West (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1974), p. 9.


Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847–1919) Plate 3

Daybreak

Landscape with Figures and Boat

Oil on board

Oil on canvas

5 7/8 x 8 inches

17 1/ 8 x 32 1/ 8 inches

Signed lower left: R.A. Blakelock.; signed on verso: Blakelock

Remnant signature lower left

provenance

provenance

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

Robert Moore

Private collection, New York

Private collection, New Jersey

note This painting has been authenticated and catalogued by the University of Nebraska Inventory as nbi-1888, category ii.

Plate 4

Plate 5

Indian Encampment at Twilight

Private collection, New Jersey exhibited Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; New Jersey State Museum, Trenton, Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1847–1919, January 14–June 7, 1975

Oil on canvas

literature

16 1/2

Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1847–1919, exh. cat. (Lincoln: Nebraska Art Association, 1974), no. 20, as Untitled – Landscape with Figures.

x 24 inches

Signed lower left: R A Blakelock provenance Giles Whiting Estate Museum of the City of New York

note This painting has been authenticated and catalogued by the University of Nebraska Inventory as nbi-779, category ii.

Bernard Danenberg Galleries, New York Private collection, Omaha note

The Blakelock Effect— In the Opinion of Great Artists

This painting has been authenticated and catalogued by the University of Nebraska Inventory as nbi-2064, category ii.

In his book The Unknown Night, the Genius and Madness of R. A. Blakelock, an American Painter, Glyn Vincent relates that leading artists William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri, and Franz Kline were fervent admirers of Blakelock’s 1

work. Jamie Wyeth and Andy Warhol also collected his paintings. Marsden Hartley believed that Blakelock was worthy of inclusion as a “plausible basis for a genuine American Art.”

2

[Blakelock] made a strong impression not only upon American art, but upon the art of the world. george bellows, artist, 1916

3

Plate 3 Daybreak


Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847–1919) Plate 3

Daybreak

Landscape with Figures and Boat

Oil on board

Oil on canvas

5 7/8 x 8 inches

17 1/ 8 x 32 1/ 8 inches

Signed lower left: R.A. Blakelock.; signed on verso: Blakelock

Remnant signature lower left

provenance

provenance

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

Robert Moore

Private collection, New York

Private collection, New Jersey

note This painting has been authenticated and catalogued by the University of Nebraska Inventory as nbi-1888, category ii.

Plate 4

Plate 5

Indian Encampment at Twilight

Private collection, New Jersey exhibited Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; New Jersey State Museum, Trenton, Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1847–1919, January 14–June 7, 1975

Oil on canvas

literature

16 1/2

Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1847–1919, exh. cat. (Lincoln: Nebraska Art Association, 1974), no. 20, as Untitled – Landscape with Figures.

x 24 inches

Signed lower left: R A Blakelock provenance Giles Whiting Estate Museum of the City of New York

note This painting has been authenticated and catalogued by the University of Nebraska Inventory as nbi-779, category ii.

Bernard Danenberg Galleries, New York Private collection, Omaha note

The Blakelock Effect— In the Opinion of Great Artists

This painting has been authenticated and catalogued by the University of Nebraska Inventory as nbi-2064, category ii.

In his book The Unknown Night, the Genius and Madness of R. A. Blakelock, an American Painter, Glyn Vincent relates that leading artists William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri, and Franz Kline were fervent admirers of Blakelock’s 1

work. Jamie Wyeth and Andy Warhol also collected his paintings. Marsden Hartley believed that Blakelock was worthy of inclusion as a “plausible basis for a genuine American Art.”

2

[Blakelock] made a strong impression not only upon American art, but upon the art of the world. george bellows, artist, 1916

3

Plate 3 Daybreak


Blakelock: A New Horizon Blakelock stood at the outer edge of imagination, near the supernatural. In defiance of Ruskin’s principles and accepted convention, he painted an image altered by the passage through the innermost chambers of his mind. He did not find his vision from what he saw but rather from what he felt,

The Blakelock Effect— In the Opinion of Critics

perceived, and imagined. He progressively deviated from the accepted norm, undeterred by the ever-increasing risk of condemnation as he facilitated

[Blakelock was] one of the greatest artists America has produced. . . . By every right he deserves a niche equal in importance to the

bellious stroke, the coordinates that would lead American art to modernism were calibrated in oil and pigment.

positions held by Winslow Homer, Albert P. Ryder, and Thomas Eakins. edward allen jewell, art critic of The New York Times, 1942

the complete unmitigated transfer of his intellect to canvas; with each re-

4

On two separate occasions the sale of Blakelock paintings broke an American record, and in 1916 paintings by this insane but incredibly creative American outsold those by Botticelli, Renoir, Monet, Rembrandt, and Pissarro. The art world was stunned that Blakelock had risen above Europe’s most

Whatever else may be said about late-nineteenth-century American

iconic painters.

painting, it must be admitted that it produced a small group [Homer,

At the dawn of the twenty-first century, a magnificent Blakelock was auc-

Blakelock, Eakins, and Ryder] of about the strongest individualists

tioned at Sotheby’s in New York, where it sold for $3,530,000, one of the highest prices paid for an American painting in recent years. —l m s

in the history of art. robert m. coates, art critic of The New Yorker, 1947

5

Blakelock’s works are in nearly every major American museum, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, National Gallery of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

He was a combination of painter and musician. . . . Blakelock was a mystic and colorist . . . a soul so sensitive, so fiery, highly wrought, that he could scarcely be at home on earth. harriet moore, art critic, 1913

6

1 Glyn Vincent, The Unknown Night, the Genius and Madness of R. A. Blakelock, an American Painter (New York: Grove Press, 2003), pp. 303–305; Warhol and Wyeth referenced in “Factory Work: Warhol, Wyeth, and Basquait,” http://www.tfaol.com/aa/6aa/6aa349. htm (accessed August 7, 2009). 2 Gail R. Scott, ed., On Art by Marsden Hartley (New York: Horizon Press, 1982), p. 168. Quoted in Diane P. Fischer, Paris 1900: The “American School” at the Universal Exposition (New Brunswick, N. J.: Montclair Museum, 1999), p. 190. 3 Quoted in “Plans Exhibition to Aid Blakelock,” New-York Tribune, March 21, 1916. 4 Edward Allen Jewell, “Blakelock Work Put in Exhibition,” The New York Times, January 13, 1942. 5 Robert M. Coates, “The Art Galleries, Blakelock,” The New Yorker (May 3, 1947): 70. 6 Harriet Moore, “An Appreciation,” in Moulton & Ricketts Galleries, Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition of Important Works by George Inness, Alexander Wyant, Ralph Blakelock (Chicago: Moulton & Ricketts Galleries, 1913). Quoted in Vincent, p. 10. 7 Macbeth Gallery, Art Notes, no. 13 (April 1900): 199.

Plate 4 Indian Encampment at Twilight


Blakelock: A New Horizon Blakelock stood at the outer edge of imagination, near the supernatural. In defiance of Ruskin’s principles and accepted convention, he painted an image altered by the passage through the innermost chambers of his mind. He did not find his vision from what he saw but rather from what he felt,

The Blakelock Effect— In the Opinion of Critics

perceived, and imagined. He progressively deviated from the accepted norm, undeterred by the ever-increasing risk of condemnation as he facilitated

[Blakelock was] one of the greatest artists America has produced. . . . By every right he deserves a niche equal in importance to the

bellious stroke, the coordinates that would lead American art to modernism were calibrated in oil and pigment.

positions held by Winslow Homer, Albert P. Ryder, and Thomas Eakins. edward allen jewell, art critic of The New York Times, 1942

the complete unmitigated transfer of his intellect to canvas; with each re-

4

On two separate occasions the sale of Blakelock paintings broke an American record, and in 1916 paintings by this insane but incredibly creative American outsold those by Botticelli, Renoir, Monet, Rembrandt, and Pissarro. The art world was stunned that Blakelock had risen above Europe’s most

Whatever else may be said about late-nineteenth-century American

iconic painters.

painting, it must be admitted that it produced a small group [Homer,

At the dawn of the twenty-first century, a magnificent Blakelock was auc-

Blakelock, Eakins, and Ryder] of about the strongest individualists

tioned at Sotheby’s in New York, where it sold for $3,530,000, one of the highest prices paid for an American painting in recent years. —l m s

in the history of art. robert m. coates, art critic of The New Yorker, 1947

5

Blakelock’s works are in nearly every major American museum, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, National Gallery of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

He was a combination of painter and musician. . . . Blakelock was a mystic and colorist . . . a soul so sensitive, so fiery, highly wrought, that he could scarcely be at home on earth. harriet moore, art critic, 1913

6

1 Glyn Vincent, The Unknown Night, the Genius and Madness of R. A. Blakelock, an American Painter (New York: Grove Press, 2003), pp. 303–305; Warhol and Wyeth referenced in “Factory Work: Warhol, Wyeth, and Basquait,” http://www.tfaol.com/aa/6aa/6aa349. htm (accessed August 7, 2009). 2 Gail R. Scott, ed., On Art by Marsden Hartley (New York: Horizon Press, 1982), p. 168. Quoted in Diane P. Fischer, Paris 1900: The “American School” at the Universal Exposition (New Brunswick, N. J.: Montclair Museum, 1999), p. 190. 3 Quoted in “Plans Exhibition to Aid Blakelock,” New-York Tribune, March 21, 1916. 4 Edward Allen Jewell, “Blakelock Work Put in Exhibition,” The New York Times, January 13, 1942. 5 Robert M. Coates, “The Art Galleries, Blakelock,” The New Yorker (May 3, 1947): 70. 6 Harriet Moore, “An Appreciation,” in Moulton & Ricketts Galleries, Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition of Important Works by George Inness, Alexander Wyant, Ralph Blakelock (Chicago: Moulton & Ricketts Galleries, 1913). Quoted in Vincent, p. 10. 7 Macbeth Gallery, Art Notes, no. 13 (April 1900): 199.

Plate 4 Indian Encampment at Twilight


Few American artists deserve a higher niche in the Temple of Fame than R. A. Blakelock. Endowed with unusual gifts, without special training, he has produced work of which any collector might be proud. william macbeth, art dealer, 1900

7

Plate 5 Landscape with Figures and Boat


Few American artists deserve a higher niche in the Temple of Fame than R. A. Blakelock. Endowed with unusual gifts, without special training, he has produced work of which any collector might be proud. william macbeth, art dealer, 1900

7

Plate 5 Landscape with Figures and Boat


Alfred Thompson Bricher (1837–1908) Plate 6

Beach at Little Boar’s Head, New Hampshire Watercolor and gouache on paper 11 1/ 8 x 21 7/8 inches (image size) 13 1/2 x 24 9/ 16 inches (paper size) Signed lower left: ATBricher (artist’s monogram)

His best paintings sing with surreal clarity. They can radiate a reflected sun with pupil-shrinking brilliance or stifle all emotion in mist. . . . He knew the coast intimately in all its moods. jeffrey brown, art historian, 1973

2

provenance Mr. and Mrs. Cecil A. Comfort, Kensington, New Hampshire Sale, Sotheby’s Parke Bernet, New York, April 29, 1976, lot 49 Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York, acquired at the above sale The Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., acquired from the above

Call of the Wild Alfred Thompson Bricher was known for his complete immersion in nature —which was integral to his creative process — as well as for his devotion to

exhibited

the modern method of plein air (open air) drawing and painting. Through-

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., October 1981–September 1982

out his career he roamed the coasts, both at home and abroad, perfecting his depictions of water and coastline and seeking out new views to distill on paper and canvas. After 1868, he focused almost exclusively on seascapes, a 3

subject at which he excelled. His ability to capture the effects of light and literature

the breaking of waves was particularly praised by critics and colleagues. His

John Wilmerding, Linda Ayres, and Earl A. Powell III, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1981), pp. 24, 27; figs. 11, 115.

fellow painter and friend William S. Barrett, in an observation in his sketchbook, recounted venturing out with Bricher to sketch the sea: “At 9 a.m., Aug. 20, 1897, A. Bricher and I spent the day out on the rough sea. He is very much like I am—a lover of true nature — not a studio painter like Homer. The sea shows her green gray anger today. It’s hard to sketch well but we 4

enjoyed being part of this angry turmoil.” Bricher sought direct communion with the subjects he painted, making him one of the premier chroniclers of East Coast landscapes. — imh

We determined to hunt out the man who in our midst was capable of expressing Nature on canvas so accurately and so beautifully. We climbed up two or three pairs of stairs over the Merchants’ Bank

Bricher’s works are found in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid.

[28 State Street] and there found not a cross-looking middle-aged man, but a youth, who seemed scarcely out of his teens. This was Mr. Bricher. Undated newspaper clipping

1

1 Undated newspaper clipping, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Quoted in Jeffrey Brown, Alfred Thompson Bricher, 1837–1908, exh. cat. (Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1973), p. 14. 2 Brown, p. 12. 3 John Wilmerding, Linda Ayres, and Earl A. Powell III, An American Perspective: Nineteenthcentury Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1981), p. 24. 4 William S. Barrett sketchbook. Quoted in Brown, p. 12.


Alfred Thompson Bricher (1837–1908) Plate 6

Beach at Little Boar’s Head, New Hampshire Watercolor and gouache on paper 11 1/ 8 x 21 7/8 inches (image size) 13 1/2 x 24 9/ 16 inches (paper size) Signed lower left: ATBricher (artist’s monogram)

His best paintings sing with surreal clarity. They can radiate a reflected sun with pupil-shrinking brilliance or stifle all emotion in mist. . . . He knew the coast intimately in all its moods. jeffrey brown, art historian, 1973

2

provenance Mr. and Mrs. Cecil A. Comfort, Kensington, New Hampshire Sale, Sotheby’s Parke Bernet, New York, April 29, 1976, lot 49 Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York, acquired at the above sale The Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., acquired from the above

Call of the Wild Alfred Thompson Bricher was known for his complete immersion in nature —which was integral to his creative process — as well as for his devotion to

exhibited

the modern method of plein air (open air) drawing and painting. Through-

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., October 1981–September 1982

out his career he roamed the coasts, both at home and abroad, perfecting his depictions of water and coastline and seeking out new views to distill on paper and canvas. After 1868, he focused almost exclusively on seascapes, a 3

subject at which he excelled. His ability to capture the effects of light and literature

the breaking of waves was particularly praised by critics and colleagues. His

John Wilmerding, Linda Ayres, and Earl A. Powell III, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1981), pp. 24, 27; figs. 11, 115.

fellow painter and friend William S. Barrett, in an observation in his sketchbook, recounted venturing out with Bricher to sketch the sea: “At 9 a.m., Aug. 20, 1897, A. Bricher and I spent the day out on the rough sea. He is very much like I am—a lover of true nature — not a studio painter like Homer. The sea shows her green gray anger today. It’s hard to sketch well but we 4

enjoyed being part of this angry turmoil.” Bricher sought direct communion with the subjects he painted, making him one of the premier chroniclers of East Coast landscapes. — imh

We determined to hunt out the man who in our midst was capable of expressing Nature on canvas so accurately and so beautifully. We climbed up two or three pairs of stairs over the Merchants’ Bank

Bricher’s works are found in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid.

[28 State Street] and there found not a cross-looking middle-aged man, but a youth, who seemed scarcely out of his teens. This was Mr. Bricher. Undated newspaper clipping

1

1 Undated newspaper clipping, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Quoted in Jeffrey Brown, Alfred Thompson Bricher, 1837–1908, exh. cat. (Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1973), p. 14. 2 Brown, p. 12. 3 John Wilmerding, Linda Ayres, and Earl A. Powell III, An American Perspective: Nineteenthcentury Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1981), p. 24. 4 William S. Barrett sketchbook. Quoted in Brown, p. 12.


John G. Brown (1831–1913) Plate 7

Have a Drink

It is not surprising that Mr. Brown, by such able renderings of

Oil on canvas

popular subjects, receives not only the respect of his brother artists,

23 5/8 x 17 1/ 16 inches

but also the substantial applause of the public in the form of

Signed lower right: J. G. Brown

prompt sales at first-rate prices.

provenance Estate of the artist

samuel g. w. benjamin, art critic, 1882

2

Sale, American Art Association at the American Art Galleries, New York, Finished Pictures and Studies Left by the Late J. G. Brown, NA, February 9, 1914, no. 41 Private collection

Inspired by His Daughters

Turak Gallery, New York Spanierman Gallery, LLC, New York

In 1867, John G. Brown’s first wife died, leaving the artist to care for his two

Alexander Gallery, New York

young daughters, ages six and three. At the time, the nation was also in

3

mourning, as the wounds of the Civil War were still fresh in the American exhibited

psyche. Significantly, Brown began to focus on sentimental country vignettes

Spanierman Gallery, LLC, New York, Nineteenth- and Twentiethcentury American Masters, May 15–July 3, 2008

during this period, particularly ones featuring young girls. These children

literature

the future. Have a Drink epitomizes these sentiments. Light permeates the

Finished pictres and studies left by the well-known American artist, the late J.G. Brown, N.A., ex. cat. (New York: American Art Association, 1941), no. 41.

scene and invites the viewer to bask in its warmth. The girl’s simple but kind

note

Drink could be Brown’s daughter, Mable. —s j s

symbolized both the artist’s and America’s loss of innocence and hope for 4

offer of a drink suggests the return to America’s wholesome roots. Notably, Brown scholar Martha Hoppin proposes that the model pictured in Have a 5

This painting bears the artist’s estate stamp, dated February 1914, on the verso. The painting is also recorded in the catalogue Finished Pictures and Studies Left by the Late J. G. Brown with the following description: “An old-fashioned well in the country, its gray curb built high, located under a shady tree, nearly fills the picture. In front of it a golden-haired child facing the spectator, a tin cup in her extended hand, awaits the answer to her invitation.”

Brown’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, National Academy Museum, Yale University Art Museum, Corcoran Gallery of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Samuel G. W. Benjamin, “A Painter in the Streets,” The Magazine of Art 5 (April 1882): 276. 2 Ibid., 270. 3 Martha J. Hoppin, Country Paths and City Sidewalks: The Art of J. G. Brown (Springfield, Mass.: George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum, 1989), p. 11.

Whatever the motif he selects, it is at once recognizable as being wholly American in subject and treatment. samuel g. w. benjamin, art critic, 1882

1

4 Ibid., pp. 4, 17. 5 Martha J. Hoppin, conversation with Jessica Waldmann, May 2009.


John G. Brown (1831–1913) Plate 7

Have a Drink

It is not surprising that Mr. Brown, by such able renderings of

Oil on canvas

popular subjects, receives not only the respect of his brother artists,

23 5/8 x 17 1/ 16 inches

but also the substantial applause of the public in the form of

Signed lower right: J. G. Brown

prompt sales at first-rate prices.

provenance Estate of the artist

samuel g. w. benjamin, art critic, 1882

2

Sale, American Art Association at the American Art Galleries, New York, Finished Pictures and Studies Left by the Late J. G. Brown, NA, February 9, 1914, no. 41 Private collection

Inspired by His Daughters

Turak Gallery, New York Spanierman Gallery, LLC, New York

In 1867, John G. Brown’s first wife died, leaving the artist to care for his two

Alexander Gallery, New York

young daughters, ages six and three. At the time, the nation was also in

3

mourning, as the wounds of the Civil War were still fresh in the American exhibited

psyche. Significantly, Brown began to focus on sentimental country vignettes

Spanierman Gallery, LLC, New York, Nineteenth- and Twentiethcentury American Masters, May 15–July 3, 2008

during this period, particularly ones featuring young girls. These children

literature

the future. Have a Drink epitomizes these sentiments. Light permeates the

Finished pictres and studies left by the well-known American artist, the late J.G. Brown, N.A., ex. cat. (New York: American Art Association, 1941), no. 41.

scene and invites the viewer to bask in its warmth. The girl’s simple but kind

note

Drink could be Brown’s daughter, Mable. —s j s

symbolized both the artist’s and America’s loss of innocence and hope for 4

offer of a drink suggests the return to America’s wholesome roots. Notably, Brown scholar Martha Hoppin proposes that the model pictured in Have a 5

This painting bears the artist’s estate stamp, dated February 1914, on the verso. The painting is also recorded in the catalogue Finished Pictures and Studies Left by the Late J. G. Brown with the following description: “An old-fashioned well in the country, its gray curb built high, located under a shady tree, nearly fills the picture. In front of it a golden-haired child facing the spectator, a tin cup in her extended hand, awaits the answer to her invitation.”

Brown’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, National Academy Museum, Yale University Art Museum, Corcoran Gallery of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Samuel G. W. Benjamin, “A Painter in the Streets,” The Magazine of Art 5 (April 1882): 276. 2 Ibid., 270. 3 Martha J. Hoppin, Country Paths and City Sidewalks: The Art of J. G. Brown (Springfield, Mass.: George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum, 1989), p. 11.

Whatever the motif he selects, it is at once recognizable as being wholly American in subject and treatment. samuel g. w. benjamin, art critic, 1882

1

4 Ibid., pp. 4, 17. 5 Martha J. Hoppin, conversation with Jessica Waldmann, May 2009.


James E. Buttersworth (1817–1894) Plate 8

Schooner in Stormy Seas Oil on panel 7 15/ 16 x 12 1 /4 inches Signed lower right: J. E. Buttersworth provenance The Estate of Robert Cummings, Matunuck, Rhode Island

James Edward Buttersworth, above all of his contemporaries,

Into the Hall of Fame

deserved more serious consideration as an artist exemplary of

James Edward Buttersworth is most lauded for his marine paintings, which

the primary themes of nineteenth-century America: the impetus

successfully merge artistic feeling with keen documentary observation. Schooner in Stormy Seas displays this characteristic deployment of dramatic

for discovery, technological innovation, belief in progress,

narrative and attention to detail. As the angry skies part, the ship and waves

and reverence for Nature.

are bathed in sparkling light, showcasing the artist’s ability to represent light

richard grassby, independent scholar, 1994

and shadow as well as the complex anatomy of a sailing vessel. Buttersworth’s

1

works are considered valuable records of historical ships, races, and other sailing events that predate the widespread use of photographic recording. In 1999, the artist was posthumously inducted into the America’s Cup Hall of

One of [Buttersworth’s] great virtues then was to paint with meticulous detail which was always in key and never detracted

Fame, located in Bristol, Rhode Island. This prestigious yearly ceremony in the maritime community honors “outstanding sailors and innovators” for their international recognition and contribution to the sport of yachting.

3

from the overall harmony of the painting as a whole. He was

Buttersworth not only represented several America’s Cup races, but also

a draftsman and a painter.

expanded the genre of marine painting, imbuing it with a flair for action

rudolph schaefer, independent scholar, 1975

2

and drama worthy of the greatest examples of history painting. —i m h Buttersworth’s work may be seen in the collections of the Amon Carter Museum, Yale University Art Gallery, Museum of the City of New York, New Orleans Museum of Art, Butler Institute of American Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and Peabody Essex Museum.

1 Richard Grassby, Ship, Sea & Sky: The Marine Art of James Edward Buttersworth (New York: Rizzoli, 1994), pp. 7, 46. 2 Rudolph Schaefer, J. E. Buttersworth: Nineteenth-century Marine Painter (Mystic, Conn.: Mystic Seaport, 1975), p. 21. 3 “James E. Buttersworth, 1999 Inductee,” http://www.herreshoff.org/achof/james_e_ buttersworth.html (accessed July 5, 2009).


James E. Buttersworth (1817–1894) Plate 8

Schooner in Stormy Seas Oil on panel 7 15/ 16 x 12 1 /4 inches Signed lower right: J. E. Buttersworth provenance The Estate of Robert Cummings, Matunuck, Rhode Island

James Edward Buttersworth, above all of his contemporaries,

Into the Hall of Fame

deserved more serious consideration as an artist exemplary of

James Edward Buttersworth is most lauded for his marine paintings, which

the primary themes of nineteenth-century America: the impetus

successfully merge artistic feeling with keen documentary observation. Schooner in Stormy Seas displays this characteristic deployment of dramatic

for discovery, technological innovation, belief in progress,

narrative and attention to detail. As the angry skies part, the ship and waves

and reverence for Nature.

are bathed in sparkling light, showcasing the artist’s ability to represent light

richard grassby, independent scholar, 1994

and shadow as well as the complex anatomy of a sailing vessel. Buttersworth’s

1

works are considered valuable records of historical ships, races, and other sailing events that predate the widespread use of photographic recording. In 1999, the artist was posthumously inducted into the America’s Cup Hall of

One of [Buttersworth’s] great virtues then was to paint with meticulous detail which was always in key and never detracted

Fame, located in Bristol, Rhode Island. This prestigious yearly ceremony in the maritime community honors “outstanding sailors and innovators” for their international recognition and contribution to the sport of yachting.

3

from the overall harmony of the painting as a whole. He was

Buttersworth not only represented several America’s Cup races, but also

a draftsman and a painter.

expanded the genre of marine painting, imbuing it with a flair for action

rudolph schaefer, independent scholar, 1975

2

and drama worthy of the greatest examples of history painting. —i m h Buttersworth’s work may be seen in the collections of the Amon Carter Museum, Yale University Art Gallery, Museum of the City of New York, New Orleans Museum of Art, Butler Institute of American Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and Peabody Essex Museum.

1 Richard Grassby, Ship, Sea & Sky: The Marine Art of James Edward Buttersworth (New York: Rizzoli, 1994), pp. 7, 46. 2 Rudolph Schaefer, J. E. Buttersworth: Nineteenth-century Marine Painter (Mystic, Conn.: Mystic Seaport, 1975), p. 21. 3 “James E. Buttersworth, 1999 Inductee,” http://www.herreshoff.org/achof/james_e_ buttersworth.html (accessed July 5, 2009).


John Fabian Carlson (1875–1945) Plate 9

Forest Peace

A Beloved Figure in American Art

Oil on canvas

John Fabian Carlson was a well-known and respected member of the art

40 5/ 16 x 52 3/8 inches

world during the twentieth century—a fact attested to by contemporaneous

Signed lower right: John F. Carlson; signed and titled on verso: Forest Peace /John F. Carlson

newspaper articles discussing his work, his solo exhibitions at the famous

provenance

(he taught at both Woodstock and Colorado Springs by the end of his career).

Robert Eric Carlson

Carlson’s paintings and reputation as a dedicated teacher were so renowned,

Macbeth Gallery, New York

in fact, that Grumbacher Finest Artists’ Oil Colors once employed him as its

Vose Galleries, Boston

spokesperson. As seen in a 1942 advertisement from American Artist (fig. 8),

Babcock Galleries, New York

the painter was lauded for his “prize winning landscapes,” his inspirational

Private collection, acquired from the above

book Elementary Principles of Landscape Painting, and, of course, his use of

Macbeth Gallery, and his ability to attract students from across the country

Grumbacher Finest oil colors. — jlw

exhibited Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Twelfth Exhibition of Contemporary American Oil Paintings, November 30, 1931– January 11, 1932 Babcock Galleries, New York, John F. Carlson, February–March 1993

Carlson’s works are found in the Smithsonian American Art Museum, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Dallas Museum of Art, Maier Museum of Art, and San Diego Museum of Art.

literature John F. Carlson, exh. cat. (New York: Babcock Galleries, 1992), n.p.

1 John Fabian Carlson, quoted in E. W. Watson, “John F. Carlson,” American Artist 6, no. 10 (December 1942): 13. 2 Charles Wharton Stork, “To John F. Carlson,” American Scandinavian Review 36 (March 1948): 29.

Trees are a lot like human beings; rooted men, possessing character, ambitions and idiosyncrasies. Those who know trees see all their whims; see their struggles too; struggles with wind and weather; struggles to adjust themselves to their society. john f. carlson , 1942

1

fig. 8 John F. Carlson featured in Grumbacher Finest Artists’ Oil Colors advertisement from the December 1942 edition of American Artist


John Fabian Carlson (1875–1945) Plate 9

Forest Peace

A Beloved Figure in American Art

Oil on canvas

John Fabian Carlson was a well-known and respected member of the art

40 5/ 16 x 52 3/8 inches

world during the twentieth century—a fact attested to by contemporaneous

Signed lower right: John F. Carlson; signed and titled on verso: Forest Peace /John F. Carlson

newspaper articles discussing his work, his solo exhibitions at the famous

provenance

(he taught at both Woodstock and Colorado Springs by the end of his career).

Robert Eric Carlson

Carlson’s paintings and reputation as a dedicated teacher were so renowned,

Macbeth Gallery, New York

in fact, that Grumbacher Finest Artists’ Oil Colors once employed him as its

Vose Galleries, Boston

spokesperson. As seen in a 1942 advertisement from American Artist (fig. 8),

Babcock Galleries, New York

the painter was lauded for his “prize winning landscapes,” his inspirational

Private collection, acquired from the above

book Elementary Principles of Landscape Painting, and, of course, his use of

Macbeth Gallery, and his ability to attract students from across the country

Grumbacher Finest oil colors. — jlw

exhibited Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Twelfth Exhibition of Contemporary American Oil Paintings, November 30, 1931– January 11, 1932 Babcock Galleries, New York, John F. Carlson, February–March 1993

Carlson’s works are found in the Smithsonian American Art Museum, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Dallas Museum of Art, Maier Museum of Art, and San Diego Museum of Art.

literature John F. Carlson, exh. cat. (New York: Babcock Galleries, 1992), n.p.

1 John Fabian Carlson, quoted in E. W. Watson, “John F. Carlson,” American Artist 6, no. 10 (December 1942): 13. 2 Charles Wharton Stork, “To John F. Carlson,” American Scandinavian Review 36 (March 1948): 29.

Trees are a lot like human beings; rooted men, possessing character, ambitions and idiosyncrasies. Those who know trees see all their whims; see their struggles too; struggles with wind and weather; struggles to adjust themselves to their society. john f. carlson , 1942

1

fig. 8 John F. Carlson featured in Grumbacher Finest Artists’ Oil Colors advertisement from the December 1942 edition of American Artist


Sturdy and mild and patient as the woods You lived among and painted, you bequeath A heritage of stern beatitudes To us who love your northland. charles wharton stork , poet, “To John F. Carlson,� 1948

2

Plate 9 Forest Peace, detail


Sturdy and mild and patient as the woods You lived among and painted, you bequeath A heritage of stern beatitudes To us who love your northland. charles wharton stork , poet, “To John F. Carlson,� 1948

2

Plate 9 Forest Peace, detail


Frederic Edwin Church (1826–1900) Plate 10

Study for View near Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1847 Oil on canvas 7 1/2 x 11 inches

There is a resolute, progressive, and apt spirit in Church which gives a living interest to his landscapes, and fills the spectator with a sense of his rare promise in art.

provenance Alexander Gallery, New York

The Knickerbocker, 1856

1

Collection of the Masco Corporation, acquired from the above Sale, Sotheby’s, New York, December 3, 1998, lot 109 Berry-Hill Galleries, New York Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York Private collection

A Discriminating Eye Created in 1847, Study for View near Stockbridge, Massachusetts bears witness to the profound thought artist Frederic Edwin Church put forth when preparing his early masterpiece, View near Stockbridge (1847; private collection).

exhibited

Similar to his teacher, Hudson River school leader Thomas Cole, Church

The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, Massachusetts; New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Connecticut; Hudson River Museum of Westchester, Yonkers, New York, A Return to Arcadia: Nineteenth-century Berkshire County Landscapes, March 1990– February 1991

developed a style that relied on truth to nature tempered by a discerning

Adelson Galleries, New York; Meredith Long & Company, Houston, Texas, Frederic Edwin Church, Romantic Landscapes and Seascapes, November 9, 2007–March 1, 2008

upper margins of one preparatory drawing that “Much of the detail in the

literature

streamlets of water running down the rocky foreground to the meadows.”

Franklin Kelly and Gerald L. Carr, The Early Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church, 1845 –1854 (Fort Worth, Tex.: Amon Carter Museum, 1987), p. 93.

These insightful annotations find elaboration in Study for View near Stock-

Maureen Johnson Hickey and William T. Oedel, A Return to Arcadia: Nineteenth-century Berkshire County Landscapes (Pittsfield, Mass.: The Berkshire Museum, 1990), p. 82, no. 13. Gerald L. Carr, Frederic Edwin Church, Romantic Landscapes and Seascapes (New York: Adelson Galleries in association with Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC., and Meredith Long & Company, 2007), p. 19, no. 3, p. 77, fig. 21.

personal aesthetic. Early drawings for View near Stockbridge indicate that the artist systematically surveyed the landscape to review and select the elements that would create a cohesive composition. Church noted along the distance cannot which I have portrayed cannot be distinguished at sunset . . . it would—I think, be well to represent a storm clearing off — and bright

bridge, Massachusetts. In this jewel-size painting, Church creates a composition that introduces the desired passing storm in brilliant lavender hues and a radiantly exuberant sunset whose rays glimmer from the picturesque rivulet at center. —jlw Frederic Edwin Church’s works may be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Cleveland Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and his home-turned-museum, Olana State Historic Site.

rel ated works Frederic Edwin Church, Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1847, pencil with white gouache and white chalk on paper, 12 1/2 x 17 7/ 16 inches, titled, dated August 1874 upper right, inscribed upper right and left. Olana State Historic Site. Frederic Edwin Church, View of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1847, oil on canvas, 27 1 /4 x 40 inches, signed and dated 1847 lower center. Private collection.

2

1 Anonymous, “New-York Artists,” The Knickerbocker, or New York Monthly Magazine 48, no. 1 (July 1856): 26. 2 Franklin Kelly and Gerald L. Carr, The Early Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church, 1845–1854 (Fort Worth, Tex.: Amon Carter Museum, 1987), p. 144.


Frederic Edwin Church (1826–1900) Plate 10

Study for View near Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1847 Oil on canvas 7 1/2 x 11 inches

There is a resolute, progressive, and apt spirit in Church which gives a living interest to his landscapes, and fills the spectator with a sense of his rare promise in art.

provenance Alexander Gallery, New York

The Knickerbocker, 1856

1

Collection of the Masco Corporation, acquired from the above Sale, Sotheby’s, New York, December 3, 1998, lot 109 Berry-Hill Galleries, New York Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York Private collection

A Discriminating Eye Created in 1847, Study for View near Stockbridge, Massachusetts bears witness to the profound thought artist Frederic Edwin Church put forth when preparing his early masterpiece, View near Stockbridge (1847; private collection).

exhibited

Similar to his teacher, Hudson River school leader Thomas Cole, Church

The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, Massachusetts; New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Connecticut; Hudson River Museum of Westchester, Yonkers, New York, A Return to Arcadia: Nineteenth-century Berkshire County Landscapes, March 1990– February 1991

developed a style that relied on truth to nature tempered by a discerning

Adelson Galleries, New York; Meredith Long & Company, Houston, Texas, Frederic Edwin Church, Romantic Landscapes and Seascapes, November 9, 2007–March 1, 2008

upper margins of one preparatory drawing that “Much of the detail in the

literature

streamlets of water running down the rocky foreground to the meadows.”

Franklin Kelly and Gerald L. Carr, The Early Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church, 1845 –1854 (Fort Worth, Tex.: Amon Carter Museum, 1987), p. 93.

These insightful annotations find elaboration in Study for View near Stock-

Maureen Johnson Hickey and William T. Oedel, A Return to Arcadia: Nineteenth-century Berkshire County Landscapes (Pittsfield, Mass.: The Berkshire Museum, 1990), p. 82, no. 13. Gerald L. Carr, Frederic Edwin Church, Romantic Landscapes and Seascapes (New York: Adelson Galleries in association with Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC., and Meredith Long & Company, 2007), p. 19, no. 3, p. 77, fig. 21.

personal aesthetic. Early drawings for View near Stockbridge indicate that the artist systematically surveyed the landscape to review and select the elements that would create a cohesive composition. Church noted along the distance cannot which I have portrayed cannot be distinguished at sunset . . . it would—I think, be well to represent a storm clearing off — and bright

bridge, Massachusetts. In this jewel-size painting, Church creates a composition that introduces the desired passing storm in brilliant lavender hues and a radiantly exuberant sunset whose rays glimmer from the picturesque rivulet at center. —jlw Frederic Edwin Church’s works may be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Cleveland Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and his home-turned-museum, Olana State Historic Site.

rel ated works Frederic Edwin Church, Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1847, pencil with white gouache and white chalk on paper, 12 1/2 x 17 7/ 16 inches, titled, dated August 1874 upper right, inscribed upper right and left. Olana State Historic Site. Frederic Edwin Church, View of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1847, oil on canvas, 27 1 /4 x 40 inches, signed and dated 1847 lower center. Private collection.

2

1 Anonymous, “New-York Artists,” The Knickerbocker, or New York Monthly Magazine 48, no. 1 (July 1856): 26. 2 Franklin Kelly and Gerald L. Carr, The Early Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church, 1845–1854 (Fort Worth, Tex.: Amon Carter Museum, 1987), p. 144.


Thomas Cole (1801–1848) Plate 11

Italian Landscape                                              Oil on board 5 5/8 x 9 inches provenance The artist Florence Cole Vincent, granddaughter of the artist Edith Cole Silberstein, the artist’s great-granddaughter Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York

This gentleman [Cole] we consider one of the best landscape-painters of modern times. England may boast of her Stanfield, Williams, and Turner; France, of her distinguished artists; but what works have any of these produced surpassing the best of Cole’s? The New-York Mirror, 1840

1

Private collection, Virginia By descent in the family Sale, Christie’s, New York, May 26, 1994, lot 3 Private collection

Thomas Cole is unquestionably the most gifted landscape painter

Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York

of the present age. In our own opinion, none superior to him have

exhibited

ever existed, when we consider, in connection with his felicity of

Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York, Thomas Cole, N.A. (1801–1848), November–December 1964

artistic execution, the poetic genius which his productions display.

literature

charles l anman, author, artist, and explorer, 1843

2

Thomas Cole, N.A. (1801–1848), exh. cat. (New York: Kennedy Galleries, Inc., 1964), p. 9, no. 19. Ellwood C. Parry III , The Art of Thomas Cole, Ambition and Imagination (Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Press, 1988), p. 309, fig. 249. rel ated work Thomas Cole, Dream of Arcadia, 1838, oil on canvas, 39 x 63 inches. Gift of Katharine H. Gentry, 1954, Denver Art Museum. Thomas Cole, L’Allegro, 1845, oil on canvas, 32 1/8 x 47 15/ 16 inches. Gift of the Art Museum Council and Michael J. Connell Foundation, Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Poetry and painting sublime and purify thought, and rural nature is full of the same quickening spirit: it is in fact the exhaustless mine from which the poet and the painter have brought such wondrous treasures — an unfailing fountain of intellectual enjoyment where all may drink and be awakened to a deeper feeling of the works of genius, a keener perception of beauty of our existence, and a more profound reverence for the Creator of all things. thomas cole, 1841

3


Thomas Cole (1801–1848) Plate 11

Italian Landscape                                              Oil on board 5 5/8 x 9 inches provenance The artist Florence Cole Vincent, granddaughter of the artist Edith Cole Silberstein, the artist’s great-granddaughter Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York

This gentleman [Cole] we consider one of the best landscape-painters of modern times. England may boast of her Stanfield, Williams, and Turner; France, of her distinguished artists; but what works have any of these produced surpassing the best of Cole’s? The New-York Mirror, 1840

1

Private collection, Virginia By descent in the family Sale, Christie’s, New York, May 26, 1994, lot 3 Private collection

Thomas Cole is unquestionably the most gifted landscape painter

Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York

of the present age. In our own opinion, none superior to him have

exhibited

ever existed, when we consider, in connection with his felicity of

Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York, Thomas Cole, N.A. (1801–1848), November–December 1964

artistic execution, the poetic genius which his productions display.

literature

charles l anman, author, artist, and explorer, 1843

2

Thomas Cole, N.A. (1801–1848), exh. cat. (New York: Kennedy Galleries, Inc., 1964), p. 9, no. 19. Ellwood C. Parry III , The Art of Thomas Cole, Ambition and Imagination (Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Press, 1988), p. 309, fig. 249. rel ated work Thomas Cole, Dream of Arcadia, 1838, oil on canvas, 39 x 63 inches. Gift of Katharine H. Gentry, 1954, Denver Art Museum. Thomas Cole, L’Allegro, 1845, oil on canvas, 32 1/8 x 47 15/ 16 inches. Gift of the Art Museum Council and Michael J. Connell Foundation, Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Poetry and painting sublime and purify thought, and rural nature is full of the same quickening spirit: it is in fact the exhaustless mine from which the poet and the painter have brought such wondrous treasures — an unfailing fountain of intellectual enjoyment where all may drink and be awakened to a deeper feeling of the works of genius, a keener perception of beauty of our existence, and a more profound reverence for the Creator of all things. thomas cole, 1841

3


Con Amore In January 1844, Thomas Cole wrote to his patron, Charles Parker, to present an outline of his next commissioned work. After assuring Parker that the ultimate choice would be his, Cole suggested a pendant pair with the titles L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1845, Los Angeles County Museum of Art), adding: “I hope the subject will suit your taste, for it is one on which I can work 5

con amore.” Parker must have consented to the artist’s preference (and en-

[W]hen I consider with what mastery, yet with what reverence he copied the forms of nature, and how he blended with them the profoundest human sympathies, and made them the vehicle, as God

thusiasm), for Cole finished both works the following year. Ellwood C. Parry asserts that Italian Landscape was created as a study for the first painting 6

in the pair, L’Allegro. Cole’s plan for the finished painting to “represent a sunny luxuriant landscape, with figures engaged in gay pastimes or pleasant 7

occupation” is mirrored in this smaller study. Although figures are absent,

has made them, of great truths and great lessons, when I see how

the gemlike landscape radiates with soft light suffused over the distant

directly he learned his art from the creation around him, and how

mountain, sylvan hills, and verdurous valley. The scene also bears similari-

resolutely he took his own way to greatness, I say within myself,

Museum), in its division of space and use of repoussoir trees—an observation

this man will be reverenced in future years as a great master in art;

made by Parry as well as Cole scholar Alan Wallach. —j lw

he has opened a way in which only men endued with rare strength

Cole’s paintings are in the collections of almost every major museum worldwide,

of genius can follow him.

including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum,

william cullen bryant, poet, 1848

ties to Cole’s earlier masterpiece, The Dream of Arcadia (1838, Denver Art 8

National Gallery of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and Musée du Louvre. 4

1 “The Fine Arts,” The New-York Mirror: a Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 18, no. 4 (July 18, 1840): 29. 2 Charles Lanman, “Cole’s Imaginative Paintings,” The United States Magazine, and Democratic Review 12, no. 60 (June 1843): 598. 3 Thomas Cole, “Lecture on American Scenery,” Northern Light; Devoted to Free Discussion and to the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Miscellaneous Literature, and General Intelligence 1, no. 2 (May 1841): 25. 4 William Cullen Bryant, A funeral oration occasioned by the death of Thomas Cole: delivered before the National Academy of Design, New York, May 4, 1948 (New York: D. Appleton; Philadelphia: G.S. Appleton, 1848), p. 37. 5 Thomas Cole to Charles Parker, New York, January 8, 1844, in Louis Legrand Noble, The Life and Works of Thomas Cole, ed. Elliot S. Vesell (New York: Black Dome Press, 1997), p. 266. 6 Ellwood C. Parry III , The Art of Thomas Cole, Ambition and Imagination (Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Press, 1988), p. 309. 7 Cole to Parker, 266. 8 Parry, p. 309; Alan Wallach, “Thomas Cole’s Italian Landscape” (Authenticity report,

Plate 11 Italian Landscape, detail

August, 15, 2009), p. 1.


Con Amore In January 1844, Thomas Cole wrote to his patron, Charles Parker, to present an outline of his next commissioned work. After assuring Parker that the ultimate choice would be his, Cole suggested a pendant pair with the titles L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1845, Los Angeles County Museum of Art), adding: “I hope the subject will suit your taste, for it is one on which I can work 5

con amore.” Parker must have consented to the artist’s preference (and en-

[W]hen I consider with what mastery, yet with what reverence he copied the forms of nature, and how he blended with them the profoundest human sympathies, and made them the vehicle, as God

thusiasm), for Cole finished both works the following year. Ellwood C. Parry asserts that Italian Landscape was created as a study for the first painting 6

in the pair, L’Allegro. Cole’s plan for the finished painting to “represent a sunny luxuriant landscape, with figures engaged in gay pastimes or pleasant 7

occupation” is mirrored in this smaller study. Although figures are absent,

has made them, of great truths and great lessons, when I see how

the gemlike landscape radiates with soft light suffused over the distant

directly he learned his art from the creation around him, and how

mountain, sylvan hills, and verdurous valley. The scene also bears similari-

resolutely he took his own way to greatness, I say within myself,

Museum), in its division of space and use of repoussoir trees—an observation

this man will be reverenced in future years as a great master in art;

made by Parry as well as Cole scholar Alan Wallach. —j lw

he has opened a way in which only men endued with rare strength

Cole’s paintings are in the collections of almost every major museum worldwide,

of genius can follow him.

including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum,

william cullen bryant, poet, 1848

ties to Cole’s earlier masterpiece, The Dream of Arcadia (1838, Denver Art 8

National Gallery of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and Musée du Louvre. 4

1 “The Fine Arts,” The New-York Mirror: a Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 18, no. 4 (July 18, 1840): 29. 2 Charles Lanman, “Cole’s Imaginative Paintings,” The United States Magazine, and Democratic Review 12, no. 60 (June 1843): 598. 3 Thomas Cole, “Lecture on American Scenery,” Northern Light; Devoted to Free Discussion and to the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Miscellaneous Literature, and General Intelligence 1, no. 2 (May 1841): 25. 4 William Cullen Bryant, A funeral oration occasioned by the death of Thomas Cole: delivered before the National Academy of Design, New York, May 4, 1948 (New York: D. Appleton; Philadelphia: G.S. Appleton, 1848), p. 37. 5 Thomas Cole to Charles Parker, New York, January 8, 1844, in Louis Legrand Noble, The Life and Works of Thomas Cole, ed. Elliot S. Vesell (New York: Black Dome Press, 1997), p. 266. 6 Ellwood C. Parry III , The Art of Thomas Cole, Ambition and Imagination (Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Press, 1988), p. 309. 7 Cole to Parker, 266. 8 Parry, p. 309; Alan Wallach, “Thomas Cole’s Italian Landscape” (Authenticity report,

Plate 11 Italian Landscape, detail

August, 15, 2009), p. 1.


Samuel Colman (1832–1920) Plate 12

Morning, 1859

Finding Religion and Order in Nature

Oil on canvas

The beautiful simplicity of Colman’s works — evident in Morning —

15 1 /4 x 24 3/ 16 inches

conceals the intense thought and philosophy behind his poetic landscapes.

Signed and dated lower right: S. Colman ’59

As detailed in his writings, Colman viewed landscape as more than just the

provenance

representation of spaces; rather, he found spirituality, truth, and beauty in nature’s ordered variety and graceful unity. Eventually, Colman expressed

Kenneth Lux Gallery, New York

his artistic ideas in a book titled Nature’s Harmonic Unity; a Treatise on its

Private collection, New York

relation to proportional form (1912). In the first chapter, “Order is Heaven’s

Private collection, Connecticut

First Law,” the artist explained: “Unity is the highest element of beauty, and

exhibited

there can be no question but that the laws of growth in Nature are the

Kenneth Lux Gallery, New York, Nineteenth-century American Paintings, November 15–December 10, 1977

fundamental ones which govern it.” He later published a second book,

literature

to those set forth in “Nature’s harmonic unity” (1920), which espoused similar

Nineteenth-century American Paintings, exh. cat. (New York: Kenneth Lux Gallery, 1977), n.p., no. 5.

theories. Needless to say, Colman always strove to translate his philoso-

3

Proportional form; further studies in the science of beauty, being supplemental

phies of nature to the visual realm, creating painted masterpieces of serene harmony. — jlw Colman’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Brooklyn Museum, Fine Art Museums of San

[T]o the eye of refined taste, to the quiet lover of nature, there

Francisco, National Academy Museum, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

is a peculiar charm in Colman’s style which, sooner or later, will be widely appreciated.

1 Henry T. Tuckerman, Book of the Artists (New York: James F. Carr, reprinted 1966), p. 560.

henry t. tuckerman , art critic and author of Book of the Artists, 1870

3 Samuel Colman, “Chapter One” in Nature’s Harmonic Unity; a Treatise on its relation to proportional form, ed. C. Arthur Coan (New York and London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912), p. 3.

1

The variety within his art, the quality of his paintings and etchings, the wanderings to far, remote corners of the world, and his prominent role in major artistic activities in his day make him an interesting personality and an artist well worth reviving. wayne craven , art historian, 1976

2 Wayne Craven, “Samuel Colman (1832–1920): Rediscovered Painter of Far-Away Places,” American Art Journal 8, no 1 (May 1976): 16, 37.

2


Samuel Colman (1832–1920) Plate 12

Morning, 1859

Finding Religion and Order in Nature

Oil on canvas

The beautiful simplicity of Colman’s works — evident in Morning —

15 1 /4 x 24 3/ 16 inches

conceals the intense thought and philosophy behind his poetic landscapes.

Signed and dated lower right: S. Colman ’59

As detailed in his writings, Colman viewed landscape as more than just the

provenance

representation of spaces; rather, he found spirituality, truth, and beauty in nature’s ordered variety and graceful unity. Eventually, Colman expressed

Kenneth Lux Gallery, New York

his artistic ideas in a book titled Nature’s Harmonic Unity; a Treatise on its

Private collection, New York

relation to proportional form (1912). In the first chapter, “Order is Heaven’s

Private collection, Connecticut

First Law,” the artist explained: “Unity is the highest element of beauty, and

exhibited

there can be no question but that the laws of growth in Nature are the

Kenneth Lux Gallery, New York, Nineteenth-century American Paintings, November 15–December 10, 1977

fundamental ones which govern it.” He later published a second book,

literature

to those set forth in “Nature’s harmonic unity” (1920), which espoused similar

Nineteenth-century American Paintings, exh. cat. (New York: Kenneth Lux Gallery, 1977), n.p., no. 5.

theories. Needless to say, Colman always strove to translate his philoso-

3

Proportional form; further studies in the science of beauty, being supplemental

phies of nature to the visual realm, creating painted masterpieces of serene harmony. — jlw Colman’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Brooklyn Museum, Fine Art Museums of San

[T]o the eye of refined taste, to the quiet lover of nature, there

Francisco, National Academy Museum, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

is a peculiar charm in Colman’s style which, sooner or later, will be widely appreciated.

1 Henry T. Tuckerman, Book of the Artists (New York: James F. Carr, reprinted 1966), p. 560.

henry t. tuckerman , art critic and author of Book of the Artists, 1870

3 Samuel Colman, “Chapter One” in Nature’s Harmonic Unity; a Treatise on its relation to proportional form, ed. C. Arthur Coan (New York and London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912), p. 3.

1

The variety within his art, the quality of his paintings and etchings, the wanderings to far, remote corners of the world, and his prominent role in major artistic activities in his day make him an interesting personality and an artist well worth reviving. wayne craven , art historian, 1976

2 Wayne Craven, “Samuel Colman (1832–1920): Rediscovered Painter of Far-Away Places,” American Art Journal 8, no 1 (May 1976): 16, 37.

2


Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823–1900) Plate 13

Gates of the Hudson

Architectural and Artistic Precision

Oil on canvas

In 1987, the New-York Historical Society organized a one-man show that

20 1 /4 x 30 5/ 16 inches

showcased both the painterly and architectural pursuits of Jasper Francis

Signed lower left: J. F. Cropsey

Cropsey. Although perhaps a new discovery for modern audiences, Cropsey’s

provenance

architectural background was well known during his day. Critics saw a

3

4

Nedra Matteucci Galleries, Sante Fe, New Mexico Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York Private collection, New York

positive link between Cropsey’s two professions and often emphasized the precision and accuracy of his paintings — qualities likely encouraged by his architectural studies. William Henry Forman, a critic and editor for The Manhattan, declared, “His perspective . . . is sure to be perfect, while the architectural effects he sometimes introduces on his canvases are always 5

harmonious and consistent in details.” Others took equal note of these features; the Home Journal reported, “[Cropsey] gives his subject to the

He has chosen the picturesque varieties of his theme with great intellectual sagacity; given to them an atmosphere that the human

general eye with more precision than most of his compeers,” while fellow artist Jervis McEntee recorded in his journal: “[Cropsey’s] touch is remark6

ably crisp and excellent.” Gates of the Hudson demonstrates the praise-

lungs can expand in, and over cloud, mountain, sea, and tower

worthy meticulousness of perspective and details described by his critics,

poured the full light of day.

offering a landscape that could easily double as a trompe l’oeil window

e. anna lewis, art critic, 1854 1

scene of the Hudson River. — jlw Cropsey’s paintings are currently in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The White House, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Los Angeles County

Mr. Cropsey is one of the few among our landscape painters who

Museum of Art, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid.

go directly to nature for their materials. For one so young in his art, his attainments are extraordinary; and it is no disparagement to

1 E. Anna Lewis, “Art and Artists of America,” Graham’s American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Fashion 45, no. 5 (November 1854): 484.

the abilities of those veterans of landscape art, Cole and Durand,

2 “The Fine Arts,” The Literary World 1, no. 15 (May 15, 1847): 347.

to prophesy, that before many years have elapsed he will stand with

3 See Mishoe Brennecke, Jasper F. Cropsey, Artist and Architect, Paintings, Drawings, and Photographs from the Collections of the Newington-Cropsey Foundation and The NewYork Historical Society (New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1987).

them in the front rank, shoulder to shoulder. The Literary World, 1847

2

4 Upon Cropsey’s death, The New York Times ran an article that celebrated both his paintings and architectural designs, which included the ornate Sixth Avenue elevated railroad station. “Jasper F. Cropsey Dead,” The New York Times, June 23, 1900. 5 William Henry Forman, “Jasper Francis Cropsey, N. A.,” The Manhattan 3, no. 4 (April 1884): 372. 6 “Art and Artists,” Home Journal 8, no. 263 (February 22, 1851): 3; Jervis McEntee Diary, March 18, 1885, Jervis McEntee papers, 1796, 1848–1905, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., http://www.aaa.si.edu/collectionsonline/ mcenjerv/index.cfm (accessed July 5, 2009).


Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823–1900) Plate 13

Gates of the Hudson

Architectural and Artistic Precision

Oil on canvas

In 1987, the New-York Historical Society organized a one-man show that

20 1 /4 x 30 5/ 16 inches

showcased both the painterly and architectural pursuits of Jasper Francis

Signed lower left: J. F. Cropsey

Cropsey. Although perhaps a new discovery for modern audiences, Cropsey’s

provenance

architectural background was well known during his day. Critics saw a

3

4

Nedra Matteucci Galleries, Sante Fe, New Mexico Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York Private collection, New York

positive link between Cropsey’s two professions and often emphasized the precision and accuracy of his paintings — qualities likely encouraged by his architectural studies. William Henry Forman, a critic and editor for The Manhattan, declared, “His perspective . . . is sure to be perfect, while the architectural effects he sometimes introduces on his canvases are always 5

harmonious and consistent in details.” Others took equal note of these features; the Home Journal reported, “[Cropsey] gives his subject to the

He has chosen the picturesque varieties of his theme with great intellectual sagacity; given to them an atmosphere that the human

general eye with more precision than most of his compeers,” while fellow artist Jervis McEntee recorded in his journal: “[Cropsey’s] touch is remark6

ably crisp and excellent.” Gates of the Hudson demonstrates the praise-

lungs can expand in, and over cloud, mountain, sea, and tower

worthy meticulousness of perspective and details described by his critics,

poured the full light of day.

offering a landscape that could easily double as a trompe l’oeil window

e. anna lewis, art critic, 1854 1

scene of the Hudson River. — jlw Cropsey’s paintings are currently in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The White House, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Los Angeles County

Mr. Cropsey is one of the few among our landscape painters who

Museum of Art, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid.

go directly to nature for their materials. For one so young in his art, his attainments are extraordinary; and it is no disparagement to

1 E. Anna Lewis, “Art and Artists of America,” Graham’s American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Fashion 45, no. 5 (November 1854): 484.

the abilities of those veterans of landscape art, Cole and Durand,

2 “The Fine Arts,” The Literary World 1, no. 15 (May 15, 1847): 347.

to prophesy, that before many years have elapsed he will stand with

3 See Mishoe Brennecke, Jasper F. Cropsey, Artist and Architect, Paintings, Drawings, and Photographs from the Collections of the Newington-Cropsey Foundation and The NewYork Historical Society (New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1987).

them in the front rank, shoulder to shoulder. The Literary World, 1847

2

4 Upon Cropsey’s death, The New York Times ran an article that celebrated both his paintings and architectural designs, which included the ornate Sixth Avenue elevated railroad station. “Jasper F. Cropsey Dead,” The New York Times, June 23, 1900. 5 William Henry Forman, “Jasper Francis Cropsey, N. A.,” The Manhattan 3, no. 4 (April 1884): 372. 6 “Art and Artists,” Home Journal 8, no. 263 (February 22, 1851): 3; Jervis McEntee Diary, March 18, 1885, Jervis McEntee papers, 1796, 1848–1905, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., http://www.aaa.si.edu/collectionsonline/ mcenjerv/index.cfm (accessed July 5, 2009).


Mauritz Frederik Hendrik de Haas (1832–1895) Plate 14

Seascape with Ships Oil on canvas 15 1/8 x 23 1/ 8 inches Signed lower left: M F H de Haas provenance Private collection, Dallas

If [De Haas] can not actually control the winds and the waves,

Noted Painter of the Seas

he has succeeded in being controlled by them to that degree that

In 1859, Mauritz de Haas left his successful painting career in Holland for 3

the very genii of ocean and sky seem to move on his canvases. The Aldine, the Art Journal of America, 1877

1

the promise of America. Upon arriving in New York City, the artist experienced an almost meteoric rise as a marine painter. He was quickly inducted into the National Academy of Design and widely recognized as “a clever 4

and painstaking artist.” Critics lauded De Haas’s depictions of the ocean’s atmospheric effects: “His distances melt into fogs and do not fade into the

Mauritz Frederik Hendrik de Haas is not only a representative Brooklyn artist, but probably the most noted marine-painter in this country. Endowed by nature with the genius to paint . . .[H]is name has become almost associated with the thought of the ocean itself. eugene f. beecher, art critic, 1878

5

sight.” Another critic admired De Haas’s “fidelity to nature, vigor of execu6

tion, [and] brilliancy, with irridescent [sic] effects.” Seascape with Ships bears witness to these claims. The canvas balances the beauty of streaming light and a soft mountain view with the perilous reality of the choppy waves. Such artistic deft demonstrates that the praise heaped on De Haas by his contemporaries was richly deserved. —s j s

2

De Haas’s paintings are featured in the collections of the New-York Historical Society, National Academy Museum, Yale University Art Gallery, Museum of Arts and Sciences, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 “A Rain Squall,” The Aldine, the Art Journal of America (May, 1, 1877): 9. 2 Eugene F. Beecher, The Brooklyn Monthly 1, no. 7 (January 1878): 3. 3 Ibid., 4. 4 “Art and Artists in New York,” The Independent (May 12, 1881): 7. 5 Ibid. 6 Beecher, 4.


Mauritz Frederik Hendrik de Haas (1832–1895) Plate 14

Seascape with Ships Oil on canvas 15 1/8 x 23 1/ 8 inches Signed lower left: M F H de Haas provenance Private collection, Dallas

If [De Haas] can not actually control the winds and the waves,

Noted Painter of the Seas

he has succeeded in being controlled by them to that degree that

In 1859, Mauritz de Haas left his successful painting career in Holland for 3

the very genii of ocean and sky seem to move on his canvases. The Aldine, the Art Journal of America, 1877

1

the promise of America. Upon arriving in New York City, the artist experienced an almost meteoric rise as a marine painter. He was quickly inducted into the National Academy of Design and widely recognized as “a clever 4

and painstaking artist.” Critics lauded De Haas’s depictions of the ocean’s atmospheric effects: “His distances melt into fogs and do not fade into the

Mauritz Frederik Hendrik de Haas is not only a representative Brooklyn artist, but probably the most noted marine-painter in this country. Endowed by nature with the genius to paint . . .[H]is name has become almost associated with the thought of the ocean itself. eugene f. beecher, art critic, 1878

5

sight.” Another critic admired De Haas’s “fidelity to nature, vigor of execu6

tion, [and] brilliancy, with irridescent [sic] effects.” Seascape with Ships bears witness to these claims. The canvas balances the beauty of streaming light and a soft mountain view with the perilous reality of the choppy waves. Such artistic deft demonstrates that the praise heaped on De Haas by his contemporaries was richly deserved. —s j s

2

De Haas’s paintings are featured in the collections of the New-York Historical Society, National Academy Museum, Yale University Art Gallery, Museum of Arts and Sciences, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 “A Rain Squall,” The Aldine, the Art Journal of America (May, 1, 1877): 9. 2 Eugene F. Beecher, The Brooklyn Monthly 1, no. 7 (January 1878): 3. 3 Ibid., 4. 4 “Art and Artists in New York,” The Independent (May 12, 1881): 7. 5 Ibid. 6 Beecher, 4.


Thomas Doughty (1793–1856) Plate 15

Landscape, c. 1846 Oil on canvas 18 1/8 x 24 1/8 inches Signed right center: t. doughty provenance

Doughty’s pictures and Cole’s pictures should be placed apart from the

The artist

rest. We all admit them to be our masters; Cole in one style and Doughty

The American Art-Union, New York J. J. Simpson (Stimson), Providence, Rhode Island To his daughter

in another . . . Doughty, in study perpetual, is the Painter of Nature. The Knickerbocker, 1848

2

Reverend Diman, Providence, Rhode Island, by marriage to Ms. Stimson To their son, Reverend Diman, Providence, Rhode Island To his sister, Providence, Rhode Island Dr. and Mrs. Arnold Porter, bequeathed from the above Private collection, Boston, by descent from the above

Student of Natural History Like many landscape painters, Doughty derived his inspiration from a true

exhibited

fascination with the outdoors. As one critic wrote: “From his earliest boy-

American Art-Union, New York, 1846

hood he loved the woods, the streams, the hills and the valleys. He dwelt

Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence, Rhode Island Collects

with them—he felt their power—he made them his study and delight.” In

3

addition to painting, Doughty coedited a monthly natural history magazine,

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Albany Institute of History and Art, New York, Thomas Doughty, 1793–1856: An American Pioneer in Landscape Painting, October 19, 1973–April 7, 1974

The Cabinet of Natural History and American Rural Sports, and he provided

literature

Landscape. —agr

Frank H. Goodyear, Thomas Doughty, 1793–1856: An American Pioneer in Landscape Painting (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1973), p. 29, no. 44.

Doughty’s paintings are featured in the collections of the Brooklyn Museum, National

detailed images of indigenous birds and animals to accompany the text. For Doughty, natural history and landscape painting were intrinsically connected, and his appreciation for all aspects of nature is evident in paintings such as

Gallery of Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit Institute of Arts, Baltimore Museum of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

He must undoubtedly be considered the master and founder of a new school — no small honor in this imitative age. . . . We cannot think that any European artist could produce such pictures. thomas r. hofl and, art critic, 1839

1

1 Thomas R. Hofland, “The Fine Arts,” The Knickerbocker, or New York Monthly Magazine 14, no. 1 (July 1839): 50. 2 The Knickerbocker, or New York Monthly Magazine (October 1848): 363. 3 E. Anna Lewis, “Art and Artists of America,” Graham’s American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Fashion 45, no. 5 (November 1854): 483–484. Quoted in Frank H. Goodyear, Thomas Doughty, 1793–1856: An American Pioneer in Landscape Painting (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1973), p. 15.


Thomas Doughty (1793–1856) Plate 15

Landscape, c. 1846 Oil on canvas 18 1/8 x 24 1/8 inches Signed right center: t. doughty provenance

Doughty’s pictures and Cole’s pictures should be placed apart from the

The artist

rest. We all admit them to be our masters; Cole in one style and Doughty

The American Art-Union, New York J. J. Simpson (Stimson), Providence, Rhode Island To his daughter

in another . . . Doughty, in study perpetual, is the Painter of Nature. The Knickerbocker, 1848

2

Reverend Diman, Providence, Rhode Island, by marriage to Ms. Stimson To their son, Reverend Diman, Providence, Rhode Island To his sister, Providence, Rhode Island Dr. and Mrs. Arnold Porter, bequeathed from the above Private collection, Boston, by descent from the above

Student of Natural History Like many landscape painters, Doughty derived his inspiration from a true

exhibited

fascination with the outdoors. As one critic wrote: “From his earliest boy-

American Art-Union, New York, 1846

hood he loved the woods, the streams, the hills and the valleys. He dwelt

Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence, Rhode Island Collects

with them—he felt their power—he made them his study and delight.” In

3

addition to painting, Doughty coedited a monthly natural history magazine,

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Albany Institute of History and Art, New York, Thomas Doughty, 1793–1856: An American Pioneer in Landscape Painting, October 19, 1973–April 7, 1974

The Cabinet of Natural History and American Rural Sports, and he provided

literature

Landscape. —agr

Frank H. Goodyear, Thomas Doughty, 1793–1856: An American Pioneer in Landscape Painting (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1973), p. 29, no. 44.

Doughty’s paintings are featured in the collections of the Brooklyn Museum, National

detailed images of indigenous birds and animals to accompany the text. For Doughty, natural history and landscape painting were intrinsically connected, and his appreciation for all aspects of nature is evident in paintings such as

Gallery of Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit Institute of Arts, Baltimore Museum of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

He must undoubtedly be considered the master and founder of a new school — no small honor in this imitative age. . . . We cannot think that any European artist could produce such pictures. thomas r. hofl and, art critic, 1839

1

1 Thomas R. Hofland, “The Fine Arts,” The Knickerbocker, or New York Monthly Magazine 14, no. 1 (July 1839): 50. 2 The Knickerbocker, or New York Monthly Magazine (October 1848): 363. 3 E. Anna Lewis, “Art and Artists of America,” Graham’s American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Fashion 45, no. 5 (November 1854): 483–484. Quoted in Frank H. Goodyear, Thomas Doughty, 1793–1856: An American Pioneer in Landscape Painting (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1973), p. 15.


Edward Gay (1837–1928) Plate 16

Sunset from the Inlet, 1879 Oil on canvas 24 1/ 8 x 36 3/8 inches Signed and dated lower right: Edward Gay. 79 provenance Private collection, Connecticut

A careful examination of Mr. Gay’s work will do much to

The Inness Connection

aid the hopeful feeling existing and growing in regard to the

Although a gifted artist in his own right, Edward Gay found that having friends in high places was never a bad thing. One such colleague was

capability of American artists. New York Evening Express, 1881

George Inness, who wrote to Gay congratulating him on his 1885 National 1

Academy of Design exhibition submission: “I will now express to you my belief that your picture of ‘Washed by the Sea’ is the finest piece of nature in tone and colour that has ever been on our walls.” Inness continues to note

It is for their composition more particularly that we would commend these landscapes of Mr. Gay’s to many of his juniors. . . . These are very free impressions of American landscape, North and South, full of sentiment, rich in atmosphere and tone. New York Tribune, 1914

2

how the painting won its prominent hanging position, writing, “There was at first some opposition to my opinion, but after I had got it hung in its 3

present place there was general agreement that I was about right.” Gay was equally willing to show his friend appreciation, naming one of his sons after the venerated artist. In 1905, just over ten years after Inness’s death, Gay was awarded the George Inness Gold Medal from the National Academy of Design––a fitting commemoration of the artists’ friendship and talent. ––jlw Gay’s works are in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Arkell Museum at Canajoharie, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Canton Museum of Art, and Maier Museum of Art.

1 “Fine Art Notes,” New York Evening Express, March 7, 1881. Reel d30, Edward Gay Family Papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 2 “Pictures by Edward Gay, Neville Lytton and Others,” New York Tribune, March 29, 1914, Watson Library Vertical Files, Edward Gay, artist file. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3 George Inness to Edward Gay, November 16, 1885. Reel d30, Edward Gay Family Papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.


Edward Gay (1837–1928) Plate 16

Sunset from the Inlet, 1879 Oil on canvas 24 1/ 8 x 36 3/8 inches Signed and dated lower right: Edward Gay. 79 provenance Private collection, Connecticut

A careful examination of Mr. Gay’s work will do much to

The Inness Connection

aid the hopeful feeling existing and growing in regard to the

Although a gifted artist in his own right, Edward Gay found that having friends in high places was never a bad thing. One such colleague was

capability of American artists. New York Evening Express, 1881

George Inness, who wrote to Gay congratulating him on his 1885 National 1

Academy of Design exhibition submission: “I will now express to you my belief that your picture of ‘Washed by the Sea’ is the finest piece of nature in tone and colour that has ever been on our walls.” Inness continues to note

It is for their composition more particularly that we would commend these landscapes of Mr. Gay’s to many of his juniors. . . . These are very free impressions of American landscape, North and South, full of sentiment, rich in atmosphere and tone. New York Tribune, 1914

2

how the painting won its prominent hanging position, writing, “There was at first some opposition to my opinion, but after I had got it hung in its 3

present place there was general agreement that I was about right.” Gay was equally willing to show his friend appreciation, naming one of his sons after the venerated artist. In 1905, just over ten years after Inness’s death, Gay was awarded the George Inness Gold Medal from the National Academy of Design––a fitting commemoration of the artists’ friendship and talent. ––jlw Gay’s works are in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Arkell Museum at Canajoharie, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Canton Museum of Art, and Maier Museum of Art.

1 “Fine Art Notes,” New York Evening Express, March 7, 1881. Reel d30, Edward Gay Family Papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 2 “Pictures by Edward Gay, Neville Lytton and Others,” New York Tribune, March 29, 1914, Watson Library Vertical Files, Edward Gay, artist file. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3 George Inness to Edward Gay, November 16, 1885. Reel d30, Edward Gay Family Papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.


Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823–1880) Plate 17

Mountain Lake

S. R. Gifford Alone

Oil on canvas

In December 1863 an anonymous critic from The Round Table, a popular

12 1/8 x 10 inches

nineteenth-century periodical, took as his or her assignment the descrip-

Signed lower right: S R Gifford

tion of “American Genius as Expressed in Art.” The critic asserted that

provenance

Gifford, Kensett, and Church were representative of American genius in

3

landscape. Describing their contributions, this writer added: “They have

Estate of the artist

shown little or no sympathy with the tragic or grand element of life and

Estate of Julia Gifford Estate of Charles Frazier Maurice, great-nephew of Sanford Robinson Gifford By descent in the family

nature, and, with the exception of S. R. Gifford, no feeling for its consuming splendor and intensity. Mr. S. R. Gifford alone has given us something 4

approaching to the magnificent, the opulent, and the intense in nature.”

Anyone familiar with Gifford’s oeuvre may be shocked by this statement;

rel ated work Sanford Robinson Gifford, Lake Scene, 1861, oil on canvas, 6 1/8 x 8 1/2 inches, initialed and dated lower left: SRG 61. 1 Whereabouts unknown.

after all, he is primarily known for tranquil “air” paintings of the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains. Nevertheless, Gifford did experiment and paint sublime nature as seen in his 1861 masterpiece A Twilight in the Catskills (private collection). Mountain Lake, with its swirling, enveloping

note

clouds and dark, ominous palette, forms part of this group. In addition to

The artist’s family reports that this work was possibly executed at Echo Lake in Franconia in the New Hampshire mountains.

these details, the painting encompasses a jagged crag backlit by a blinding sun and autumnal trees that seem to overpower and converge on a Native American figure that drifts in a canoe across the foreground. With its dramatic elements and image of imposing nature, Mountain Lake shares the

His pictures seemed to palpitate with light. No other artist equaled him in the power of expressing the atmospheric effects which are

Gifford’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

characteristic of his work. Harper’s Weekly, 1880

romantic and sublime components of Gifford’s work praised by The Round Table’s critic. –– jlw

Brooklyn Museum, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Museum of 2

Fine Arts, Boston, Art Institute of Chicago, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.

1 Viewable in Sanford R. Gifford, exh. cat. (New York: Alexander Gallery, 1986), no. 18. 2 “Sanford R. Gifford,” Harper’s Weekly 9, no. 18 (September 18, 1880): 605. 3 “American Genius as Expressed in Art.” The Round Table, A Saturday Review of Politics, Finance, Literature, Society and Art 1, no. 2 (December 26, 1863): 21–22. 4 Ibid. 5 “Article VIII .— American Landscape Painters.” New Englander 32, no. 122 (January 1873): 145.


Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823–1880) Plate 17

Mountain Lake

S. R. Gifford Alone

Oil on canvas

In December 1863 an anonymous critic from The Round Table, a popular

12 1/8 x 10 inches

nineteenth-century periodical, took as his or her assignment the descrip-

Signed lower right: S R Gifford

tion of “American Genius as Expressed in Art.” The critic asserted that

provenance

Gifford, Kensett, and Church were representative of American genius in

3

landscape. Describing their contributions, this writer added: “They have

Estate of the artist

shown little or no sympathy with the tragic or grand element of life and

Estate of Julia Gifford Estate of Charles Frazier Maurice, great-nephew of Sanford Robinson Gifford By descent in the family

nature, and, with the exception of S. R. Gifford, no feeling for its consuming splendor and intensity. Mr. S. R. Gifford alone has given us something 4

approaching to the magnificent, the opulent, and the intense in nature.”

Anyone familiar with Gifford’s oeuvre may be shocked by this statement;

rel ated work Sanford Robinson Gifford, Lake Scene, 1861, oil on canvas, 6 1/8 x 8 1/2 inches, initialed and dated lower left: SRG 61. 1 Whereabouts unknown.

after all, he is primarily known for tranquil “air” paintings of the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains. Nevertheless, Gifford did experiment and paint sublime nature as seen in his 1861 masterpiece A Twilight in the Catskills (private collection). Mountain Lake, with its swirling, enveloping

note

clouds and dark, ominous palette, forms part of this group. In addition to

The artist’s family reports that this work was possibly executed at Echo Lake in Franconia in the New Hampshire mountains.

these details, the painting encompasses a jagged crag backlit by a blinding sun and autumnal trees that seem to overpower and converge on a Native American figure that drifts in a canoe across the foreground. With its dramatic elements and image of imposing nature, Mountain Lake shares the

His pictures seemed to palpitate with light. No other artist equaled him in the power of expressing the atmospheric effects which are

Gifford’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

characteristic of his work. Harper’s Weekly, 1880

romantic and sublime components of Gifford’s work praised by The Round Table’s critic. –– jlw

Brooklyn Museum, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Museum of 2

Fine Arts, Boston, Art Institute of Chicago, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.

1 Viewable in Sanford R. Gifford, exh. cat. (New York: Alexander Gallery, 1986), no. 18. 2 “Sanford R. Gifford,” Harper’s Weekly 9, no. 18 (September 18, 1880): 605. 3 “American Genius as Expressed in Art.” The Round Table, A Saturday Review of Politics, Finance, Literature, Society and Art 1, no. 2 (December 26, 1863): 21–22. 4 Ibid. 5 “Article VIII .— American Landscape Painters.” New Englander 32, no. 122 (January 1873): 145.


Most varied in his powers; interpreting every expression of the landscape with the most appreciative sense of its subjective subtleties; preeminently the artist in his just estimate of the values inherent in the sensible realities of nature; sustained, free, and finished in his method—the attractions of Mr. Gifford’s style are forcible and many. New Englander, 1873

5

Plate 17 Mountain Lake, details


Most varied in his powers; interpreting every expression of the landscape with the most appreciative sense of its subjective subtleties; preeminently the artist in his just estimate of the values inherent in the sensible realities of nature; sustained, free, and finished in his method—the attractions of Mr. Gifford’s style are forcible and many. New Englander, 1873

5

Plate 17 Mountain Lake, details


Seymour Joseph Guy (1824–1910) Plate 18

The Pick of the Orchard (Picking Apples) Oil on board 21 3/8 x 13 5/ 16 inches

We know of no example of [Guy’s work] that is not pleasant to

Signed lower right: SJGuy (artist’s monogram)

contemplate––that does not tell some story, however simple the tale,

provenance

to make us think better of our kind.

Sandor’s Antiques, Lambertville, New Jersey

t. b. thorpe , author, 1876

Lee B. Anderson, New York

1

Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York The Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., acquired from the above exhibited

The New “Guy” around Town

Lyman Allyn Art Museum, New London, Connecticut, American Romantic Paintings of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries from the Collection of Lee B. Anderson, February–March 1961, as Picking Apples

As noted by art historian David M. Lubin, Guy was made a member of the

Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida; Loch Haven Art Center, Orlando, The Good Life: An Exhibition of American Genre Painting by Artists Born during the First Four Decades of the Nineteenth Century, September– November 1971, as Girl under Apple Tree

counted among twelve top artists included in a photograph taken in the

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-century American Paintings from Private Collections, June – September 1972, as Picking Apples National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., October 1981–September 1982 literature Catalogue of Paintings by Seymour J. Guy, N.A., and Arthur Parton, N.A., to be sold by auction, February 7th and 8th at the Fifth Avenue Art Galleries (New York, Ortgies & Co., 1893), p. 12, no. 48, as The Pick of the Orchard. John Wilmerding, Linda Ayres, and Earl A. Powell III, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1981), pp. 56–57, 136. Linda Ayres, “An American perspective: nineteenth-century art from the collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr.,” The Magazine Antiques (January 1982): xv, 267. David M. Lubin, Picturing a Nation: Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-century America (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 209.

National Academy of Design in 1865; just one year later, he found himself Tenth Street Studio of T. Worthington Whittredge, the academy’s soon-to-be president (f i g . 9). Guy’s “virtually instantaneous prominence within this prestigious and powerful organization” continued throughout his lifetime: his works earned entrance into the academy’s annual exhibitions through 2

1908, and he was elected to serve on its council for more than ten years.

Furthermore, his reputation and progressive ideas placed him among the founders of the Brooklyn Art Association and Brooklyn Academy of Design. ––jlw Guy’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Brooklyn Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cincinnati Art Museum, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and New-York Historical Society.

1 T. B. Thorpe, “Painters of the Century –– No. VIII . Our Successful Artists––S. J. Guy.” Baldwin’s Monthly 8, no. 2 (August 1876): 1. 2 David M. Lubin, Picturing a Nation: Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-century America (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 208; for Guy’s involvement in the National Academy see David B. Dearinger, ed., Paintings and Sculpture in the Collection of the National Academy of Design, Volume One, 1826–1925 (New York and Manchester: Hudson Hills Press, 2004), pp. 243–244. 3 Lee M. Edwards, Domestic Bliss: Family Life in American Painting, 1840–1910 (New York: Hudson River Museum, 1988), p. 3.


Seymour Joseph Guy (1824–1910) Plate 18

The Pick of the Orchard (Picking Apples) Oil on board 21 3/8 x 13 5/ 16 inches

We know of no example of [Guy’s work] that is not pleasant to

Signed lower right: SJGuy (artist’s monogram)

contemplate––that does not tell some story, however simple the tale,

provenance

to make us think better of our kind.

Sandor’s Antiques, Lambertville, New Jersey

t. b. thorpe , author, 1876

Lee B. Anderson, New York

1

Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York The Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., acquired from the above exhibited

The New “Guy” around Town

Lyman Allyn Art Museum, New London, Connecticut, American Romantic Paintings of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries from the Collection of Lee B. Anderson, February–March 1961, as Picking Apples

As noted by art historian David M. Lubin, Guy was made a member of the

Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida; Loch Haven Art Center, Orlando, The Good Life: An Exhibition of American Genre Painting by Artists Born during the First Four Decades of the Nineteenth Century, September– November 1971, as Girl under Apple Tree

counted among twelve top artists included in a photograph taken in the

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-century American Paintings from Private Collections, June – September 1972, as Picking Apples National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., October 1981–September 1982 literature Catalogue of Paintings by Seymour J. Guy, N.A., and Arthur Parton, N.A., to be sold by auction, February 7th and 8th at the Fifth Avenue Art Galleries (New York, Ortgies & Co., 1893), p. 12, no. 48, as The Pick of the Orchard. John Wilmerding, Linda Ayres, and Earl A. Powell III, An American Perspective: Nineteenth-century Art from the Collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr., exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1981), pp. 56–57, 136. Linda Ayres, “An American perspective: nineteenth-century art from the collection of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr.,” The Magazine Antiques (January 1982): xv, 267. David M. Lubin, Picturing a Nation: Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-century America (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 209.

National Academy of Design in 1865; just one year later, he found himself Tenth Street Studio of T. Worthington Whittredge, the academy’s soon-to-be president (f i g . 9). Guy’s “virtually instantaneous prominence within this prestigious and powerful organization” continued throughout his lifetime: his works earned entrance into the academy’s annual exhibitions through 2

1908, and he was elected to serve on its council for more than ten years.

Furthermore, his reputation and progressive ideas placed him among the founders of the Brooklyn Art Association and Brooklyn Academy of Design. ––jlw Guy’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Brooklyn Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cincinnati Art Museum, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and New-York Historical Society.

1 T. B. Thorpe, “Painters of the Century –– No. VIII . Our Successful Artists––S. J. Guy.” Baldwin’s Monthly 8, no. 2 (August 1876): 1. 2 David M. Lubin, Picturing a Nation: Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-century America (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 208; for Guy’s involvement in the National Academy see David B. Dearinger, ed., Paintings and Sculpture in the Collection of the National Academy of Design, Volume One, 1826–1925 (New York and Manchester: Hudson Hills Press, 2004), pp. 243–244. 3 Lee M. Edwards, Domestic Bliss: Family Life in American Painting, 1840–1910 (New York: Hudson River Museum, 1988), p. 3.


fig. 9 Artists gathered at T. Worthington Whittredge’s Tenth Street Studio, 1866, black-and-white photograph by S. Beer, 13 x 18 cm. Courtesy of the Miscellaneous Photograph Collection, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution (Guy is pictured in the back row, second from right)

Guy’s delight in creating enamel-like surfaces, built up of multiple glazes of paint, and his dazzling virtuosity in the depiction of light and textures, bears comparison with another wizard of technique . . . the French academic master William Bouguereau. lee m. edwards , art historian, 1986

3

Plate 18 The Pick of the Orchard (Picking Apples), detail


fig. 9 Artists gathered at T. Worthington Whittredge’s Tenth Street Studio, 1866, black-and-white photograph by S. Beer, 13 x 18 cm. Courtesy of the Miscellaneous Photograph Collection, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution (Guy is pictured in the back row, second from right)

Guy’s delight in creating enamel-like surfaces, built up of multiple glazes of paint, and his dazzling virtuosity in the depiction of light and textures, bears comparison with another wizard of technique . . . the French academic master William Bouguereau. lee m. edwards , art historian, 1986

3

Plate 18 The Pick of the Orchard (Picking Apples), detail


James McDougal Hart (1828–1901) Plate 19

A Tranquil Morning, 1871

A “Provincial” Artist in the Big City

Oil on canvas

James M. Hart began his career as an outsider. Born and raised in Albany, he

10 1 /4 x 16 1 /4 inches

was considered what the Cosmopolitan Art Journal termed a “‘provincially’

Signed and dated lower left: J. M. Hart. 71

trained” artist and therefore likely to be at arm’s length from the praise lav-

provenance

ished upon the more “sophisticated” New York City painters. Nevertheless,

3

Weimer Gallery, Inc., Darien, Connecticut Private collection, Pleasantville, New York Private collection, by descent in the family Menconi & Schoelkopf Fine Art, LLC, New York, as Woodland Lake, 1871

Hart moved to New York in the fall of 1856 and tried his luck. Happily, the artist’s notable talent was immediately embraced and success quickly followed; as The Art Amateur later reported, Hart’s “first exhibit at the National Academy of Design was quite a large canvas, some six feet in height, an Adirondack stream, with cattle standing in the water. It was sold on the first day of the exhibition, an occurrence so unusual at that time that there was no sale ticket to put on the picture, and the news ran like wild fire through the

His studies from nature evince industry and application, and his fancy sketches betray the touch of genius. We venture the prediction,

4

studios.” Hart’s reputation grew, and soon he was promoted as a leading teacher, instructing pupils such as Edward Gay (see plate 16) and Homer 5

Dodge Martin (see plate 27). His art and travels were also a topic of New

if life and health are spared him, that Mr. Hart’s name will be found

York periodicals—one included an interview discussing his methods of

among the first in the list of our American landscape painters.

painting and another thoroughly analyzed his painted study of a calf, which was intended to educate the budding artists of the publication’s

Anonymous art connoisseur, quoted in the Cosmopolitan Art Journal, 1857

6

readership. –– jlw

1

Hart’s works are in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and

There is not an artist in the country who paints closer from nature

Cleveland Museum of Art.

than James Hart . . . he always has the genuine feeling, and manages to express it on canvas with the utmost vigor, freedom, and dignity. Chicago Tribune, 1871

2

1 “James M. Hart,” Cosmopolitan Art Journal 3, no. 1 (1858): 31. 2 “The Fine Arts,” Chicago Tribune, February 9, 1871. 3 “James M. Hart,” 30. 4 “A Veteran Landscape Artist,” The Art Amateur: A Monthly Journal Devoted to Art in the Household 27, no. 4 (September 1892): 81. Although recorded in this article, the above story may be an exaggeration, for Hart’s first entry to an annual exhibition at the National Academy of Design was a scene entitled View in South Germany, not an Adirondack view as reported. The newspaper would only be correct, then, if Hart contributed a work to the academy for an exhibition other than their annual show. See Mary Bartlett Cowdrey, National Academy of Design Exhibition Record, 1826–1860, vol. 1 (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1943), p. 211. 5 Mark Sullivan, James M. and William Hart, American Landscape Painters (Philadelphia: John F. Warren, 1983), p. 7. 6 “A Veteran Landscape Artist,” 82; “Treatment of the Designs,” The Art Amateur: A Monthly Journal Devoted to Art in the Household 14, no. 6 (May 1886): 137.


James McDougal Hart (1828–1901) Plate 19

A Tranquil Morning, 1871

A “Provincial” Artist in the Big City

Oil on canvas

James M. Hart began his career as an outsider. Born and raised in Albany, he

10 1 /4 x 16 1 /4 inches

was considered what the Cosmopolitan Art Journal termed a “‘provincially’

Signed and dated lower left: J. M. Hart. 71

trained” artist and therefore likely to be at arm’s length from the praise lav-

provenance

ished upon the more “sophisticated” New York City painters. Nevertheless,

3

Weimer Gallery, Inc., Darien, Connecticut Private collection, Pleasantville, New York Private collection, by descent in the family Menconi & Schoelkopf Fine Art, LLC, New York, as Woodland Lake, 1871

Hart moved to New York in the fall of 1856 and tried his luck. Happily, the artist’s notable talent was immediately embraced and success quickly followed; as The Art Amateur later reported, Hart’s “first exhibit at the National Academy of Design was quite a large canvas, some six feet in height, an Adirondack stream, with cattle standing in the water. It was sold on the first day of the exhibition, an occurrence so unusual at that time that there was no sale ticket to put on the picture, and the news ran like wild fire through the

His studies from nature evince industry and application, and his fancy sketches betray the touch of genius. We venture the prediction,

4

studios.” Hart’s reputation grew, and soon he was promoted as a leading teacher, instructing pupils such as Edward Gay (see plate 16) and Homer 5

Dodge Martin (see plate 27). His art and travels were also a topic of New

if life and health are spared him, that Mr. Hart’s name will be found

York periodicals—one included an interview discussing his methods of

among the first in the list of our American landscape painters.

painting and another thoroughly analyzed his painted study of a calf, which was intended to educate the budding artists of the publication’s

Anonymous art connoisseur, quoted in the Cosmopolitan Art Journal, 1857

6

readership. –– jlw

1

Hart’s works are in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and

There is not an artist in the country who paints closer from nature

Cleveland Museum of Art.

than James Hart . . . he always has the genuine feeling, and manages to express it on canvas with the utmost vigor, freedom, and dignity. Chicago Tribune, 1871

2

1 “James M. Hart,” Cosmopolitan Art Journal 3, no. 1 (1858): 31. 2 “The Fine Arts,” Chicago Tribune, February 9, 1871. 3 “James M. Hart,” 30. 4 “A Veteran Landscape Artist,” The Art Amateur: A Monthly Journal Devoted to Art in the Household 27, no. 4 (September 1892): 81. Although recorded in this article, the above story may be an exaggeration, for Hart’s first entry to an annual exhibition at the National Academy of Design was a scene entitled View in South Germany, not an Adirondack view as reported. The newspaper would only be correct, then, if Hart contributed a work to the academy for an exhibition other than their annual show. See Mary Bartlett Cowdrey, National Academy of Design Exhibition Record, 1826–1860, vol. 1 (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1943), p. 211. 5 Mark Sullivan, James M. and William Hart, American Landscape Painters (Philadelphia: John F. Warren, 1983), p. 7. 6 “A Veteran Landscape Artist,” 82; “Treatment of the Designs,” The Art Amateur: A Monthly Journal Devoted to Art in the Household 14, no. 6 (May 1886): 137.


Martin Johnson Heade (1819–1904) Plate 20

Newburyport, Massachusetts, c. 1880–1890                     

One of a Kind

Oil on canvas

In his 2000 catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work, Theodore Stebbins Jr.

10 3/8 x 20 5/ 16 inches

stated, “Heade was the only major artist in nineteenth-century America who

provenance

devoted as much attention to still life as to landscape and who made equally 3

significant contributions in each.” Although Heade was undoubtedly well

Terry de Lapp Galleries, Los Angeles

known for both genres, his contemporaries gravitated towards his singular

Private collection, Louisiana

marsh scenes such as Newburyport, Massachusetts. Early critics proposed

Richard York Gallery, New York

that the artist’s talent was especially manifest in his paintings of “marsh-

Dr. Herbert and Elizabeth Sussman

lands, with hay-ricks, and the peculiar atmospheric effects thereof;” others

exhibited

went so far as to claim, “he has done no better work than in his studied

Richard York Gallery, New York, Inaugural Exhibition: Paintings by Americans, April 10–May 29, 1981

and realistic representation of our Northern and Eastern lowlands and

Richard York Gallery, New York, Sunset to Dawn: Views of Evening by Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Americans, 1983

4

meadows.” Modern critics have taken equal notice of Heade’s lush marshes. In 2001, The New York Times art critic Ken Johnson wrote that “Heade’s best-known works depict wide, flat acres of marshland raked by the setting

literature

sun.” Johnson further described the appeal of these landscapes through a

Inaugural Exhibition: Paintings by Americans, exh. cat. (New York: Richard York Gallery, 1981).

striking comparison, explaining, “Martin Johnson Heade has been called the

Sunset to Dawn: Views of Evening by Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Americans, exh. checklist (New York: Richard York Gallery, 1983).

awesomely spacious landscapes may seem a far cry from the Delft master’s

Theodore E. Stebbins Jr., The Life and Work of Martin Johnson Heade: A Critical Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 2000), p. 268, no. 272.

Vermeer of nineteenth-century American painting. To be sure, his luminous, intimate interiors, but like the latter’s, Heade’s paintings have a magical lucidity and an enigmatic psychology that continue to captivate the eyes and 5

haunt the minds of modern viewers.” Unequalled in his evocation of the “rich sun-glow and sense of summer warmth,” of America’s marshlands, 6

Heade was, like Vermeer, one of a kind. ––j lw Heade’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

Martin Heade Painted like Thoreau Wrote. Headline in The Washington Post, 1965

Smithsonian American Art Museum, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Art Institute of 1

None of our painters has a more refined sense of beauty, or a more delicate feeling for color. henry t. tuckerman, art critic and author of Book of the Artists, 1870

2

Chicago, Cleveland Museum of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Elisabeth Stevens, “Martin Heade Painted like Thoreau Wrote,” The Washington Post, Times Herald, May 16, 1965. 2 Henry T. Tuckerman, Book of the Artists (New York: James F. Carr, reprinted 1966), p. 542. 3 My emphasis; Theodore E. Stebbins Jr., The Life and Work of Martin Johnson Heade: A Critical Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 2000), p. 108. 4 Tuckerman, 543; “Fine Arts,” The Independent Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economic Tendencies, History, Literature, and the Arts 33, no. 1696 (June 2, 1881): 7. 5 Ken Johnson, “Human Touch Is Common in Heade’s Landscapes,” The New York Times, July 19, 2001. 6 James Jackson Jarves, The Art-Idea: Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture in America, 2d ed. (New York: Hurd and Houghton; London: Sampson Low, Son and Marston: 1865), p. 236.


Martin Johnson Heade (1819–1904) Plate 20

Newburyport, Massachusetts, c. 1880–1890                     

One of a Kind

Oil on canvas

In his 2000 catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work, Theodore Stebbins Jr.

10 3/8 x 20 5/ 16 inches

stated, “Heade was the only major artist in nineteenth-century America who

provenance

devoted as much attention to still life as to landscape and who made equally 3

significant contributions in each.” Although Heade was undoubtedly well

Terry de Lapp Galleries, Los Angeles

known for both genres, his contemporaries gravitated towards his singular

Private collection, Louisiana

marsh scenes such as Newburyport, Massachusetts. Early critics proposed

Richard York Gallery, New York

that the artist’s talent was especially manifest in his paintings of “marsh-

Dr. Herbert and Elizabeth Sussman

lands, with hay-ricks, and the peculiar atmospheric effects thereof;” others

exhibited

went so far as to claim, “he has done no better work than in his studied

Richard York Gallery, New York, Inaugural Exhibition: Paintings by Americans, April 10–May 29, 1981

and realistic representation of our Northern and Eastern lowlands and

Richard York Gallery, New York, Sunset to Dawn: Views of Evening by Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Americans, 1983

4

meadows.” Modern critics have taken equal notice of Heade’s lush marshes. In 2001, The New York Times art critic Ken Johnson wrote that “Heade’s best-known works depict wide, flat acres of marshland raked by the setting

literature

sun.” Johnson further described the appeal of these landscapes through a

Inaugural Exhibition: Paintings by Americans, exh. cat. (New York: Richard York Gallery, 1981).

striking comparison, explaining, “Martin Johnson Heade has been called the

Sunset to Dawn: Views of Evening by Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Americans, exh. checklist (New York: Richard York Gallery, 1983).

awesomely spacious landscapes may seem a far cry from the Delft master’s

Theodore E. Stebbins Jr., The Life and Work of Martin Johnson Heade: A Critical Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 2000), p. 268, no. 272.

Vermeer of nineteenth-century American painting. To be sure, his luminous, intimate interiors, but like the latter’s, Heade’s paintings have a magical lucidity and an enigmatic psychology that continue to captivate the eyes and 5

haunt the minds of modern viewers.” Unequalled in his evocation of the “rich sun-glow and sense of summer warmth,” of America’s marshlands, 6

Heade was, like Vermeer, one of a kind. ––j lw Heade’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

Martin Heade Painted like Thoreau Wrote. Headline in The Washington Post, 1965

Smithsonian American Art Museum, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Art Institute of 1

None of our painters has a more refined sense of beauty, or a more delicate feeling for color. henry t. tuckerman, art critic and author of Book of the Artists, 1870

2

Chicago, Cleveland Museum of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Elisabeth Stevens, “Martin Heade Painted like Thoreau Wrote,” The Washington Post, Times Herald, May 16, 1965. 2 Henry T. Tuckerman, Book of the Artists (New York: James F. Carr, reprinted 1966), p. 542. 3 My emphasis; Theodore E. Stebbins Jr., The Life and Work of Martin Johnson Heade: A Critical Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 2000), p. 108. 4 Tuckerman, 543; “Fine Arts,” The Independent Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economic Tendencies, History, Literature, and the Arts 33, no. 1696 (June 2, 1881): 7. 5 Ken Johnson, “Human Touch Is Common in Heade’s Landscapes,” The New York Times, July 19, 2001. 6 James Jackson Jarves, The Art-Idea: Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture in America, 2d ed. (New York: Hurd and Houghton; London: Sampson Low, Son and Marston: 1865), p. 236.


John Frederick Kensett (1816–1872) Plate 21

Forest Landscape Oil on canvas 14 x 10 5/ 16 inches provenance Private collection, New York

Plate 22

Scene at Lake George, c. 1865 Oil on canvas 17 5/ 16 x 24 1 /4 inches provenance The artist Estate of the artist

Before the great modern question of the values began to arouse much attention in the ateliers of Paris, Kensett had already grasped the perception of a theory of art practice which has since become so prominent in foreign art. samuel g. w. benjamin, art critic, 1880

1

Sale, Association Hall, New York, March 29, 1873 Arthur Parton, New York Private collection

It is pastoral poetry in painting. Regarded technically, we should

exhibited

say it was almost perfect of its kind.

National Academy of Design, New York, John Frederick Kensett Memorial Exhibition, 1873

The Aldine, the Art Journal of America, 1873

2

literature Photographs of Paintings by J. F. Kensett at the National Academy of Design in 1873, pl. 22 (available online at http://www.aaa.si.edu/).

Plate 23

A View of Lake George Oil on paper mounted on canvas 10 3/ 16 x 13 3/ 16 inches provenance Sale, Sotheby’s Arcade, New York, February 1, 1990, lot 83 Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York note These paintings will be included in John Driscoll’s forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work.

Plate 21 Forest Landscape


John Frederick Kensett (1816–1872) Plate 21

Forest Landscape Oil on canvas 14 x 10 5/ 16 inches provenance Private collection, New York

Plate 22

Scene at Lake George, c. 1865 Oil on canvas 17 5/ 16 x 24 1 /4 inches provenance The artist Estate of the artist

Before the great modern question of the values began to arouse much attention in the ateliers of Paris, Kensett had already grasped the perception of a theory of art practice which has since become so prominent in foreign art. samuel g. w. benjamin, art critic, 1880

1

Sale, Association Hall, New York, March 29, 1873 Arthur Parton, New York Private collection

It is pastoral poetry in painting. Regarded technically, we should

exhibited

say it was almost perfect of its kind.

National Academy of Design, New York, John Frederick Kensett Memorial Exhibition, 1873

The Aldine, the Art Journal of America, 1873

2

literature Photographs of Paintings by J. F. Kensett at the National Academy of Design in 1873, pl. 22 (available online at http://www.aaa.si.edu/).

Plate 23

A View of Lake George Oil on paper mounted on canvas 10 3/ 16 x 13 3/ 16 inches provenance Sale, Sotheby’s Arcade, New York, February 1, 1990, lot 83 Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York note These paintings will be included in John Driscoll’s forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work.

Plate 21 Forest Landscape


Kensett’s pictures are to our mind, remarkable in many points— for refinement of taste, treatment of distances, rendering of atmospheric effect, and a happy expression of the broad light of day and of a specific time of day. His perception of the poetry and harmony of nature in these respects is remarkably subtle and delicate. The Crayon, 1858

3

More than the other Hudson River school painters, Kensett was able to achieve a quality of luminosity in his Lake George paintings. John Frederick Kensett 1816–1872: Centennial Exhibition, 1972

4

Plate 22 Scene at Lake George


Kensett’s pictures are to our mind, remarkable in many points— for refinement of taste, treatment of distances, rendering of atmospheric effect, and a happy expression of the broad light of day and of a specific time of day. His perception of the poetry and harmony of nature in these respects is remarkably subtle and delicate. The Crayon, 1858

3

More than the other Hudson River school painters, Kensett was able to achieve a quality of luminosity in his Lake George paintings. John Frederick Kensett 1816–1872: Centennial Exhibition, 1972

4

Plate 22 Scene at Lake George


Harmony in Nature John Frederick Kensett, most famous for his images of upstate New York and New England, masterfully conveyed the quality of light, atmospheric effects, and varied textures of the natural world. His views of Lake George are considered among his finest works and are often characterized by their relatively spare yet arresting compositions. The calm lake and expanse of sky dominate the scenes, suggesting a particular season and time of day. Kensett argued that the landscape painter must strive for harmony, both in compositional arrangement and color. He believed that this could be

[B]right colors are sparingly distributed throughout the natural world.

achieved by avoiding excessive imagination and flairs of artistic embellish-

The white, red, blue and yellow blossoms of plants, shrubs, and trees

ment, which only removed the subject from nature. His devotion to truth and

are not prominent even in their season of bloom; while the main

observation is evident in his paintings of famous lakes, rivers, and mountains, as in his more anonymous subjects. Forest Landscape is a similarly harmo-

masses are made of cool greens, grays, drabs and browns intermingled,

nious arrangement, imparting a sense of spontaneity through modulation

and are always harmonious and agreeable.

of color while also retaining Kensett’s trademark virtuoso draftsmanship.

john frederick kenset t, 1860

5

The graceful lines of the trees and their individual branches, rather than being obscured by the flurry of brushwork and impasto, emerge from the scene, bringing a welcome balance and visual complexity. —i m h Kensett’s works may be seen in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York Historical Society, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art, and Dallas Museum of Art. 1 Samuel G. W. Benjamin, “Fifty Years of American Art,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 59 (July 1879): 254–256. 2 “Art, John Frederick Kensett,” The Aldine, the Art Journal of America 5 (February 1873): 48. Quoted in Franklin Kelly, American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, part 1 Oxford: Oxford University Press), p. 388. 3 The Crayon, 5, no. 5 (May 1858): 146. Quoted in John Frederick Kensett: An American Master, exh. cat. (New York and London: Worcester Art Museum and W. W. Norton and Co., 1985), p. 122. 4 John Frederick Kensett 1816–1872: Centennial Exhibition, exh. cat. (Darien, Conn.: The Darien Historical Society, 1972), cat. 6. 5 John Frederick Kensett, quoted in John Howat, “The Hudson River School,” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, vol. 30, no. 6 (June–July, 1972): 277.

Plate 23 A View of Lake George


Harmony in Nature John Frederick Kensett, most famous for his images of upstate New York and New England, masterfully conveyed the quality of light, atmospheric effects, and varied textures of the natural world. His views of Lake George are considered among his finest works and are often characterized by their relatively spare yet arresting compositions. The calm lake and expanse of sky dominate the scenes, suggesting a particular season and time of day. Kensett argued that the landscape painter must strive for harmony, both in compositional arrangement and color. He believed that this could be

[B]right colors are sparingly distributed throughout the natural world.

achieved by avoiding excessive imagination and flairs of artistic embellish-

The white, red, blue and yellow blossoms of plants, shrubs, and trees

ment, which only removed the subject from nature. His devotion to truth and

are not prominent even in their season of bloom; while the main

observation is evident in his paintings of famous lakes, rivers, and mountains, as in his more anonymous subjects. Forest Landscape is a similarly harmo-

masses are made of cool greens, grays, drabs and browns intermingled,

nious arrangement, imparting a sense of spontaneity through modulation

and are always harmonious and agreeable.

of color while also retaining Kensett’s trademark virtuoso draftsmanship.

john frederick kenset t, 1860

5

The graceful lines of the trees and their individual branches, rather than being obscured by the flurry of brushwork and impasto, emerge from the scene, bringing a welcome balance and visual complexity. —i m h Kensett’s works may be seen in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York Historical Society, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art, and Dallas Museum of Art. 1 Samuel G. W. Benjamin, “Fifty Years of American Art,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 59 (July 1879): 254–256. 2 “Art, John Frederick Kensett,” The Aldine, the Art Journal of America 5 (February 1873): 48. Quoted in Franklin Kelly, American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, part 1 Oxford: Oxford University Press), p. 388. 3 The Crayon, 5, no. 5 (May 1858): 146. Quoted in John Frederick Kensett: An American Master, exh. cat. (New York and London: Worcester Art Museum and W. W. Norton and Co., 1985), p. 122. 4 John Frederick Kensett 1816–1872: Centennial Exhibition, exh. cat. (Darien, Conn.: The Darien Historical Society, 1972), cat. 6. 5 John Frederick Kensett, quoted in John Howat, “The Hudson River School,” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, vol. 30, no. 6 (June–July, 1972): 277.

Plate 23 A View of Lake George


Louis Kronberg (1872–1965) Plate 24

Ballet in White, 1923 Pastel on canvas

You must know the country to know the girl. The ballet girl here tries to make herself look beautiful. That is the way I paint her —

24 x 18 inches Signed lower right: l. kronberg ; inscribed and dated lower left: Paris 1923

as a beautiful flower. louis kronberg, 1919

2

provenance Private collection

An American Sensibility in Subject and Form Louis Kronberg is known today, as he was to his contemporary admirers, as a dedicated chronicler of the ballet. He was particularly devoted to the figure 3

of the ballerina, prompting some critics to name him the “American Degas.”

The artist, however, saw his works as formally and thematically distinct from those of the French master, instead citing the influence of modernists such

There are few artists who have devoted so much study to the people of the stage as has Louis Kronberg and he is particularly fortunate

as James Abbott McNeill Whistler. To Kronberg, the American ballet dancer was an entirely different subject than its European counterparts. His subjects were respected, carefree, and famously beautiful; many French ballerinas

in his studies and paintings of ballet girls. There is vivacity and rich

led notoriously difficult lives, training from an early age under grueling

color effects in these pictures and there is also much of sentiment.

conditions for little pay. Ballet in White is characteristic of Kronberg’s

Boston Daily Globe, 1912

1

4

whimsical aesthetic studies. Like Whistler in his nocturnes, arrangements, and harmonies centered on a particular color, Kronberg fuses his subject with her surroundings to convey a subjective feeling or mood. The dominant color white in Ballet in White imparts a palpable sense of spontaneity and lightness. — imh Kronberg’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York Historical Society, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Musée d’Orsay.

1 “Bought by Mrs. John L. Gardner,” Boston Daily Globe, April 8, 1912. 2 Louis Kronberg, quoted in “Ballet Girls as Subjects for the Artist’s Brush,” The New York Times, March 30, 1919. 3 A. J. Philpott cites the use of this moniker in “Exhibit Paintings of Louis Kronberg,” Boston Daily Globe, November 3, 1921. 4 Eleanor Jewett, “Louis Kronberg at His Best in Ballet Figures,” Chicago Daily Tribune, April 7, 1937.


Louis Kronberg (1872–1965) Plate 24

Ballet in White, 1923 Pastel on canvas

You must know the country to know the girl. The ballet girl here tries to make herself look beautiful. That is the way I paint her —

24 x 18 inches Signed lower right: l. kronberg ; inscribed and dated lower left: Paris 1923

as a beautiful flower. louis kronberg, 1919

2

provenance Private collection

An American Sensibility in Subject and Form Louis Kronberg is known today, as he was to his contemporary admirers, as a dedicated chronicler of the ballet. He was particularly devoted to the figure 3

of the ballerina, prompting some critics to name him the “American Degas.”

The artist, however, saw his works as formally and thematically distinct from those of the French master, instead citing the influence of modernists such

There are few artists who have devoted so much study to the people of the stage as has Louis Kronberg and he is particularly fortunate

as James Abbott McNeill Whistler. To Kronberg, the American ballet dancer was an entirely different subject than its European counterparts. His subjects were respected, carefree, and famously beautiful; many French ballerinas

in his studies and paintings of ballet girls. There is vivacity and rich

led notoriously difficult lives, training from an early age under grueling

color effects in these pictures and there is also much of sentiment.

conditions for little pay. Ballet in White is characteristic of Kronberg’s

Boston Daily Globe, 1912

1

4

whimsical aesthetic studies. Like Whistler in his nocturnes, arrangements, and harmonies centered on a particular color, Kronberg fuses his subject with her surroundings to convey a subjective feeling or mood. The dominant color white in Ballet in White imparts a palpable sense of spontaneity and lightness. — imh Kronberg’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York Historical Society, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Musée d’Orsay.

1 “Bought by Mrs. John L. Gardner,” Boston Daily Globe, April 8, 1912. 2 Louis Kronberg, quoted in “Ballet Girls as Subjects for the Artist’s Brush,” The New York Times, March 30, 1919. 3 A. J. Philpott cites the use of this moniker in “Exhibit Paintings of Louis Kronberg,” Boston Daily Globe, November 3, 1921. 4 Eleanor Jewett, “Louis Kronberg at His Best in Ballet Figures,” Chicago Daily Tribune, April 7, 1937.


Sydney Mortimer Laurence (1865–1940) Plate 25

Northern Lights

More than any other painter who has worked in Alaska to date,

Oil on canvas board

Sydney Laurence has captured the imagination of the dwellers

12 1/ 16 x 16 1/ 16 inches

on the last frontier, personifying for them the awesome beauty and

Signed lower right: Sydney Laurence

mythic wonder of the place.

rel ated work Sydney Mortimer Laurence, Northern Lights, 1931, oil on canvas, 49 7/ 8 x 59 1/2 inches. Heritage Museum of the National Bank of Alaska.

estill curtis pennington, art historian, 1997

2

Evoking America’s Last Frontier Sydney Laurence was one of the first professionally trained artists to live and work in Alaska, and he is credited with applying tonalist techniques to capture America’s northern terrain. Throughout his career, the artist repre-

Every region in the United States has its favorite artist — a person who has successfully, over an extended period of time, captured the flavor and uniqueness of a particular time and place through

sented the Alaskan wilderness as a vast land of untapped resources and unparalleled adventure. It was this vision that initially drew him to the territory. Of his sudden move to Alaska in 1904, Laurence admitted: “I was attracted by the same thing that attracted all the other suckers: gold. I didn’t find any appreciable quantity of the yellow metal and then, like a lot of

the medium of paint on canvas. For many Alaskans, that artist

other fellows, I was broke and couldn’t get away. So I resumed my painting.

is Sydney Laurence.

I found enough material to keep me busy the rest of my life and I stayed 3

in Alaska ever since.” Setting his speculative schemes aside, he devoted

patricia b. wolf, former director of the Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 1990

himself to painting. His depictions of the territory’s stunning natural wonders 1

and light effects are now iconic. At a time when the American landscape was increasingly threatened by industrialization, he represented Alaska as a pristine, final frontier where nature still triumphed over man. Northern Lights is characteristic of this relationship between man and nature. A small lighted cabin signals human presence, but the winter scene is dominated by one of Alaska’s most distinct and awesome spectacles: the aurora borealis. — i m h Laurence’s paintings are currently in the collections of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Alaska State Museum, and the Anchorage Museum of History and Art.

1 Patricia B. Wolf, “Foreword,” in Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence: Painter of the North (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1990), p. vii. 2 Estill Curtis Pennington, Frontier Sublime: Alaskan Art from the Juneau Empire Collection (Augusta, Ga.: Morris Museum of Art, 1997), p. 29. 3 Sydney Laurence, quoted in Los Angeles Times, December 3, 1925.


Sydney Mortimer Laurence (1865–1940) Plate 25

Northern Lights

More than any other painter who has worked in Alaska to date,

Oil on canvas board

Sydney Laurence has captured the imagination of the dwellers

12 1/ 16 x 16 1/ 16 inches

on the last frontier, personifying for them the awesome beauty and

Signed lower right: Sydney Laurence

mythic wonder of the place.

rel ated work Sydney Mortimer Laurence, Northern Lights, 1931, oil on canvas, 49 7/ 8 x 59 1/2 inches. Heritage Museum of the National Bank of Alaska.

estill curtis pennington, art historian, 1997

2

Evoking America’s Last Frontier Sydney Laurence was one of the first professionally trained artists to live and work in Alaska, and he is credited with applying tonalist techniques to capture America’s northern terrain. Throughout his career, the artist repre-

Every region in the United States has its favorite artist — a person who has successfully, over an extended period of time, captured the flavor and uniqueness of a particular time and place through

sented the Alaskan wilderness as a vast land of untapped resources and unparalleled adventure. It was this vision that initially drew him to the territory. Of his sudden move to Alaska in 1904, Laurence admitted: “I was attracted by the same thing that attracted all the other suckers: gold. I didn’t find any appreciable quantity of the yellow metal and then, like a lot of

the medium of paint on canvas. For many Alaskans, that artist

other fellows, I was broke and couldn’t get away. So I resumed my painting.

is Sydney Laurence.

I found enough material to keep me busy the rest of my life and I stayed 3

in Alaska ever since.” Setting his speculative schemes aside, he devoted

patricia b. wolf, former director of the Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 1990

himself to painting. His depictions of the territory’s stunning natural wonders 1

and light effects are now iconic. At a time when the American landscape was increasingly threatened by industrialization, he represented Alaska as a pristine, final frontier where nature still triumphed over man. Northern Lights is characteristic of this relationship between man and nature. A small lighted cabin signals human presence, but the winter scene is dominated by one of Alaska’s most distinct and awesome spectacles: the aurora borealis. — i m h Laurence’s paintings are currently in the collections of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Alaska State Museum, and the Anchorage Museum of History and Art.

1 Patricia B. Wolf, “Foreword,” in Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence: Painter of the North (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1990), p. vii. 2 Estill Curtis Pennington, Frontier Sublime: Alaskan Art from the Juneau Empire Collection (Augusta, Ga.: Morris Museum of Art, 1997), p. 29. 3 Sydney Laurence, quoted in Los Angeles Times, December 3, 1925.


Luigi Lucioni (1900–1988) Plate 26

Bread and Fruit, 1940 Oil on canvas 14 x 18 1 /4 inches Signed and dated lower left: L. Lucioni 1940 provenance Dr. Harry Blutman, New York (the artist’s doctor)

Purely from the standpoint of craftsmanship, I do not think that he is surpassed by any artist of our time; and, as exemplifying in his work the hyper-naturalistic treatment of a theme, he can hold his own anywhere. edward alden jewell, art critic of The New York Times, 1943

1

Private collection, New York Barbara Mathes Gallery, New York Richard York Gallery, New York

But how he can see things and record them! Perhaps his still-life

The Estate of Richard T. York

subjects are the most appealing and the most triumphantly

Sale, Christie’s, New York, May 18, 2004, lot 112

accomplished in presentation; such, for instance, as “Blue and Ivory,”

Private collection

“Flower Patterns,” “Bread and Fruit.” exhibited Associated American Artists, New York, Luigi Lucioni, 1943

The New York Sun, 1943

2

Richard York Gallery, New York, Luigi Lucioni: Still Lifes, March–April 1991 Richard York Gallery, New York, American Still Lifes: 1815–1955, 1991–1992 Southern Vermont Art Center, Manchester, Luigi Lucioni (1900–1988): A Twentieth-century Renaissance Realist, 1993

My Way, or I Can’t Do It As reported by Adeline L. Atwater, a writer for The Atlanta Constitution, a

Ogunquit Museum of American Art, Maine, Realism in Twentiethcentury American Painting, August–September 1997

young Luigi Lucioni recognized early the importance of individuality.

Southern Vermont Art Center, Manchester, Luigi Lucioni, 2000

vious exercise until it was perfected, the thirteen-year-old Lucioni gathered

literature

up his paints and brushes and said, “I have to do it my way, or I can’t do it at

E. A. Jewell, “Lucioni Paintings on Exhibition Here,” The New York Times, April 16, 1943.

When approached by a drawing instructor and sternly told to repeat a pre-

all.” The precocious youth then added, “I guess I’ve finished here anyway.”

3

Lucioni was soon rewarded for the very individualism deplored by his

“Attractions in the Galleries,” The New York Sun, April 16, 1943.

instructor. The artist became a public darling by the 1930s, winning first

E. A. Jewell, “Approach: A Critic’s Attitude toward His Task,” The New York Times, April 18, 1943.

(1939, 1941, 1947, and 1949) by popular vote. Beloved for such works as

Richard York Gallery, An American Gallery: Volume IV (New York: Richard York Gallery, 1988), no. 25. Hilde Gabriel Lee, Taste of the States: A Food History of America (Charlottesville, Va.: Howell Press, 1992), p. 13 and back cover. Stuart P. Embury, M.D., The Art and Life of Luigi Lucioni: A Contribution towards a Catalogue Raisonné (Holdrege, Neb.: Stuart Embury, 2006), pp. 159, 276, no. 40.2. note In 1987 the artist wrote that Bread and Fruit was “one of [his] best paintings” (L. Lucioni to Richard T. York, March 3, 1987).

prizes at the Carnegie International Exhibition (1939) and Corcoran Biennials 4

Bread and Fruit, Lucioni earned recognition and success by holding true to his internal artistic compass. — jlw Lucioni’s works may be viewed at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Toledo Museum of Art, High Museum of Art, and Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

1 Edward Alden Jewell, “Approach, A Critic’s Attitude toward His Task,” The New York Times, April 18, 1943. 2 “Attractions in the Galleries,” The New York Sun, April 16, 1943. 3 Adeline L. Atwater, “A New Beauty,” The Atlanta Constitution, January 22, 1928. 4 “Luigi Lucioni, Realist Painter, Is Dead at 87,” The New York Times, July 25, 1988.


Luigi Lucioni (1900–1988) Plate 26

Bread and Fruit, 1940 Oil on canvas 14 x 18 1 /4 inches Signed and dated lower left: L. Lucioni 1940 provenance Dr. Harry Blutman, New York (the artist’s doctor)

Purely from the standpoint of craftsmanship, I do not think that he is surpassed by any artist of our time; and, as exemplifying in his work the hyper-naturalistic treatment of a theme, he can hold his own anywhere. edward alden jewell, art critic of The New York Times, 1943

1

Private collection, New York Barbara Mathes Gallery, New York Richard York Gallery, New York

But how he can see things and record them! Perhaps his still-life

The Estate of Richard T. York

subjects are the most appealing and the most triumphantly

Sale, Christie’s, New York, May 18, 2004, lot 112

accomplished in presentation; such, for instance, as “Blue and Ivory,”

Private collection

“Flower Patterns,” “Bread and Fruit.” exhibited Associated American Artists, New York, Luigi Lucioni, 1943

The New York Sun, 1943

2

Richard York Gallery, New York, Luigi Lucioni: Still Lifes, March–April 1991 Richard York Gallery, New York, American Still Lifes: 1815–1955, 1991–1992 Southern Vermont Art Center, Manchester, Luigi Lucioni (1900–1988): A Twentieth-century Renaissance Realist, 1993

My Way, or I Can’t Do It As reported by Adeline L. Atwater, a writer for The Atlanta Constitution, a

Ogunquit Museum of American Art, Maine, Realism in Twentiethcentury American Painting, August–September 1997

young Luigi Lucioni recognized early the importance of individuality.

Southern Vermont Art Center, Manchester, Luigi Lucioni, 2000

vious exercise until it was perfected, the thirteen-year-old Lucioni gathered

literature

up his paints and brushes and said, “I have to do it my way, or I can’t do it at

E. A. Jewell, “Lucioni Paintings on Exhibition Here,” The New York Times, April 16, 1943.

When approached by a drawing instructor and sternly told to repeat a pre-

all.” The precocious youth then added, “I guess I’ve finished here anyway.”

3

Lucioni was soon rewarded for the very individualism deplored by his

“Attractions in the Galleries,” The New York Sun, April 16, 1943.

instructor. The artist became a public darling by the 1930s, winning first

E. A. Jewell, “Approach: A Critic’s Attitude toward His Task,” The New York Times, April 18, 1943.

(1939, 1941, 1947, and 1949) by popular vote. Beloved for such works as

Richard York Gallery, An American Gallery: Volume IV (New York: Richard York Gallery, 1988), no. 25. Hilde Gabriel Lee, Taste of the States: A Food History of America (Charlottesville, Va.: Howell Press, 1992), p. 13 and back cover. Stuart P. Embury, M.D., The Art and Life of Luigi Lucioni: A Contribution towards a Catalogue Raisonné (Holdrege, Neb.: Stuart Embury, 2006), pp. 159, 276, no. 40.2. note In 1987 the artist wrote that Bread and Fruit was “one of [his] best paintings” (L. Lucioni to Richard T. York, March 3, 1987).

prizes at the Carnegie International Exhibition (1939) and Corcoran Biennials 4

Bread and Fruit, Lucioni earned recognition and success by holding true to his internal artistic compass. — jlw Lucioni’s works may be viewed at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Toledo Museum of Art, High Museum of Art, and Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

1 Edward Alden Jewell, “Approach, A Critic’s Attitude toward His Task,” The New York Times, April 18, 1943. 2 “Attractions in the Galleries,” The New York Sun, April 16, 1943. 3 Adeline L. Atwater, “A New Beauty,” The Atlanta Constitution, January 22, 1928. 4 “Luigi Lucioni, Realist Painter, Is Dead at 87,” The New York Times, July 25, 1988.


Homer Dodge Martin (1836–1897) Plate 27

Highlands on the Hudson

Martin’s landscapes look as if no one but God and himself had

Oil on canvas

ever seen the places.

20 1/8 x 26 1/ 8 inches john richard dennet t, journalist, 1904

Signed lower left: H. D. Martin

2

provenance Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York

Cherished All Too Late Homer Dodge Martin received little critical acclaim during his lifetime. Unlike his colleagues in the Hudson River school, Martin sold few paint3

ings, which led T. Worthington Whittredge to comment that Martin had 4

“died before anybody discovered that he was a painter.” After Martin’s

The corresponding position of transitional painters among the

death, however, his rightful position as a seminal figure in American land-

landscapists is held by three men –– George Inness, Alexander H.

scape painting was quickly realized. The Cleveland Museum of Art asserted

Wyant, and Homer D. Martin. It was they who showed American

that his landscapes were “full of the peculiar poetry which is always the mark of a man.” Royal Cortissoz declared that no museum of American art

painters and people the larger view of nature and of art which

would be complete without a Martin painting. And even contemporary art

they had themselves in part discovered.

historians count him as “a key transitional figure in American art.” —s j s

george breed zug, art critic, 1908

5

6

1

Martin’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Portland Art Museum, and Smithsonian American Art Museum.

1 George Breed Zug, “The Story of American Painting, I X. Contemporary Landscape Painting,” The Chauntauquan: A Weekly News Magazine 50, no. 3 (May 1908): 369. 2 John Richard Dennetti quoted in Elizabeth Gilbert Martin, Homer Martin: A Reminiscence (New York: W. Macbeth, 1904), p. i x. 3 Patricia C. F. Mandel, “The Stories behind Three Important Late Homer D. Martin Paintings,” Archives of American Art Journal 13, no. 3 (1973): 2. 4 John Driscoll, All that Is Glorious Around Us: Paintings from the Hudson River School (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1997), p. 106. 5 Royal Cortissoz, quoted in W. M. M., “Wild Coast, Newport, by Homer Martin,” The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art (March 1924): 57, 59. 6 Driscoll, p. 106.


Homer Dodge Martin (1836–1897) Plate 27

Highlands on the Hudson

Martin’s landscapes look as if no one but God and himself had

Oil on canvas

ever seen the places.

20 1/8 x 26 1/ 8 inches john richard dennet t, journalist, 1904

Signed lower left: H. D. Martin

2

provenance Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York

Cherished All Too Late Homer Dodge Martin received little critical acclaim during his lifetime. Unlike his colleagues in the Hudson River school, Martin sold few paint3

ings, which led T. Worthington Whittredge to comment that Martin had 4

“died before anybody discovered that he was a painter.” After Martin’s

The corresponding position of transitional painters among the

death, however, his rightful position as a seminal figure in American land-

landscapists is held by three men –– George Inness, Alexander H.

scape painting was quickly realized. The Cleveland Museum of Art asserted

Wyant, and Homer D. Martin. It was they who showed American

that his landscapes were “full of the peculiar poetry which is always the mark of a man.” Royal Cortissoz declared that no museum of American art

painters and people the larger view of nature and of art which

would be complete without a Martin painting. And even contemporary art

they had themselves in part discovered.

historians count him as “a key transitional figure in American art.” —s j s

george breed zug, art critic, 1908

5

6

1

Martin’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Portland Art Museum, and Smithsonian American Art Museum.

1 George Breed Zug, “The Story of American Painting, I X. Contemporary Landscape Painting,” The Chauntauquan: A Weekly News Magazine 50, no. 3 (May 1908): 369. 2 John Richard Dennetti quoted in Elizabeth Gilbert Martin, Homer Martin: A Reminiscence (New York: W. Macbeth, 1904), p. i x. 3 Patricia C. F. Mandel, “The Stories behind Three Important Late Homer D. Martin Paintings,” Archives of American Art Journal 13, no. 3 (1973): 2. 4 John Driscoll, All that Is Glorious Around Us: Paintings from the Hudson River School (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1997), p. 106. 5 Royal Cortissoz, quoted in W. M. M., “Wild Coast, Newport, by Homer Martin,” The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art (March 1924): 57, 59. 6 Driscoll, p. 106.


Alfred Henry Maurer (1868–1932) Plate 28

Fauve Landscape Oil on board 18 x 21 3/4 inches Signed lower center: A.H. Maurer provenance Private collection, Connecticut

Embracing Fauvist Expression

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

Alfred Henry Maurer’s transition from an impressionist aesthetic to one

Private collection, New York

influenced by Paul Cézanne and Henri Matisse marked the great turning point of his career. Embracing the fauves allowed the artist to move toward greater abstraction and personal expression in his work. This new direction

Maurer’s one preoccupation is to beautify every square inch of canvas

was also inspired by his close friendships with influential patrons and

on which he depicts his poeticized representations of subject. . . . To

groundbreaking 1905 Salon d’Automne in Paris — an exhibition that irrevo-

him nature is a motif, a simple motif like a subdued melody out of which the musician, by addition and development, constructs a sonata. will ard huntington wright, author and art critic, 1916

1

collectors of avant-garde art, such as Gertrude Stein, as well as a visit to the cably changed the trajectory of modern art. Maurer was a leading figure in the parallel artistic shift back home in America, and he remained fully aware of its consequences, remarking in 1908: “I am painting pictures now which I could never have imagined doing a year or so ago. . . . The transition 3

from the old school to the new is not an easy one.” Fauve Landscape is an intensely personal meditation on nature that displays his most celebrated

It is necessary for art to differ from nature, or we would at once lose the raison d’être of painting. Perhaps art should be the intensification of nature; at least, it should express an inherent feeling which cannot be obtained from nature except through a process of association. alfred henry maurer, 1916

2

formal techniques. The high-keyed color palette and jagged, almost frenzied facture are characteristic of Maurer’s mature works, melding the best of modern European styles with his own aesthetic. — i m h Maurer’s works may be found in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Philadelphia Art Museum, and Art Institute of Chicago.

1 Willard Huntington Wright, “The Forum Exhibition,” Forum 55 (April 1916): 465. 2 Alfred Maurer, in a statement published for the Forum exhibition catalogue (New York, 1916). Quoted in Alfred H. Maurer 1868–1932 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973), pp. 47–48. 3 Alfred Maurer, quoted in “Artist Maurer Now an Impressionist: New York Painter a Recruit to the School Which is Coming to the Fore in Paris,” The New York Times, April 19, 1908.


Alfred Henry Maurer (1868–1932) Plate 28

Fauve Landscape Oil on board 18 x 21 3/4 inches Signed lower center: A.H. Maurer provenance Private collection, Connecticut

Embracing Fauvist Expression

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

Alfred Henry Maurer’s transition from an impressionist aesthetic to one

Private collection, New York

influenced by Paul Cézanne and Henri Matisse marked the great turning point of his career. Embracing the fauves allowed the artist to move toward greater abstraction and personal expression in his work. This new direction

Maurer’s one preoccupation is to beautify every square inch of canvas

was also inspired by his close friendships with influential patrons and

on which he depicts his poeticized representations of subject. . . . To

groundbreaking 1905 Salon d’Automne in Paris — an exhibition that irrevo-

him nature is a motif, a simple motif like a subdued melody out of which the musician, by addition and development, constructs a sonata. will ard huntington wright, author and art critic, 1916

1

collectors of avant-garde art, such as Gertrude Stein, as well as a visit to the cably changed the trajectory of modern art. Maurer was a leading figure in the parallel artistic shift back home in America, and he remained fully aware of its consequences, remarking in 1908: “I am painting pictures now which I could never have imagined doing a year or so ago. . . . The transition 3

from the old school to the new is not an easy one.” Fauve Landscape is an intensely personal meditation on nature that displays his most celebrated

It is necessary for art to differ from nature, or we would at once lose the raison d’être of painting. Perhaps art should be the intensification of nature; at least, it should express an inherent feeling which cannot be obtained from nature except through a process of association. alfred henry maurer, 1916

2

formal techniques. The high-keyed color palette and jagged, almost frenzied facture are characteristic of Maurer’s mature works, melding the best of modern European styles with his own aesthetic. — i m h Maurer’s works may be found in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Philadelphia Art Museum, and Art Institute of Chicago.

1 Willard Huntington Wright, “The Forum Exhibition,” Forum 55 (April 1916): 465. 2 Alfred Maurer, in a statement published for the Forum exhibition catalogue (New York, 1916). Quoted in Alfred H. Maurer 1868–1932 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973), pp. 47–48. 3 Alfred Maurer, quoted in “Artist Maurer Now an Impressionist: New York Painter a Recruit to the School Which is Coming to the Fore in Paris,” The New York Times, April 19, 1908.


Willard Leroy Metcalf (1858–1925) Plate 29

On the Suffolk Coast, 1885

He was now acclaimed ‘the poet laureate’ of the New England hills.

Oil on canvas

There were honors and more honors, purchases and more purchases. . . .

10 11/ 16 x 18 1/8 inches Signed and dated lower right: W. L. METCALF. 1885.; inscribed on verso: Painted by Willard in Suffolk, England near the fishing village of Lowestoft in the summer of one of the late eighties, overlooking the North Sea.

Throughout the country there were few museums that did not respond to the special quality of his canvases by buying at least one of them. eliz abeth de veer, independent scholar, 1976

2

provenance The artist Hazelton family, acquired from the above

Master of Impressionism

Estate of Robert C. Hazelton Sale, Christie’s, New York, March 16, 1990, lot 198

Willard Metcalf studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,

Private collection, acquired from the above

before moving to Europe in 1883 to enroll at the Académie Julian in Paris, the training ground of many of the nineteenth century’s most rebellious

exhibited

modern artists. During his five-year European sojourn, Metcalf traveled

St. Botolph Club, Boston, March–April 1889

throughout France and England, visiting noted artistic communities such as

Rowland’s Gallery, Boston, 1889 Fondation de l’Hermitage, Lausanne, Switzerland, L’Impressionisme Américain 1880–1915, June–October, 2002

Pont-Aven, Brittany, and Grez-sur-Loing, south of Paris. Deeply influenced by French impressionism, he is believed to be one of the first American artists to visit Claude Monet in his famed Giverny retreat in 1885. On the Suffolk

note

Coast, painted that same year, exhibits the close attention to the effects of

This work will be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work by Bruce W. Chambers, William H. Gerdts, and Ira Spanierman.

light and quick brushstrokes that characterized the plein air techniques of impressionist masters such as Monet and Auguste Renoir. Upon Metcalf’s return to America, he further developed these methods, employing them in his views of the New England countryside. These paintings, like his European works, remain beloved for their freshness and sincerity. — i m h

Every stroke of [Metcalf ’s] brush pulses with love and respect for

Metcalf ’s paintings may be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn

nature that is little short of veneration…. Every inch of canvas

Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden,

vibrates…with light and air and life....Their appeal is not confined

Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Art Institute of Chicago.

to those who are supposed to be connoisseurs and critics of art, but 1 Aida (sic) Rainey, “Metcalf Paintings in the Corcoran Provide Notable Art Exhibition,” The Washington Post, January 11, 1925.

is made to every one who knows and loves nature. ada rainey, art critic of The Washington Post, 1925

1

2 Elizabeth de Veer in Francis Murphy, Willard Leroy Metcalf, A Retrospective (Springfield, Mass.: Museum of Fine Arts, 1976), p. xix.


Willard Leroy Metcalf (1858–1925) Plate 29

On the Suffolk Coast, 1885

He was now acclaimed ‘the poet laureate’ of the New England hills.

Oil on canvas

There were honors and more honors, purchases and more purchases. . . .

10 11/ 16 x 18 1/8 inches Signed and dated lower right: W. L. METCALF. 1885.; inscribed on verso: Painted by Willard in Suffolk, England near the fishing village of Lowestoft in the summer of one of the late eighties, overlooking the North Sea.

Throughout the country there were few museums that did not respond to the special quality of his canvases by buying at least one of them. eliz abeth de veer, independent scholar, 1976

2

provenance The artist Hazelton family, acquired from the above

Master of Impressionism

Estate of Robert C. Hazelton Sale, Christie’s, New York, March 16, 1990, lot 198

Willard Metcalf studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,

Private collection, acquired from the above

before moving to Europe in 1883 to enroll at the Académie Julian in Paris, the training ground of many of the nineteenth century’s most rebellious

exhibited

modern artists. During his five-year European sojourn, Metcalf traveled

St. Botolph Club, Boston, March–April 1889

throughout France and England, visiting noted artistic communities such as

Rowland’s Gallery, Boston, 1889 Fondation de l’Hermitage, Lausanne, Switzerland, L’Impressionisme Américain 1880–1915, June–October, 2002

Pont-Aven, Brittany, and Grez-sur-Loing, south of Paris. Deeply influenced by French impressionism, he is believed to be one of the first American artists to visit Claude Monet in his famed Giverny retreat in 1885. On the Suffolk

note

Coast, painted that same year, exhibits the close attention to the effects of

This work will be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work by Bruce W. Chambers, William H. Gerdts, and Ira Spanierman.

light and quick brushstrokes that characterized the plein air techniques of impressionist masters such as Monet and Auguste Renoir. Upon Metcalf’s return to America, he further developed these methods, employing them in his views of the New England countryside. These paintings, like his European works, remain beloved for their freshness and sincerity. — i m h

Every stroke of [Metcalf ’s] brush pulses with love and respect for

Metcalf ’s paintings may be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn

nature that is little short of veneration…. Every inch of canvas

Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden,

vibrates…with light and air and life....Their appeal is not confined

Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Art Institute of Chicago.

to those who are supposed to be connoisseurs and critics of art, but 1 Aida (sic) Rainey, “Metcalf Paintings in the Corcoran Provide Notable Art Exhibition,” The Washington Post, January 11, 1925.

is made to every one who knows and loves nature. ada rainey, art critic of The Washington Post, 1925

1

2 Elizabeth de Veer in Francis Murphy, Willard Leroy Metcalf, A Retrospective (Springfield, Mass.: Museum of Fine Arts, 1976), p. xix.


Nelson Augustus Moore (1824–1902) Plate 30

Setting Sail on a Lake in the Adirondacks Oil on canvas 16 1/2 x 26 5/ 8 inches provenance Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York Private collection, Pleasantville, New York By descent in the family Menconi & Schoelkopf Fine Art, LLC, New York

[F]ew other American artists have been more familiar with nature in

Season Opener

all her various seasons and moods, or have depicted them more faithfully.

Although the famous Macbeth Gallery faced stiff competition from popular

Macbeth Gallery, 1934

modernist shows, it chose twenty-eight paintings by Nelson Augustus

1

Moore for its opening exhibition of the 1934–1935 season. This selection was explained in the catalogue with a simple statement: “Nelson Augustus Moore is an interesting example of a painter of real merit whose reputation

[T]he canvases nevertheless have yet captured and retain intrinsic

today hardly exists outside of the Artists Biographical Dictionary. And yet, in

charm of design and color and are instinct with a kind of

his time, his pictures were eagerly sought by discriminating collectors. . . . This exhibition shows the development of a truly American landscape

intellectualized poetry.

painter who never studied or painted abroad.”3 A notable member of the

howard devree, art critic and art editor of The New York Times, 1934

2

Hudson River school, Moore produced paintings with crisp details and harmonious tones. Macbeth Gallery undoubtedly felt that his “truly American” landscapes stood as a lasting representation of America’s artistic legacy and a worthy competitor for modern art. —j lw Moore’s works are featured in the collections of the Everson Museum of Art, Mattatuck Museum of the Mattatuck Historical Society, and Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art.

1 Paintings by Nelson A. Moore 1824–1902, (New York: Macbeth Gallery, 1934), n. p. 2 Howard Devree, “Notes on Some Current Exhibitions,” The New York Times, October 7, 1934. 3 Paintings by Nelson A. Moore 1824–1902, n. p.


Nelson Augustus Moore (1824–1902) Plate 30

Setting Sail on a Lake in the Adirondacks Oil on canvas 16 1/2 x 26 5/ 8 inches provenance Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York Private collection, Pleasantville, New York By descent in the family Menconi & Schoelkopf Fine Art, LLC, New York

[F]ew other American artists have been more familiar with nature in

Season Opener

all her various seasons and moods, or have depicted them more faithfully.

Although the famous Macbeth Gallery faced stiff competition from popular

Macbeth Gallery, 1934

modernist shows, it chose twenty-eight paintings by Nelson Augustus

1

Moore for its opening exhibition of the 1934–1935 season. This selection was explained in the catalogue with a simple statement: “Nelson Augustus Moore is an interesting example of a painter of real merit whose reputation

[T]he canvases nevertheless have yet captured and retain intrinsic

today hardly exists outside of the Artists Biographical Dictionary. And yet, in

charm of design and color and are instinct with a kind of

his time, his pictures were eagerly sought by discriminating collectors. . . . This exhibition shows the development of a truly American landscape

intellectualized poetry.

painter who never studied or painted abroad.”3 A notable member of the

howard devree, art critic and art editor of The New York Times, 1934

2

Hudson River school, Moore produced paintings with crisp details and harmonious tones. Macbeth Gallery undoubtedly felt that his “truly American” landscapes stood as a lasting representation of America’s artistic legacy and a worthy competitor for modern art. —j lw Moore’s works are featured in the collections of the Everson Museum of Art, Mattatuck Museum of the Mattatuck Historical Society, and Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art.

1 Paintings by Nelson A. Moore 1824–1902, (New York: Macbeth Gallery, 1934), n. p. 2 Howard Devree, “Notes on Some Current Exhibitions,” The New York Times, October 7, 1934. 3 Paintings by Nelson A. Moore 1824–1902, n. p.


Thomas Moran (1837–1926) Plate 31

A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1905 Oil on board

All that [Moran] does is directed by an imagination so poetical, and yet so clear, and truthful, that his work is more akin to creation

14 x 20 inches Signed and dated lower left: M oran . (artist’s monogram) 1905.; titled, signed, and inscribed on verso: A Side Canyon. Grand Canyon, Arizona. M oran . (artist’s monogram) for J.G. M oulton .

than reproduction. richard l adegast, author and critic, 1900

2

provenance J. G. Moulton, Chicago

He was a lover of nature and a lover of solitude. His art today

R. E. Cies, Oklahoma

stands alone, belonging to no school, but is Thomas Moran.

Frank and Merle Buttram, Oklahoma, acquired from the above fritiof fryxell, geologist and author, 1958

Private collection, by descent

Plate 32

3

Sunset, 1901                            Oil on canvas

The Strange and Wonderful

20 1/ 16 x 30 1/ 16 inches Signed and dated lower right: M oran . (artist’s monogram) N. A. 1901.

Thomas Moran loved a challenge. On several occasions, he left the comfort of his home to join westward expeditions for the chance to paint, and conse-

provenance Private collection (son of the physician of Thomas Gilcrease, founder of the Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma)

quently shape, easterners’ ideas of hitherto unexplored areas. He acknowledged the complexity of this task, writing to his Yellowstone expedition leader, Ferdinand V. Hayden: “By all Artists, it has heretofore been deemed

note

next to impossible to make good pictures of Strange & Wonderful Scenes in

These paintings will be included in Stephen L. Good and Phyllis Braff’s forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work.

Nature.” The undaunted Moran continued: “But I have always held that the Grandest, Most Beautiful, or Wonderful in Nature, would, in capable hands, make the grandest, most beautiful, or wonderful pictures, & that the business 4

of a great painter, should be the representation of great scenes in Nature.”

Perhaps using this thought as his motivation, Moran actively sought out

[Moran] was creative because he awakened the American

and painted stunning works of natural phenomena throughout his lifetime.

consciousness to the permanent value of those wide, measureless

A prominent example, Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona showcases one

expanses of wilderness, of sky and mountain and extravagances of

of North America’s greatest and “strangest” wonders: a 277-mile-long gorge

Nature, as natural resources of beauty, to be prized and conserved. robert allerton parker, journalist and critic, 1927

sculpted by the Colorado River. In this painting, Moran contrasts verdant trees and brush with sharp, stalwart walls miraculously formed by moving water.

1

The coral accents along the clouds above the gorge in Side Canyon hint at another of Moran’s revered muses: the sun. Fascinated with the daily cycle of this rising and setting star, Moran took to mapping its colorful illuminations whether in the east or west. As noted by Phyllis Braff, Moran’s home base of East Hampton was one of his favorite locations to answer the challenge posed by the brilliant performances of the sun’s rays. There, Moran

Plate 31 A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona


Thomas Moran (1837–1926) Plate 31

A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1905 Oil on board

All that [Moran] does is directed by an imagination so poetical, and yet so clear, and truthful, that his work is more akin to creation

14 x 20 inches Signed and dated lower left: M oran . (artist’s monogram) 1905.; titled, signed, and inscribed on verso: A Side Canyon. Grand Canyon, Arizona. M oran . (artist’s monogram) for J.G. M oulton .

than reproduction. richard l adegast, author and critic, 1900

2

provenance J. G. Moulton, Chicago

He was a lover of nature and a lover of solitude. His art today

R. E. Cies, Oklahoma

stands alone, belonging to no school, but is Thomas Moran.

Frank and Merle Buttram, Oklahoma, acquired from the above fritiof fryxell, geologist and author, 1958

Private collection, by descent

Plate 32

3

Sunset, 1901                            Oil on canvas

The Strange and Wonderful

20 1/ 16 x 30 1/ 16 inches Signed and dated lower right: M oran . (artist’s monogram) N. A. 1901.

Thomas Moran loved a challenge. On several occasions, he left the comfort of his home to join westward expeditions for the chance to paint, and conse-

provenance Private collection (son of the physician of Thomas Gilcrease, founder of the Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma)

quently shape, easterners’ ideas of hitherto unexplored areas. He acknowledged the complexity of this task, writing to his Yellowstone expedition leader, Ferdinand V. Hayden: “By all Artists, it has heretofore been deemed

note

next to impossible to make good pictures of Strange & Wonderful Scenes in

These paintings will be included in Stephen L. Good and Phyllis Braff’s forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work.

Nature.” The undaunted Moran continued: “But I have always held that the Grandest, Most Beautiful, or Wonderful in Nature, would, in capable hands, make the grandest, most beautiful, or wonderful pictures, & that the business 4

of a great painter, should be the representation of great scenes in Nature.”

Perhaps using this thought as his motivation, Moran actively sought out

[Moran] was creative because he awakened the American

and painted stunning works of natural phenomena throughout his lifetime.

consciousness to the permanent value of those wide, measureless

A prominent example, Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona showcases one

expanses of wilderness, of sky and mountain and extravagances of

of North America’s greatest and “strangest” wonders: a 277-mile-long gorge

Nature, as natural resources of beauty, to be prized and conserved. robert allerton parker, journalist and critic, 1927

sculpted by the Colorado River. In this painting, Moran contrasts verdant trees and brush with sharp, stalwart walls miraculously formed by moving water.

1

The coral accents along the clouds above the gorge in Side Canyon hint at another of Moran’s revered muses: the sun. Fascinated with the daily cycle of this rising and setting star, Moran took to mapping its colorful illuminations whether in the east or west. As noted by Phyllis Braff, Moran’s home base of East Hampton was one of his favorite locations to answer the challenge posed by the brilliant performances of the sun’s rays. There, Moran

Plate 31 A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona


An artist’s business is to produce for the spectator of his pictures the impression produced by nature on himself. thomas moran, 1903

5

was able to achieve his desired “painted equivalents to natural phenomena, especially sunrise and sunset characteristics,” due to the area’s “flat, broad 6

terrain [that] offered great distances for expanded effects.” Similar to his Western compositions, Moran used the topography of East Hampton to his advantage, creating grand landscapes— such as Sunset — that capture the drama of nature’s thrilling, and most artistically demanding, displays. —j lw Moran’s compositions may be viewed nationwide at institutions including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Robert Allerton Parker, “The Water-Colors of Thomas Moran,” in Thomas Moran: Explorer in Search of Beauty, Fritiof Fryxell, ed., (East Hampton, N.Y.: East Hampton Free Library, 1958), p. 78. Quoted in Patricia Biggs, “Painting across Time: Grand Canyon Landscapes on Canvas,” http://www.asu.edu/clas/grandcanyonhistory/ history_visualarts_landscapeart.html (accessed August 3, 2009). 2 Richard Ladegast, “Thomas Moran, N. A.” Truth 19 (September 1900). Quoted in Nancy K. Anderson, Thomas Moran, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997), p. 164. 3 Fritiof Fryxell, “Thomas Moran, Explorer in Search of Beauty,” in Thomas Moran, Explorer in Search of Beauty, p. 16. 4 Thomas Moran to Ferdinand V. Hayden, March 11, 1872. Hayden Survey Correspondence III, National Archives and Record Service. Quoted in William H. Truettner, “‘Scenes of Majesty and Enduring Interest’: Thomas Moran Goes West,” The Art Bulletin 58, no. 2 (June 1976): 243. 5 Thomas Moran, “Knowledge a Prime Requisite in Art,” Brush and Pencil 7, no. 1 (April 1903): 15. 6 Phyllis Braff, Thomas Moran, a Search for the Scenic, His Landscapes of the American West, East Hampton, and Venice, exh. cat. (East Hampton, N.Y.: Guild Hall Museum, 1981), p. 22.

Plate 31 A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona, detail

Plate

32

Sunset


An artist’s business is to produce for the spectator of his pictures the impression produced by nature on himself. thomas moran, 1903

5

was able to achieve his desired “painted equivalents to natural phenomena, especially sunrise and sunset characteristics,” due to the area’s “flat, broad 6

terrain [that] offered great distances for expanded effects.” Similar to his Western compositions, Moran used the topography of East Hampton to his advantage, creating grand landscapes— such as Sunset — that capture the drama of nature’s thrilling, and most artistically demanding, displays. —j lw Moran’s compositions may be viewed nationwide at institutions including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Robert Allerton Parker, “The Water-Colors of Thomas Moran,” in Thomas Moran: Explorer in Search of Beauty, Fritiof Fryxell, ed., (East Hampton, N.Y.: East Hampton Free Library, 1958), p. 78. Quoted in Patricia Biggs, “Painting across Time: Grand Canyon Landscapes on Canvas,” http://www.asu.edu/clas/grandcanyonhistory/ history_visualarts_landscapeart.html (accessed August 3, 2009). 2 Richard Ladegast, “Thomas Moran, N. A.” Truth 19 (September 1900). Quoted in Nancy K. Anderson, Thomas Moran, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997), p. 164. 3 Fritiof Fryxell, “Thomas Moran, Explorer in Search of Beauty,” in Thomas Moran, Explorer in Search of Beauty, p. 16. 4 Thomas Moran to Ferdinand V. Hayden, March 11, 1872. Hayden Survey Correspondence III, National Archives and Record Service. Quoted in William H. Truettner, “‘Scenes of Majesty and Enduring Interest’: Thomas Moran Goes West,” The Art Bulletin 58, no. 2 (June 1976): 243. 5 Thomas Moran, “Knowledge a Prime Requisite in Art,” Brush and Pencil 7, no. 1 (April 1903): 15. 6 Phyllis Braff, Thomas Moran, a Search for the Scenic, His Landscapes of the American West, East Hampton, and Venice, exh. cat. (East Hampton, N.Y.: Guild Hall Museum, 1981), p. 22.

Plate 31 A Side Canyon, Grand Canyon, Arizona, detail

Plate

32

Sunset


Georgia O’Keeffe (1887–1986) Plate 33

Pink Daisy with Iris, 1927

Size Matters

Oil on canvas board

It would not be hyperbole to suggest that Georgia O’Keeffe’s monumental

9 3/4 x 5 15/ 16 inches

portraits of flowers are among the most recognized images in the world.

Signed and dated on verso: Georgia OKeeffe /March – 1927

It is fascinating, then, to note that O’Keeffe’s smaller pieces — the ones

provenance

less known and rarely reproduced—are among her most prized. O’Keeffe remarked on her inclination to paint intimately sized floral works, stating,

The Intimate Gallery, New York (Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery)

“If I could paint the flower exactly as I see it no one would see what I see

Mrs. Charles J. (Aline) Liebman, New York

3

because I would paint it small like the flower is small.” Although she

Florence Blumenthal, New York, sister of the above

eventually settled on larger compositions that would “make even busy

Estate of Florence Blumenthal

New Yorkers take time to see what I see of flowers,” O’Keeffe did produce

Mrs. Charles J. (Aline) Liebman, New York

a celebrated oeuvre of smaller works. Critic Edward Alden Jewell noted

Mrs. A. R. Berger, New York

their excellence early on, reporting that in 1927— the year Pink Daisy with

Sale, Christie’s, New York, May 21, 1998, lot 185

Iris was painted—“she produced several of those exquisite small studies of

Gerald Peters Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico

shells and flower, which for many of us, perhaps, have come to represent

Spanierman Gallery, LLC, New York

4

this painter at her most sensitive best.” History agreed with Jewell’s assess-

exhibited

ment; some fifty years later, then National Gallery curator Jack Cowart duly

Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York, 1978

noted, “[O’Keeffe] brilliantly monumentalized her subjects, whether she

literature

treated them in a 48 x 40-inch or a 5 x 7-inch canvas. Her small works,

Barbara Buhler Lynes, Georgia O’Keeffe: Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press; Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; Abiquiu, N.Mex.: The Georgia O’Keeffe Foundation, 1999), p. 336, no. 582.

5

though, are among her best and most striking ones.” —jlw O’Keeffe’s works are in museums nationwide, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Cleveland Museum of Art, Dallas Museum of Art, and Georgia O’Keeffe Museum.

I submit that Georgia O’Keeffe is the foremost woman painter. She conceives a new problem, or perhaps she rekindles with a modern spark the fires of a long forgotten worship.

With regard to Miss O’Keeffe, the year 1927 wears a nimbus of special

1 Statement from “O’ Keeffe Exhibition Checklist” (New York: An American Place, 1935). Illustrated in Barbara Buhler Lynes, Georgia O’Keeffe, Catalogue Raisonné, vol. 2 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press; Washington, D.C.; National Gallery of Art; Abiquiu, N. M.: Georgia O’Keeffe Foundation, 1999). Appendix III, p. 1125, fig. 57; attribution is listed as “Oscar Bluemner, Exhibition 1927 of Georgia O’Keeffe The Intimate Gallery— Room 303.”

luster. It was then that she painted some of her most beautiful abstrac-

2 Edward Alden Jewell, “Georgia O’Keeffe’s Paintings Offer Five-Year Retrospect at An American Place.” The New York Times, January 13, 1933.

oscar bluemner , artist, 1927

1

tions. It was then, also, that she produced several of those exquisite small studies of shells and flower, which for many of us, perhaps, have come to represent this painter at her most sensitive best. edward alden jewell , art critic of The New York Times, 1933

3 Statement from Georgia O’Keeffe: Exhibition of Oils and Pastels, exhibition brochure (New York: An American Place, 1939). Quoted in Lynes, Appendix I, p. 1099. 4 Jewell, “Georgia O’Keeffe,” p. 13. 5 Jack Cowart, “Georgia O’Keeffe: Art and Artist,” in Jack Cowart and Juan Hamilton, Georgia O’Keeffe: Art and Letters (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1987), p. 4.

2


Georgia O’Keeffe (1887–1986) Plate 33

Pink Daisy with Iris, 1927

Size Matters

Oil on canvas board

It would not be hyperbole to suggest that Georgia O’Keeffe’s monumental

9 3/4 x 5 15/ 16 inches

portraits of flowers are among the most recognized images in the world.

Signed and dated on verso: Georgia OKeeffe /March – 1927

It is fascinating, then, to note that O’Keeffe’s smaller pieces — the ones

provenance

less known and rarely reproduced—are among her most prized. O’Keeffe remarked on her inclination to paint intimately sized floral works, stating,

The Intimate Gallery, New York (Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery)

“If I could paint the flower exactly as I see it no one would see what I see

Mrs. Charles J. (Aline) Liebman, New York

3

because I would paint it small like the flower is small.” Although she

Florence Blumenthal, New York, sister of the above

eventually settled on larger compositions that would “make even busy

Estate of Florence Blumenthal

New Yorkers take time to see what I see of flowers,” O’Keeffe did produce

Mrs. Charles J. (Aline) Liebman, New York

a celebrated oeuvre of smaller works. Critic Edward Alden Jewell noted

Mrs. A. R. Berger, New York

their excellence early on, reporting that in 1927— the year Pink Daisy with

Sale, Christie’s, New York, May 21, 1998, lot 185

Iris was painted—“she produced several of those exquisite small studies of

Gerald Peters Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico

shells and flower, which for many of us, perhaps, have come to represent

Spanierman Gallery, LLC, New York

4

this painter at her most sensitive best.” History agreed with Jewell’s assess-

exhibited

ment; some fifty years later, then National Gallery curator Jack Cowart duly

Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York, 1978

noted, “[O’Keeffe] brilliantly monumentalized her subjects, whether she

literature

treated them in a 48 x 40-inch or a 5 x 7-inch canvas. Her small works,

Barbara Buhler Lynes, Georgia O’Keeffe: Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press; Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; Abiquiu, N.Mex.: The Georgia O’Keeffe Foundation, 1999), p. 336, no. 582.

5

though, are among her best and most striking ones.” —jlw O’Keeffe’s works are in museums nationwide, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Cleveland Museum of Art, Dallas Museum of Art, and Georgia O’Keeffe Museum.

I submit that Georgia O’Keeffe is the foremost woman painter. She conceives a new problem, or perhaps she rekindles with a modern spark the fires of a long forgotten worship.

With regard to Miss O’Keeffe, the year 1927 wears a nimbus of special

1 Statement from “O’ Keeffe Exhibition Checklist” (New York: An American Place, 1935). Illustrated in Barbara Buhler Lynes, Georgia O’Keeffe, Catalogue Raisonné, vol. 2 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press; Washington, D.C.; National Gallery of Art; Abiquiu, N. M.: Georgia O’Keeffe Foundation, 1999). Appendix III, p. 1125, fig. 57; attribution is listed as “Oscar Bluemner, Exhibition 1927 of Georgia O’Keeffe The Intimate Gallery— Room 303.”

luster. It was then that she painted some of her most beautiful abstrac-

2 Edward Alden Jewell, “Georgia O’Keeffe’s Paintings Offer Five-Year Retrospect at An American Place.” The New York Times, January 13, 1933.

oscar bluemner , artist, 1927

1

tions. It was then, also, that she produced several of those exquisite small studies of shells and flower, which for many of us, perhaps, have come to represent this painter at her most sensitive best. edward alden jewell , art critic of The New York Times, 1933

3 Statement from Georgia O’Keeffe: Exhibition of Oils and Pastels, exhibition brochure (New York: An American Place, 1939). Quoted in Lynes, Appendix I, p. 1099. 4 Jewell, “Georgia O’Keeffe,” p. 13. 5 Jack Cowart, “Georgia O’Keeffe: Art and Artist,” in Jack Cowart and Juan Hamilton, Georgia O’Keeffe: Art and Letters (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1987), p. 4.

2


Walter Launt Palmer (1854–1932) Plate 34

Winter Haze

All the minute detail that his eye can see interests him, and he does

Oil on canvas

not fail to reproduce it . . . it is not the snow of Europe damply

30 x 30 inches

evaporating into a leaden sky, but the New England article, crisp

Signed lower left: W. L. Palmer

and dry in the keen cold and shining dazzling white against

provenance

the blue horizon.

Private collection, Pennsylvania exhibited

samuel isham, artist and author of

Century Association, New York, 1917

History of American Painting, 1905

3

literature Maybelle Mann, Walter Launt Palmer: Poetic Reality (Exton, Pa.: 1984), p. 142, no. 695.

Painting from Memory In 1887, Walter Launt Palmer wrote the following in his diary: “Went to visit the Tolls, near Schenectady for two days or so & studied and photographed

More than anything else, to live with a Palmer painting

Winter effects. This proved to be one of the most fortunate events profes-

is an experience.

sionally that ever happened to me, as I immediately commenced painting 4

maybelle mann, independent scholar, 1984

1

Winter pictures from which I have made my greatest successes.” Indeed, Palmer’s assertion that winter paintings were his “greatest successes” proved to be more than hopeful speculation: his winter scenes remained popular throughout his career. Surprisingly, Palmer painted these works

Novel arrangements, unusual handling of his material, and a fresh way of seeing his motive, all have tended to produce attractive results much out of the commonplace. The New York Times, 1895

2

from memory, not from nature, relying solely on notes, photographs, and his own imagination to capture such images as Winter Haze. — ag r Walter Launt Palmer’s paintings are found in the collections of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Maybelle Mann, Walter Launt Palmer: Poetic Reality (Exton, Pa.: Schiffer, 1984), p. 10. 2 “Pictures by Walter L. Palmer,” The New York Times, December 5, 1895. 3 Samuel Isham, History of American Painting (New York: MacMillan, 1905), pp. 440, 443. Quoted in Mann, p. 46. 4 Diary of Walter Launt Palmer, 1887. Quoted in Mann, p. 45.


Walter Launt Palmer (1854–1932) Plate 34

Winter Haze

All the minute detail that his eye can see interests him, and he does

Oil on canvas

not fail to reproduce it . . . it is not the snow of Europe damply

30 x 30 inches

evaporating into a leaden sky, but the New England article, crisp

Signed lower left: W. L. Palmer

and dry in the keen cold and shining dazzling white against

provenance

the blue horizon.

Private collection, Pennsylvania exhibited

samuel isham, artist and author of

Century Association, New York, 1917

History of American Painting, 1905

3

literature Maybelle Mann, Walter Launt Palmer: Poetic Reality (Exton, Pa.: 1984), p. 142, no. 695.

Painting from Memory In 1887, Walter Launt Palmer wrote the following in his diary: “Went to visit the Tolls, near Schenectady for two days or so & studied and photographed

More than anything else, to live with a Palmer painting

Winter effects. This proved to be one of the most fortunate events profes-

is an experience.

sionally that ever happened to me, as I immediately commenced painting 4

maybelle mann, independent scholar, 1984

1

Winter pictures from which I have made my greatest successes.” Indeed, Palmer’s assertion that winter paintings were his “greatest successes” proved to be more than hopeful speculation: his winter scenes remained popular throughout his career. Surprisingly, Palmer painted these works

Novel arrangements, unusual handling of his material, and a fresh way of seeing his motive, all have tended to produce attractive results much out of the commonplace. The New York Times, 1895

2

from memory, not from nature, relying solely on notes, photographs, and his own imagination to capture such images as Winter Haze. — ag r Walter Launt Palmer’s paintings are found in the collections of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 Maybelle Mann, Walter Launt Palmer: Poetic Reality (Exton, Pa.: Schiffer, 1984), p. 10. 2 “Pictures by Walter L. Palmer,” The New York Times, December 5, 1895. 3 Samuel Isham, History of American Painting (New York: MacMillan, 1905), pp. 440, 443. Quoted in Mann, p. 46. 4 Diary of Walter Launt Palmer, 1887. Quoted in Mann, p. 45.


Edward Willis Redfield (1869–1965) Plate 35

Christmas Morning Oil on canvas 32 5/ 16 x 40 1 /4 inches Signed lower left: E.W. Redfield provenance Mrs. Henry Lang Montclair Art Museum, 1935, gift from the above

The influence of the work of Edward W. Redfield upon the landscape of the present day is one of the strongest in the movement of contemporary art. helen w. henderson, author and art critic, 1911

1

exhibited The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Exhibition of Contemporary American Oil Paintings, 1932–1933

The Beauty of Winter

North Gallery, New Hope, Pennsylvania, Paintings by Daniel Garber and Edward W. Redfield, October 9–27, 1935

Edward Willis Redfield was one of the most popular landscape painters in

Woodmere Art Gallery, Philadelphia, Exhibition of Paintings and Crafts by Edward W. Redfield, 1959

such winter paintings as Christmas Morning. One critic called him “the first

early twentieth-century America, and he was particularly acclaimed for American painter to glorify the beauty of snow-clad hills and trees, ice2

literature

bound streams and the cold majesty of winter skies.” A true impressionist,

Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey, The American Painting Collection of the Montclair Art Museum (Montclair, N.J.: Montclair Art Museum, 1977), pp. 112, 222, no. 274.

Redfield was renowned for his depictions of the texture and color of snow

M. S. Kushner et al., Three Hundred Years of American Painting: The Montclair Art Museum Collection (New York: Hudson Hills Press in association with Montclair Art Museum, 1989), p. 170, no. 376.

which were typically completed in the course of a single day. —ag r

J. M. W. Fletcher, Edward Willis Redfield, 1869–1965: An American Impressionist, His Paintings and the Man Behind the Palette (Lahaska, Pa.: JMWF Publishing, 1996), p. 159, no. 166.

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Detroit

as well as for his ability to portray the essence of a season in his paintings,

Redfield’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Institute of Arts.

note This painting will be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work by Thomas Folk.

1 Helen W. Henderson, The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and Other Collections (Boston: L.C. Page and Co., 1911), pp. 141–143. Reprinted in Constance Kimmerle, Edward W. Redfield: Just Values and Fine Seeing (Doylestown, Pa.: James A. Michener Art Museum; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2004), p. 119. 2 “Folks Worth Knowing in the Delaware Valley,” Lambertville (N.J.) Record, October 24, 1929. Reprinted in Kimmerle, p. 125. 3 Thomas Folk, Edward Redfield: First Master of the Twentieth-century Landscape (Allentown, Pa.: Allentown Art Museum, 1987), p. 54.


Edward Willis Redfield (1869–1965) Plate 35

Christmas Morning Oil on canvas 32 5/ 16 x 40 1 /4 inches Signed lower left: E.W. Redfield provenance Mrs. Henry Lang Montclair Art Museum, 1935, gift from the above

The influence of the work of Edward W. Redfield upon the landscape of the present day is one of the strongest in the movement of contemporary art. helen w. henderson, author and art critic, 1911

1

exhibited The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Exhibition of Contemporary American Oil Paintings, 1932–1933

The Beauty of Winter

North Gallery, New Hope, Pennsylvania, Paintings by Daniel Garber and Edward W. Redfield, October 9–27, 1935

Edward Willis Redfield was one of the most popular landscape painters in

Woodmere Art Gallery, Philadelphia, Exhibition of Paintings and Crafts by Edward W. Redfield, 1959

such winter paintings as Christmas Morning. One critic called him “the first

early twentieth-century America, and he was particularly acclaimed for American painter to glorify the beauty of snow-clad hills and trees, ice2

literature

bound streams and the cold majesty of winter skies.” A true impressionist,

Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey, The American Painting Collection of the Montclair Art Museum (Montclair, N.J.: Montclair Art Museum, 1977), pp. 112, 222, no. 274.

Redfield was renowned for his depictions of the texture and color of snow

M. S. Kushner et al., Three Hundred Years of American Painting: The Montclair Art Museum Collection (New York: Hudson Hills Press in association with Montclair Art Museum, 1989), p. 170, no. 376.

which were typically completed in the course of a single day. —ag r

J. M. W. Fletcher, Edward Willis Redfield, 1869–1965: An American Impressionist, His Paintings and the Man Behind the Palette (Lahaska, Pa.: JMWF Publishing, 1996), p. 159, no. 166.

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Detroit

as well as for his ability to portray the essence of a season in his paintings,

Redfield’s works are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Institute of Arts.

note This painting will be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work by Thomas Folk.

1 Helen W. Henderson, The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and Other Collections (Boston: L.C. Page and Co., 1911), pp. 141–143. Reprinted in Constance Kimmerle, Edward W. Redfield: Just Values and Fine Seeing (Doylestown, Pa.: James A. Michener Art Museum; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2004), p. 119. 2 “Folks Worth Knowing in the Delaware Valley,” Lambertville (N.J.) Record, October 24, 1929. Reprinted in Kimmerle, p. 125. 3 Thomas Folk, Edward Redfield: First Master of the Twentieth-century Landscape (Allentown, Pa.: Allentown Art Museum, 1987), p. 54.


Today, Redfield is considered . . . one of the most significant and innovative exponents of the great tradition of American landscape painting. thomas folk , art historian, 1987

REDFIELD

Plate 35 Christmas Morning, detail

3


Today, Redfield is considered . . . one of the most significant and innovative exponents of the great tradition of American landscape painting. thomas folk , art historian, 1987

REDFIELD

Plate 35 Christmas Morning, detail

3


William Trost Richards (1833–1905) Plate 36

The Coast of Cornwall, 1883 Mixed media on board 14 1 /4 x 32 inches Signed and dated lower right: Wm. T. Richards. 1883. provenance Beacon Hill Fine Art, New York Private collection, acquired from the above

Plate 37

Landscape, 1874 Watercolor on paper 10 3/4 x 16 15/ 16 inches Signed and dated lower left: Wm. T. Richards. 1874 provenance

he dissolves his genius in water or in oil. As the American artist,

John H. Surovek Gallery, Palm Beach, Florida

who can handle any visible theme, in earth or sky or sea, with the

rel ated works

grandest power, and who does nothing carelessly or meanly, he

William Trost Richards, Mt. Washington from Conway Meadows, 1873, watercolor, 8 1 /4 x 14 1/8 inches, signed and dated 1873. Formerly in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Reverend E.L. Magoon.

Plate 38

William T. Richards maintains his proud pre-eminence, whether

still deserves our homage and our pride. The Aldine, the Art Journal of America, 1875

1

On the Shore, 1872 Oil on canvas 15 3/4 x 25 11/ 16 inches Signed and dated lower right: Wm T. Richards 1872. provenance Rabin & Krueger Gallery, Newark, New Jersey Private collection, by descent in the family

Plate 36 The Coast of Cornwall


William Trost Richards (1833–1905) Plate 36

The Coast of Cornwall, 1883 Mixed media on board 14 1 /4 x 32 inches Signed and dated lower right: Wm. T. Richards. 1883. provenance Beacon Hill Fine Art, New York Private collection, acquired from the above

Plate 37

Landscape, 1874 Watercolor on paper 10 3/4 x 16 15/ 16 inches Signed and dated lower left: Wm. T. Richards. 1874 provenance

he dissolves his genius in water or in oil. As the American artist,

John H. Surovek Gallery, Palm Beach, Florida

who can handle any visible theme, in earth or sky or sea, with the

rel ated works

grandest power, and who does nothing carelessly or meanly, he

William Trost Richards, Mt. Washington from Conway Meadows, 1873, watercolor, 8 1 /4 x 14 1/8 inches, signed and dated 1873. Formerly in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Reverend E.L. Magoon.

Plate 38

William T. Richards maintains his proud pre-eminence, whether

still deserves our homage and our pride. The Aldine, the Art Journal of America, 1875

1

On the Shore, 1872 Oil on canvas 15 3/4 x 25 11/ 16 inches Signed and dated lower right: Wm T. Richards 1872. provenance Rabin & Krueger Gallery, Newark, New Jersey Private collection, by descent in the family

Plate 36 The Coast of Cornwall


A Family Affair William Trost Richards was an artist of great esteem by the 1870s––the decade he painted On the Shore (1872) and Landscape (1874). His seascapes were so treasured by critics and collectors that one writer from Lippincott’s Magazine claimed his wave study in the collection of Professor Fairman Rogers to be “an achievement in art which is a real glory to America,” adding: “It reaches an accuracy and perfection which painters of no other country have 3

dreamed of.” Nevertheless, Richards and his family traveled to England just seven years later in search of new scenes and a foreign market for his 4

works. There, he found a bevy of inspiration in the jagged, noble cliffs and dramatic play between earth and water found off the coasts of Cornwall.

If the local tints and pervading tones are startlingly strong, just

The artist was so taken by the offered views that he made sketches of them from which he based paintings and watercolors well into his later years,

go and study the originals, as the artist has done, and you

including The Coast of Cornwall (1883). Interestingly, some of Richards’s

will most wonder and admire that he dared be true in depicting

sketches from the period and after may be found in a family circular begun

our Great Father’s work.

during their English sojourn. Along with his wife, Anna, Richards encour-

reverend e. l. magoon, author and art collector, 1863

2

aged their children’s writing and drawing by helping them create Our Own Monthly, a homemade magazine full of stories and illustrations. Although the drawings were from the hand of Richards or Anna, the parents’ instruction was successful; their daughter, Anna Brewster Richards, became a noted artist in her own right, exhibiting sketches of England alongside her 5

father’s Cornish, Irish, and Welsh scenes in 1896. —j lw Richards’s works may be seen in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York Historical Society, Brooklyn Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, National Gallery of Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Cleveland Museum of Art.

1 “Art,” The Aldine, the Art Journal of America 7, no. 17 (May 1, 1875): 339. 2 E. L. Magoon, “Art in Albany,” The Independent Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economic Tendencies, History, Literature, and the Arts 15, no. 739 (January 29, 1863): 1. 3 E. S., “Private Art-Collections of Philadelphia. I X.–Professor Fairman Rogers’s Gallery,” Lippincott’s Magazine of Popular Literature and Science 10 (November 1872): 588. 4 For a discussion on Richards’s decision to go to England, see Linda S. Ferber, “William Trost Richards (1833–1905): American Landscape and Marine Painter” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1980), pp. 299–305. 5 “Pictures by W. T. Richards.,” The New York Times, February 23, 1896. 6 William Trost Richards, “The Lost Pleiad,” Unpublished Manuscript, ca. 1850. William Trost Richards papers, 1848–1920. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Plate 37 Landscape

7 James Henry Moser, “Art Topics,” The Washington Post, May 10, 1903.


A Family Affair William Trost Richards was an artist of great esteem by the 1870s––the decade he painted On the Shore (1872) and Landscape (1874). His seascapes were so treasured by critics and collectors that one writer from Lippincott’s Magazine claimed his wave study in the collection of Professor Fairman Rogers to be “an achievement in art which is a real glory to America,” adding: “It reaches an accuracy and perfection which painters of no other country have 3

dreamed of.” Nevertheless, Richards and his family traveled to England just seven years later in search of new scenes and a foreign market for his 4

works. There, he found a bevy of inspiration in the jagged, noble cliffs and dramatic play between earth and water found off the coasts of Cornwall.

If the local tints and pervading tones are startlingly strong, just

The artist was so taken by the offered views that he made sketches of them from which he based paintings and watercolors well into his later years,

go and study the originals, as the artist has done, and you

including The Coast of Cornwall (1883). Interestingly, some of Richards’s

will most wonder and admire that he dared be true in depicting

sketches from the period and after may be found in a family circular begun

our Great Father’s work.

during their English sojourn. Along with his wife, Anna, Richards encour-

reverend e. l. magoon, author and art collector, 1863

2

aged their children’s writing and drawing by helping them create Our Own Monthly, a homemade magazine full of stories and illustrations. Although the drawings were from the hand of Richards or Anna, the parents’ instruction was successful; their daughter, Anna Brewster Richards, became a noted artist in her own right, exhibiting sketches of England alongside her 5

father’s Cornish, Irish, and Welsh scenes in 1896. —j lw Richards’s works may be seen in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York Historical Society, Brooklyn Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, National Gallery of Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Cleveland Museum of Art.

1 “Art,” The Aldine, the Art Journal of America 7, no. 17 (May 1, 1875): 339. 2 E. L. Magoon, “Art in Albany,” The Independent Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economic Tendencies, History, Literature, and the Arts 15, no. 739 (January 29, 1863): 1. 3 E. S., “Private Art-Collections of Philadelphia. I X.–Professor Fairman Rogers’s Gallery,” Lippincott’s Magazine of Popular Literature and Science 10 (November 1872): 588. 4 For a discussion on Richards’s decision to go to England, see Linda S. Ferber, “William Trost Richards (1833–1905): American Landscape and Marine Painter” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1980), pp. 299–305. 5 “Pictures by W. T. Richards.,” The New York Times, February 23, 1896. 6 William Trost Richards, “The Lost Pleiad,” Unpublished Manuscript, ca. 1850. William Trost Richards papers, 1848–1920. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Plate 37 Landscape

7 James Henry Moser, “Art Topics,” The Washington Post, May 10, 1903.


It was a glorious sunset. The slanting rays of the departing sun, threw their beauteous influence over all Nature窶馬ow gilding the crystal depths of Ocean till its dark blue waves were all light and glory. william trost richards, c. 1850

6

Rehn may paint the sea with more colorful simplicity, Homer with more dramatic power, and Woodbuy with more intimate artistic perception, but the fact remains that Richards possesses more knowledge than all the others combined, and, within the limitations of his technique and point of view, is the master of them all in this particular field. james henry moser, art critic, 1903

Plate 38 On the Shore

7


It was a glorious sunset. The slanting rays of the departing sun, threw their beauteous influence over all Nature窶馬ow gilding the crystal depths of Ocean till its dark blue waves were all light and glory. william trost richards, c. 1850

6

Rehn may paint the sea with more colorful simplicity, Homer with more dramatic power, and Woodbuy with more intimate artistic perception, but the fact remains that Richards possesses more knowledge than all the others combined, and, within the limitations of his technique and point of view, is the master of them all in this particular field. james henry moser, art critic, 1903

Plate 38 On the Shore

7


Francis Augustus Silva (1835–1886) Plate 39

Palisades of the Hudson River

Painter of Feeling

Oil on canvas

An artistic and cultural critic as well as painter, Francis Silva exhorted artists

9 1 /4 x 18 3/ 16 inches

to find truth by tempering naturalistic representation with inner feeling,

Signed lower right: Silva.

rather than relying on technical tricks of the trade. He remarked: “A picture

provenance

must be more than a skillfully painted canvas; it must tell something. . . . Many of our artists learn certain artists’ tricks and then repeat them

The North Point Gallery, San Francisco

4

continually, with no idea of the deeper meaning of art.” Silva put his

Berry-Hill Galleries, New York

beliefs into practice, focusing on particular sites along the Hudson River.

Private collection, acquired from the above

In Palisades of the Hudson River, Silva juxtaposes texture and color, con-

literature

trasting the curving shoreline and prominent rocks of the foreground

M. D. Mitchell and John Wilmerding, Francis A. Silva (1835–1886): In His Own Light, exh. cat. (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries, 2002), p. 110, plate 44; p. 143.

with glassy water and sky. Like Kingston Point, Hudson River (ThyssenBornemisza Museum, Madrid) and View of the Hudson (Erving and Joyce Wolf Collection, Texas), this work is a serene view of the Hudson, Silva’s favorite and greatest subject. — imh

He has painted marine pictures mostly, and no one of our artists has caught the spirit of the sea in its quiet moods with more certainty. The Independent, 1881

Silva’s paintings are now in such prominent collections as the Brooklyn Museum, New-York Historical Society, National Gallery of Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid.

1 1 “Fine Arts,” The Independent Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economic Tendencies, History, Literature, and the Arts 33, no. 1704 (July 28, 1881): 8.

Silva emerges as one of the late practitioners of luminism in whose hands the luminist vocabulary of smooth surface and halated light still maintains its authentic voice. barbara novak, art historian, 1986

3 John I. H. Baur, “Francis A Silva: Beyond Luminism,” The Magazine Antiques 118 (November 1980): 1024. 4 Francis A. Silva, “American vs. Foreign-American Art,” The Art Union 1 (June–July 1884): 130–131.

2

In the hands of Silva . . . the subtle manipulation of light and atmosphere was an aesthetic device that transcended naturalism and became an almost abstract means of expressing feeling–– or “sentiment,” in nineteenth-century terminology. john i. h. baur, art historian, curator, and director of the Whitney Museum of American art (1968–1974), 1980

2 Barbara Novak, Nineteenth-century American Painting: The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection (New York: Artabras, 1986), p. 143.

3


Francis Augustus Silva (1835–1886) Plate 39

Palisades of the Hudson River

Painter of Feeling

Oil on canvas

An artistic and cultural critic as well as painter, Francis Silva exhorted artists

9 1 /4 x 18 3/ 16 inches

to find truth by tempering naturalistic representation with inner feeling,

Signed lower right: Silva.

rather than relying on technical tricks of the trade. He remarked: “A picture

provenance

must be more than a skillfully painted canvas; it must tell something. . . . Many of our artists learn certain artists’ tricks and then repeat them

The North Point Gallery, San Francisco

4

continually, with no idea of the deeper meaning of art.” Silva put his

Berry-Hill Galleries, New York

beliefs into practice, focusing on particular sites along the Hudson River.

Private collection, acquired from the above

In Palisades of the Hudson River, Silva juxtaposes texture and color, con-

literature

trasting the curving shoreline and prominent rocks of the foreground

M. D. Mitchell and John Wilmerding, Francis A. Silva (1835–1886): In His Own Light, exh. cat. (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries, 2002), p. 110, plate 44; p. 143.

with glassy water and sky. Like Kingston Point, Hudson River (ThyssenBornemisza Museum, Madrid) and View of the Hudson (Erving and Joyce Wolf Collection, Texas), this work is a serene view of the Hudson, Silva’s favorite and greatest subject. — imh

He has painted marine pictures mostly, and no one of our artists has caught the spirit of the sea in its quiet moods with more certainty. The Independent, 1881

Silva’s paintings are now in such prominent collections as the Brooklyn Museum, New-York Historical Society, National Gallery of Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid.

1 1 “Fine Arts,” The Independent Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economic Tendencies, History, Literature, and the Arts 33, no. 1704 (July 28, 1881): 8.

Silva emerges as one of the late practitioners of luminism in whose hands the luminist vocabulary of smooth surface and halated light still maintains its authentic voice. barbara novak, art historian, 1986

3 John I. H. Baur, “Francis A Silva: Beyond Luminism,” The Magazine Antiques 118 (November 1980): 1024. 4 Francis A. Silva, “American vs. Foreign-American Art,” The Art Union 1 (June–July 1884): 130–131.

2

In the hands of Silva . . . the subtle manipulation of light and atmosphere was an aesthetic device that transcended naturalism and became an almost abstract means of expressing feeling–– or “sentiment,” in nineteenth-century terminology. john i. h. baur, art historian, curator, and director of the Whitney Museum of American art (1968–1974), 1980

2 Barbara Novak, Nineteenth-century American Painting: The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection (New York: Artabras, 1986), p. 143.

3


Plate 39 Palisades of the Hudson River, detail


Plate 39 Palisades of the Hudson River, detail


T. Worthington Whittredge (1820–1910) Plate 40

The Glen, 1862

Plate 41

Hunter Mountain, First Snow

Oil on canvas

Oil on canvas

24 1 /4 x 20 3/ 16 inches

10 1/8 x 13 7/8 inches

Signed and dated lower right: W. Whittredge 1862

Signed lower right: W. Whittredge; inscribed on verso: “Hunter Mountain” First Snow.

provenance (Possibly) J. B. Cromwell, New York

provenance

(Possibly) Private collection, Richmond, Virginia

Private collection, New York

(Possibly) Sloan and Roman, New York

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

Douglas Collins, North Falmouth, Massachusetts

Private collection, New York

Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York Thomas Colville Fine Art, New Haven, Connecticut

Plate 42

View of the Hudson from South Mountain

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Shoemaker, California, acquired from the above

Oil on canvas

Private collection, by descent from the above

14 5/ 8 x 21 7/8 inches

exhibited (Possibly) National Academy of Design, New York, 1862 Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, Massachusetts, long-term loan, 1970–1976

Signed lower right: W. Whittredge. provenance Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

literature

Private collection, Connecticut

(Possibly) Henry Tuckerman, Book of the Artists (New York: James F. Carr, reprinted 1966), p. 517.

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

(Possibly) W. G. Constable, ed., M. and M. Karolik Collection of American Paintings, 1815 to 1865 (Boston and Cambridge, Mass.: Museum of Fine Arts and Harvard University Press, 1949), p. 510.

Private collection, New York

Private collection, New York

Anthony F. Janson, Worthington Whittredge (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 82, fig. 56.

My ardent love of nature which dominated my whole being from my earliest recollections is the only thing I can look to as finally leading me to the study of art. t. worthington whit tredge, c. 1900

1

Plate 40 The Glen


T. Worthington Whittredge (1820–1910) Plate 40

The Glen, 1862

Plate 41

Hunter Mountain, First Snow

Oil on canvas

Oil on canvas

24 1 /4 x 20 3/ 16 inches

10 1/8 x 13 7/8 inches

Signed and dated lower right: W. Whittredge 1862

Signed lower right: W. Whittredge; inscribed on verso: “Hunter Mountain” First Snow.

provenance (Possibly) J. B. Cromwell, New York

provenance

(Possibly) Private collection, Richmond, Virginia

Private collection, New York

(Possibly) Sloan and Roman, New York

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

Douglas Collins, North Falmouth, Massachusetts

Private collection, New York

Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York Thomas Colville Fine Art, New Haven, Connecticut

Plate 42

View of the Hudson from South Mountain

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Shoemaker, California, acquired from the above

Oil on canvas

Private collection, by descent from the above

14 5/ 8 x 21 7/8 inches

exhibited (Possibly) National Academy of Design, New York, 1862 Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, Massachusetts, long-term loan, 1970–1976

Signed lower right: W. Whittredge. provenance Michael N. Altman Fine Art & Advisory Services, LLC, New York Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

literature

Private collection, Connecticut

(Possibly) Henry Tuckerman, Book of the Artists (New York: James F. Carr, reprinted 1966), p. 517.

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

(Possibly) W. G. Constable, ed., M. and M. Karolik Collection of American Paintings, 1815 to 1865 (Boston and Cambridge, Mass.: Museum of Fine Arts and Harvard University Press, 1949), p. 510.

Private collection, New York

Private collection, New York

Anthony F. Janson, Worthington Whittredge (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 82, fig. 56.

My ardent love of nature which dominated my whole being from my earliest recollections is the only thing I can look to as finally leading me to the study of art. t. worthington whit tredge, c. 1900

1

Plate 40 The Glen


His reputation and standing are well established and there are few who would deny Whittredge his rightful place in the history of American painting. sadayoshi omoto, art historian, 1965

2

Captivated by the Catskills After returning from ten years of study in Europe, T. Worthington Whittredge struggled to find a thoroughly American subject. Desperate for inspiration, he retreated to the Catskills. While in upstate New York, the artist was mesmerized by the beauty of the mountains and forest. He declared in his autobiography, “How different was the scene [of the Catskills] before me 3

from anything I had been looking at for many years!” This fascination with the American countryside, which was sustained by later trips to the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, fueled Whittredge’s career as a successful landscape painter. — sjs Whittredge’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 T. Worthington Whittredge, The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge, manuscript, 1902–1910, Worthington Whittredge Papers, microfilm roll d28, frame 17, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 2 Sadayoshi Omoto, “The Sketchbooks of Worthington Whittredge,” Art Journal 24, no. 4 (Summer 1965): 331. 3 T. Worthington Whittredge, The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge, ed. John I. H. Baur (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Museum Press, 1942), p. 42. 4 Ibid.

Plate 40 The Glen, detail

Plate 41 Hunter Mountain, First Snow


His reputation and standing are well established and there are few who would deny Whittredge his rightful place in the history of American painting. sadayoshi omoto, art historian, 1965

2

Captivated by the Catskills After returning from ten years of study in Europe, T. Worthington Whittredge struggled to find a thoroughly American subject. Desperate for inspiration, he retreated to the Catskills. While in upstate New York, the artist was mesmerized by the beauty of the mountains and forest. He declared in his autobiography, “How different was the scene [of the Catskills] before me 3

from anything I had been looking at for many years!” This fascination with the American countryside, which was sustained by later trips to the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, fueled Whittredge’s career as a successful landscape painter. — sjs Whittredge’s paintings are featured in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

1 T. Worthington Whittredge, The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge, manuscript, 1902–1910, Worthington Whittredge Papers, microfilm roll d28, frame 17, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 2 Sadayoshi Omoto, “The Sketchbooks of Worthington Whittredge,” Art Journal 24, no. 4 (Summer 1965): 331. 3 T. Worthington Whittredge, The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge, ed. John I. H. Baur (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Museum Press, 1942), p. 42. 4 Ibid.

Plate 40 The Glen, detail

Plate 41 Hunter Mountain, First Snow


I soon found myself in working traces but it was the most crucial period of my life [the 1860s]. It was impossible for me to shut out from my eyes the works of the great landscape painters which I had so recently seen in Europe, while I knew well enough that if I was to succeed I must produce something new and which might claim to be inspired by my home surroundings. t. worthington whit tredge, c. 1900

Plate 42 View of the Hudson from South Mountain

4


I soon found myself in working traces but it was the most crucial period of my life [the 1860s]. It was impossible for me to shut out from my eyes the works of the great landscape painters which I had so recently seen in Europe, while I knew well enough that if I was to succeed I must produce something new and which might claim to be inspired by my home surroundings. t. worthington whit tredge, c. 1900

Plate 42 View of the Hudson from South Mountain

4


Guy Carleton Wiggins (1883–1962) Plate 43

Union Square, Winter Oil on canvas

Popularity Contest Guy Carleton Wiggins had a career most would dream of. In 1912, his painting

25 3/8 x 30 1 /4 inches

Metropolitan Tower was accepted by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, mak-

Signed and inscribed lower left: Guy Wiggins. NA .; signed and titled on verso: union s quare , winter . Guy Wiggins NA

ing him the youngest artist to be represented in its permanent collection.

3

His land- and cityscapes were so famous, in fact, that when given the chance

provenance

to choose among a group of eighty-seven paintings by contemporary artists

Private collection, Dallas

in a 1940 Grand Central Art Galleries raffle, W. S. Oberfelder of Chicago (president of the Walter Field Company) confidently picked Wiggins’s Fifth 4

Avenue, Winter. Scenes such as the one selected by Oberfelder were undoubtedly Wiggins’s most popular works. To capture the liveliness and

[Wiggins] notes the various moods of times and seasons with a

“motion in the crowd” noted of these cityscapes, Wiggins would typically

scrupulous attention, and occasionally weaves his garnered facts

set up a studio in the home or office of one of his friends, whether in a Manhattan office or skyscraper on John Street.5 Union Square, Winter was

into a composition that is both poetry and truth. The New York Times, 1912

likely painted in one of these “makeshift” studios on the west side of the square; this supposition is based on the canvas’s inclusion of the Union

1

Square Savings Bank, a neoclassical building complete with four Corinthian columns, on the right. — jlw

The work of Guy Wiggins is full of the essential qualities of

Wiggins’s works are in the collections of the Brooklyn Museum, Florence Griswold

personality and sincerity. His pictures are his own, seen and felt

Museum, Addison Gallery of American Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Richmond Art Museum, and Dallas Museum of Art.

by his own eyes, his own heart. Campanile Galleries, 1970

2 1 “News and Notes of the Art World,” The New York Times, February 4, 1912. 2 Guy C. Wiggins (1883–1962) American Impressionist, exh. cat. (Chicago: Campanile Galleries, 1970), n. p. 3 David B. Dearinger, “Guy Carleton Wiggins,” in William H. Gerdts, Masterworks of American Impressionism from the Pfeil Collection (Alexandria, Va.: Art Services International, 1992), p. 275. 4 “Chicago Man Wins First Art Choice,” The New York Times, November 8, 1940. 5 Guy C. Wiggins (1883–1962) American Impressionist, n. p.


Guy Carleton Wiggins (1883–1962) Plate 43

Union Square, Winter Oil on canvas

Popularity Contest Guy Carleton Wiggins had a career most would dream of. In 1912, his painting

25 3/8 x 30 1 /4 inches

Metropolitan Tower was accepted by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, mak-

Signed and inscribed lower left: Guy Wiggins. NA .; signed and titled on verso: union s quare , winter . Guy Wiggins NA

ing him the youngest artist to be represented in its permanent collection.

3

His land- and cityscapes were so famous, in fact, that when given the chance

provenance

to choose among a group of eighty-seven paintings by contemporary artists

Private collection, Dallas

in a 1940 Grand Central Art Galleries raffle, W. S. Oberfelder of Chicago (president of the Walter Field Company) confidently picked Wiggins’s Fifth 4

Avenue, Winter. Scenes such as the one selected by Oberfelder were undoubtedly Wiggins’s most popular works. To capture the liveliness and

[Wiggins] notes the various moods of times and seasons with a

“motion in the crowd” noted of these cityscapes, Wiggins would typically

scrupulous attention, and occasionally weaves his garnered facts

set up a studio in the home or office of one of his friends, whether in a Manhattan office or skyscraper on John Street.5 Union Square, Winter was

into a composition that is both poetry and truth. The New York Times, 1912

likely painted in one of these “makeshift” studios on the west side of the square; this supposition is based on the canvas’s inclusion of the Union

1

Square Savings Bank, a neoclassical building complete with four Corinthian columns, on the right. — jlw

The work of Guy Wiggins is full of the essential qualities of

Wiggins’s works are in the collections of the Brooklyn Museum, Florence Griswold

personality and sincerity. His pictures are his own, seen and felt

Museum, Addison Gallery of American Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Richmond Art Museum, and Dallas Museum of Art.

by his own eyes, his own heart. Campanile Galleries, 1970

2 1 “News and Notes of the Art World,” The New York Times, February 4, 1912. 2 Guy C. Wiggins (1883–1962) American Impressionist, exh. cat. (Chicago: Campanile Galleries, 1970), n. p. 3 David B. Dearinger, “Guy Carleton Wiggins,” in William H. Gerdts, Masterworks of American Impressionism from the Pfeil Collection (Alexandria, Va.: Art Services International, 1992), p. 275. 4 “Chicago Man Wins First Art Choice,” The New York Times, November 8, 1940. 5 Guy C. Wiggins (1883–1962) American Impressionist, n. p.


John Williamson (1826–1885) Plate 44

Indian Summer, 1871

Artist and Leader

Oil on canvas

Born in Toll Cross, Scotland, John Williamson immigrated to the United

14 ½ x 22 ¼ inches

States as a boy and took up painting around 1850. He established himself as

Signed and dated lower right: J.W. (artist’s monogram) 71; titled, signed, inscribed and dated on verso: Indian Summer /By Jn. Williamson / N.Y. 1871

a still-life and landscape painter and soon became a prominent organizer

provenance

than to any other person, are the citizens of Brooklyn indebted for these

Private collection, New York

periodical displays of productions of our resident artists, he having been

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

indefatigable in his exertions to organize the Brooklyn Art Association, and

Private collection, New York

secure its place and permanency.” In addition to being a founding member

within the Brooklyn artistic community. His efforts prompted a critic for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle to remark: “To Williamson, indeed, perhaps more

3

of the Brooklyn Art Association, he was an active participant at the National Academy of Design. During the 1860s, the artist moved his studio to Astor

[Williamson] delights to paint nature in her serenest moods: the placid lake, or the pleasing landscape, bathed in soft sunshine of a summer’s day. His merit lies in his fidelity to nature. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1866

1

Place, Manhattan, and acquired a summer home in Glenwood, New York, where he often worked. While New York remained his adoptive home and great muse, he traveled widely, painting iconic views of the Hudson River valley, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and the Western frontier lands. Williamson’s technique—characterized by quick, sketchy brushwork and a rich color palette—brings a sense of immediacy and emotional charge to even his calmest vistas. Indian Summer is a captivating play on line, color, and form. A vast, implacable sky dominates two-thirds of the composition. Its paleness

By the 1860s Williamson had developed a reputation for bright, pleasant views . . . [he] achieved fidelity to nature with a rather summary manner through which he suggested the landscape forms and the broad effects of changing light on them. Teresa A. Carbone, curator, 2006

is offset by the warm tonalities and contrasting textures of the land below. Williamson’s simple yet balanced composition masterfully conveys the strange, almost mystical stillness of an Indian summer day. — i m h Williamson’s works are housed in the Brooklyn Museum, Hudson River Museum, and Maier Museum of Art.

2

1 “The Art Exhibition,”Brooklyn Daily Eagle, February 28, 1866. 2 Teresa Carbone, American Paintings in the Brooklyn Museum: Artists Born by 1876, vol. 2 (New York: Brooklyn Museum, 2006), p. 1089. 3 “Brooklyn Art Association, Extensive Exhibition of Paintings,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, December 27, 1861.


John Williamson (1826–1885) Plate 44

Indian Summer, 1871

Artist and Leader

Oil on canvas

Born in Toll Cross, Scotland, John Williamson immigrated to the United

14 ½ x 22 ¼ inches

States as a boy and took up painting around 1850. He established himself as

Signed and dated lower right: J.W. (artist’s monogram) 71; titled, signed, inscribed and dated on verso: Indian Summer /By Jn. Williamson / N.Y. 1871

a still-life and landscape painter and soon became a prominent organizer

provenance

than to any other person, are the citizens of Brooklyn indebted for these

Private collection, New York

periodical displays of productions of our resident artists, he having been

Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York

indefatigable in his exertions to organize the Brooklyn Art Association, and

Private collection, New York

secure its place and permanency.” In addition to being a founding member

within the Brooklyn artistic community. His efforts prompted a critic for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle to remark: “To Williamson, indeed, perhaps more

3

of the Brooklyn Art Association, he was an active participant at the National Academy of Design. During the 1860s, the artist moved his studio to Astor

[Williamson] delights to paint nature in her serenest moods: the placid lake, or the pleasing landscape, bathed in soft sunshine of a summer’s day. His merit lies in his fidelity to nature. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1866

1

Place, Manhattan, and acquired a summer home in Glenwood, New York, where he often worked. While New York remained his adoptive home and great muse, he traveled widely, painting iconic views of the Hudson River valley, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and the Western frontier lands. Williamson’s technique—characterized by quick, sketchy brushwork and a rich color palette—brings a sense of immediacy and emotional charge to even his calmest vistas. Indian Summer is a captivating play on line, color, and form. A vast, implacable sky dominates two-thirds of the composition. Its paleness

By the 1860s Williamson had developed a reputation for bright, pleasant views . . . [he] achieved fidelity to nature with a rather summary manner through which he suggested the landscape forms and the broad effects of changing light on them. Teresa A. Carbone, curator, 2006

is offset by the warm tonalities and contrasting textures of the land below. Williamson’s simple yet balanced composition masterfully conveys the strange, almost mystical stillness of an Indian summer day. — i m h Williamson’s works are housed in the Brooklyn Museum, Hudson River Museum, and Maier Museum of Art.

2

1 “The Art Exhibition,”Brooklyn Daily Eagle, February 28, 1866. 2 Teresa Carbone, American Paintings in the Brooklyn Museum: Artists Born by 1876, vol. 2 (New York: Brooklyn Museum, 2006), p. 1089. 3 “Brooklyn Art Association, Extensive Exhibition of Paintings,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, December 27, 1861.


The pairing of nineteenth-century paintings with eighteenth- to twenty-first-century documents may seem discordant, but Questroyal has found them to be happy bedfellows. Our historical documents foster the same appreciation for American culture, history, and a shared heritage that our paintings awaken in each viewer. To this point, our collection has encompassed writings that bear witness to the emotional struggles

Questroyal Historical Documents and Letters

of America’s commander in chief at Valley Forge; the Constitutional Congress and the torment it wreaked upon John Adams’s 5'7" stature; the ill-fated but unswerving conviction of abolitionist John Brown; the strengthened dedication to defeat pro-slavery forces by

It is exceedingly difficult to contain my personal

a Springfield, Illinois, upstart named Abraham Lincoln; and a general rallying his troops before their brave

enthusiasm for this, our newest venture. I have never been a student of history, but the first time I held one of these letters in my hands, I experienced awe and a newfound

departure for a distant shore. These are the letters and documents that created and sustained an America for our artists to depict. Questroyal is dedicated to the preservation of these documents and to making them available to our

sense of the world before my time. — lm s

clients. Like any of our paintings, the letters are suitable for display and provide viewers with a chance to examine up close what they would normally find in major historical institutions. The intrinsic value of these documents is also equal to their financial value: as time increases, so does their monetary worth. Take the most famous of American documents for example –– at its first printing (the Dunlap broadside), the Declaration of Independence was distributed for free; now a firstrun copy is worth more than eight million dollars. This may be a special instance, but as a group historical letters perform well as both investments and part of a cherished American history and paintings collection. We ask that you review the following documents with a sense of their place in our shared American narrative. Each word, sentence, and paragraph may uniquely strike its reader; we look forward to knowing your reaction. — j lw

fig. 10 A 2009 advertisement for Questroyal Fine Art’s historical documents and paintings


The pairing of nineteenth-century paintings with eighteenth- to twenty-first-century documents may seem discordant, but Questroyal has found them to be happy bedfellows. Our historical documents foster the same appreciation for American culture, history, and a shared heritage that our paintings awaken in each viewer. To this point, our collection has encompassed writings that bear witness to the emotional struggles

Questroyal Historical Documents and Letters

of America’s commander in chief at Valley Forge; the Constitutional Congress and the torment it wreaked upon John Adams’s 5'7" stature; the ill-fated but unswerving conviction of abolitionist John Brown; the strengthened dedication to defeat pro-slavery forces by

It is exceedingly difficult to contain my personal

a Springfield, Illinois, upstart named Abraham Lincoln; and a general rallying his troops before their brave

enthusiasm for this, our newest venture. I have never been a student of history, but the first time I held one of these letters in my hands, I experienced awe and a newfound

departure for a distant shore. These are the letters and documents that created and sustained an America for our artists to depict. Questroyal is dedicated to the preservation of these documents and to making them available to our

sense of the world before my time. — lm s

clients. Like any of our paintings, the letters are suitable for display and provide viewers with a chance to examine up close what they would normally find in major historical institutions. The intrinsic value of these documents is also equal to their financial value: as time increases, so does their monetary worth. Take the most famous of American documents for example –– at its first printing (the Dunlap broadside), the Declaration of Independence was distributed for free; now a firstrun copy is worth more than eight million dollars. This may be a special instance, but as a group historical letters perform well as both investments and part of a cherished American history and paintings collection. We ask that you review the following documents with a sense of their place in our shared American narrative. Each word, sentence, and paragraph may uniquely strike its reader; we look forward to knowing your reaction. — j lw

fig. 10 A 2009 advertisement for Questroyal Fine Art’s historical documents and paintings


Katharine Lee Bates (1859–1929) Poet and author of “America the Beautiful” Plate 47

Transcript of “America the Beautiful” written by its author, Katharine Lee Bates

transcription

America the Beautiful

Autograph manuscript signed (“Katharine Lee Bates”), c. 1913–1929, one page. A handwritten transcription of “America the Beautiful”

O beautiful for spacious skies / For amber waves of grain, For purple mountain majesties / Above the fruited plain! America! America! / God shed his grace on thee And crown thy good with brotherhood / From sea to shining sea! O beautiful for pilgrim feet / Whose stern impassioned stress A thoroughfare of freedom beat / Across the wilderness! America! America! / God mend thine every flaw, Confirm thy soul in self-control, / Thy liberty in law! O beautiful for heroes proved / In liberating strife. Who more than self their country loved / And mercy more than life! America! America! / May God thy gold refine Till all success be nobleness / And every gain divine! O beautiful for patriot dream / That sees beyond the years Thine alabaster cities gleam / Undimmed by human tears! America! America! / God shed his grace on thee And crown thy good with brotherhood / From sea to shining sea! Katharine Lee Bates


Katharine Lee Bates (1859–1929) Poet and author of “America the Beautiful” Plate 47

Transcript of “America the Beautiful” written by its author, Katharine Lee Bates

transcription

America the Beautiful

Autograph manuscript signed (“Katharine Lee Bates”), c. 1913–1929, one page. A handwritten transcription of “America the Beautiful”

O beautiful for spacious skies / For amber waves of grain, For purple mountain majesties / Above the fruited plain! America! America! / God shed his grace on thee And crown thy good with brotherhood / From sea to shining sea! O beautiful for pilgrim feet / Whose stern impassioned stress A thoroughfare of freedom beat / Across the wilderness! America! America! / God mend thine every flaw, Confirm thy soul in self-control, / Thy liberty in law! O beautiful for heroes proved / In liberating strife. Who more than self their country loved / And mercy more than life! America! America! / May God thy gold refine Till all success be nobleness / And every gain divine! O beautiful for patriot dream / That sees beyond the years Thine alabaster cities gleam / Undimmed by human tears! America! America! / God shed his grace on thee And crown thy good with brotherhood / From sea to shining sea! Katharine Lee Bates


John Brown (1800–1859) American abolitionist Plate 48

A Defining Letter that Provokes the Nation to Civil War

transcription

Autograph letter signed (“John Brown”) to Franklin Sanborn,

F B Sanborn Esq

Peterboro, New York, February 24, 1858, two pages. Brown asks a member of the “Secret Six” to “make a common cause” with

Peterboro, N. Y. 24.th Feby, 1858.

My Dear Friend

him two days after revealing his plan to raid a federal arsenal at

Mr. Morton has taken the liberty of saying to me that you felt ½ inclined to

Harper’s Ferry and spark a major slave rebellion.

make a common cause with me. I greatly rejoice at this; for I believe when you come to look at the ample field I labour in; & the rich harvest which (not only this entire country, but) the whole world during the present & future generation may reap from its successful cultivation; you will feel that you are out of your element until you find you are in it; an entire Unit. What an inconceivable amount of good you might so effect; by your counsel, your example, your encouragement, your natural & acquired ability; for active service. And then how very little we can possibly loose ? Certainly the cause is enough to live for; if not to

for. I have only had this one opportunity in

a life of nearly Sixty years, & could I be continued ten times as long again I might not again have another equal opportunity. God has honored but comparatively a very small part of mankind with any [2] possible chance for such mighty & soul satisfying rewards. But my dear friend if you should make up your mind to do so I trust it will be wholly from the prompting of your own spirit; after having thoroughly counted the cost. I would flatter no man into such a measure if I could do it ever so easily. I expect nothing but to “endure hardness”: but I expect to effect a mighty conquest even though it be like the last victory of Samson. I felt for a number of years in earlier life; a steady strong desire to die: but since I saw any prospect of becoming a ‘reaper’ in the great harvest I have not only felt quite willing to live: but have enjoyed life much; I am now rather anxious to live for a few years more. Your sincere friend John Brown


John Brown (1800–1859) American abolitionist Plate 48

A Defining Letter that Provokes the Nation to Civil War

transcription

Autograph letter signed (“John Brown”) to Franklin Sanborn,

F B Sanborn Esq

Peterboro, New York, February 24, 1858, two pages. Brown asks a member of the “Secret Six” to “make a common cause” with

Peterboro, N. Y. 24.th Feby, 1858.

My Dear Friend

him two days after revealing his plan to raid a federal arsenal at

Mr. Morton has taken the liberty of saying to me that you felt ½ inclined to

Harper’s Ferry and spark a major slave rebellion.

make a common cause with me. I greatly rejoice at this; for I believe when you come to look at the ample field I labour in; & the rich harvest which (not only this entire country, but) the whole world during the present & future generation may reap from its successful cultivation; you will feel that you are out of your element until you find you are in it; an entire Unit. What an inconceivable amount of good you might so effect; by your counsel, your example, your encouragement, your natural & acquired ability; for active service. And then how very little we can possibly loose ? Certainly the cause is enough to live for; if not to

for. I have only had this one opportunity in

a life of nearly Sixty years, & could I be continued ten times as long again I might not again have another equal opportunity. God has honored but comparatively a very small part of mankind with any [2] possible chance for such mighty & soul satisfying rewards. But my dear friend if you should make up your mind to do so I trust it will be wholly from the prompting of your own spirit; after having thoroughly counted the cost. I would flatter no man into such a measure if I could do it ever so easily. I expect nothing but to “endure hardness”: but I expect to effect a mighty conquest even though it be like the last victory of Samson. I felt for a number of years in earlier life; a steady strong desire to die: but since I saw any prospect of becoming a ‘reaper’ in the great harvest I have not only felt quite willing to live: but have enjoyed life much; I am now rather anxious to live for a few years more. Your sincere friend John Brown


Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) (1835–1910) Author of American novels, including The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Adventures of Tom Sawyer Plate 49

Mark Twain’s Gambling Horse Thieves Get “Prime Drunk” Autographed manuscript unsigned, one page, numbered leaf 193, sixteen lines with three cancellations and three insertions. From

transcription

193 […] by. Then we crept along on our knees, slow & careful, to the edge of

Twain’s unfinished sequel to The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. This

the bank, through the bush & there was the camp, a little ways up, & right in

page begins when Huck and Brace, his newfound friend, search out

the dry bed of the river; two big buffalo-skin lodges, a hand of horses tied

the location of a band of horse thieves.

& eight men carousing & gambling around a fire — all white men, & the

roughest kind, & prime drunk. Brace said they had camped there so their camp couldn’t be seen easy, but they might as well camped in the open as go & get drunk & make such a […]


Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) (1835–1910) Author of American novels, including The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Adventures of Tom Sawyer Plate 49

Mark Twain’s Gambling Horse Thieves Get “Prime Drunk” Autographed manuscript unsigned, one page, numbered leaf 193, sixteen lines with three cancellations and three insertions. From

transcription

193 […] by. Then we crept along on our knees, slow & careful, to the edge of

Twain’s unfinished sequel to The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. This

the bank, through the bush & there was the camp, a little ways up, & right in

page begins when Huck and Brace, his newfound friend, search out

the dry bed of the river; two big buffalo-skin lodges, a hand of horses tied

the location of a band of horse thieves.

& eight men carousing & gambling around a fire — all white men, & the

roughest kind, & prime drunk. Brace said they had camped there so their camp couldn’t be seen easy, but they might as well camped in the open as go & get drunk & make such a […]


David Crockett (1786–1836) American frontiersman, soldier, politician, and hero of the Alamo Plate 50

The Hero of the Alamo Requests Government Assistance for a Military Family Autograph letter signed (“David Crockett”) to Daniel Webster, Jackson, Tennessee, December 18, 1832, two pages with autograph integrated address leaf. Crockett asks Webster, then Massachusetts

transcription

18th December 1832 Hon. Daniel Webster Dr Sir

senator, to help Colonel Joel Henry Dyer petition Congress for financial assistance after the death of his father, Colonel Henry Dyer.

From my personal acquaintance with you and my knowledge of your liberality to the friends of our Country I will make no appoligy for troubling you with this letter. I have been in conversation with my friend Colo Joel Henry Dyer upon a subject which I feel a deep interest. I have advised him to lay the clame of the heirs of Colo Henry Dyer before Congress and I hope you will give your aid to an amiable widow and creditable family which from the circumstance of Colo Dyer’s devoting his whole time to the services of his Country has occasioned Colo Dyer to leave his [2] family in an imbarised situation and much oppressed. I my-self entered the army with Colo Dyer and was acquainted with his services and can say that the government cannot do a greater act of gratitude than to relieve his family from distress which will be no more than Justice from their Country. You will pleas to read this—and show it to other members of your boddy and I hope they will appreciate this request — I must close with great respect your friend and obt Servt, David Crockett


David Crockett (1786–1836) American frontiersman, soldier, politician, and hero of the Alamo Plate 50

The Hero of the Alamo Requests Government Assistance for a Military Family Autograph letter signed (“David Crockett”) to Daniel Webster, Jackson, Tennessee, December 18, 1832, two pages with autograph integrated address leaf. Crockett asks Webster, then Massachusetts

transcription

18th December 1832 Hon. Daniel Webster Dr Sir

senator, to help Colonel Joel Henry Dyer petition Congress for financial assistance after the death of his father, Colonel Henry Dyer.

From my personal acquaintance with you and my knowledge of your liberality to the friends of our Country I will make no appoligy for troubling you with this letter. I have been in conversation with my friend Colo Joel Henry Dyer upon a subject which I feel a deep interest. I have advised him to lay the clame of the heirs of Colo Henry Dyer before Congress and I hope you will give your aid to an amiable widow and creditable family which from the circumstance of Colo Dyer’s devoting his whole time to the services of his Country has occasioned Colo Dyer to leave his [2] family in an imbarised situation and much oppressed. I my-self entered the army with Colo Dyer and was acquainted with his services and can say that the government cannot do a greater act of gratitude than to relieve his family from distress which will be no more than Justice from their Country. You will pleas to read this—and show it to other members of your boddy and I hope they will appreciate this request — I must close with great respect your friend and obt Servt, David Crockett


Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969) Thirty-fourth president of the United States and general of the American army Plate 51

Eisenhower’s D-day Message to the Troops transcription Printed document signed (“Dwight Eisenhower”), one page removed S U P R E M E H E A D Q UA RT E R S

from Eisenhower’s Crusade in Europe, New York, Doubleday & Co.: 1948. A signed copy of Eisenhower’s D-Day message.

A L L I E D E X P E D I T I O N A RY F O R C E

Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force! You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world. Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle-hardened. He will fight savagely. But this is the year 1944 ! Much has happened since the Nazi triumphs of 1940–41. The United Nations have inflicted upon the Germans great defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the air and their capacity to wage war on the ground. Our Home Fronts have given us an overwhelming superiority in weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our disposal great reserves of trained fighting men. The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching together to Victory! I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full Victory ! Good Luck! And let us all beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking. Dwight D Eisenhower


Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969) Thirty-fourth president of the United States and general of the American army Plate 51

Eisenhower’s D-day Message to the Troops transcription Printed document signed (“Dwight Eisenhower”), one page removed S U P R E M E H E A D Q UA RT E R S

from Eisenhower’s Crusade in Europe, New York, Doubleday & Co.: 1948. A signed copy of Eisenhower’s D-Day message.

A L L I E D E X P E D I T I O N A RY F O R C E

Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force! You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world. Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle-hardened. He will fight savagely. But this is the year 1944 ! Much has happened since the Nazi triumphs of 1940–41. The United Nations have inflicted upon the Germans great defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the air and their capacity to wage war on the ground. Our Home Fronts have given us an overwhelming superiority in weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our disposal great reserves of trained fighting men. The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching together to Victory! I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full Victory ! Good Luck! And let us all beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking. Dwight D Eisenhower


Andrew Jackson (1767–1845) Seventh president of the United States Plate 52

“Old Hickory” Vents His Rage against Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford Autograph letter signed (“Andrew Jackson”) to Col. George Gibson, Hermitage, January 10, 1820, two pages. A fiery Jackson attacks

transcription

Hermitage Jany 10th 1820 Dear Col.o

Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford while discussing his plans

Your letter without date reached me yesterday. I have perused it with much

to return to combat in Florida.

interest. I trust our chief will come forth like himself, & repell the attack. The moment I saw Mr Forsyths correspondence at Madrid, and the report of the Sec. of the Treasury [Crawford], I thought I saw, a meditated blow, at the President & Sec. of War [Calhoun]. There appears in the two things, a systematic understanding, & combination. I do know, and so I informed Mr Calhoun & Mr Monroe, that Wm. H. Crawford is a base man, they too well know him. But he finds he is gone & he wishes to tumble them with him. I trust his shaft will fall harmless at their feet. Please accept a tender of my thanks for your attention to the pamphlet. I shall write you when at leisure. I have to answer a communication from the Sec. of War recd. yesterday on the plan of the contemplated campaign against Florida, to forward by tomorrow’s mail. Having given to my friend Gadsden when he left me my plans, notes, charts of those places expecting to resign, I am taken by surprise, but if I recollect the mouth of the Grand Lagoon afords sufficient depth of water to admit transports. If so our heavy ordinance & c &c can be landed there & a few teams of oxen & horses will take them to position. For information on this head I have referred the Sec. of War [2] to you. Please present me respectfully to him & Mr Monroe, to Capt. Easter & Brunaugh & should a campaign be ordered I shall expect you with me. Mrs. J. joins me in good wishes for your health & happiness, & believe me to be Your friend sincerely Andrew Jackson Col.o George Gibson


Andrew Jackson (1767–1845) Seventh president of the United States Plate 52

“Old Hickory” Vents His Rage against Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford Autograph letter signed (“Andrew Jackson”) to Col. George Gibson, Hermitage, January 10, 1820, two pages. A fiery Jackson attacks

transcription

Hermitage Jany 10th 1820 Dear Col.o

Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford while discussing his plans

Your letter without date reached me yesterday. I have perused it with much

to return to combat in Florida.

interest. I trust our chief will come forth like himself, & repell the attack. The moment I saw Mr Forsyths correspondence at Madrid, and the report of the Sec. of the Treasury [Crawford], I thought I saw, a meditated blow, at the President & Sec. of War [Calhoun]. There appears in the two things, a systematic understanding, & combination. I do know, and so I informed Mr Calhoun & Mr Monroe, that Wm. H. Crawford is a base man, they too well know him. But he finds he is gone & he wishes to tumble them with him. I trust his shaft will fall harmless at their feet. Please accept a tender of my thanks for your attention to the pamphlet. I shall write you when at leisure. I have to answer a communication from the Sec. of War recd. yesterday on the plan of the contemplated campaign against Florida, to forward by tomorrow’s mail. Having given to my friend Gadsden when he left me my plans, notes, charts of those places expecting to resign, I am taken by surprise, but if I recollect the mouth of the Grand Lagoon afords sufficient depth of water to admit transports. If so our heavy ordinance & c &c can be landed there & a few teams of oxen & horses will take them to position. For information on this head I have referred the Sec. of War [2] to you. Please present me respectfully to him & Mr Monroe, to Capt. Easter & Brunaugh & should a campaign be ordered I shall expect you with me. Mrs. J. joins me in good wishes for your health & happiness, & believe me to be Your friend sincerely Andrew Jackson Col.o George Gibson


Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (1824–1863) Confederate general Plate 53

“Stonewall” Jackson to D. H. Hill: Go to Fredericksburg and Fast! Autograph endorsement signed (“T. J. Jackson”), to D. H. Hill, c. November 20, 1862, one page, on verso of D. H. Hill to Stonewall Jackson, Virginia, November 20, 1862, one page, on blue paper. Jackson responds to a letter from D. H. Hill requesting the prescribed route for his troops as they head to Fredericksburg.

transcription

[In Hill’s hand:]

[Endorsement, in Jackson’s hand:]

Nov 20th 1862

My medical director has given directions to yours respecting the sick. As he

Gen l Capt Pendleton’s instructions do not state whether I am to go through Harrisonburg. Shall I cross over directly from New Market to Luray or shall I go by Harrisonburg & Stanardsville. I infer the latter. We have about 120 sick at Strasburg & Midletown, besides a good number unfit to march. May I appropriate all my returning ambulances? I learn that we have but nine (9) in the Division. Respectfully D H Hill Maj Gen

is not with me at this time, I can not answer yr question respecting the ambulances. Your route will be from New Market via Columbia bridge, & Fishers Gap. You will leave the Valley pike at New Market, [struck: but][inserted: & keep to the right of Luray.][struck: should you require more flour than you] There will be no occasion I hope for your using [inserted: the] flour at Harrisonburg. T.J. Jackson Lt Genl


Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (1824–1863) Confederate general Plate 53

“Stonewall” Jackson to D. H. Hill: Go to Fredericksburg and Fast! Autograph endorsement signed (“T. J. Jackson”), to D. H. Hill, c. November 20, 1862, one page, on verso of D. H. Hill to Stonewall Jackson, Virginia, November 20, 1862, one page, on blue paper. Jackson responds to a letter from D. H. Hill requesting the prescribed route for his troops as they head to Fredericksburg.

transcription

[In Hill’s hand:]

[Endorsement, in Jackson’s hand:]

Nov 20th 1862

My medical director has given directions to yours respecting the sick. As he

Gen l Capt Pendleton’s instructions do not state whether I am to go through Harrisonburg. Shall I cross over directly from New Market to Luray or shall I go by Harrisonburg & Stanardsville. I infer the latter. We have about 120 sick at Strasburg & Midletown, besides a good number unfit to march. May I appropriate all my returning ambulances? I learn that we have but nine (9) in the Division. Respectfully D H Hill Maj Gen

is not with me at this time, I can not answer yr question respecting the ambulances. Your route will be from New Market via Columbia bridge, & Fishers Gap. You will leave the Valley pike at New Market, [struck: but][inserted: & keep to the right of Luray.][struck: should you require more flour than you] There will be no occasion I hope for your using [inserted: the] flour at Harrisonburg. T.J. Jackson Lt Genl


Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) Third president of the United States Plate 54

Jefferson Discusses a “Secret” Project to Bring the University of Geneva to America Autograph letter signed (“Th: Jefferson”) to David Rittenhouse, Monticello, February 24, 1795, one page. Jefferson requests that Rittenhouse forward secretive letters concerning the University of

transcription

Monticello Feb.24.1795. Dear Sir The inclosed letter to mr Madison covers two to the President & secretary of

Geneva to Congressman James Madison, President George

state, which were left open to be perused & then delivered by him. but as he

Washington, and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph; he also

may have left Philadelphia before they get there, & it is important they

discusses how he spends his time at Monticello.

should be delivered without delay, I take the liberty of putting the whole under cover to you, and open for your perusal as the subject will interest you. if mr Madison be not gone be so good as to stick a wafer [i.e. seal] in his cover & have it delivered. if he be gone, throw his cover into the fire, stick wafers into the letters to the President & Secretary of state, and when dry have them delivered. you will percieve that the subject of the letter has been desired to be kept secret as much as it’s nature will permit. I am here immersed in the concerns of a farmer, and more interested & engrossed by them, than I had ever concieved possible. they in a great degree render me indifferent to my books, so that I read little & ride much, and I regret greatly the time I have suffered myself to waste from home. to this indeed is added another kind of regret for the loss of society with the worthy characters with which I became acquainted in the course of my wanderings from home. if I had but Fortunatus’s wishing cap to seat myself sometimes by your fireside, and to pay a visit to Dr. [Joseph] Priestly, I would be contented. his writings evince that he must be a fund of instruction in conversation, and his character an object of attachment & veneration. be so good as to present my best respects to mrs Rittenhouse, & to accept yourself assurances of the high esteem of Dear Sir your sincere friend & humble servt Th:Jefferson David Rittenhouse


Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) Third president of the United States Plate 54

Jefferson Discusses a “Secret” Project to Bring the University of Geneva to America Autograph letter signed (“Th: Jefferson”) to David Rittenhouse, Monticello, February 24, 1795, one page. Jefferson requests that Rittenhouse forward secretive letters concerning the University of

transcription

Monticello Feb.24.1795. Dear Sir The inclosed letter to mr Madison covers two to the President & secretary of

Geneva to Congressman James Madison, President George

state, which were left open to be perused & then delivered by him. but as he

Washington, and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph; he also

may have left Philadelphia before they get there, & it is important they

discusses how he spends his time at Monticello.

should be delivered without delay, I take the liberty of putting the whole under cover to you, and open for your perusal as the subject will interest you. if mr Madison be not gone be so good as to stick a wafer [i.e. seal] in his cover & have it delivered. if he be gone, throw his cover into the fire, stick wafers into the letters to the President & Secretary of state, and when dry have them delivered. you will percieve that the subject of the letter has been desired to be kept secret as much as it’s nature will permit. I am here immersed in the concerns of a farmer, and more interested & engrossed by them, than I had ever concieved possible. they in a great degree render me indifferent to my books, so that I read little & ride much, and I regret greatly the time I have suffered myself to waste from home. to this indeed is added another kind of regret for the loss of society with the worthy characters with which I became acquainted in the course of my wanderings from home. if I had but Fortunatus’s wishing cap to seat myself sometimes by your fireside, and to pay a visit to Dr. [Joseph] Priestly, I would be contented. his writings evince that he must be a fund of instruction in conversation, and his character an object of attachment & veneration. be so good as to present my best respects to mrs Rittenhouse, & to accept yourself assurances of the high esteem of Dear Sir your sincere friend & humble servt Th:Jefferson David Rittenhouse


Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) Third president of the United States Plate 55

Jefferson Discusses Preserving “the Peace of the World” by Resolving the “Contradictions” of Maritime Neutrality Autograph letter signed (“Th: Jefferson”) to William Barton, Washington,

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Washington Nov.12.1801. Dear Sir

D.C., November 12, 1801, one page. Jefferson accepts dedication of

I have duly recieved your favor of Oct. 30. and the honour of your proposition

Barton’s “Dissertation on the Freedom of Navigation and Maritime

to address to me your treatise on the law of nations. this proof of respect can-

Commerce” and comments upon the importance of the subject.

not but be flattering to one who entertains a sincere esteem for your person and character. the subject is important, involved in errors & contradictions, which, for the peace of the world, it is very desireable to see rectified. but the want of a physical test whereby to try principles, and the passions & interests & power of the nations who are called to their bar, render that rectification very difficult. still every effort is laudable which goes to that object, and tends to promote it by increasing the mass of authorities which bear witness in it’s favor. Accept my best wishes for the success of your work & assurances of my high esteem & respect.

Th:Jefferson William Barton esq.


Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) Third president of the United States Plate 55

Jefferson Discusses Preserving “the Peace of the World” by Resolving the “Contradictions” of Maritime Neutrality Autograph letter signed (“Th: Jefferson”) to William Barton, Washington,

transcription

Washington Nov.12.1801. Dear Sir

D.C., November 12, 1801, one page. Jefferson accepts dedication of

I have duly recieved your favor of Oct. 30. and the honour of your proposition

Barton’s “Dissertation on the Freedom of Navigation and Maritime

to address to me your treatise on the law of nations. this proof of respect can-

Commerce” and comments upon the importance of the subject.

not but be flattering to one who entertains a sincere esteem for your person and character. the subject is important, involved in errors & contradictions, which, for the peace of the world, it is very desireable to see rectified. but the want of a physical test whereby to try principles, and the passions & interests & power of the nations who are called to their bar, render that rectification very difficult. still every effort is laudable which goes to that object, and tends to promote it by increasing the mass of authorities which bear witness in it’s favor. Accept my best wishes for the success of your work & assurances of my high esteem & respect.

Th:Jefferson William Barton esq.


Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865) Sixteenth president of the United States Plate 56

Lincoln’s Anti-slavery Offensive Autograph letter signed (“A. Lincoln”) to Richard Yates, Springfield, Illinois, March 9, 1858, two pages. Lincoln supports his best man for Congress and discusses his opposition to the Dred Scott decision.

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Springfield, March 9, 1858. Hon. R. Yates

We have thought this over here—The leading Fillmore men here wish to act with us, and they want a name upon which they can bring up their rank and file—It will help us in Sangamon, where we shall be hard run, about

My dear Sir:

members of the Legislature—Think it over, and if you can approve it, give

If you approve of the following contrive to have it appear in some one of the

it a start as above—

anti-administration papers down your way- better there than here. “Mr. Editor: Why may not all anti-administration men in this District vote for James H. Matheny, of Springfield, for Congress? He was opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; was for Fillmore in 1856, but never was a KnowNothing — He is now opposed to the Lecompton Constitution, and the Dred Scott decision —Who can be more suitable, when a union of Fremont and Fillmore men, is indispensable? A. republican.”

I have not forgotten my course towards “Jim” [Matheny] for a nomination in 1856 which you also well know—The difficulty then was on a point which has since been measurably superseded by the Dred Scott de [2] decision; and he is with us on that — [William] Butler says you rather have an eye to getting our old friend Bill Greene on the track —Nothing would please me better, whenever he got on to ground that would suit you, except it would give us no access to the Fillmore votes. Don’t you see ? We must have some one who will reach the Fillmore men, both for the direct and the incidental effect. I wish you would see Nult [Lynn McNulty] Greene, and present this view to him. Point out to him the necessities of the case, and also how the question, as to “Jim” is varied since 1856. Let this be strictly confidential. Yours as ever, A. Lincoln [docket:] A. Lincoln


Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865) Sixteenth president of the United States Plate 56

Lincoln’s Anti-slavery Offensive Autograph letter signed (“A. Lincoln”) to Richard Yates, Springfield, Illinois, March 9, 1858, two pages. Lincoln supports his best man for Congress and discusses his opposition to the Dred Scott decision.

transcription

Springfield, March 9, 1858. Hon. R. Yates

We have thought this over here—The leading Fillmore men here wish to act with us, and they want a name upon which they can bring up their rank and file—It will help us in Sangamon, where we shall be hard run, about

My dear Sir:

members of the Legislature—Think it over, and if you can approve it, give

If you approve of the following contrive to have it appear in some one of the

it a start as above—

anti-administration papers down your way- better there than here. “Mr. Editor: Why may not all anti-administration men in this District vote for James H. Matheny, of Springfield, for Congress? He was opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; was for Fillmore in 1856, but never was a KnowNothing — He is now opposed to the Lecompton Constitution, and the Dred Scott decision —Who can be more suitable, when a union of Fremont and Fillmore men, is indispensable? A. republican.”

I have not forgotten my course towards “Jim” [Matheny] for a nomination in 1856 which you also well know—The difficulty then was on a point which has since been measurably superseded by the Dred Scott de [2] decision; and he is with us on that — [William] Butler says you rather have an eye to getting our old friend Bill Greene on the track —Nothing would please me better, whenever he got on to ground that would suit you, except it would give us no access to the Fillmore votes. Don’t you see ? We must have some one who will reach the Fillmore men, both for the direct and the incidental effect. I wish you would see Nult [Lynn McNulty] Greene, and present this view to him. Point out to him the necessities of the case, and also how the question, as to “Jim” is varied since 1856. Let this be strictly confidential. Yours as ever, A. Lincoln [docket:] A. Lincoln


There will be no forth-coming variations, improved models, or new versions. They are as they were 150 years ago and as they will be 150 years from now. The opportunity is at hand. A great collector once said, “I regret only the painting I did not buy.� — lm s


There will be no forth-coming variations, improved models, or new versions. They are as they were 150 years ago and as they will be 150 years from now. The opportunity is at hand. A great collector once said, “I regret only the painting I did not buy.� — lm s

Questroyal 2009  

Questroyal Catalog 2009

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