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G IN M R EE STE : N M I O NG h E , 2 0 1 7 FR E S ec E WS NE MEN' , IM T I G U S O W S.I. - F A A P E R . B NTS AL P W S E EV HNIC Y N E S C TE USTR N E W D IN DUCT O PR

41ENGINEERING INTEGRITY EIS SEPTEMBER 2016

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

paper on: • Lateral and Longitudinal Grip Variation EIS Website: www.e-i-s.org.uk


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Contents Index to Advertisements........................................................................................................................................................ 3 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition, 14 March 2017 ........................................................................................... 5 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Diary of Events...................................................................................................................................................................... 6 New Chairman of the EIS: Dr John Yates ............................................................................................................................ 7 Technical Paper: Lateral and Longitudinal Grip Variation .................................................................................................... 8 Membership Details............................................................................................................................................................. 15 What Engineers need to know and the Pitfalls.................................................................................................................... 16 Fatigue 2017, 3-5 July 2017, Downing College, Cambridge ............................................................................................. 18 Free Seminars to Support Young Engineers ...................................................................................................................... 23 Industry News...................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Product News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 News from Women’s Engineering Society.......................................................................................................................... 30 Inspring the Next Generation.............................................................................................................................................. 31 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers.................................................................................................................. 32 News from British Standards .............................................................................................................................................. 33 Group News ....................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Corporate Member Profiles ................................................................................................................................................ 34 Committee Members........................................................................................................................................................... 36 Corporate Members............................................................................................................................................................ 38 New Personal Members...................................................................................................................................................... 38

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering ............................................39

M+P International.......................................Back cover

Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover

PCB Piezotronics.....................................................41

DJB Instruments ......................................................39

Sensors UK .............................................................40

EIS..............................................................1, 5, 18, 23

Team Corporation.....................................................38

Head Acoustics ..........................................................2

Techni Measure........................................................38

Micro-Epsilon .............................................................1

Thank you to HORIBA-MIRA for hosting the EIS committee meetings on 21 June.

Front Cover: Rocket car challenge courtesy of Grant Gibson

3


HONORARY EDITOR Dr Karen Perkins

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The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society, is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession.

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ISSN 1365-4101/2016

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Engineering Integrity Society

Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition

The Silverstone Wing, Silverstone Race Track, 14 March 2017 10am - 4pm • Over 60 exhibitors will present the latest advances in measurement analysis and testing technology in aerospace, automotive, motor-sport, rail, off-highway, mechanical handling, industrial and power generation industries. • Free Entrance to Exhibition and Open Forums • Free Car Parking • Complimentary Refreshments

Open Forums include: • Data Collection and Analysis - do it fast, do it cheap or do it accurately - choose two • Techiques for Visualising Strain • Tyres and the Road/Runway Interface

Co-sponsored by:

To pre-register: Tel: 01572 811315 • Email: info@e-i-s.org.uk Website: www.e-i-s.org.uk


Editorial Welcome to the Autumn edition of the EIS

turn off a power station? Even in a high tech sector like the

Journal. It has been a busy few months

nuclear industry, the human factors may be more complex

both nationally, with Brexit, controversy

than the actual technology.

about the next generation of nuclear power stations and the Olympics, and for EIS with

These issues will need to be addressed by the next

the appointment of a new chairman. It is a

generation of engineers. While we often bemoan the lack

pleasure to welcome Dr John Yates to his

of young people moving into the sector, there seems to be

new position. For those of you who don't know

a healthy range of initiatives trying to address the shortage.

him already, John has written an introductory

In terms of young adults the 'Industry News' column reports

piece for this edition of the journal.

on the Engineering Development Trust’s Year in Industry programme and the Bosch Rexroth Open House day,

The single technical paper in this edition, 'Lateral and

while the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appeals to

Longitudinal Grip Variation', ties in nicely with a background

youngsters' competitive instincts with competitions involving

article on tyres in 'What Engineers needs to know and the

racing cars, trains and even unmanned aircraft. In the

Pitfalls'.

'Inspiring the Next Generation' column you can also read about activities aimed at primary school children.

In an atmosphere of political and economic uncertainty I find the solidity of basic science a reassuring foundation. We

Another long standing problem is the lack of women going

may not fully understand a fracture mechanism or how our

into and staying in engineering. The 'News from Women’s

tyres stick to the road but we can be sure that the underlying

Engineering Society' column highlights the importance

physics will not change and with sound scientific investigation

of inclusivity for retention. At the risk of perpetuating

our understanding will improve. The interactions of

stereotypes, perhaps the area would have more appeal

technology with people and people with technology may

to some if we highlighted the human interactions with

not be so easy to understand and indeed drive change in

technology that drive us to low power kettles more than the

a completely different direction to the pure science. For

laws of thermodynamics which show that they are inefficient.

example take the environmental considerations leading to the introduction of lower power kettles to save energy.

Karen Perkins

Anyone who has waited for an underpowered camping

Honorary Editor

stove to boil a kettle knows how much fuel is wasted simply keeping the water hotter than its surroundings while it slowly warms up. The quicker the heating process the less time there is for heat to be lost and the more fundamentally efficient the process. Unfortunately it is thought that people boil more water than they need to, unless they have to wait. Make the kettle slow and less water will be used. The legislators' calculation is that the human factor will outweigh the reduction in genuine efficiency. At least in this case the decision on how much water to use will remain with the person filling the kettle, with more sophisticated technologies the decisions may be taken remotely, by something or someone else. The internet of things will bring many possibilities for us to interact and control devices remotely, but are we ready for others to have that control

Diary of Events Hydraulics: What the Engineer Needs to Know and How to Avoid the Pitfalls 15 September 2016 Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury The Theory & Practice of Developing Rubber Products with Good Fatigue Life 6 October 2016 Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury Structural Dynamics – Implications of Weight Reduction on Structural Modal Performance TBC

over our devices? Smart energy metering could eventually guide usage away from times of peak demand, effectively aiding energy supply issues using financial incentives, but will also allow a third party, either authorised or not, to turn off a house's power. On a larger scale, could a third party

6

Fatigue 2017 3-5 July 2017 Downing College, Cambridge


Chairman of the E.I.S. - Dr John Yates I was delighted to accept the nomination

that it is all about cracks and their formation and growth. My

to become Chairman of the EIS at the last

Ph.D. was sponsored by NEI Parsons in Newcastle upon

Council meeting. Although many of you,

Tyne and I spent several very happy months in their offices.

especially in the D+FG, know me already,

I later did postdoctoral research for AWE and Rolls Royce

I agreed with our Managing Editor that it

before joining the academic staff at Sheffield. I stayed there

would good to let you know a little more

until 2010, having been awarded a Personal Chair in 2000

about me.

and serving as Head of Department from 2004 until 2008. During this time I became a Chartered Engineer and Fellow

I joined the EIS somewhere back in the

of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. In 2008, I was

mists of time; probably around 1990 on

delighted to become a Higher Education Academy National

the advice of our current President who was then Professor

Teaching Fellow in recognition of the work that I and my

of Mechanical Engineering at Sheffield.

colleagues at Sheffield had done in educating professional

The Durability

and Fatigue Group was my natural home and I soon got

engineers.

involved in organizing events and workshops. Encouraging young engineers to take on such responsibility is, I think,

In 2010 I joined the School of Mechanical Aerospace

one of the great strengths of the EIS.

I progressed to

and Civil Engineering at the University of Manchester

being on the organising committees of the EIS fatigue

as Professor of Computational Mechanics and Founding

conferences, starting with the 2000 conference at Robinson

Director of the Modelling and Simulation Centre, supported

College Cambridge, and I am delighted to be leading the

by EDF Energy.

organisation of the 2017 event at Downing College. I also served a spell as Honorary Editor of the EIS Journal from

In January 2014, I retired from academic life with the idea

2000 to 2004.

that I would spend more time on my hobbies of building and racing old cars, and making jewellery. In reality, life

My technical background is originally as a metallurgist

seems to be just as busy as ever; our garden needs a lot of

and materials scientist having studied Natural Sciences at

attention, which my wife has taken on since her retirement.

Pembroke College Cambridge. It was here that my tutor

We have another dog, a bouncy flat coated retriever who

G.C. Smith first interested me in fatigue as a subject of

likes lots of exercise, and our family has recently extended

study, rather than as a practical consequence of driving

with two grand-daughters.

cars too quickly! After a brief period at Cranfield studying

engineering consultancies, and I have maintained my

fracture under Peter Hancock, I joined the University

commitment to education and training through my Sheffield

of Sheffield to study for a PhD and turn myself into an

Fracture Mechanics course and, indeed, the EIS.

I still find time to do some

engineer, where I was supervised by one of the great characters in fatigue, Keith Miller. That was in 1982, in

Having been involved in the EIS for so long, I am looking

what might be regarded by future historians, as the Golden

forward to serving as Chairman over the next three years.

Age of fatigue and structural integrity research at Sheffield.

Trevor steered us through some difficult times and I am

At that time there were three Fellows of the Royal Society:

extremely grateful to him for putting us into such a strong

Bruce Bilby, Stephen Dugdale and Jock Eshelby; Mike

position that we can look to the future with optimism and

Brown and Ian Howard were both young academics who

enthusiasm.

went on to get Personal Chairs; and Martin Goldthorpe and George Cardew were developing the finite element code,

John R Yates

TOMECH, that was the first to be able to perform non-linear

MA, MSc, PhD, CEng, FIMechE,

fracture mechanics calculations. Rod Smith later joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering along with many illustrious visitors, such as Hong Youshi, Wei Yang and Alfredo Navarro who spent time there. My research has covered quite a wide range of topics in fatigue and fracture, always with the underlying principle

7


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

ISSN 1365-4101/2016

Technical Paper Lateral and Longitudinal Grip Variation D. Woodward & P. Millar, Highway Engineering Research Group, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland and C. Waddell, Findlay Irvine Ltd, Scotland Abstract Longitudinal measurement of wet skid resistance is used in many countries to manage the safety of its highway asset. The effect of aggregate type/size, asphalt type/age, degree of trafficking, climate, corners, braking etc. can all be seen in the measured data. However, longitudinal measurement does not show differences in grip across the lane being measured. This paper first considers typical longitudinal variation and then looks at the effect of lateral variation. Simple examples are given for each. The combination of longitudinal and lateral variation is considered in the context of racing circuits. Three case studies explore how GPS based grip data can be plotted using GIS software. The case studies show how the vehicle/tyre interacts with the asphalt surface trying to seek equilibrium conditions. 1. Introduction Skid resistance can be predicted either in the laboratory or measured directly on-site. Unless reported otherwise, all measurements are based on wet values. In dry conditions most aggregates and surfacing materials have similar high values of skid resistance. It is only when the aggregate or surface gets wet that major variation in skid resistance is possible. Laboratory measurement typically assesses the 10mm aggregate size used in the manufacture of the surfacing material. This property is called polished stone value (PSV) and is considered one of the most important properties for surfacing material. A surfacing material made with low PSV aggregate typically has low skid resistance whereas a surfacing material made with higher PSV aggregate is expected to have higher skid resistance. There are obvious limitations with this approach in situations where the surface is subjected to low levels of trafficking or very high levels of stressing. When the PSV test conditions are altered the resulting value adopts a different equilibrium value depending on the test alteration i.e. similar to what is found in-service. Laboratory prediction now favours assessment of the actual surfacing material using methods such as the German Wehner Schulze [1, 2] or the Road Test Machine located at the University of Ulster. These subject the asphalt mix to simulated trafficking and offer better insight of inservice performance. Many countries around the world still do not specify a level of skid resistance, either for the aggregate or for the trafficked road. The UK has been specifying skid resistance for its trunk road network since the 1970’s [3, 4]. The specification has investigatory limits for testing at a range of sites ranging from straight line non-event locations

to high risk sites such as approaches to road junctions and traffic lights. The investigatory limits are not a mandatory requirement but rather if routine testing falls below the quoted value further investigation of the site is required. Minimum values for aggregate PSV required for a given investigation level, traffic level and type of site are given. Traffic is based on the number of commercial vehicles per lane at design life. In-service measurement of skid resistance in the UK is assessed using SCRIM [5] or GripTester [6]. The British Pendulum [7] is based on a swinging arm method were the retardation of a rubber pad on the bottom of the arm gives a measure of skid resistance. This is a time-consuming method and only gives a single point measurement. The SCRIM and GripTester methods use a smooth test wheel to record a continuous measurement of wet skid resistance. Both devices travel at 50km/h with a controlled amount of water applied to the surface immediately in front of the measuring wheel. The specification assumes that the road surface has reached equilibrium depending on trafficking and environmental conditions i.e. typically after a period of 1 to 2 years. In the UK there is no requirement for skid resistance during the pre-equilibrium stage i.e. the first 1 to 2 years of the surfacing life. This short review considers what is typically done. The remainder of this paper considers how this can be improved. 2. Measurement in a Longitudinal Direction There are over twenty devices used in Europe to measure skid resistance. Full details of each device can be found in Do and Roe [8]. Each method is controlled by a specific set of standard conditions chosen to reflect the practicalities of carrying out the test in relation to the complex reality of friction in the tyre/road interface. Although they all measure skid resistance the actual numbers recorded can differ widely for the same road surface. Most of these techniques have been simplified to measure the condition of the road surface. They measure in different ways the frictional force developed between a moving tyre or slider and the road surface. They typically wet the road surface and record a quotient of the measured force and applied vertical load i.e. a friction coefficient. The range of devices can be sub-divided into three main groups [8] longitudinal friction, transverse friction or static/slow-moving techniques. Examples of devices are GripTester, SCRIM and British pendulum respectively. The longitudinal and transverse friction devices attempt to simulate the interaction of a braked tyre with the road surface

Woodward, D, Millar P. and Waddell C. 2012. - Lateral and longitudinal grip variation. Presented at SURF 2012 7th Symposium on Pavement Surface Characteristics, Norfolk, Virginia, USA, September 19-22.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

in a longitudinal direction. The GripTester is a three-wheel trailer that is typically towed behind a van. The device uses the longitudinal friction principle to measure skid resistance. It was originally developed to assess the skid resistance of oil platform heli-decks. It has subsequently become widely used around the world to measure the skid resistance of airport runways and highway surfaces. A constant film of water is sprayed in front of the smooth test tyre depending on test speed. A fixed gear and chain system constantly brakes the test tyre to give a fixed slip ratio of 15%. Continuous measurement of the slipping force and the vertical load allows calculation of a friction coefficient known as the GripNumber. Although it may be towed at speeds up to 130km/h the standard test speed is 50km/h with water applied to give a constant water film depth of 0.25mm under the test tyre. Similar to the SCRIM, skid resistance is measured in the inside wheel-path of the inside lane. The GripTester is the method used in this paper. Example GripTester data measured every 1m is shown in Figure 1. This shows the variation in wet skid resistance for a section of road where high friction surfacing has been laid at three sets of traffic lights. The high friction surfacing plots as the three distinct areas of high GripNumber 0.9. Of interest in this example are the reduced levels of skid resistance for hot mix asphalt approaching and immediately after the traffic lights relating to the vehicles braking and accelerating away from the lights respectively.

Figure 1 - Example GripTester data showing how short sections of high friction surfacing can significantly increase wet grip compared to hot mix asphalt Figure 2 shows data measured for a short section of chipseal where low PSV limestone chippings had been laid between two sections of higher PSV greywacke chipping. Testing was done at a range of test speeds, wheel-track position and water application rate. The figure shows both the found dry and wet grip data. All the dry test data plots have a similar GripNumber of about 1.0. This data shows that rock-type was not a significant factor when measuring dry grip. However, with the addition of water during testing, the greywacke chipseal drops from 1.0 to 0.6. The position of the limestone chippings is evident with very low values of wet grip at 0.2. Both the greywacke and limestone chip-

seals had good levels of texture depth and the wet data was not influenced by bitumen bleeding to the surface. Figure 2 illustrates the importance of rock-type and shows why grip must always be tested in a wet condition.

Figure 2 - Example GripTester data showing effect of water application and rock type 3. Measurement in a Lateral Direction When roads are constructed, surface characteristics such as skid resistance, texture depth and noise are uniform laterally across the lane. However, sometime after it opened to traffic, these characteristics start to change especially within the wheel paths due to higher concentration of trafficking. Figure 3 compares the lateral position of traffic. Figure 3 compares the frequency distribution of actual position with expected position for traffic negotiating a horizontal bend [9]. The width of these axles are the average values obtained from the data. The positions of these axles are exactly in the centre of the lane. The green and red colours in Figure 3 refer to the left and right wheels of the inside lane vehicles (kerb side) respectively. The yellow and blue colours denote the left and right wheels of the outside lane vehicles, respectively. The distributions show considerable variation between the two lanes with the traffic positioned closer to the curb than would be expected. This simple example shows the difficulties of measuring a representative portion of the road with the actual trafficked line having 3 times as much traffic as the expected position only 40cm to the side. Whilst it is possible to measure traffic position within the lane it is more difficult to measure the lateral variation in skid resistance. It would be possible using the GripTester in pushmode, but this is rarely done. It could also be done using devices such as the pendulum or Dynamic Friction Tester. However it would take a lane closure and a considerable period of time to do the individual measurements. In response to these practical problems, the micro-GripTester (ÂľGT) was developed to measure either dry or wet skid resistance at a walking pace and to be used in applications

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

such as pedestrian areas, road surfaces, paint markings, reinstatements, man holes and accident sites [10]. The device is a scaled down version of the GripTester and uses the same longitudinal friction principle. An on-board computer measures skid resistance every 48mm and records test data relating to GripNumber, chainage, speed, water application rate, latitude, longitude, altitude and temperature.

ISSN 1365-4101/2016

rubber deposits at an English racetrack. This equipment was being used to remove rubber deposits at the main UK airport runways caused by landing aircraft. GripTester data before and after treatment showed that high-pressure water blasting was able to remove the rubber deposits and improve wet grip. The measured data showed variation in longitudinal grip in areas that had not been treated. This variation appeared to coincide with racing line phenomena such as vehicle track position, location of braking and cornering. Figure 5 shows an example of longitudinal track variation in grip for a section of circuit. This plots longitudinal grip at four positions (TP1 to 4) across the width of the track. TP1 was close to the inside white line, TP4 was close to the outside white line with TP2 and TP3 in between. The plotted data shows the change in grip in relation to a series of corners and the racing line.

Figure 3 - Frequency distribution showing difference between expected and actual trafficking position

The somewhat confusing plot shows how longitudinal grip varies both along and across the width of the track. Figure 6 plots micro-GripTester data measured across the width of a karting circuit. The five runs shown relate to individual measurement runs approaching a corner, on the corner apex and exiting the corner. Again, a very confusing plot showing how grip varies in relation to track position and the karting line.

Figure 4 - Transverse variation in wet skid resistance across a rural road measured using micro-GripTester An example of ÂľGT data in Figure 4 shows the lateral variation in wet skid resistance across a rural road. Although the same type of asphalt was laid in both directions, the data shows variation between the inside and outside wheel-paths and between directions for this particular example. The few hundred individual measurements were recorded at walking pace, took a few seconds to carry-out and in this particular example, did not require any type of traffic management. The data is GPS referenced and can be plotted in Excel or GIS.

Figure 5 - Variation in longitudinal GripNumber at 4 equally distances across the width of a race circuit going around a series of corners 5. Combining Longitudinal and Lateral Measurements

4. Measurement of Racing Circuit Grip Skid resistance is much talked about in motorsport. The term grip is preferred rather than skid resistance. However, in terms of actual measurement the reporting of a circuits grip level is not frequently used. The author first got interested in race track grip when asked to assess the effectiveness of a high pressure water-blasting system to remove tyre

10

Figures 5 and 6 illustrate that a better method is required to illustrate this longitudinal and lateral grip distribution. The result is known as GripMap - a system developed at the University of Ulster for mapping and displaying variation in lateral and longitudinal wet grip variation. The measured grip data is recorded along with GPS co-ordinates and used to produce a colour coded maps using GIS Software.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

and track rubber deposits. The GripMap for a specific circuit can be used as a basemap. Track position data recorded from vehicles using the track can be overlaid and details regarding grip extracted for evaluation purposes.

Figure 6 - Variation in lateral microGripNumber going around a corner

The standard test speed recommended for both SCRIM and GripTester is a steady speed of 50+/-5km/h. It became apparent that this test speed could not be maintained at all locations such chicanes and hair-pin bends. Being able to maintain steady test speed and degree of wetness removes speed related issues. Any variation in grip can then be attributed to the surface. A constant speed of 30+/3km/h was selected as the optimum test speed. The water application rate was reduced to give a water film thickness of 0.25mm under the test tyre. Using the automatic water system of the GripTester, much higher rates of water application can be applied to simulate flooded track conditions. Grip values are recorded every 1m distance travelled with circuit position recorded using GPS. Figure 7 shows GripTesting at the Yas Marina Circuit in Abu Dhabi. The methodology assesses the variation in grip for the entire circuit surface. This involves starting with the GripTester mounted to the left hand side of the tow vehicle and measuring the extreme outer edge of the track. The 30km/h test speed is constantly monitored using a SatNav with the GripTester software controlling the water application rate. After completion of the first lap the tow vehicle moves to the right by approximately 1m and a second measurement lap is started. Care must be taken not to cross over the previous test measurement. This is constantly checked by inspection of the location of the water in the rear view mirrors. This element of the testing is the most difficult to maintain.

Figure 7 – GripTesting at Yas Marina F1 race track, Abu Dhabi Like any type of grip measurement, a GripMap cannot relate directly to specific vehicle / tyre / surface interaction given the much higher speeds and the many different vehicle / tyre / driver / weather combinations during race conditions. It does however, offer a means of showing how grip varies with time, with circuit use or between different circuits and their surfacing materials. It shows the concentrated effect of vehicle and track surface interaction within the racing line, the effect of braking, cornering and in higher speed parts of the circuit the effects of down-force. Although the maps are based on wet grip variation they can also be used for dry conditions as they highlight the racing line and specific locations such as build-up of vehicle rubber

Modification of the system introduced a Racelogic VideoVBox to provide a record of track and GripTester position. The Racelogic Video VBox samples GPS location at 20 hertz and overlays vehicle dynamics data on two video cameras. One camera faces forward whilst the second faces rear. Further improvement of track position has been made possible with a RaceLogic VBox 3i and DGPS giving 100 hertz position data at about 2cm accuracy. The number of test measurement laps depends on the width of the circuit i.e. approximately every 1m. When it has been crossed to about 2 to 3m of the other edge, the testing is stopped and the GripTester moved to the right side of the tow vehicle. The last measurement run records the extreme inside edge of the track. This process builds up a dataset of wet grip variation based on an approximate 1m grid determined at constant test conditions. Depending on length and width a track takes between 30 minutes to 3 hours to test and could have a data-set of well-over 100,000 wet grip measurements.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

The GripTester produces a CSV data file. This contains the basic data recorded during a test run i.e. chainage, GripNumber, load, speed, water flow, latitude, longitude, altitude and GPS time. Initial attempts to plot this data in the form of a map used Excel. This was later improved using ArcGIS software. The Findlay Irvine proprietary software program GT2SHP can be used to convert the CSV file into a SHP file that can be imported into ArcGIS. Each test run can be imported as an individual layer or combined before conversion. 5.1. Karting example – Knutts Corner Data measured at a karting track in Northern Ireland is shown in Figure 8 to illustrate the basic principles of the GripMap system. The data-set was used to prepare three simple GripMaps using ArcGIS. Threshold values have been used to colour code the resulting map into areas of lower and higher wet grip. In these 3 example plots, a 5 colour sequence is used to show variation in wet grip. The same colour sequence from lowest grip to highest grip has been used in all three maps i.e. lowest grip is red, with increasing wet grip shown as yellow, green, blue and black. Different threshold values have been used to plot the same data.

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around corners. These phenomena have been recorded at all of the circuits assessed to date. 5.2. Motorbike road racing example – North West 200 Ireland is one of a small number of countries were motorbike road racing is carried out. This example is for a road circuit in Northern Ireland where speeds in excess of 200mph are achieved on 2 lane rural roads. A total of 29 different types of asphalt surface were recorded when this data-set was measured. The surface types were of different ages and included hot rolled asphalt, SMA, asphalt concrete, proprietary thin surfacing, high friction surfacing and chip-seal. Unlike typical highway testing where the measurements are recorded in the inside wheel-path, this testing was carried out late at night with the GripTester running approximately in the racing line. Figure 9 illustrates the dry and wet data for the circuit. The missing section of data at 5500m relates to where the circuit goes around a roundabout in the wrong direction. This short section was not recorded. All of the 29 sections of asphalt had similar levels of measured dry grip. However, there was variation when wet grip was measured. The two sets of wet grip data for lap 2 and lap 3 show some variation between runs as the exact same part of the track was not recorded in both runs. However, there is general agreement between runs for the different asphalt sections.

Figure 8 - Example GripMaps of a karting track using the same data-set and different threshold values In the first map the colour red is used to show all parts of the track where the wet grip is less than 0.35. In the middle example the colour red is used to show all parts of the track were the wet grip is less than 0.45. In the third plot the colour red is used to show all parts of the track less than 0.55. The confusing example of lateral grip shown in Figure 6 was also measured at this track. The three plots show how easy it is to extract information from the same data-set using GIS. The number of threshold values can be changed to extract more or less detail from the map or simply to show areas of lowest or highest grip. These simple examples clearly show track phenomena such as the racing line, the start of braking coming into corners, higher stressing approaching and going

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Figure 10 shows the calculated percentage loss in dry grip due to the surface becoming wet i.e. after a shower of rain. When looking at this type of data it should be remembered

Figure 9 - Dry and wet GripTester data for a road circuit


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

that this relates to measurements taken under standardised conditions whereas during a race there are many other factors that influence tyre/surface grip. The data plotted in Figures 9 and 10 are difficult to visualise. Figure 11 plots the wet data as a GripMap and in this example shows where the wet grip (measured at 50km/h) is less than a GripNumber of 0.4.

Abu Dhabi F1 Grand Prix. It was opened in 2009 and cost an estimated $1.3 billion. The circuit is 5.554m in length, has 21 corners and the second longest straight of the 20 F1 circuits. Figure 12 shows the circuit layout and detail of typical gear selection, speed (km/h and mph) and lateral g. In July 2011 a demonstration project was carried out at the invitation of Abu Dhabi Motorsport Management (ADMM) to assess the Yas Marina Circuit. This was done in collaboration with Findlay Irvine, the Scottish company who manufacture GripTester. This demonstration project highlighted the practical and logistical issues of doing this sort of work in an international context. Figure 7 shows the GripTester approaching the starting line of the circuit.

Figure 10 - Percentage loss in dry grip due to the surface becoming wet

Wet grip data was collected and post-processed. Figure 13 shows an example of the longitudinal and lateral grip variation, measured at 30km/h, for corners 1, 2 and 3 superimposed on a Google Earth image. A five colour threshold has been used to plot the wet grip data. Red shows the lowest grip, with yellow, green, blue and black showing higher levels of wet grip. Racing at this circuit is in a clock-wise direction. This example shows the relationship between track position and car/tyre/ asphalt interaction equilibrium conditions. The racing line is seen to diagonally cross the straight approaching Corner 1. The onset and duration of braking is highlighted in red. The racing line quickly crosses to the apex of the corner and in this manner the effect on track surface grip is shown with subsequent corners and straights. The blue and black parts of the track with highest wet grip relate to those areas that are out-side of the racing line and rarely trafficked.

Figure 11 - Grip data plotted using GIS showing areas were wet grip is less than 0.4 5.3. Formula F1 example – Yas Marina Circuit The FIA Formula One (F1) World Championship is the highest class of single seater car racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA). The F1 season consists of 20 races held on purpose-built circuits and public roads around the world. F1 cars are considered to be the fastest circuit-racing cars in the world. They race at speeds up to 355km/h, rely on aerodynamic down-force and have very high cornering speeds with lateral acceleration in excess of 5g. The Yas Marina Circuit hosts the

Figure 12 - Yas Marina F1 Circuit layout

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

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overall grip. Track A has lower grip with Track B having the lowest level of grip for the five sets of data shown. Figure 15 shows the change in grip frequency distribution before and after treatment to improve low grip values at corners around a circuit.

Figure 15 - Frequency distribution showing change in wet grip before and after treatment of corners

7. Conclusion Figure 13 – GripMap showing variation in longitudinal and lateral wet grip at Yas Marina F1 circuit corners 1,2 and 3 6. Using Gripmap Data Frequency distribution is a simple means of showing the measured data, the change in grip with time for a circuit, allow comparison between circuits or reflect changes ranging from a combination of seasonal environmental and /or track use to the effect of a single period of prolonged period of track activity such as a weekend event. Figure 14 plots the frequency distribution of 5 different tracks. This shows Track E to have an almost identical distribution of grip to Track D. In contrast Track C has a much higher level of

The ability to predict in the lab and to measure skid resistance – or grip – on-site has been around for quite a while. Longitudinal measurement in the wheel-paths of a highway is a simple way to measure and specify an important surfacing property. However, the lateral component of grip in the highway can significantly affect the measured value should the operator driving the tow vehicle or measuring vehicle not be sufficiently skilled to judge that the test wheel is exactly in the centre of the trafficked wheel-path. The implications to monitoring and maintaining a safe highway infrastructure are obvious. Compared to the highway, a racing circuit probably has greater localised variation in grip levels. Combining longitudinal measurement of grip across the circuit in a lateral direction is a new way to help explain grip. The GripMap system was developed at circuits in the UK and Ireland. Within a few hours a data-set of 100,000+ individual measurements can be plotted using GIS to produce a base-map that offers considerable improvement into understanding longitudinal / transverse variation and vehicle / tyre / surface interaction. References

Figure 14 - Using frequency distribution to compare circuit grip levels

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1. Huschek, S. (2004) Experience with Skid Resistance Prediction Based on Traffic Simulation. 5th Symposium of Pavement Surface Characteristics, Toronto, Canada. 2. Woodbridge, M.E., Dunford A. and Roe, P.G. (2006) Wehner-Schulze machine: First UK experiences with


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 41, SEPTEMBER 2016, pp.8-15.

a new test for polishing resistance in aggregates. PPR144, TRL Limited. 3. Highways Agency. (2004) Design Manual for Road and Bridges, Pavement Design and Maintenance. Volume 7.3.1., HD 28/04, Skid resistance. 4. Highways Agency. (2006) Design Manual for Road and Bridges, Pavement Design and Maintenance. Volume 7.5.1., HD 36/06, Surfacing materials for new and maintenance construction. 5. BS 7941-1:2006 Methods for measuring the skid resistance of pavement surfaces - Part 1: Sidewayforce coefficient routine investigation machine. 6. BS 7941-2:2000 Surface friction of pavements - Part 2: Test method for measurement of surface skid resistance using the GripTester braked wheel fixed slip device.

7. BS 7976-2:2002 Pendulum testers – Part 2: Method of operation. 8. Do, M and Roe, PG. (2008) Deliverable 10: Report on state of the art of test methods. TYROSAFE, 7th Framework Programme. 9. Gunay, B, and Woodward D. (2007) Lateral position of traffic negotiating horizontal bends. Proceedings Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport, 160 (1), pp. 1-11. 10. Findlay Irvine (2009) micro GripTester Portable Friction Measurement, product data information sheet Issue 6. Acknowledgement: The authors would like to acknowledge the help and assistance of Abu Dhabi Motorsport Management.

MEMBERSHIP The Engineering Integrity Society is an independent charitable organisation, supported and sponsored by industry. The Society is committed to promoting events and publications, providing a forum for experienced engineers and new graduates to discuss current issues and new technologies. We aim for both company and personal development and to inspire newly qualified engineers to develop their chosen profession. Events run provide an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet others who operate in similar fields of activity over coffee and lunch. All of our events enable engineers to establish and renew an excellent ‘contact’ base while keeping up to date with new technology and developments in their field of interest. We are involved in a wide range of Industrial sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Civil, Petrochemical etc and continue to be interested in new members from all sectors. Benefits: • • •

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What Engineers needs to know and the Pitfalls What really happens when the rubber meets the road/runway?

top surface of many roads is a visco-elastic material that distorts as tyres roll over it?

Where grip comes from

It compresses in a bulk way due to axle loads, but within the asphalt, each particle of rock or aggregate also moves under the lateral and longitudinal loads imposed by tyres. All of these things affect grip and the interaction between tyres and roads. The compression and recovery of asphalt as well as the movement of particles within the road bitumen will also have an impact on energy consumption and fuel economy.

No-one knows the truth about how tyres get their grip. We have a pretty good idea, but we don’t know everything about it. We know, for example that grip is associated with a number of factors: • • • • •

Rubber distorting around and engaging with microscopic asperities in the road surface; Weak chemical interactions between the rubber compound and polished surfaces; Lubrication from water or ice; Lubrication from microscopic particles of rubber; Temperature, contact load, and other obvious factors.

But we don’t have a good theoretical model of how to predict the amount of lateral or longitudinal grip available from a given tyre-road interaction. We especially do not have a good description of grip under dynamic conditions as the tyre rotates and both tyre and road distort under load. It’s a complex business, and many of us in the tyre industry spend a lot of time trying to build computer models of how tyres interact with different surfaces, in order to predict the dry- and wet-grip of tyres.

Tyre industry needs to understand road engineering As we get a better understanding of tyres and their compounds, we are finding that we need to learn more about the road underneath the tyre. I wanted to work with the road industry for a number of reasons. Significantly, the tyre industry has worked very hard on grip and noise, but in my conversations with tyre designers, there is a certain amount of frustration. Tyre engineers can deliver good results on a standard ISO surface. If they want to deliver good results in the real world, they need more information about real roads. Lack of dialogue between road and tyre engineers

The trouble is that few of us in the tyre industry know enough about real road surfaces to build true predictive models. I’ve been at a few meetings recently with the road-building and road-specification industry. The road people were hungry for information about tyre technology, while I was fascinated to learn a lot of really interesting information from the road technologists. Did you know? Here’s a few ‘did you know’ questions for starters: • •

• •

Did you know that the introduction of super-single tyres significantly shortened the life of roads in the UK? Did you know that roads have specifications for grip and noise and that rolling resistance is becoming a big deal for them? Did you know that a full description of the surface geometry of a road does not enable you to predict grip? (The type of rock or aggregate has a big effect) Did you know that the available grip on a road can vary from day to day and even hour to hour? Did you know that road makers are seeking to understand the future requirements of tyre makers?

Here’s another: did you realise that the bitumen used in the

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There is precious little dialogue with the road industry among tyre engineers. I don’t know if the wide range of roads currently in use around the world makes developing good road-tyre combinations impossible, but it seems to me that without that dialogue, we might be missing something. Just as the tyre industry is seeking to develop international standards, so the road industry has a common set of issues. Standardisation might be a good thing. I suspect we could save a lot of lives, if the tyre people worked with the road people to develop good combinations of tread compound and road surface that can improve braking. We could also improve fuel economy by optimising the visco-elastic properties of road and tyre. Building real-world computer models Another reason I wanted to understand roads better is for the computer modelling community. We spend a lot of time and effort modelling tyres. Part of that effort is to improve wetand dry-grip. I’ve seen a lot of models of tyres, but in most of them, the interface with the road is a smooth, idealised rigid surface.


The road community has a lot of data on the condition of roads around the world. Might we not get a better result if we can use some of the models developed by the road industry to interface with our tyre models?

worse on another surface. Working with the people who design, specify and buy road surfaces might be a way to direct those efforts more efficiently. A final thought

Smart tyres help road makers plan for the future A third reason to engage with the road industry is to plan for the future. When we look at smart tyres, we are expecting those tyres to have sensors on board that measure the available grip between tyre and road. Would it surprise you to know that the people responsible for maintaining road networks would find that data incredibly useful?

Did you know that in pre-history, the wheel was invented many times, but it never really took off as a practical device until the Romans built high quality roads. A wheel is not much use on soft ground or a ploughed field. The development of wheels and tyres is intimately connected with the development of good roads. Neither is much use unless the other is equally well engineered. If anyone in the tyre industry wants to learn more about roads, or if you are a road engineer and want to know more about tyres, let me know and we will make something happen.

When I mentioned to the road industry that the tyre and vehicle people are working on grip sensors and that the likely model is that the instantaneous levels of grip would be constantly uploaded to the cloud by millions of trucks and cars, their eyes opened wide. Currently, they spend millions trying to identify areas where the road surface needs to be improved in order to prevent accidents and save lives. That limited information guides decisions about where to direct billions of Euros of annual road maintenance budgets. Budgets that are under severe pressure. Imagine if they could have a database that identifies levels of grip across the entire road network, generated by sensors on tyres from many different manufacturers and correlating that with the air temperature and even the road temperature. It would enable road authorities to quickly identify areas where the grip changes suddenly by location and also areas where the grip changes sharply according to different weather conditions. Diminishing returns unless we talk to the road community One of my mentors in this industry – Roger Williams, previously technical director at Dunlop UK – always talked about roads and tried to convince the tyre industry to engage more with the roads community. I find myself doing the same, but for perhaps different reasons. It seems to me that tyre development is suffering from the laws of diminishing returns. As we work ever-harder to improve grip and noise, we find that we can deliver good results on one road surface, but the situation often becomes

David Shaw FIMMM Chief Executive, Tyre Industry Research

To know more about www.tyreindustryresearch.com

tyres

please

visit:

The Society is supporting the following events:

British Society for Strain Measurement’s 11th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics 5-7 September 2016, University of Exeter International Conference on Fatigue Damage of Structural Materials XI 18-23 September 2016 | Hyannis Resort and Conference Center, Hyannis, MA, USA BINDT Annual British Conference of Non-Destructive Testing Nottingham 12-14 September 2016 IMechE - Vibrations in Rotating Machinery 13-15 September 2016 Advanced Engineering 2016 2-3 November 2016, NEC

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Latest news on Fatigue 2017 We expect to have a busy time ahead in the run up to Christmas as we approach the peak period for registrations and the submission of full papers. Having received a large number of excellent abstracts earlier this year, the Local Technical Committee reviewed them all and accepted 64 papers for the conference. These papers have come from all over the world. Europe is well represented with papers from authors in Italy, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, France, Ireland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Czech Republic, Austria, Poland, Russia and Germany. We also have a good selection from Japan and contributions from Malaysia, USA, Iran, Argentina, Saudi Arabia, India and China. We are also delighted to have Dr Steve Williams of Rolls-Royce, Dr Michael D. Sangid of Purdue University and Professor Robert Akid, from the University of Manchester as keynote speakers. The Technical Committee has identified eleven main sessions for the conference, several of which will be split into two or maybe three, depending largely on who the nominated presenters are. The programme will be finalised once the full papers are received and list of presenters is known; we don’t want to schedule people talking in different rooms at the same time! The sessions will be: • • • • •

The influence of manufacturing processes on fatigue High temperature and thermomechanical fatigue Multiaxial fatigue Corrosion fatigue Mathematical and numerical modelling

• • • • • •

Fatigue at notches Fatigue at welds Fatigue of engineering materials Composite materials Reliability and probability Test methods

We are enormously grateful to Professor Lord Robert Mair CBE FREng FRS for agreeing to give the Conference Dinner Address, and thank our President for arranging this. We shall also be presenting the Peter Watson Prize at the Conference Dinner event. At the last Annual General Meeting we decided to rename the Durability Prize in honour of our Founding President who was a great advocate of the EIS and supporter of young engineers in industry and academia. We would not be able to run such a large international event without the support of our corporate friends. We should like to thank Zwick Roell, Dassault Systèmes Simulia, HBM and Siemens for their sponsorship, and also Rolls Royce plc for their endorsement and considerable assistance. As we head into autumn, the conference organisers would like to encourage everyone to come to Downing College Cambridge next year to participate in what we hope will be our best ever conference. We are pleased to welcome the following companies as Platinum Sponsors of Fatigue 2017. HBM

/

Dassault Systèmes SIMULIA

/

Siemens

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Zwick Roell

Further sponsorship opportunities are available including sponsorship of the conference dinner. Conference sponsorship is a highly effective way to build relationships and communicate your marketing messages. There are several different sponsorship packages available and in all cases your logo will be displayed on the final programme, website and literature associated with the event. If you are interested in finding out more please contact the conference secretariat, Sara Atkin, on 01572 811315.

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The Engineering Integrity Society Fatigue 2017

Downing College Cambridge, UK 3-5 July 2017 www.fatigue2017.com Sponsored by:

Rolls Royce PLC is pleased to support the Fatigue 2017 conference.


Scientific Topics Topics covered during the conference will include: the influence of manufacturing processes on durability; modelling and simulation; tools for assessing and designing against fatigue; multiaxial fatigue; fatigue at notches; fatigue of welded joints; fatigue of polymers and composites; fatigue of high performance metals; fatigue at high temperature and in corrosive environments; overloads and crack closure; and test techniques. Programme The full programme will be published on www.fatigue2017.com as soon as it becomes available.

Fatigue 2017 Fatigue 2017 will bring the international fatigue and durability community together to share knowledge, and understand the challenges, in using high performance materials for reliable and cost effective products. The conference builds on the long established philosophy of the Engineering Integrity Society to provide a forum for practising engineers and researchers to exchange ideas and experiences in all aspects of structural integrity. The 3 day conference will focus on the complex interplay between materials and their processing, advanced manufacturing methods, and the subsequent durability and reliability of the products.

Venue The conference will take place at Downing College, University of Cambridge. Cambridge is one of the most important and picturesque cities in East Anglia. It is the county town of Cambridgeshire and the seat of one of the oldest universities in the British Isles. Downing College was founded in 1800 through a bequest made by Sir George Downing. The College’s beautiful neo-classical buildings are set in spacious and peaceful gardens in the centre of Cambridge. Exhibition There will be an accompanying exhibition of material testing systems, durability software tools and engineering services where delegates will have the opportunity to discuss the latest developments in the field of fatigue and durability. Timelines 28 October 2016 Submission of full papers and registration including payment (conditional for publication of paper) December 2016 Publication of final programme 16 June 2017 Submission of PowerPoint presentations 3-5 July 2017, Fatigue 2017, Cambridge, UK


A Special Issue of extended papers selected from the conference will be published in the international journal Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures. A selection of conference papers, including those of the Durability Prize winners, will be published in Engineering Integrity, the Journal of the EIS. Proceedings The proceedings will be published in CD-ROM format and will be available at the conference. Accommodation En-suite accommodation is available at Downing College subject to availability. Please select the accommodation option on the booking form. Prices include bed and breakfast. Travelling Information The nearest airports are Stansted and Luton. Cambridge is easily reached by train. Downing College is located about ž mile from the railway station and is served by regular buses and taxis. Liability EIS as organiser is not liable for any changes in the programme due to circumstances beyond their control. The organisers are not liable for any losses, accidents or injuries to persons or damage to property of any kind. Participants must arrange their own insurance if considered necessary. Visa Visa applications must be applied for in your country of origin. Registration The booking form should be completed and emailed to the conference secretariat, Sara Atkin: info@e-i-s.org.uk Registration for the conference is mandatory for the presentation of a lecture and the publication of the manuscript in the proceedings. All payments must be made in Sterling by bank transfer or a cheque drawn on a UK bank account.

Local Technical Committee Dr John Yates Robert Cawte Paul Roberts Dr Mark Whittaker Professor Filippo Berto Professor Angelo Maligno Dr Ali Mehmanparast Dr Peter Bailey Dr Nicolas Larrosa International Scientific Committee Professor Hong Youshi (China) Professor Filippo Berto (Italy) Dr Yee Han Tai (UK) Professor Martin Bache (UK) Professor Jie Tong (UK) Professor Luca Susmel (UK) Professor Ir. Dr. Shahrum Abdullah (Malaysia) Keynote Lectures (Provisional) Dr Steve Williams, Rolls-Royce Dr Michael D. Sangid, Assistant Professor, Purdue University Professor Robert Akid, BP/Royal Academy of Engineering Chair in Corrosion and Materials at the University of Manchester Conference Dinner Address Professor Lord Robert Mair CBE FREng FRS


Registration Fees 3 Day 2 Day 1 Day £450 +VAT

Presenting Authors (Registration and payment by 28 October 2016) EIS Members £500 £380 £200 (Registration and + VAT +VAT +VAT payment by 23 December 2016) Non-Members £600 £480 £250 and Registrations +VAT +VAT +VAT and payments after 28 October 2016 £320 Students and Retired Members +VAT (limited places available)

The Engineering Integrity Society recognises the support of our corporate members:

AcSoft Airbus Defence & Space ANV Measurement Systems ASDEC Bruel & Kjaer CaTs3 Dassault Systemes Data Physics UK Datron Technology DJB Instruments Gantner Instrumentation GOM Please find all the latest information Head Acoustics HBM relating to the conference and details of HORIBA MIRA how to book your place on the Fatigue Instron 2017 website. Interface Force Measurements www.fatigue2017.com Kemo Kistler We look forward to welcoming you to M&P International Cambridge. Meggitt Micro-Epsilon Millbrook Moog MTS Muller-BBM Nprime PCB PIezotronics PDS Hitech Polytec Ltd RAL Space Sensors UK Servotest Siemens Star Hydraulics Systems Services Techni Measure THP Systems Tiab Ltd TRaC Tranmission Dynamics Variohm Vibration Research Registered Address: Engineering Integrity Society, c/oc/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Registered Address: Engineering Integrity Society, Yokogawa Hollis & Co.,Registration 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield, 2GB Business No. 1959979. VAT S10 Registration No. GB 443 /7696 18. Registered Charity No. 327121 Zwick Roell Business Registration No. 1959979. VAT Registration No. GB 443 7696 18. Registered Charity No. 327121


EIS to Support Young Engineers EIS to Support Young Engineers

As part of our charitable activity for 2016/2017 we will be running a series of seminars specifically for engineers at the start of their careers (up to 4-5 years after graduating). We are envisaging running 4-5 sessions over the course of the next year for the first cohort. With a wealth of experts within our committees we are keen to share their knowledge and experience to support younger engineers’ learning. We are aiming to have the first session in October 2016 and there is no cost associated with this. If you are interested in finding out more please contact the Secretariat, Sara Atkin, on 01572 811315.

Engineering Integrity Society The Theory & Practice of Developing Rubber Products with Good Fatigue Life 6 October 2016 Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury The aim of the course is to give those making and using rubber products an understanding of stresses and strains in materials that undergo large deformation and the mechanical properties of the materials that affect the fatigue life. The course will also show how the ingredients of the mixed rubber formulation affect the structure and mechanical properties of products. Co-sponsored by the Rubber in Engineering Group of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining


Industry News Welcome to the Industry News section of the journal. Thank you to everyone for their submissions. The nominal limit for entry is 200 words, which should be sent to eis@amberinstruments.com or posted to EIS, c/o Amber Instruments Ltd, Dunston House, Dunston Road, Chesterfield, S41 9QD. We would appreciate you not sending entries by fax.

in 2015, the 2017 Congress promises to be the premier international forum for everyone involved in the industry. With dedicated tracks on all aspects of simulation, free masterclasses, workshops and training courses, an outstanding social program and an excellent lineup of keynote and invited speakers, this is one event you cannot afford to miss.

Driving Future Motorsport Business Growth Conference held on 7 July 2016

Our open call for papers will be launched soon, as well as exhibition & sponsorship opportunities and attendee offers.

The ‘Driving Future Motorsport Business Growth Conference’ presented current emerging topics ranging from; UK/ international trade and how ‘Brexit’ could have an effect, to cross sector collaboration. The event was held at Sahara Force India F1 Team at Silverstone with industry leaders such as Joe Greenwell CBE (former chairman of Ford Britain) and Otmar Szafnauer (Chief Operating Officer of Sahara Force India Formula One) speaking and sharing their valuable viewpoints on the topics in hand. The event provided vast networking opportunities for businesses and individuals, allowing the topic of ‘cross sector collaboration’ to be fulfilled. NAFEMS World Congress 2017 incorporating the 3rd International SPDM Conference 11-14 June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden The NAFEMS World Congress 2017 will take place from June 11th-14th 2017 in Stockholm, Sweden, and will focus entirely on simulation and its impact on industry and beyond. NAFEMS is the independent voice of the CAE community, representing over 1300 member organizations worldwide including prominent software vendors, global manufacturing industry and leading academic institutions. With over 580 attendees at the previous World Congress in San Diego

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Make sure you are at the front of the queue by registering your interest today at nafems.org/congress, and don’t miss out on our exclusive earlybird benefits which will be announced over the coming weeks. Innovative Start-ups Given Free Platform at Advanced Engineering 2016 Advanced Engineering, the UK’s largest dedicated advanced engineering event, has announced the launch of the Enabling Innovation hub, in partnership with Magna International. The hub provides a free opportunity for 20 SMEs and innovators to showcase their latest concepts, products and processes to potential partners, investors and buyers from the industry. Enabling Innovation will take place on the 2 & 3 November 2016 at the NEC, Birmingham as part of the Advanced Engineering show. It will provide early stage companies and innovators with a unique and valuable platform to showcase their latest innovations. The companies which secure a space in the hub will be part of a show which features over 700 leading companies from the engineering world and attracts 13,000 engineering professionals. This includes buyers and decision-makers from OEMs and top tier manufacturers. As part of its support Magna International, one of the world’s premier global automotive suppliers, will also hold a competition during the event where it will award a £5,000 prize

to the most innovative and disruptive technology featured within the hub. Representatives from the Magna Research and Development team will also host one on one meetings with innovators to discuss ways to commercialise their ideas. To apply for a place on the Enabling Innovation hub courtesy of Magna International or if you would like to schedule a meeting with a Magna representative please visit www.advancedengineeringuk.com. For more information about registration and exhibiting at Advanced Engineering, please visit www.advancedengineeringuk.com Research sounds out potential for silent airports of the future An early research study by the University of Wolverhampton is proposing to develop new technology to reduce noise pollution from aircraft. The feasibility study, which has been produced with funding by the UK Department of Transport, looks at sound transmission and how it interacts with structures using acoustic interference to reduce noise. Dr Arun Arjunan, Course Leader in Mechanical Engineering in the Faculty of Science and Engineering, said: “The most significant environmental impact of aviation is noise and airport expansion is currently a challenging issue due to the adverse impact it can have, not only on the environment but on the wellbeing of people living close to or near to airports. “Employing this theory, airport infrastructure can be transformed into noise cancelling devices, potentially reducing the airport noise by over 65%. However, further study combining multichannel interference cavities into a single structure is necessary to develop further design guidelines to cover a broad frequency spectrum.”


The team at the University have developed technology that uses geometrically controlled complex interference cavities to change the phase of an inbound acoustic wave to substantially lower the sound pressure level. Under laboratory conditions the study was able to create interference peaks that have a sound reduction capacity of up to 72 decibels.

accidents and there are strong links between fatigue and sharps injuries.

The initial research was funded by the Technology Research Innovation Grant and the team will be bidding for new research funds of between £5-£10 million to pull together a consortium to progress the research further.

“We made The last word to warn people that being tired, distracted and unable to fully concentrate can make simple tasks like climbing a ladder more dangerous. Aimed at employees, it contains a warning that being stressed can endanger their lives. However, the film is also directed at employers, showing how important it is that managers and supervisors identify the symptoms of stress and help their staff to deal with it. As the film says, life can be stressful but people need to be aware of the danger signs.”

Find out more: be/6P4Mc2lO2Hw

Watch the film at https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=b5WlXWGxLAI

https://youtu.

Bringing stress to work can be fatal British Safety Council launches a film showing how stress endangers lives A powerful new film launched by the British Safety Council shows how stress can lead to injury and fatalities at work. In any activity where concentration is vital for safety, such as working in construction, driving, or in health and social care, stress can be fatal. Stress is often discussed in relation to sickness absence. However, it is less reported how it can endanger lives. Some research shows that up to 80% of accidents are related to stress at work. Whether it is work-related stress or stress that people bring to work, stress can put at risk the safety of both employees and members of the public. Matthew Holder, Head of Campaigns and Engagement at the British Safety Council, commented: “It is well documented that stress is a significant cause of sickness absence, undermining both productivity and profitability. What is less discussed is how stress can endanger lives. Evidence shows that stress significantly contributes to injuries in sectors such as construction, transport and agriculture. In the medical profession, stress is a major predictor of work-related

Brüel & Kjær acquires Discom, leading provider of automotive production test systems We are pleased to announce that effective July 26th, 2016, Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S has acquired Discom GmbH, producer of automotive transmission sound and vibration test systems for acoustic quality analysis at the end of production lines. As Brüel & Kjær evolves into a solution provider the acquisition of Discom, with its fully integrated and web-enabled production test solution, fully supports this process bringing on board new insights, domain knowledge and new opportunities. “Being part of such an established, respected and global organization is one of the best things that could happen to Discom,” says Discom’s Founder and Managing Director, Dr. Thomas Lewien. “For our customers, the acquisition is a guarantee for long term availability and ongoing development of Discom’s end-of-line technology and Brüel & Kjær’s worldwide support network will allow us to expand our reach, ensuring that our customers get fast, extensive and reliable support.”

Discom - with its highly talented workforce - becomes part of the Brüel & Kjær Automotive Business Unit, adding new solutions and a wealth of production testing and QA knowledge to the company. For additional information about Brüel & Kjær and Discom, please visit www.bksv.com and www.discom.de Budding engineering talent championed at EDT ‘Year in Industry’ North West regional finals Budding North West talent within Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) has been championed at the Engineering Development Trust’s (EDT) ‘Year in Industry’ regional finals. The EDT is an educational charity. It offers placements, projects and accreditations across STEM related subjects to more than 30,000 young people each year between the ages of 11 and 21. Its ‘Year in Industry’ program is designed to catapult young people into business to gain industry level skills and experience after A levels and before going onto university or as part of their degree. The nationwide event sees a total of 300 students placed with top UK companies every year including Scottish Power, Shell, Rolls Royce, EDF, Network Rail and GKN. The North West regionals where held at SP Energy Networks Training Centre, in Hoylake, Wirral. A total of eight business leaders took to the panel to mark presentations by six students selected for making the most effective contribution to their host company’s business. The overall winner was Zoe Lockley for her rail bridge safety project for Arcadis design and consultancy firm. Zoe received a £500 cash prize donated by EDT sponsor and Bury-based cable

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Industry News seal manufacturer Roxtec. She will now progress onto the national finals due to take place in London later this year where the winner will receive £1,000. For more information contact Charity Watkins on Tel: 0161 278 2495 Email: c.watkins@etrust.org.uk or visit the website www.etrust.org.uk HORIBA MIRA Receives RDE Route Approval from RDW in UK First HORIBA MIRA – a world-leader in advanced vehicle engineering, research and product testing with capabilities in Real-world Driving Emissions (RDE) testing – has had a number of RDE routes approved by Dutch approval authority, RDW, in a UK first. HORIBA MIRA is already a technical service provider for RDW for more than 90 Type Approval subjects, including emissions. With approved RDE routes now in place, HORIBA MIRA is perfectly placed to run RDE certification on RDW’s behalf. In addition, the Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA), the UK vehicle Type Approval authority, has verified that the RDE routes proposed by HORIBA MIRA meet the requirements of the regulation and are therefore happy for these routes to be used for RDE certification testing. The approved RDE test routes – which satisfy the requirements for normal boundary conditions – are the first RDW approved routes within the UK, with each offering unique and mandatory conditions which will enable HORIBA MIRA engineers to carry out compulsory emissions testing ahead of a change in legislation in 2017. Other RDW approved routes exist in both the Netherlands and in Germany. With the approval coming significantly ahead of the adoption of RDE ‘Not to Exceed’ limits for tailpipe emissions across Europe (which start in September 2017), vehicle

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manufacturers have reliable access to a critical new certification partner with proven test capability. HORIBA MIRA’s RDE test process has been comprehensively designed to provide an accurate and complete measure of vehicle emissions, complying with EU6d type approval standards. As part of its RDE testing, HORIBA MIRA fits passenger vehicles with a HORIBA Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS), which provides real-world data of key pollutants emitted by the vehicle. Advanced ADEPT 48V affordable hybrid on path to meet future ultralow vehicle emissions •

Ricardo-led ADEPT programme aims to demonstrate technology capable of providing near fullhybrid equivalent fuel economy at significantly lower cost ADEPT consortium successfully applies advanced mild hybrid technologies with 48V ‘intelligent electrification’ to a Ford Focus project demonstrator Results of almost three years of intensive development and road and laboratory testing of ADEPT technology will be revealed at LCV2016

Following almost three years of intensive testing, development and validation of advanced mild hybrid technologies with 48V ‘intelligent electrification’ applied to a Ford Focus project demonstrator, the ADEPT (advanced diesel-electric powertrain) consortium partners have announced that the project is on course to meet the stringent air quality and ultra-low emission requirements expected of near term next generation vehicles. The ADEPT project is led by Ricardo in a research partnership including the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), Controlled Power Technologies (CPT), Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies UK Ltd, Ford Motor Company and the

University of Nottingham. The final results will be presented at the UK’s premier low carbon vehicle event LCV2016 on 14-15 September, where industry executives, government officials and the media will have an opportunity to drive the vehicle. The consortium aims to demonstrate the advanced 48V mild hybrid powertrain architecture, capable of delivering near full hybrid-scale diesel fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions, through a highly cost-effective package, without compromising increasingly stringent European exhaust emission regulations, which currently require cars to meet Euro 6b air quality standards in terms of NOx, PM and CO. Morgan Demonstrates NonContact Ultrasonic Flow Sensor for Unrivalled Accuracy in Medical Applications Morgan Advanced Materials, a global specialist in the development and manufacture of ultrasonic sensors and transducers, is developing a new noncontact ultrasonic flow sensor which is typically five times more accurate at low flow rates than other ultrasonic sensors available in the medical and laboratory sectors. The new range delivers highly reliable accuracies of +/-5% on flow rates as low as 2ml/min in a variety of fluids including blood, saline and buffer solutions with similar performance at higher flow rates of up to 500ml/min, making the sensors ideal for dialysis and blood apheresis applications. The products feature an ultrasonic transducer at either end of a disposable flow tube to accurately calculate flow rates using the ‘time of flight’ method. The sensors have been specifically designed to have very low zero flow offset which greatly reduces their systematic error rate, meaning they may only require factory calibration. The low-cost disposable flow tube has


been optimised to minimise turbulent flow, while the sensors do not come into contact with the fluid. This makes them ideal for environments where accurate flow measurement and the sterilisation of equipment are both key drivers. Dialysis is one such application, where the flow of blood can be accurately measured to optimise treatment plans, reduce the time patients spend in hospital and improve their overall quality of life. For more information on Morgan’s non-contact ultrasonic flow sensors, contact Richard Miles at Richard. Miles@morganplc.com or visit www. morgantechnicalceramics.com/flowsensor-5x Bosch Rexroth inspires the next generation of engineers Drives and controls manufacturer, Bosch Rexroth teamed up with the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) to host an Open House Day to inspire the next generation of engineers. The event, which took place at the Advanced Manufacturing Training Centre (AMTC), Coventry, saw children between the ages of 8 and 15 attend along with their parents. During the day, attendees were shown the important roles engineers play creating products used in everyday life, alongside a wide-range of engineering career opportunities available to them. In addition to this, Bosch Rexroth ran a series of engineering challenges with practical examples for the children to build electronic and hydraulic circuits, where typical engineering concepts can be applied. Bosch Rexroth’s Drives & Controls Academy plays a key role in its mission to engage a new generation. It’s most recent partnership with AB Graphic saw advanced training rigs provided to schools and colleges in the north, to help tackle the skills gap at a young age. To find out more about Bosch Rexroth

and its Drives & Controls Academy, please visit: www.boschrexroth.co.uk/ training Appeal for more female engineers to have their work published On National Women in Engineering Day 2016, the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is calling for more female engineers to capitalise on their knowledge and expertise by having their work published in its world-renowned publications and information services. The IET publishes a range of widely respected publications and information services for engineers and technicians, and is making the appeal due to the worryingly low number of female engineers contributing to its publications. For example, only 1% of the 800 editorial board members serving across the IET’s journal portfolio are female. The annual IET Skills and Demand in Industry survey shows that women have represented less than 10% of the engineering workforce in the UK for over a decade, so ensuring the work of outstanding female engineers is better represented in the world of engineering publishing has never been so important. Naomi Climer, IET President, said: “Women are woefully underrepresented in engineering. In a profession with a serious skills shortage, this represents a problem for the economy as well as for diversity. It is therefore important that leading engineering publishers like the IET ensure gender diversity in their approach to publishing. That’s why we are appealing to female engineers to share their expertise and experiences with their peers, not only as a way of boosting their own career progression but also to inspire the next generation of female engineers.” If you would like to find out more about the IET’s publishing resources, please visit the authors’ section of the IET’s Resources webpage:

www.theiet.org/resources/author-hub/ The IET also has an authors’ community on its Engineering Communities website: https://communities.theiet. org/communities/home/534. Advanced Engineering Hosts the Largest Open Conference of Its kind Advanced Engineering, the UK’s largest meeting place for engineering professionals, returns to Birmingham’s NEC on 2 & 3 November 2016. The show, which has become the hub for the high performance engineering sector, brings together engineering professionals and decision-makers to source new ideas, technologies and suppliers all under one roof. Advanced Engineering will host the most comprehensive Open Conference programme of its kind spanning key industry sectors, including aerospace, automotive, motorsport, marine and civil engineering. Visitors are offered access to six conference forums, which include Automotive Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Composites Engineering, Composites & Advanced Materials Engineering, Performance Metals Engineering and Enabling Innovation. These sessions will provide those in attendance with access to the latest information, from industry trends and supply chain opportunities to technical talks, case studies and innovation. Throughout the two-day conference there will be a number of insightful and educational sessions from leading industry experts. Sessions confirmed so far include the likes of Jaguar Land Rover, Innovate UK, Magna International, SMMT, BOC, KTN, National Instruments, Women’s Engineering Society and many more. With over 700 companies anticipated to exhibit, visitors will have access to leading international suppliers who will showcase their latest products and innovations. For further information visit: www.advancedengineeringuk. com or telephone +44 (0)20 8843 8800.

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Product News Unique Micro-miniature IEPE Triaxial Accelerometer DJB Instruments UK Ltd has announced the launch of the AT/18 ultra-lightweight micro-miniature triaxial IEPE accelerometer. In line with the company’s drive to produce robust, reliable accelerometers the AT/18 features three fully independent ceramic shear/mass sensing elements, welded into a Titanium body to minimise risks of signal failure and cross axis issues, maintaining the highest levels of data accuracy. Supplied with an integral 1m cable fitted with an industry standard ¼-28 UNF socket it provides maximum flexibility and can be used with common triaxial cables for extension of signal connection. Weighing in at just 1.2grams and measuring 7mm x 7.5mm x 5.6mm it offers triaxial measurements on the lightest of structures due to its almost invisible impact on mass loading. Manufactured in DJB’s own facility in the UK, every component of the AT/18 is machined to the highest levels of precision working with tolerances of just 12 microns, the precision nature of the AT/18 is essential to its high performance and reliability. The AT/18 has been through rigorous testing to enable it to achieve an operational temperature specification of 200°C whilst maintaining no loss of dynamic range. This high temperature IEPE performance is achieved via DJB’s industry leading hybrid amplifier electronics using its bespoke ultra-high temperature ASIC chip. The AT/18 is available to order now, sensitivity options being 1mV/g, 5mV/g and 10mV/g with other sensitivities available by request. Extension cable assemblies are made to customer requirements at any length. DJB Instruments UK Ltd Sales +44 (0) 1638 712 288 or email sales@ djbinstruments.com

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Latest updates enrich Granta’s comprehensive library of materials reference data Granta Design today announced the availability of an updated metals data library for users of its GRANTA MI™ and CES Selector™ material intelligence software. This is the best ever single source of metals property data, covering thousands of metal standards, specifications, and grades. It includes a digital version of the authoritative MMPDS-10 aerospace alloy data, the latest Register of European Steels and SteelSpec data (including automotive steels), and ASME data on metals for the energy and chemicals sectors. Enhancements include non-linear metals data suitable for simulation and enhanced international equivalency information. More information will be available at a web seminar in late September. The need to identify similar or equivalent materials is a common challenge for metallic materials—for example, due to the need to find a local grade for use in an international manufacturing facility, or because of material supply disruption or material obsolescence. Such equivalency studies require information on global standards and specifications linked to property data, and the right tools to analyze that data in order to identify suitable alternatives. Engineers also need access to reliable data for materials selection, product design, simulation, qualification, and more. For many applications, for example crash simulation, an in-depth understanding of the suitability of a material needs data that describes non-linear performance as well as elastic data. Granta brings together an unrivalled collection of materials data from widely-used and respected sources in one easy-to-access place. Properties covered include statistically-derived design values for high-performance alloys, global standards and specifications data for identification of equivalent grades, temperaturedependent data, and non-linear data.

The guardians of industrial networks Building on its systems integration expertise, Boulting Technology has launched a comprehensive and dedicated industrial network service, which includes consultancy, feasibility testing, network design, implementation, commissioning and ongoing maintenance. Boulting Technology specialises in performancedriven, secure, customised industrial network solutions in the operation technology (OT) space that facilitate migration from legacy systems and seamless integration into the IT space. Boulting Technology has a strong portfolio of industrial network solutions projects in the utilities, transport and manufacturing sectors, which has delivered innovative, customer led, business enabling solutions for over ten years. The company understands the constant drive for efficiency, increased productivity, security and innovation and through a determination to deliver Engineering Excellence, is able to develop the appropriate technical solution to address business challenges, usually in challenging environments. Due to the difficult nature of industrial environments and the high cost of failure or downtime, Boulting Technology’s industrial network solutions are custom made to meet demanding and unique environmental and performance requirements. The industrial network specialist offers an end-to-end service by becoming involved in projects as early as possible to help customers foresee and overcome potential hurdles. Once a project is completed, continued support and maintenance services is offered, effectively becoming the custodians of the industrial network and coordinating any changes, upgrades or contracting work. This ensures the security and reliability of the network. www: http://www.boultingtechnology.co.uk/ e-mail: KaraDoble@boulting.co.uk


Micro-Measurements® Releases New CEA-Series Strain Gauges Unique Configuration Enables Standard Compression Tests on Composite Materials Micro-Measurements®, a Vishay Precision Group, Inc. (VPG) brand, today announced the release of three CEA-Series strain gauges designed to perform standard compression tests on polymer matrix composite materials. The new sensor patterns feature a unique configuration that is ideal for any strain measurement requiring close proximity to one-sided features, such as weld joints, structural discontinuities, or stress risers like holes and cracks. “Structural designers have told us that finding the compression strength of composite materials is necessary and is the subject of ASTM Standard Test Method D6641,” said Bob Watson, director of engineering, MicroMeasurements®. “The loading device recommended for use in this standard provides a 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) test section length and a test section width range of 12.7 to 30 mm (0.5 to 1.2 in.), making our new UB pattern geometry ideal for this testing.” The 062UB, 125UB, and 250UB patterns are designed with both solder tabs placed on one side of the linear sensing grid, which allows these foil strain sensors to be properly oriented on the composite specimen, keeping the sensing grid centered in the test zone.

Further information about MicroMeasurements® CEA-Series 062UB, 125UB, and 250UB patterns is available at www.micro-measurements.com SurFlow: secure, robust, integrated data transfer through composites A breakthrough at TWI has led to the creation of data transfer technology that can be seamlessly incorporated into composite materials to create a highcapacity, resilient data transfer network. Through a patented process, SurFlow transmits data in the form of electromagnetic waves that travel through composite parts. The system uses no wires or fibre optics and, unlike wireless data transfer, cannot be intercepted remotely. By turning a composite part into a ‘smart’ composite, the technology integrates a data network into a component’s physical structure. The system is capable of transmitting data at up to 6Gbps and can continue to function even if the composite part suffers damage. SurFlow works using surface waves: electromagnetic energy that travels along a material. By incorporating a substrate combining dielectric and conductive materials, these surface waves can be transmitted through composite structures. The waves are propagated and received using transducers which can be placed anywhere along the smart composite.

Available in 350 ohm to minimize selfheating, the UB patterns are made in the popular CEA-Series construction, which features a thin, flexible, cast polyimide carrier backing and encapsulation, and rugged coppercoated solder tabs that enable quick and simple soldering.

Further testing is underway to investigate the innovation’s potential. Other uses being explored include advanced aerospace applications and real-time composite monitoring, whereby subtle changes in the waveform allow any damage to a smart composite component to be identified immediately.

The UB patterns are also available with optional pre-attached lead wires, eliminating the chance of heat damage to the test specimen during soldering.

TWI is keen to explore the commercial potential of this invention. To find out more and discuss possible applications, contact TWI Defence Programme

Manager Paul Burling at paul.burling@ twi.co.uk or on +44 (0)1223 899000. DJB Launch New Modular Low/High Pass Filter DJB Instruments UK Ltd has announced the addition of a new modular switchable Low/High Pass Filter to its growing product range. Available as a single channel DC powered unit or up to 9 channels in a AC/DC powered chassis the LHP Filter replaces a number of DJB’s outgoing modular products. Utilising simple BNC input and output connectors on the front panel, with user selectable AC/DC coupling and IEPE signal source (4mA/20VDC) the LHP offers a number of extra features previously not available. Features include: • Input overload Indicator • Frequencies: Full range of filter responses available, Butterworth, Bessel, anti-alias & general purpose • Switchable High/ Low Pass • Single ended/differential input • Modular system • 6 Gain steps to x50. DJB’s Managing Director, Neill Ovenden said of the launch, “The LHP launch is another step forward in DJB’s progress and growth strategy. We have been working to replace some of our older less flexible products and although filtering is not in such demand as it used to be it remains a critical part of many customers testing requirements. The LHP combines many of the popular features in one product, adding IEPE signal conditioning alongside filtering capability.’ The LHP Filter is available to order now with full details available on the website. Don’t forget to download our Technical Reference & Product Guide to discover other products that may be of interest. DJB Instruments UK Ltd Sales +44 (0) 1638 712 288 or email sales@ djbinstruments.com

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News from Women’s Engineering Society I n c l u s i v e

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The Women’s Engineering Society

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(WES) is approaching its centenary

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engineering is a business imperative,

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achieve diversity, and the key word

workplace processes and practices

of Loughborough, Warwick and York

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on their team members. Inclusive

to ensure that Inclusive Engineering

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and develop, and is something that

son) – please let me know if you can

replace those who are not ‘diverse’

just like health and safety needs to

come up with a better one.

with those who are ‘diverse’? This

be taught and needs to be practiced

is where we sometimes go wrong.

and challenged. It is a competence

To

Diversity is not just about hiring more

that can be measured and should

Engineering contact Dawn Bonfield,

women and other under-represented

be included in training. For anybody

CEO of the WES on ceo@wes.org.

groups when we bring in our new

who uses Lean processes, they will

uk.

recruits, because if this is done in

know that small changes make a

isolation then this is a recipe for

big difference. Those lucky enough

disaster – a lot of money will have

to work in diverse teams will realise

been wasted on recruiting people

the big differences that can occur by

who will feel unvalued, unsupported

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and unwelcome and the exercise will

a previously all male team – these

leave everybody with the view that

differences

it was a bad idea in the first place.

real, but in order to ensure that one

Before diversity can be achieved we

female member in an all male team

need to ensure that our workplaces

feels welcome, the culture has to

are inclusive. Just like health and

be inclusive otherwise the benefits

safety, or ethics, inclusivity is one of

will not be sustained, and we will

the core engineering competences

continue in the Catch-22 position of

that not only ensures that we work

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but not being able to attract or retain

workers and all groups of people,

them.

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30

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Inspiring the Next Generation The Big Bang and a World Record My life as a Science, Te c h n o l o g y, Engineering and Maths (STEM) ambassador is always varied and none more so than this year. Whilst I do help out and lead some of the one off outreach events, there are those events in my diary which appear on a more regular basis. Each year around 60,000 people flock to the NEC in Birmingham for the UK’s largest science and engineering career show. The Big Bang national show is a four day event designed to provide children with an insight into the world of STEM and the variety of opportunities it can offer them. There are also supporting regional shows across the UK, typically they are one day events which offer a similar experience on a smaller scale. Rolls-Royce is a major sponsor of the show and it was my task to help run 3D printing. We had two printers on the stand and I was tasked with talking about the technology for the four days. I am currently working in additive layer manufacturing and spent much of my time on the stand explaining some of the benefits as well as the challenges associated with the technology. I always enjoy talking to the variety of students and teachers about the technology and how it can be used effectively. One of the challenges associated with this technology is ensuring we have a curriculum which provides young people with the right skills, particularly in manufacturing. Around the same time of year, Engineering UK produces

its annual report. The report focuses on why STEM outreach is critical to future success. According to the Engineering UK report 2016, “at all levels of education the UK does not have the current capacity or the required rate of growth needed to meet the forecast demand for skilled engineers and technicians by 2022.” In simple terms the report praises the work of industry and STEM ambassadors but also highlights that we need to do more. As an experienced ambassador I would recommend anyone that is involved in any area of STEM to become an ambassador. STEM outreach work provides not only personal satisfaction, but improves professional development, management and communication skills. Every year for the past four years I have supported my local primary school, who also receive Rolls-Royce school governor funding to support an after school science club. Having previously used the money to create an “Imagineering” club, the decision was taken to aim for a world record for the fastest model rocket car powered by a 2.5Ns rocket motor. The record category has been launched to tie in with the Bloodhound Super Sonic Car and its inspirational education programme. I have been involved in model rocketry for the past 15 years and have supported pupils at the Joseph Whitaker School on their two world records – the 10Ns record which stands at 158.1mph and the unlimited class category which stands at an eye watering 533mph. While there was no world record in that class, we set them a target of 60mph, which considering that the motor only burns for 1 second is a difficult task.

cars weighed on average just 12g. The cars were a mixture of carbon fibre, laser cut plywood, 3D printed parts and laser cut wheels. They were run indoors in an outbuilding at Castle Donnington. On July 4th the children managed to fire a car twice within one hour along a 25m track at an average speed of 91.06mph. The result represents a fantastic effort by the children and the speed achieved will be difficult to be beat, however I would urge anyone who wishes to attempt the record to please do so. A project such as a world record, while challenging, has provided the children with a once in a lifetime opportunity and the reaction of the pupils emphasises to me why I spend so much of my spare time supporting STEM outreach. Over the coming months I will be supporting the Joseph Whitaker School with their attempt to fire a model rocket car at 1000mph. If anyone is interested in knowing more about the world record or how they can get involved in STEM please do not hesitate to contact me or your local STEMnet contract holder. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) – Capability Acquisition Engineer, Additive Layer Manufacturing Centre of Competency, Rolls-Royce Plc. grant. gibson@rolls-royce.com 07469375700

The pupils at Griffe Field Primary school were taught the basic principles of rocket car design, 2D CAD, project management, manufacturing, risk management and some of the softer skills of engineering such as teamwork and communication. There were two teams of six children, who developed two different designs and once built the

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News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers Challenge’ which involves the production of an academic paper on the innovations in the loco. The track based challenges include: energy storage, traction, ride comfort, noise and maintainability. Young engineers compete in Institution’s railway, aerospace and motorsport challenges Students from the UK and around the world were put to the test this July in the three student challenges by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. These three challenges bridge the gap between academia and industry, and give young engineers a chance to get hands-on experience developing a vehicle from start to finish. Railway Challenge At the beginning of the month, eight teams of budding engineers took part in the Railway Challenge in Stapleford Miniature Railway in Leicestershire. The overall winners for the Railway Challenge 2016 were a team of 12 young engineers from SNC-Lavalin’s Rail & Transit team in Derby. This was the second time that a team from SNC-Lavalin won the competition, after victory in the 2012 competition under the company’s former name, Interfleet. Bill Reeve, Chief Judge of the competition, said: “SNC-Lavalin put in an impressive performance across all 10 challenges, and their locomotive performed faultlessly. I would like to congratulate the team for their excellent project management, an innovative design and first rate operational performance. “The competition is run along the lines of a real-life tendering process. All the teams need to develop an initial concept, prepare a business case, finance, design, manufacture and build their locomotive from scratch.” The competition comprises of a series of track based and presentation challenges, including a design report and (new for 2016) an ‘Innovation

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The locomotives are designed to work on 10¼” gauge railway line and must be powerful enough to transport a 600kg load – including one of the Railway Challenge judges. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Challenge The UAS Challenge, which took place in Pershore Airfield near Worcester, is now in its second year and saw stiff competition from 16 teams from around the UK, as well as a team from Egypt. A UAS, also known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot on-board. They are predominantly known for their use in military and special operations, such as delivering humanitarian aid. Students had to develop their drones before taking on other teams in a ‘flyoff’ final, where they were challenged to transport a package as accurately and rapidly as possible. This year’s winners were the University of Loughborough. Lambert Dopping-Hepenstal, Deputy Chief Judge of the UAS Challenge, said of the winning team: “Loughborough University were consistent in every single category and have definitely raised the bar. They performed particularly well in the design and manufacturing categories which set them up well for the rest of the competition.” Formula Student The finale to the month’s student challenges was the Institution’s flagship event, Formula Student, now in its 19th year. The competition, which takes place

at the home of British motorsport in Silverstone, challenges student engineers to design, build and race a single seat racing car in one year. This year there were more 2,000 students and 156 teams from 34 countries which took part. A Sri Lankan team entered Formula Student for the first time, and there were teams from as far afield as Australia, Iceland, Turkey and India. The cars are judged on their speed, acceleration, handling and endurance in a series of time-trial races, while the teams are tested on their design, costing and business presentation skills. The University of Stuttgart’s combustion engine team, Rennteam Stuttgart, won after impressive performances in the endurance challenge and the overall dynamic events. Second place went to Germany’s Karlsruhe University, Austria’s TU Graz came third, while the University of Bath were the top UK team in fourth place. Andrew Deakin, Chairman of Formula Student, said in response to the win: “It’s been great to see an internal combustion car win again. It brings to a close what has been an excellent event with the highest number of cars completing scrutineering and getting through all the dynamic events. The competition continues to improve every year” Formula Student usually forms part of the students’ engineering degree course and counts towards their final mark. For new teams who may not have the experience to produce a fully working racecar, Class 2 encourages teams to submit their designs and any manufactured parts for judging. Dozens of Formula Student alumni have progressed to Formula 1, and hundreds more are now working at the world’s largest automotive firms helping to design and engineer the cars of tomorrow.


News from British Standards Over the last several issues, I’ve been telling you about the progress of standards in the area of ‘Design for Manufacture’ and in particular endof-life processing; firstly because of its importance and secondly because of the interest it generates for design. The standard/s I am talking about here is the BS8887 series. They are under the acronym MADE, standing for: ‘manufacture’, ‘assembly, ‘disassembly’ and ‘end-of-life’ processing. We call it a series since to date we have published six standards and at least three more are in the pipeline.

With regard to the ‘D’ and the ‘E’ parts, the design for un-manufacture stages, the series covers the six possible end-of-life stages of: remanufacture, reconditioning, reuse, repurpose, recycle and disposal. The big question is which of these end-of-life routes is the appropriate one for a particular product and how can a designer choose which is ‘best’. There is very little advice ‘out there’ to help designers to make endof-life decisions at the ab-initio stage. It is a fact that there is much information available but it is complex and specialist and thus not easily accessible or indeed conveniently understandable. One of the new BS8887 standards in the pipeline, mentioned above, is one that will address this question and give ‘which route?’ design advice. This is becoming important since regulations

are forcing manufacturers to ‘own’ products at end-of -life. We see this with respect to products like vehicles and fridges, fanned by legislation.

technical seminars. Following on from the popularity of previous events on data collection that were over subscribed, another seminar on the same lines entitled the Fundamentals of Data Collection was held at Horiba-Mira in April and again proved very popular.

component designers, manufacturers and users on the types of rubber used and their influence on fatigue life. The effect of different loadings such as uniaxial and biaxial will be reviewed for different types of rubbers.

In an effort to help industry understand this complex area, the British Standards Committee responsible for the BS8887 standards is holding a series of Road Shows under the heading ‘Future Proof your Manufacturing’. So far three have been held, two in London and one in Brighton. The next will be in the autumn in the Midlands and future ones are planned for other regions. Keep your eyes on this space! Prof Brian Griffiths

Group News Simulation , Test & Measurement Group Geoff Rowlands has resigned as chairman of the STMG group. He has been chairman since 2013 and the group would like to thank Geoff for all his excellent work, both as a member of the group for a number of years and for his time as chairman. A new chairman will be appointed in the near future. The Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition held at Silverstone in March this year was very successful, with the largest number of exhibitors and visitors to the exhibition to date. The forums were very well received and supported by the visitors. The 2017 exhibition is being held again at Silverstone on 14 March. The group remains very busy organising

A further course on hydraulic testing systems is being held in September at Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury, on the practical aspects of managing test laboratory hydraulic test systems, hydraulic actuators and control systems. This will provide attendees with a background on the major aspects to consider when setting up or using hydraulic test facilities, including the pitfalls and how to avoid them. The durability and fatigue life of rubber components is a subject which was popular at the forums held at the 2016 Silverstone exhibition, and as a result in October this year an event is to be held at Star Hydraulics on the theory and practice of developing rubber products with a good fatigue life. The objective of the course is to provide a background to both rubber

More events are planned for 2017, including a further one on data collection and one on the development of test specifications. More details will be available on these events later in the year. The Society is keen to encourage new engineers to join the groups. The groups provide an excellent base for engineers, both recently qualified and experienced, to expand their knowledge and also for the more experienced engineers to pass on their knowledge to the new generation. The groups are always looking for subjects for forthcoming events that would be of interest to the engineering community, so if you have ideas on suitable topics please let us know. Trevor Margereson

33


Corporate Member Profiles GOM UK

HORIBA-MIRA Ltd

14 The Cobalt Centre Siskin Parkway East Coventry CV3 4PE

Watling Street Nuneaton Warwickshire CV10 0TU

Tel: +44 (0) 2476 639920 Email: Info-uk@gom.com Website: www.gom.com Contact: Rob Wood

Tel: +44 (0)247 635 5000 Fax: +44 (0)247 635 8000 Email: enquiries@mira.co.uk Website: www.mira.co.uk Contact: Kristy Thompson, Marketing Manager

GOM – Professional 3D optical measurement.

The GOM ATOS 3D scanner is developed for reverse engineering and dimensional control of components. Fast, accurate scans are now an established way of reducing product development times and ensuring highest quality components.

HORIBA-MIRA is a highly customer-focused, world-class, independent vehicle engineering consultancy, shaping everything we do around the partnerships we create. We harness the skills, experience and knowledge of our talented experts to provide our customers with intelligent solutions to their challenging problems. HORIBA-MIRA offers full system design, test and integration expertise to the global automotive, defence, rail and transport industries. HORIBAMIRA’s technical facilities provide a truly global centre of excellence from which to innovate, engineer, test and implement market changing solutions.

HBM United Kingdom Ltd

Millbrook Proving Ground Ltd

Innovation Technology Centre – AMP Brunel Way Catcliffe Rotherham S60 5WG

Station Lane Millbrook Bedfordshire MK45 2JQ

For material and component testing GOM Deformation products include Digital Image Correlation (DIC), point tracking and forming analysis. All systems are 3D and noncontact, DIC using a speckle pattern to give full field strain results, ideal for FEA comparison.

Tel: +44 (0) 114 254 1246 Fax: +44 (0) 114 254 14245 Email: info@uk.hbm.com & info@hbmncode.com Website: www.hbm.com & www.ncode.com Contact: Maria Hernandez-Humm & Robert Cawte HBM is a global market leader in test and measurement, and weighing technology offering complete measurement solutions from sensor to software for industrial and laboratory applications. Together with advanced DAQ systems, HBM provides transducers for torque, force, pressure, strain, displacement and load. nCode products are provided by HBM and for over 30 years has been the leading brand for durability and data analysis solutions. nCode software and services help customers understand product performance, accelerate product development and improve design.

34

Tel: +44 (0)1525 404242 Fax: +44 (0)1525 403420 Email: neil.fulton@millbrook.co.uk Website: www.millbrook.co.uk Contact: Neil Fulton

Millbrook is one of Europe’s leading locations for the development and demonstration of every type of land vehicle, from motorcycles and passenger cars to heavy commercial, military and off-road vehicles. Our custombuilt facility provides virtually every test, validation and Homologation service necessary for today’s demanding programmes, complemented by a worldwide reputation for confidentiality, service and competitiveness. We also engineer, develop and build low-volume service vehicles, trial and evaluate vehicle capability, investigate inservice failures and provide specialist Driver Training.


RAL Space, S.T.F.C. Rutherford Laboratory

TRaC Global Limited

Harwell Didcot Oxford OX11 0QX

100 Frobisher Business Park Leigh Sinton Road Malvern Worcestershire WR14 1BX

Tel: 01235 445040 Fax: 01235 445318 Email: giles.case@stfc.ac.uk Website: www.stfc.ac.uk/ralspace/Facilities/11324.aspx Contact: Giles Case

Space Research Facilities offering a full range of Environmental test and cleanroom facilities.

Tel: +44 (0) 1684 571700 Fax: +44 (0) 1684 571701 Email: test@tracglobal.com Website: www.tracglobal.com Contact: Brendan Wall

Thermal Vacuum, Orbital Simulation, Instrument Calibration combined with a large Cleanroom complex.

TRaC Global is a leading testing and certification group for companies needing to achieve product compliance. Every year TRaC tests over 2,500 products and helps companies take their products to market. TRaC is a UKAS accredited test laboratory for EMC, Safety, Radio, Environmental and Telecoms as well as National Certification Body and Certified Body Test Laboratory for international products and approvals.

Servotest Testing Systems Ltd

Yokogawa Measurement Technologies Ltd

Unit 1, Beta Way Thorpe Industrial Estate Egham TW20 8RE

Stuart Road Manor Park Runcorn Cheshire, WA7 1TR

Tel: +44 (0) 1784 274410 Fax: +44 (0) 1784 274438 Email: info@servotestsystems.com Website: www.servotestsystems.com Contact: Nick Richardson

Tel: +44 (0) 1928 597200 Fax: +44 (0) 1928 597201 Email: TM.Sales@uk.yokogawa.com Website: www.tmi.yokogawa.com/gb Contact: Andy Barnes

Servotest design, manufacture and supply servohydraulic systems for motion simulation, characterisation and endurance testing. Bespoke solutions can be provided for special testing requirements. The systems provided cover a wide spectrum of applications including for example: Damper testing, 4 & 7 post vehicle test rigs, MAST systems for automotive & earthquake simulation, high temperature high rate deformation of materials and many more. The equipment includes hydrostatic bearing actuators, test frames, hydraulic supply & distribution, Pulsar digital controllers for single and multi channel requirements.

Since its founding in 1915, Yokogawa has grown into a multi billion $ company and is recognised as “the world’s largest maker of electronic measuring tools”. Yokogawa is engaged in cutting-edge research and innovation, securing over 7,200 patents and registrations. Test & Measurement is one of the core businesses of the company. This division plays a major role in the test & measurement market worldwide with products that include oscilloscopes, power meters, optical communications test equipment, portable test instruments, recorders and data-acquisition systems.

35


Committee Members President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Nick Richardson, Servotest .............................................................................................................................. 01784 274428 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant .......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 John Yates, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................................ 01246 410758 Chairman John Yates, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................................ 01246 410758 Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Treasurer Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Company Secretary Nick Richardson, Servotest .............................................................................................................................. 01784 274428 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin...........................................................................................................................................................01572 811315 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Managing Editor Catherine Pinder .............................................................................................................................................. 07979 270998

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman Vacant Members Paul Armstrong, Amber Instruments.................................................................................................................. 01246 260250 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK).......................................................................................................................... 01323 846464 Colin Dodds, Dodds & Associates..................................................................................................................... 07880 554590 Dave Ensor, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................ 07966 757625 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Virrinder Kumar, HBM United Kingdom............................................................................................................ 0208 515 6000 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant..................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Steve Payne, HORIBA MIRA............................................................................................................................. 02476 355526 Ray Pountney, Engineering Consultant............................................................................................................. 01245 320751 Tim Powell, MTS Systems................................................................................................................................. 01483 446500 Anton Raath, CaTs3........................................................................................................................................... 02476 546159 Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM United Kingdom ................................................................................................................ 0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics........................................................................................................... 0191 5800058 Bernard Steeples, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 01621 828312

36


Ian Strath, Siemens PLM Software .................................................................................................................. 01276 413200 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground...................................................................................................... 01525 404242 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer................................................................................................................ 01332 875450 Conway Young, Tiab ......................................................................................................................................... 01295 714046

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Secretary Peter Bailey, Instron.......................................................................................................................................... 01494 456512 Members John Atkinson, Sheffield Hallam University .......................................................................................................01142 252014 Martin Bache, Swansea University ................................................................................................................... 01792 295287 Amirebrahim Chahardehi, Cranfield University................................................................................................. 01234 754631 Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia..............................................................................................0114 2686444 Lee Gilbert, Element.......................................................................................................................................... 01926 478478 Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group...................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Angelo Maligno, IISA, University of Derby........................................................................................................ 01332 592516 Ali Mehmanparast, Cranfield University ........................................................................................................... 01234 758331 Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus.......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK................................................................................................................................................. Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, 3T RPD Ltd .............................................................................................................................. 01635 580284 John Yates, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................. 01246 410758

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant .......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University................................................................................................................... 01895 267134 Joe Armstrong, Alicona ..................................................................................................................................... 01732 746670 Emiel Barten, Muller BBM ............................................................................................................................ +31 627 287 251 Alan Bennetts, Bay Systems............................................................................................................................. 01458 860393 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions ........................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, HORIBA MIRA ........................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Gary Dunne, Jaguar Land Rover ..................................................................................................................... 02476 206573 David Fish, JoTech ........................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products.................................................................................................. 01986 897082 Paul Jennings, Warwick University ................................................................................................................... 02476 523646 Richard Johnson, Sound & Vibration Technology ............................................................................................ 01525 408502 Chris Knowles, JCB .......................................................................................................................................... 01889 593900 Andrew McQueen, Siemens PLM Software...................................................................................................... 02476 408120 Jon Richards, Honda UK .................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 David Robinson, Birmingham City University............................................................................................................................ Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ....................................................................................................................... 01223 389800

37


Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft Airbus Defence & Space ANV Measurement Systems ASDEC Bruel and Kjaer CaTs3 Dassault Systemes Data Physics Datron Technology DJB INSTRUMENTS Gantner Instrumentation GOM HBM Head Acoustics HORIBA MIRA Instron

Interface Force Measurements IXTHUS Kemo Kistler M&P International Meggitt Sensing Systems Micro-Epsilon Millbrook MOOG MTS Systems Muller BBM Nprime PCB Piezotronics PDS Hitech Polytec

RAL Space Rutherford Appleton Lab Sensors UK Servotest Siemens Star Hydraulics Systems Services Techni Measure THP Systems Tiab TRaC Transmission Dynamics Vibration Research Yokogawa Zwick Testing Machines

New Personal Members Ms Mavis Sika Okyere – Ghana National Gas Company Fuad Hassan Khoshnaw - Peterborough Regional College Peter Hodgman – McLaren

Measurement and control solutions for all industrial and scientific applications

www.technimeasure.co.uk Tel: 03300 101490 sales@technimeasure.co.uk

David Linkens – Atkins Global Hassan Ghadbeigi – University of Sheffield


The UK’s largest meeting place for advanced engineering professionals Join us where the familiar and the unfamiliar collide to provide new opportunities across the engineering supply chain. “Fantastic…I think this “…the corridors have been full all the time, is the best year yet”

and they are our decision makers”

Dave Withey, Mulholland, Advanced Engineering is the industryGraham event where Senior Project Engineer, Research, Managing Director, Jaguar Land Rover epm: technology group high-technology manufacturing sectors converge under “Fantastic…I think this “…the corridors have been full all the time, oneyet” roof to meet doour business. is the best year and and they are decision makers” Dave Withey, Senior Project Engineer, Research, Jaguar Land Rover

Graham Mulholland,

Managing Director, “It was fantastic to meet with liketechnology group minded people - especially in motor “Fantasticepm: show - lots of interest, not just from sports and hybrid power…We’ve aerospace but from automotive and other got some great leads to follow up” sectors” Mark Harbord, Sales & Marketing Manager, LCL Electronics Robert Richards, “It was fantastic to meet with likeBDM, Metrology Software Products minded people - especially in motor “Fantastic show - lots of interest, not just from sports and hybrid power…We’ve aerospace but from automotive and other got some great leads to follow up” sectors”

Robert Richards, BDM, Metrology Software Products

Mark Harbord, Sales & Marketing Manager, LCL Electronics

Contact us about exhibiting today gg

+44 (0)20 8843 8800 or visit www.advancedengineeringuk.com AE2016_HP_Advert180x125.indd 1

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Engineering Integrity Issue 41  
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